Article

Literacy Acquisition, Assessment and Achievement of Year Two Students in Total Immersion in Māori Programmes

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Abstract

One of the aims of Māori-medium education is to address Māori language loss. One of the challenges facing Māori-medium educators is to identify configurations that acknowledge the substantive importance of English language instruction without detracting from the priority that must be given to the regeneration of the Māori language. Issues relating to Māori/English bilingualism and assessment development in the New Zealand context are introduced and discussed in the light of local and international literature on language acquisition and other related fields. This paper also presents and compares the results of testing from 1995 and 2002–2003 using a reconstructed standardised assessment in literacy for Year 2 students in 80–100% immersion in Māori as a measure of literacy and Māori language acquisition.

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... In New Zealand, Māori overall continue to be socio-economically disadvantaged (Darrity & Nembhard, 2000), and it is therefore not surprising that Māori children in mainstream schools are more likely than non-Māori to underachieve on various measures of English literacy (Rau, 2005). ...
... While a lot of the academic literature has highlighted the benefits of cultural factors in Māori-medium education, such as the need to create culturally safe learning environments (Hohepa et al., 1992; Bishop et al., 2002; MacFarlane, Glynn, Cavanagh, & Bateman, 2007), less attention has been devoted to the aspects and properties of Te Reo Māori. Although, due to a general lack of literacy assessment tools for Te Reo Māori (Rau, 2005, 2007; May & Hill, 2005), not much data is available on the reading performance of students in Māori-medium education, crosslanguage studies from Europe on the benefits of learning to read in a language with a consistent orthography (Joshi & Aaron, 2006) suggest similar potential advantages from learning to read in Te Reo Māori. Unlike English, which is classified as a deep or inconsistent orthography (Katz & Frost, 1992), Māori spelling is very regular and transparent. ...
... Future research on literacy acquisition of Te Reo Māori in Māori-immersion contexts will require suitable assessment tools. Some of the tools that have been developed specifically for Te Reo Māori, such as the Ngā Kete Kōrero, appear suitable and culturally appropriate, but they are not widely available, and teachers often do not have access to them (Rau, 2005). ...
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Previous literature on the beneficial effects of Māori-medium education on revitalisation of Te Reo Māori has focused almost exclusively on the importance of cultural contextualisation. The present article wishes to draw attention to an additional potential contributing factor to the success of these programmes. Based on a wealth of evidence from cross-language comparisons, it is argued that the orthographic consistency of the language, its regular spelling, is likely to result in rapid reading acquisition due to the ease in which letter-sound relationships can be learned. Additionally, learning to read in an orthographically consistent language optimises the development of phonological processing skills and successful reading strategies, which can later be transferred to literacy acquisition in English. A strong foundation in phonological processing skills protects particularly at-risk students from reading failure. Since Māori students in mainstream schools are particularly vulnerable to experiencing reading difficulties, the prospect that the linguistic properties of Te Reo Māori, the language of their ancestors, could contribute to the alleviation of such deficits, substantially enhances the appeal of Māori-medium education. Since the British colonisation of Aotearoa/New Zealand and the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi in 1840, Te Reo Māori, the language of the indigenous Māori, has experienced continuous decline. An influx of European settlers, who rapidly outnumbered Māori, soon resulted in the dominance of the English language in the country (King, 2004). Although early missionary schools in the 1830s and 1840s taught literacy to Māori in their native language, the assimilationist policies of the New Zealand government in the 1860s started a trend towards education exclusively conducted in the English language (Simon, 1998). The Native Schools Amendment Act of 1871 directed that instruction in schools was to be conducted only in English, and eventually there was an outright ban of the use of Te Reo Māori in schools, which in some cases extended to the use of the language not only within classrooms, but also on the school grounds in general (Spolsky, 2003).
... Fostering academic biliteracy, however, necessarily requires an ongoing negotiation, and constructive educational engagement, with the dominant language Spanish in the case of the Andes and Paraguay and English in relation to Aotearoa/New Zealand. In Aotearoa/New Zealand, for example (and somewhat qualifying Hornberger's observations), we are now beginning to see an increasing recognition of the need to actively teach academic English as well as Maori within kura kaupapa Ma ori, albeit still within the wider goal of Maori language revitalization (for further discussion, see Glynn, Berryman, Loader, & Cavanagh, 2005;May & Hill, 2005;Rau, 2005). ...
... This is the case as well for Hawaiian programs modeled after Maori immersion preschools and primary secondary schools (Warner, 1999(Warner, , 2001Wilson, 1999;Wilson & Kamana, 2001), and for Navajo, Blackfeet, and certain other Native American immersion programs (Arviso & Holm, 2001;Holm & Holm, 1995;McCarty, 2003;Romero-Little & McCarty, 2006;see Hinton & Hale, 2001 for a comprehensive treatment of these programs). There is also good evidence that Indigenous-language immersion programs lead to improved student achievement, provided they are additive in nature, thereby enabling students to build strong cognitive-academic skills in the heritage language prior to entering English-medium schools or tracks (May & Hill, 2005;May, Hill, & Tiakiwai, 2004;Rau, 2005;Romero-Little & McCarty, 2006). ...
... That Indigenous languages are being revitalized and student achievement improved through these programs is exciting and laudable. But as Maori educator Cath Rau (2005) points out, merely substituting the language of instruction from English to Maori, while maintaining a pedagogy and epistemology designed specifically for the majority non-Maori population (p. 49), does not in itself support Indigenous self-determination. ...
Article
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This response discusses six key themes that emerge, either explicitly or implicitly, from Nancy Hornberger's exemplary analysis of the challenges facing indigenous language revitalization initiatives, particularly as they are currently expressed and implemented in three key indigenous language education contexts--Quechua in the South American Andes; Guarani in Paraguay and Maori in Aotearoa/New Zealand. These themes include, first, the importance of recognizing the wider social and political contexts within which indigenous revitalization initiatives are invariably situated. Second, it requires a related recognition of the internationalism of these initiatives. Third, any academic analysis of indigenous language revitalization requires, or at least must benefit from, an interdisciplinary approach, as exemplified by Hornberger's own analysis. Fourth, Hornberger's continua of biliteracy provides a sufficiently robust framework to explore the complexities and interrelationships inevitably involved in the articulation of language revitalization efforts, as well as how individuals and groups are situated in relation to those efforts. Fifth, the ongoing challenges and tensions inherent in indigenous language revitalization efforts need to continue to be discussed candidly, in order for them to be seriously addressed and, where possible, resolved. And finally, the importance of recognizing and including the voices of those centrally involved in these initiatives, as Hornberger again does, is a crucial feature, as well as a reflection of the inclusive, emancipatory aims of indigenous language revitalization itself. This article has been published as part of The Forum in the Journal of Language, Identity & Education. (c) 2006, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
... In a recent monograph series, Kaplan and Baldauf examine LPP by and for Indigenous peoples (among others) in polities less well represented in the literature (as one example, see Kaplan and Baldauf, 1999). In complementary counterpoint to these comprehensive treatments are ethnographic case studies such as Hornberger's (1988) research on Quechua bilingual education in southern Peru, King's (2001) Kamwangamalu's (2005) analysis of mother tongues and language planning in Africa; Rau's (2005) work on Māori literacy, assessment and corpus planning; López's (2006) study of Indigenous education in Latin America; Magga's (1994) examination of the Sámi Language Act; Mohanty's (2006) studies of language maintenance and education for Aboriginal children in India; Nicholas' (2005) study of Hopi language loss and revitalization and Warner's (1999aWarner's ( , 2001 analysis of the Hawaiian language revitalization movement. ...
... Second, they have produced significant numbers of new child speakers. Third, they have demonstrated significant academic gains (May, Hill, and Tiakiwai, 2004;Rau, 2005;Wilson and Kamanā, 2001). Finally, these programmes stand as powerful exemplars of Indigenous selfdetermination and the exercise of Indigenous/minority language rights. ...
... These results reinforce, as with the other indigenous language immersion programs discussed in this article, the considerable achievement of Māori-medium programs in the context of existing language shift and loss, a resulting preponderance of L2 Māori language speakers among both students and teachers, and a relative lack of resourcing and professional development for teachers in indigenous immersion education. More recently, attention has increasingly been directed in Māori-medium education to the role of English language instruction within Level 1 Māori-medium programs (Berryman & Glynn, 2003; Hill, 2011; Hill & May, 2011; May & Hill, 2008; Rau, 2005). This has arisen because of concerns that the almost de rigueur exclusion of English from these programs since their inception in the 1980s might potentially be limiting the ability of such programs to achieve biliteracy for their students. ...
Article
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This introduction to a special issue of Comparative Education focuses on current issues and developments in both the theory and practice of indigenous education from around the world. The final, definitive version of this article has been published in the journal, Comparative Education published by Routledge. (c) 2003 Taylor & Francis Group.
... Since the 1990s, a number of language assessment instruments have been developed locally by practitioners, research groups, and providers of professional learning for the Māori-medium sector (Rau, 2005(Rau, , 2008May & Hill, 2008). The University of Waikato has developed a test battery to measure the Māori language proficiency of 150 Year 5 and Year 8 students in Māori-medium education (Crombie, Houia, & Reedy, 2000). ...
Chapter
This chapter provides an overview of English as a second (ESL) or foreign language (EFL) assessment in Australia and New Zealand in the areas of immigration and settlement, education, and professional accreditation (for teachers and health professionals) respectively. The chapter covers English language requirements for visas or entry to courses, diagnostic assessment, assessment of achievement, and assessment for accreditation purposes. It includes brief descriptions of the relevant assessment procedures (with references to any associated research). The list includes IELTS, CAE, PTE, TOEFL, APIEL, ISLPR, OET, PEAT, ISLPR, and CPE. The chapter concludes by noting the use of a small number of tests for an increasing range of purposes.Keywords:Assessment evaluation;Assessment methods;Classroom assessment;ESL/EFL;Immigration
... Since the 1990s, a number of language assessment instruments have been developed locally by practitioners, research groups, and providers of professional learning for the Māori-medium sector (Rau, 2005(Rau, , 2008May & Hill, 2008). The University of Waikato has developed a test battery to measure the Māori language proficiency of 150 Year 5 and Year 8 students in Māori-medium education (Crombie, Houia, & Reedy, 2000). ...
Chapter
The assessment of children's indigenous language has, in general, received very little attention despite the fact that it is a worldwide issue with children in every continent growing up in multilingual situations. In this chapter we focus on approaches to assessing children's indigenous language knowledge in two very different contexts—Australia and New Zealand. Indigenous languages in Australia are in rapid decline. At the time of European settlement there were in the region of 250 languages, many of which were spoken by only a small number of people. However, there are now few indigenous communities where children are growing up learning their traditional indigenous language, and it is predicted that at the current rate of loss there will be no indigenous languages by 2050. The situation in New Zealand is quite different, with Māori being the single indigenous language. However, it is spoken by less than 25% of the Māori population (approximately 15% of New Zealand's population of 4 million are Māori) and is also in decline. In these different contexts, therefore, approaches to assessment are necessarily different. In Australia the limited amount of research that has been undertaken has focused on receptive skills, arguing that these measures can provide a useful picture of children's current language knowledge. In New Zealand, all Māori children are exposed to both English and Māori while growing up, but given the prevalence of English in New Zealand society it is difficult to determine how many Māori children truly are first language speakers of Māori or Māori dominant. Almost all Māori-speaking children attend kōhanga reo (early childhood education centers based on Māori culture and using Māori as the medium of communication) and some form of Māori bilingual/immersion education in the compulsory school sector. Assessment tools developed for the Māori-medium sector have focused on numeracy and literacy, although recent research has attempted to develop measures to assess students' proficiency of spoken Māori.
... At 5 years of age, when students enter Māori-medium programmes, most will have conversational English skills, and if they attended Kōhanga reo or are exposed to the Māori language at home, they may have only some basic conversational knowledge of it. Hence Māori students, like Canadian French-immersion students, are often learning the curriculum subjects through their second or weaker language, although there will be a range of Māori language levels-from those with native-like Māori language control to those who are just starting out (Rau 2005). ...
Article
In New Zealand the recipe for creating bilingual and biliterate Māori-medium graduates is not well understood because, for the most part, schools are left to their own devices to experiment with Māori and English language components. It is therefore not clear whether graduates reach high levels of bilingualism and biliteracy, and ultimately, whether or not they are prepared for the world outside school. This study followed five Māori-medium primary school graduates for 3 years after they decided to transition to English-medium secondary schools. Of particularly interest was their academic English language preparedness, the extent to which schools continued to nurture their Māori language growth, and how well the students coped in the school culture. After 3 years at secondary schools the outcomes were positive. The students settled in well, and academically, all five had passed the compulsory national examination programme for year 11 students. However, specific challenges to academic English were a continual issue for some, including the areas of spelling, essay structure, vocabulary use, and the language of mathematics and science. Also, their Māori language was suffering. This study concludes that while Māori-medium education has prepared these five students well to transition to English-medium schools, greater preparation is required to support them with academic English as well as particular attention to nurturing and maintaining Māori language learning.
... 239 Practical advice about how to manage distractions in ways that do not undermine the pursuit of goals is also found in Levin, B. (2009) Rau, C. (2005). Literacy acquisition, assessment and achievement of year two tauira in total immersion in Màori programmes, The International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism,8(5), pp. ...
... For example, the contexts used to assess language communication skills may not reflect the cultural values and aspirations of minorities (Padilla & Lindhom, 1995;Rau, 2005). Even when translated into the language of the linguistic minority, the basis for item development or analysis is often the content, language, and performance of the majority group (Padilla & Lindhom, 1995). ...
Book
This text addresses challenges in educational assessment with a special emphasis on Hong Kong. It was written during my time working at the Hong Kong Institute of Education with my colleague and friend Ngan Ming Yan, now retired from HKIEd. This text is no longer published by Pearson. Access by request.
... 74-75) These results reinforce, as with the other indigenous language immersion programs discussed in this article, the considerable achievement of Māori-medium programs in the context of existing language shift and loss, a resulting preponderance of L2 Māori language speakers among both students and teachers, and a relative lack of resourcing and professional development for teachers in indigenous immersion education. More recently, attention has increasingly been directed in Māori-medium education to the role of English language instruction within Level 1 Māori-medium programs (Berryman & Glynn, 2003;Hill, 2011;Hill & May, 2011;May & Hill, 2008;Rau, 2005). This has arisen because of concerns that the almost de rigueur exclusion of English from these programs since their inception in the 1980s might potentially be limiting the ability of such programs to achieve biliteracy for their students. ...
Article
Full-text available
This article outlines key developments internationally over the last 40 years in indigenous immersion education. Most notable here has been the establishment of community-based, bottom-up immersion programs, instigated by indigenous communities with the aim of maintaining or revitalizing their indigenous languages. As such, the article addresses a relative lacuna in immersion education literature, which has to date focused primarily on second- and foreign-language contexts. The article first provides a wider sociohistorical and sociopolitical context, focusing on key developments in international law, and in specific national contexts, which have facilitated the establishment of these indigenous immersion programs. The interrelationship between indigenous immersion educational policy and pedagogy is then explored, highlighting, in the process, the various challenges involved in developing, implementing, and maintaining effective indigenous immersion programs. Finally, international exemplars of indigenous education programs are discussed, including, Hawaiian, Navajo, and Cherokee programs in the U.S., and Māori-medium education in Aotearoa/New Zealand.
... Adoption of Kaupapa Māori methodology in this study, which focuses on specific teaching and learning issues in Pūtaiao, is an attempt to contribute to the emerging pedagogical strand in Māori-medium education research (May, Hill et al., 2004;Rau, 2005). The emphasis in this strand moves beyond the sociopolitical and structural analyses in earlier published Kaupapa Māori studies (Nepe, 1991;Smith, 1990;Sharples, 1994). ...
Article
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This thesis investigates how Māori knowledge and language articulate with current discourses of Pūtaiao education, and possible alternative articulations. A Kaupapa Māori version of critical discourse analysis methodology is developed and applied to discourses relevant to Pūtaiao, or Māori-medium science education. This topic represents an intersection between language, science, education, and culture - fields which are all highly politically charged. Therefore, it is essential that a politically robust Kaupapa Māori position be taken in relation to the research topic. Not only the issues being investigated but the underlying research paradigm must be interrogated using Kaupapa Māori theory at each stage of the project. The goal is to study the range of possible meanings for the notions of 'Pūtaiao' and 'Māori science' by exploring the relevant dialectical issues, critiquing the assumptions and positions taken on language, knowledge, identity and ethos, in order to inform further Pūtaiao curriculum development. The research project is a narration of the larger story of Pūtaiao education: what is the current situation, how did it come about, what theoretical issues have been influential in this process, and what possibilities are there for further development of Pūtaiao curriculum and pedagogy? The thesis research consists of a series of discourse analyses of varying levels of focus and intersection with Pūtaiao: Wāhanga 1: Translated NCEA L1 science and mathematics examinations, and a traditional Taitokerau oral text; Wāhanga 2: Māori science curriculum policy; Wāhanga 3: Multicultural science education research; Wāhanga 4: Curriculum politics, preventive linguistics, language of science; Wāhanga 5: Mātauranga, rationality, philosophy of science. Each analysis takes the form of a narrative history, based on a selected corpus of previously published scholarship (in Wāhanga 1, including numerical data and oral tradition) on the issue under examination, from a Kaupapa Māori perspective. Mainly in the first two chapters, analysis at times also draws on 'personal narrative' accounts of previously unpublished details relating to Pūtaiao. Additionally, an investigation of various qualified notions of 'science' is undertaken, beginning in Wāhanga 2, concluding in Wāhanga 5, in order to explore the nature and boundaries of science as a system of knowledge, and its relationship to other types or systems of knowledge. Synopses are included of the following concepts and theoretical issues impacting on the discourses under analysis: Wāhanga 1: Ethnicity, 'race', critical theory, Kaupapa Māori theory. Wāhanga 2: Science, scientism, science ideology and anti-science. Wāhanga 4: Identity, linguistic purism, the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis. Informed by this research, in Wāhanga 5 an original model for the relationship between mātauranga and science is proposed, and the notion of Kaupapa Māori science/epistemology is explored. An analogy between the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis and multicultural science is used to draw together the cultural debates in language and knowledge, which are surmised to intersect at the level of discourse. The final chapter presents a re-articulation of Pūtaiao as the notion of Kaupapa Māori science education, and some recommendations for language and content knowledge in further development of Pūtaiao curriculum policy.
... Diagnostic running record material on the language/s used for literacy instruction (Rau, 2004(Rau, , 2005a(Rau, , 2005b(Rau, , 2008. Taking running records and assessments in English when English is not the prime language of literacy instruction in the programme does not make sense as many deep literacy strategies do not transfer without explicit instruction in the other language. ...
Conference Paper
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This was the opening invited keynote peer reviewed paper to a cross Pacific Future of Indigenous Languages Conference in the Pacific held at the University of New Caledonia.Its real aim was to promote the indig languages of the French overseas territories into the schooling systems.It seeks to promote the key principles and learnings from Bilingual Immersion Education in Aotearoa NZ
... Diagnostic running record material on the language/s used for literacy instruction (Rau, 2004(Rau, , 2005a(Rau, , 2005b(Rau, , 2008. Taking running records and assessments in English when English is not the prime language of literacy instruction in the programme does not make sense as many deep literacy strategies do not transfer without explicit instruction in the other language. ...
Conference Paper
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This paper was part of two key-note invited conference presentations on Research Based Pedagogies for Bilingual /Immersion Education in Aotearoa NZ to the L’École plurilingue ans les communautés du Pacifique: The Plurilingual School in the Communities of the Pacific Séminaire international / International Seminar Nouvelle-Calédonie 18 - 21 Octobre 2010, Nouméa by www.agora.nc As a result of my research and pedagogy work with L'Achipel Unit at Richmond Road School and other French bilingual units run by FRENZ in NZ, I was asked to assist the French Pacific educators, administrators , politicians and researchers attending to explore and better understand the benefits and essential pedagogies involved in best evidence Bilingual education.At the time there was only the teaching of languages as subjects being done.I did prepare material also on Trilingual options so there can be French, a local language and English used successfully. However the administrators and politicians and some other conference attendees were at the stage in 2010 of not yet even agreeing to the teaching of local languages in French territories beyond 2-3 hours a week and not willing to concede that French is or even could be a second language for most of the indigenous peoples in the region .Consequently the mandated mediums of instruction assumed and treated all students as L1 first language French speakers refusing to even use TESOL /ESOL type 2nd LL methodologies Howe the package of papers and presentations from the Aotearoa NZ representatives did perhaps open the door slightly to new possibilities for the French Pacific and the region. Since then French researchers have continued to work for an expansion of indigenous languages teaching learning and use in education.
... We advocate in future studies with wha nau that children's facility in Te Reo Ma ori is measured using newly available tools (see Reese et al., 2017). We also acknowledge that some of our measures of early learning may be lower in ecological validity for Ma ori children than our observational measures (see Ratima et al., 2019;Rau, 2005). Yet, the strong correlations between children's early academic skills, as assessed using conventional measures, and the observational parent-child measures (especially reminiscing), lend confidence in the validity of these conventional assessments for Ma ori children. ...
Article
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The home-learning environment (HLE) is critical for young children's early learning skills, yet little research has focused on HLEs in indigenous communities. This study examined the role of the HLE of 41 whānau (New Zealand Māori families and community) in relation to their young children's (M = 4 years, 4 months) early learning skills. Parents were observed reading a picture book and reminiscing about past events with their children and reported on their cultural affiliation, literacy, and numeracy practices. Children completed vocabulary, narrative, early literacy, early numeracy, and self-regulation tasks. Principal components analyses revealed an early academic skills factor (story comprehension, story memory, phonological awareness, letter recognition, number recognition, counting, and self-regulation) and an oral language skills factor (receptive and expressive vocabulary and story comprehension). Parents' observed book reading and reminiscing correlated with children's early academic skills, and their observed book reading correlated with children's oral language skills. Parent-child reminiscing was a unique, positive predictor of children's early academic skills. Oral narratives such as reminiscing may be a less visible cultural practice that supports children's early learning. Yet reminiscing is a recognized skill within indigenous communities that have a strong emphasis of intergenerational oral transmission of culturally relevant information. Reminiscing is a source of resilience for whānau, and perhaps for other communities around the world, that needs to be highlighted and taken into account for theory and policy about children's early learning. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).
Article
English language instruction in New Zealand's Māori-medium schools is controversial, with many schools either excluding it from their curriculum or adopting a tokenistic approach. Yet, how Māori-medium educators can best support their students’ academic English language growth is still an under-researched and unresolved question. This paper reports on a project involving the English language transition programmes of three Māori-medium primary schools. Interviews and observations of key personnel within these schools revealed the components of their programmes, their perceptions of the need for English transition education and the issues they were facing in implementing English language instruction. The project found a direct relationship between levels of student language attainment and the quantity and quality of exposure to English instruction. Where an English programme occupied a significant place in a school's timetable and was staffed by teachers knowledgeable about the learning needs of bilingual students and how best to attend to these, the result was higher literacy scores and more satisfied students. This paper argues that planning English language outcomes for Māori-medium students is essential if becoming biliterate is an important aim. This planning must also be long-term, across all 13 years of the students’ education.
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The place of English language instruction in Māori-medium programmes is a controversial issue. Many Māori-medium schools either exclude it from their curriculum, or pay lip service to it. However, English language instruction is an important element for all Māori-medium schools to consider, as its role will affect the extent to which the students achieve the aim of becoming biliterate. Unfortunately though, how to support the English language growth of Māori-medium students remains an as yet unresolved and under-researched issue. It is this theme that this research seeks to investigate. This Doctoral thesis reports on a multiple case study research project that investigated the English transition programmes of three Māori-medium schools including: a wharekura, a kura kaupapa Māori and a bilingual school. The research implemented a Kaupapa Māori framework and used interviews, classroom observations, and language assessments to explore the subject. The central aim of this project was to examine how these schools arrange their English transition programmes, what issues they face, and how they negotiate them. This research found that the teaching of English in Māori-medium education is an area in which Māori-medium schools have little support, and often struggle to negotiate. Despite this, some programmes offer good quality instruction that contributes to their students achieving high levels of literacy development. This study concluded that there is a relationship between the English transition programme design, and the students’ literacy (English and Māori) development. The higher quality programmes included greater quantities of English instruction, the staff was informed about bilingual education principles and they nurtured closer relationships with their student. Overall, this research found that English language instruction can play a part in Māori-medium education in a way that does not need to detract from the school focus on the learning of te reo Māori. The layout of this thesis is as follows. Chapter One explores the history of research into bilingualism before discussing some of the theoretical models that apply to this research project. Chapter Two explains some of the structural considerations concerning bilingual programmes, and the characteristics of Māori-medium education in the New Zealand context. Chapter Three examines New Zealand research into Māori-medium education with a particular focus on three areas: general teaching practices, research about student assessment, and research about English transition. Chapter Four discusses the methodological decisions that I made when approaching this research and the research tools I chose for the data collection process. Chapters Five, Six and Seven each presents a single case study of an English transition programme in a Māori-medium school. They provide descriptions of the programmes and explore the perspectives of the key participants, including staff and students. An analysis of Year 8 student literacy outcomes are provided followed by a discussion of the predominant findings that emerge. Chapter Eight is the discussion chapter where the key results from all three case studies will be discussed. This is followed by the concluding chapter (Chapter Nine), which discusses the educational implications of this research.
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This article provides a context for understanding indigenous immersion education and the issues surrounding the model as a critical strategy for revitalization of indigenous languages. Through articulating narratives and drawing on literatures internationally, an image of indigenous language education models emerges. Inspired by strong heritage language learner identities, program models are shaped around building family and community relationships, revitalizing cultural traditions and practices, and re-establishing indigenous language identity in its homeland. Indigenous language immersion models vary as they are developed in vastly different contexts. Three distinct contexts — Ojibwe, Māori, and Hawaiian — are described to illustrate the diversity and range of models. The article closes with some reflections from practice that will provide a context for building a research agenda to advance the revitalization of indigenous languages through immersion.
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Good school leadership skills are critical to positive student learning outcomes; however, within Māori-medium programmes, leaders need additional skills pertaining to the Māori world and bilingual education best practices. Level 2 Māori medium programmes with 51–80% Māori language instruction offer a unique brand of bilingual education to the New Zealand context with its close balance between English and te reo Māori instruction, making them a good prospect for future growth. This article reports on a mixed-methods project that used a nationwide online survey and follow-up interviews with Māori medium leaders. The findings revealed a high level of personal commitment in a complex and challenging environment, but low expectations for student bilingual outcomes. Leaders' knowledge of bilingual education models and tikanga (culture) Māori was also weak. The outcomes lead to a call for additional support for principals to realise the potential these programmes offer for bilingual education in Aotearoa/New Zealand.
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This article discussesfindingsfrom a two-year project carried out infiveKura Kaupapa Maori (KKM) that focused on kaiako (teacher) literacy instruction practices and tauira (student) learning pertaining to reading comprehension. The research project was exploratory and descriptive in nature with an intervention component. The research drew on cross-sectional and longitudinal design using quantitative and qualitative data collection methods. The first year of the project involved collecting baseline data to develop literacy learning and teaching profiles. The second year involved collaborative professional learning opportunities for kaiako to develop instructional strategies to support and improve tauira reading comprehension. The project found that changes in kaiako instructional practices, in particular in their use of Questioning and Feedback, were accompanied by some positive changes in patterns of assessment scores and mean scores for different cohort groups of tauira. The findings are discussed in terms of their implications for teaching practices and for professional learning opportunities in Maori-medium settings.
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This paper first provides a critic of the implementation of compulsory national assessment protocols internationally, and then nationally through a review of the implementation process used for the introduction of National Standards in New Zealand, and National Testing in Norwegian mainstream schools. It then reviews the impact of these two assessment regimes on indigenous Mãori and Sámi -medium schools in the context of historic policies of marginalisation and assimilation. Finally, it notes the crucial role of each national government in securing funding for the production of culturally responsive National Standards and National Testing in the effort of both indigenous groups to protect their languages and cultures.
Chapter
This chapter focuses on the assessment of writing skills in an educational setting in which Basque, Spanish and English are taught, but Basque, a minority language, is the main medium of instruction. The chapter starts by looking at bilingual programs involving regional minority languages and highlights their dual role as both immersion and language maintenance programs. Then it focuses on bi/multilingual education in the Basque Country and its assessment. The results of a study on the acquisition of writing skills in Basque, Spanish and English are reported. Participants were 57 secondary school students with Basque as the main language of instruction and either Basque or Spanish as their first language. The analyses compare the scores obtained in the three languages by students grouped according to their L1s. The results are discussed as related to the characteristics of the multilingual education program and the specific sociolinguistic context of Basque as a minority language. © 2013 Virginia C. Mueller Gathercole and the authors of individual chapters. All rights reserved.
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The confluence of socio-economic, political, cultural, linguistic and educational developments in the Northern Territory (NT) over the past several decades has seen the issue of school education in Aboriginal1 languages become an increasingly contested aspect of Indigenous education and public policy. Some, but not all of the larger Aboriginal language speaking communities consider it vital for their children to commence their schooling with a transitional period of formal instruction in their mother tongue for the maintenance of their heritage language and the central role this plays in children’s positive cultural identification and the preservation of their traditional culture and knowledge systems. At the same time, there is evidence from Australian and International studies showing that children from Indigenous language backgrounds who commence their first full-time year of primary schooling with some proficiency in English (or other equivalent official language) are advantaged in terms of their effective participation and success in the formal education system as well as within their own communities and wider society. The desired outcomes of Indigenous language maintenance, English language acquisition, engagement with school learning, and improving the educational achievement of Indigenous students are all endorsed in current NT and national Indigenous education policy frameworks. However, there remain differing views as to when, how and at what cost these outcomes can be most effectively achieved (MCEETYA, 2006; DET 2008; Simpson et al 2009; Devlin, 2009).
Book
With growing mass migration across the globe, researchers, practitioners, educators and policy makers are increasingly faced with rising numbers of multilingual children and adults. This volume raises key issues surrounding the evaluation of language abilities and proficiency in multilingual speakers, taking into account the facts concerning the processes of learning, speaking and understanding two languages. Issues in the Assessment of Bilinguals brings together researchers working on bilingual and multilingual children and adults in a variety of multilingual settings: typically developing bilingual children, bilingual and multilingual children and adults found in classrooms, and bilingual children growing up in sociolinguistically fluid bilingual communities - making this an essential volume which raises key issues for anyone assessing performance. © 2013 Virginia C. Mueller Gathercole and the authors of individual chapters. All rights reserved.
Chapter
Before discussing the latest developments in Māori-medium education in Aotearoa/New Zealand, three key areas of clarification are required. The first is that Aotearoa/New Zealand is one of the only national contexts that specifically distinguishes between bilingual and immersion education. Elsewhere, immersion education is regarded simply as one form of bilingual education. However, in Aotearoa/New Zealand, the two forms are consistently juxtaposed. This distinction is instantiated by the recognition, and associated funding, of four levels of immersion: Level 1: 81–100 per cent; Level 2: 51–80 per cent; Level 3: 31–50 per cent; Level 4: 12–30 per cent.
Chapter
The son of a community worker and an Anglican clergyman, Stephen Andrew May grew up in Canterbury, on New Zealand's South Island, in what he describes as “a resolutely monocultural” and “faux colonial” environment (May, 2009).
Chapter
To revitalize a language is to create new contexts for its acquisition and use among a heritage community associated with that language. The goal is to engender new vitality in a language that is in danger of falling silent because natural intergenerational language transmission mechanisms have broken down, causing the language to fall out of everyday use. Endangered languages are described as “at risk” or “moribund,” meaning their speakers are beyond childbearing age, or as “sleeping” or “dormant,” meaning they have no native speakers but have written and/or audio documentation and a living heritage community. Language regeneration, renewal, and reclamation are overarching terms to describe revitalization processes for endangered languages. Keywords: bilingualism; educational linguistics; endangered languages; language planning; language revitalization; heritage languages; identity; literacy
Article
This study assessed the status of te reo Māori, the indigenous language of New Zealand, in the context of New Zealand English. From a broadly representative sample of 6327 two-year-olds ( Growing Up in New Zealand ), 6090 mothers (96%) reported their children understood English, and 763 mothers (12%) reported their children understood Māori. Parents completed the new MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory short forms for te reo Māori (NZM: CDI sf) and New Zealand English (NZE: CDI sf). Mothers with higher education levels had children with larger vocabularies in both te reo Māori and NZ English. For English speakers, vocabulary advantages also existed for girls, first-borns, monolinguals, those living in areas of lower deprivation, and those whose mothers had no concerns about their speech and language. Because more than 99% of Māori speakers were bilingual, te reo Māori acquisition appears to be occurring in the context of the acquisition of New Zealand English.
Article
Māori-bilingual education in New Zealand has come a long way towards injecting life into the Māori language. However, only a small number of families commit to bilingual education for the long term. This paper discusses why Māori parents either turn away from Māori-bilingual education or prematurely transition to English-medium schools. It then reports the findings of an ethnographic pilot study of a Māori-bilingual graduate who transitioned to an English-medium secondary school after more than eight years attending Māori-bilingual programmes. The student's transition was very successful, both in terms of acquiring high levels of academic language proficiency and necessary cultural knowledge. However, it was highly reliant on the support and interventions her parents provided throughout her schooling - particularly regarding both English and Māori languages. This article focuses on the student's first year of transition and, in particular, the language and cultural issues that her family had to navigate to ensure her success.
Article
Although biliteracy is common worldwide, relatively little scholarly work has attended explicitly to it. This review draws from the literatures on literacy, bilingualism, and the teaching of reading, writing, and second and foreign languages to propose a framework for understanding biliteracy. It argues that the complex array of possible biliteracy configurations can be accounted for by understanding biliteracy in terms of a series of interrelated continua. These continua define the contexts, individual development, and media of biliteracy, and are as follows: micro-macro, oral-literate, monolingual-bilingual, reception-production, oral language-written language, first and second language transfer, simultaneous-successive exposure, similar-dissimilar language structures, and convergent-divergent scripts. An understanding of the intersecting and nested nature of the continua has implications for teaching and research in biliteracy.
Article
In societies like the United States with diverse populations, children from linguistic minority families must learn the language of the society in order to take full advantage of the educational opportunities offered by the society. The timing and the conditions under which they come into contact with English, however, can profoundly affect the retention and continued use of their primary languages as well as the development of their second language. This article discusses evidence and findings from a nationwide study of language shift among language-minority children in the U.S. The findings suggest that the loss of a primary language, particularly when it is the only language spoken by parents, can be very costly to the children, their families, and to society as a whole. Immigrant and American Indian families were surveyed to determine the extent to which family language patterns were affected by their children's early learning of English in preschool programs. Families whose children had attended preschool programs conducted exclusively in Spanish served as a base of comparison for the families whose children attended English-only or bilingual preschools.
Language policy and literacy learning
  • M Clay
Literacy strategy for Māori medium education. Presentation to the Ministry of Education
  • C Rau
  • M Berryman
Tane-nui-a-Rangi's legacy: Propping up the sky: Kaupapa Māori as resistance and intervention
  • G H Smith
Teacher development for teachers in Māori medium programmes and kura kaupapa Māori
  • L H Te Aika
Towards the ‘Daughter of Picot
  • R Macpherson
Teaching and learning issues in Māori medium education: Immersion plus one. An issues discussion paper for the Community Languages and ESOL Conference
  • J Mccaffrey
  • C Mc Murchy-Pilkington
  • H Dale