Article

The Chemical Composition of Lovage Headspace and Essential Oils Produced by Solvent Extraction with Various Solvents

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

Using GC/MS and GC/FTIR, the chemical composition of the headspace of lovage root has been examined. It was found to contain 20 compounds of which β-phellandrene (16.47%), citronellal (12.84%) and ligustilide (20.91%) were found to be the major components. The chemical composition of a series of essential oils produced from concretes made from a range of solvents of differing polarities were also examined.The compositions of the oils, in which 28 compounds were characterized, were compared to each other and to an oil produced by hydrodistillation. The main compound characterized in each of the oils was ligustilide. It was found that the oil produced by first extraction with 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifiuoro-ethane (CFC-113) prior to steam distillation had the best yield and possessed the most desired aroma.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... The essential oil from the roots, leaves and seeds of L. officinale are used in the food, beverage, perfumery, and tobacco industries. The root of L. officinale has also been known for centuries as a traditional medicine possessing carminative and spasmolytic activity (1)(2)(3)(4)(5)(6). The phthalides are believed to play a major role in the aroma of lovage (1,4,5,7). ...
... The composition of the essential oil of L. officinale has been the subject of numerous investigations . Different oil isolation methods (hydrodistillation (4,5,8,9,11,14,(16)(17)(18)20,22,23), simultaneous distillation-extraction (1,2,7,10), solvent extraction, solid phase microextraction (3,7,18,22), supercritical extraction (15,17,21,22) and a headspace method (3,19)) have been used for the isolation of volatiles from the roots, leaves, seeds (fruit), stems and flowers of L. officinale. The variation of oil composition depends on different factors, such as the isolation ...
... The composition of the essential oil of L. officinale has been the subject of numerous investigations . Different oil isolation methods (hydrodistillation (4,5,8,9,11,14,(16)(17)(18)20,22,23), simultaneous distillation-extraction (1,2,7,10), solvent extraction, solid phase microextraction (3,7,18,22), supercritical extraction (15,17,21,22) and a headspace method (3,19)) have been used for the isolation of volatiles from the roots, leaves, seeds (fruit), stems and flowers of L. officinale. The variation of oil composition depends on different factors, such as the isolation ...
Article
Full-text available
Variations in the essential oil composition of Leviticum officinale W.D.J. Koch from different European countries were determined using capillary GC and GC/MS methods. The oils were obtained in yields of 0.11–1.80% from dried cut roots and 0.09% from leaves. A total of 48 components were identified, representing over 87% of the total yield of oil. Ten compounds not earlier reported: trans-p-mentha-2,8-dien-1-ol, iso-thujyl alcohol, p-mentha-1,5-dien-8-ol, bicyclo[3.2.0]heptan-3-ol, 2-methylene-6,6-dimethyl, trans-carveol, perillaldehyde, sabinyl acetate, perillyl alcohol, methyl ester of methylpentadecate acid, and methyl hexadecadienate acid. The principal components in the oils of L. officinale roots were β-phellandrene (0.1–48.9%), pentylcyclohexadiene (0–12.3%), trans-sabinyl acetate (0–12.1%), α-terpinyl acetate (0–26.1%), (Z)-3-butylidene phthalide (0.1–31.2%), and (Z)-ligustilide (0.2–70.9%). Phthalide isomers were predominant (73.2–82.6%) in the oils from Estonia, France, and Belgium. The roots oil of L. officinale from Scotland was rich in β-phellandrene (48.9%) and phenylacetaldehyde (17.2%). Maximum content of trans-sabinyl and α-terpinyl acetates (total 38.2%) was found in the oil from Holland. Estonian L. officinale root oil contained in high quantities (E)-ligustilide (52.4–70.9%) and pentylcyclohexadiene (12.3%). The L. officinale leaf oil cultivated in Estonia contained in high amounts α-terpinyl acetate (55.8%) and β-phellandrene (11.3%). The content of (Z)-ligustilide (17.0%) in the leaf oil was smaller compared with the root oil.
... Levisticum officinale L. is a perennial herb belonging to the Umbelliferae family, all parts of the plant are strongly aromatic, and its seeds, leaves and roots (fresh, powdered and as essential oils) are commonly used in foods and for their medicinal properties (9). ...
... Levisticum officinale L. is a perennial herb belonging to the Umbelliferae family, all parts of the plant are strongly aromatic, and its seeds, leaves and roots (fresh, powdered and as essential oils) are commonly used in foods and for their medicinal properties (9). ...
Article
The studied microorganisms including the reference strains of P. aeruginosa ATCC 9027 and Acinetobacter baumannii NCTC 13305 provided by B. Zamanzad and A. Gholipour (department of microbiology at Shahrekord medical school), Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Salmonella enteritidis RTCC 2465 provided by H. Motamedi (department of microbiology, college of basic science, Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz, Iran), were kept in Lauria Bertani (LB) broth at 4°C and sub-cultured on appropriate agar plates 24 hours prior to antimicrobial tests. Mueller Hinton broth (MHB) was used for all the antibacterial assays. Ciprofloxacin (Cip) and phenylalanine-arginine-β-aphthylamide (PAβN) (manufactured by Sigma-Aldrich) were used as fluoroquinolone, microbial growth indicator and efflux pump inhibitor (EPI), respectively.
... The essential oil from the roots, leaves and seeds of L. persicum are used in the food, beverage, perfumery and tobacco industries. The root of L. persicum has also been known for centuries as a traditional medicine possessing carminative and spasmolytic activity (Cu et al., 1990;Lawrence, 1987;Gijbels et al., 1982;Segebrecht and Schilcher, 1989). L. persicum has long been cultivated in Europe and North America. ...
Article
Full-text available
The hexane extracts from root and seed of Levisticum persicum Freyn and Bornm, which were collected from northwestern Iran were obtained by Soxhlet apparatus. The fatty acids were derived to methyl esters and determined by gas chromatography/flame ionization detector (GC/FID) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) systems. The extracts from the root and seed were characterized by a high amount of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) (45.9 and 58.6%, respectively) and some of sesquiterpenoid compounds. The main components of the root and seed extracts were ω-3 (29.2 and 48.1%), acorenone B (12.6 and 8.3%), ω-6 (9.9 and 7.6%), germacrene D (8.8 and 9.6%) and β-farnesene (8.7 and 8.3%), respectively. The hexane extract from seed of L. persicum detected as an important source of ω-3 compound. The antioxidant activity of both hexane extracts was evaluated by 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. The results indicate that extracts from different parts of L. persicum possess considerable antioxidant activity. The highest radical scavenging activity was detected in seed (IC 50 = 95 µg/mL). The antimicrobial activity of the extracts of those samples were determined against seven Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae), as well as three fungi (Candida albicans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Aspergillus niger). The bioassay showed that the both oils exhibited good antimicrobial activity. This study reveals that all the parts of this plant are attractive sources of fatty acid components, especially the essential ones, as well as of effective natural antioxidants.
Chapter
Lovage (Levisticum officinale Koch.) is a well-known aromatic plant that has been commonly used in foods, flavorings, and medicinal preparations. Essential oil (EO) is an aromatic liquid that may be isolated from lovage roots, aerial parts, and seeds by distillation and extraction. The main components of lovage EO are terpenes and phthalides, β-phellandrene, α-terpinyl acetate, and Z-ligustilide, the main constituents being present in different proportions in the different plant anatomical organs. Although the bioactivity of the integral lovage oils have not been widely studied, its components have been shown to possess antimicrobial, antioxidant, and other activities. Z-ligustilide was reported to demonstrate various health effects such as antiinflammatory, antitumor, antithrombotic activity, and a positive effect against neurological disorders. This chapter provides an overview of the current knowledge about the EOs of lovage and their useful properties, which might find broader applications in foods and nutraceuticals as natural additives and functional health promoting ingredients.
Article
The essential oils from different botanical parts (leaves, stems, flowers, and seeds) of lovage (Levisticum officinale Koch.) were analyzed at various phases of plant growth. The seasonal changes in leaves were less considerable than in the stems. Seeds and flowers possessed the highest yield of oil. α-Terpinyl acetate was found to be the dominating compound in leaves and stems (up to 70%), β-phellandrene in seeds and flowers (61.50% and 40.80%, respectively); Z-ligustilide was confirmed as a major lovage phthalide constituting from 4.40% to 11.70% in leaves and from 4.80% to 13.80% in the stem's essential oils depending on the harvesting time. Keywords: Levisticum officinale Koch.; Apiaceae; lovage; volatile constituents; essential oil; leaves; stems; roots; blossoms; harvesting time
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Abstract Title: Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) - Morphological characterization of wild populations from Entre Douro e Minho. Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) is an Umbelíferae (Apiaceae) species. This aromatic plant is characteristic from the Mediterranean, in special Peninsula Iberian, and is utilised from Antiquity as medicinal and as condimental. This text presents some of the taxonomic and ecogeographics characteristics of fennel, the interest of its utilization and the morphological characterization results of some wild populations from Entre Douro e Minho, which BPGV collect and conserve. The results show the presence of genetic variability in specie and so the biodiversity in region. Keywords: Fennel, utilizations, morphological characterization, genetic variability
Article
Lovage roots, leaves, and stems were extracted by supercritical carbon dioxide (SFE-CO2), while the residues of SFE-CO2 were further extracted by pressurized liquid extraction with acetone and methanol. Optimization of SFE-CO2 parameters resulted in enhanced extract yields from all lovage parts. The antioxidant potential of solid material and extracts was assessed by Trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) in two different assays and by the total phenolic content (TPC). TEAC and TPC values of SFE-CO2 residues were distinctly lower than those of the initial lovage material which indicates that lovage antioxidants are distributed both in lipophilic and fat-insoluble fractions.
Article
Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (SFE-CO2) parameters were optimised using response surface methodology and central composite design for lovage (Levisticum officinale Koch.) roots and leaves containing valuable phytoconstituents. Mathematical model predicted the highest yields of extracts from roots and leaves 2.26 and 2.29%, respectively, at 45 MPa pressure, 60 °C temperature, 90 min (roots) and 30 min (leaves) extraction time, whereas the yield of hydrodistilled essential oil was 0.24 and 0.74%, respectively. The highest relative content of the most valuable constituent Z-ligustilide in roots and leaves extracts was 77 and 50% at 10 MPa; however, the highest yields of this compound from 100 g of dry material were obtained at the highest applied pressure and constituted 1188 mg (roots) and 540 mg (leaves). This study showed that lovage is a good source of Z-ligustilide and SFE-CO2 is a preferable technique for its isolation.
Article
Transformed root cultures of Levisticum officinale (lovage) were established by inoculation of aseptically grown seedlings with Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain A4 carrying plasmid pRiA4::70GUS. Hairy roots growth in four different types of liquid culture media was determined by the dissimilation method and by measuring the fresh and dry weight of the roots. The composition of the essential oils from the hairy roots and from lovage plant roots was analysed by GC and GC-MS. The main components of the oil samples from the hairy roots were falcarinol, (Z)-ligustilide, (Z)-3-butylidenephthalide, trans-beta-farnesene, beta-phellandrene, n-octanal, gamma-elemene and n-heptanal, in varying amounts depending on the culture media tested. The hairy roots essential oil yields ranged from 0.006 to 0.018% (v/fr. wt.). The main components of the oil from the lovage plant roots were (Z)-ligustilide, beta-pinene, pentylcyclohexadiene and alpha-pinene. The yield of the oil front the lovage plant roots was 0.16% (v/fr. wt.). (c) 2004 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Article
A comparison of the chemical compositions of the essential oil, the oleoresin and the volatile product of the oleoresin of ambrette seeds (Abelmoschus moschatus Moench) is reported for the first time. The three samples have been investigated by OC-MS and are similar. The main difference is the lack of the alcoholic compounds (aliphatic alcohols and farnesols) in the oleoresin.
Article
The hydrodistillation procedure for a unit equipped with a cohobation system is presented. The production of lovage root essential oil and the difficult recovery of the phthalide content (60–85%) is studied. The general mechanism and the role of parameters involved in the extraction and co-distillation step (plant matter/water ratio, loading ratio) then in the water/essential oil separation step (pH, condensation temperature) are investigated. This study takes into account the quantitative results (yield of essential oil, productivity) and the qualitative ones (composition of recovered essential oils). Optimal distillation conditions with respect to the energy consumption are proposed.
Article
Volatiles of five different parts of lovage (leaves, stems, flowers, seeds, and roots) were isolated by dynamic headspace (DHS) method and analyzed by GC-FID and GC-olfactometry (GC-O) techniques. In total, 98 compounds were identified in the samples, of which 41 are reported as lovage volatiles for the first time. Qualitative differences in the composition of DHS constituents of various anatomical parts of the plants were not significant, whereas the amounts of a number of identified volatile compounds were different in leaves, stems, flowers, seeds, and roots. Seasonal variations in the composition of headspace volatiles were also determined. Except for roots, beta-phellandrene was found to be the most abundant headspace component in all anatomical parts of lovage constituting from 36.50% to 79.28% of the total GC peak area. The sniffing panel characterized effluents from the GC column, and odor descriptors were attributed to the recognized constituents. alpha-Pinene and alpha-phellandrene/myrcene were the most frequently recognized constituents among 11 GC effluents constituting 12 identified compounds and 1 unknown compound, which were detected by the members of the sniffing panel. None of the detected constituents was recognized as a lovage character impact aroma compound.
Chapter
By concentrating the headspace components of intact fruits, vegetables and flowers on Tenax GC, followed by thermal desorption and GC-MS, the composition of the volatiles present can easily be studied. The technique may be applied to materials rich or poor in essential oils, yielding extensive information about the aroma compounds. Moreover, owing to the nondestructive character of the method, repeated sampling is possible. This makes it the method of choice for studying qualitative and quantitative changes in content and composition of the volatiles as function of time, e.g. in physiological and biochemical work.
Article
A new method for quantitative essential oil analysis, using combined steam distillation-extraction is described. The construction of the micro-version apparatus is such that all the volatile material is collected in only 1 ml of dichloromethane containing a suitable internal standard. The main advantage is that no further enrichment by evaporation is required. The method allows the quantitative analysis of total essential oil content and the percentage of the individual compounds in less than 4 h, including sample preparation, steam distillation-extraction and capillary gas chromatographic analysis.
Article
Extraction of Chinese star anise (Illicium verum Hooker) and cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees) was studied by a new solvent extraction technique involving 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluorethane. Thus useful yields of concrete were obtained (21% and 12% respectively). Hydro distillation of the concretes made it possible to obtain essential oils with yields similar to those obtained by direct hydro distillation of plant materials (9.5% and 1.1% respectively). GC-MS analysis indicated that the composition of products obtained was similar to that of essential oils obtained by direct hydro distillation.