ArticlePDF Available


A knowledge of the physical characteristics of the carob pod and kernels is of great importance in their industrial use. This work provides contributions to knowledge of the Spanish carob tree population, based on the morphological characteristics of the carob pod and the yield of the kernels. To this end, Spanish regions in which the carob tree is cultivated were sampled. The total number of carob trees sampled was 182, located in the Balearic Islands and near the Mediterranean Coast. The results indicate a great similarity between Spanish carob pods and those of other Mediterranean countries, especially Italy and Cyprus. Correlating the different measurements obtained indicates that to achieve high yields of kernels and of carob gum, pods which are narrow and thin and/or kernels which are heavy, fat and short need to be harvested.
... Ceratonia siliqua cultivation is centered in Spain, Italy and Portugal (Manga et al., 2019). Consequently, in the northern side of the Mediterranean basin many cultivars have been characterized (Albanell et al., 1996;Barracosa and Grac, 2006;Barracosa et al., 2007;Shakouri et al., 2012). The ability of this species to grow in such contrasting climatic and edaphic conditions suggests a high degree of adaptability and a significant variability among its members . ...
... mm,15.0,4.0 g -1.76, 1.44g, respectively), but number of seeds per pods (9.66 and 9.96) were approximately equal. Albanell et al. (1996) found a high diversity in morphological parameters of pods and seeds of pods, and seeds showed a very high diversity in the population of carob; type and geographical origin of the trees are investigated as the source of variation. ...
... The significant differences in the physical characteristics between the two samples of pods (Greek and Syrian) statistically analyzed to determine the significant differences and calculated the false prediction rate (Fpr) ( Table 3). The obtained data of morphological properties of pods and seeds were found a large phenotypic variation of carob (Albanell et al., 1996). The yield of pods seed grown trees was higher compared to the wild trees reported by Kovalev et al. (2003), it ranged from 9.99 to 28.54%. ...
Two samples of carob (Ceratonia siliqua) pods were assessed for the morphological and physiological characteristics in the Mediterranean region. Ceratonia siliqua is considered as a versatile plant with edible pods and as a raw material in pharmaceuticals and cosmetic industries, thus, accentuating its commercial value. The risk of genetic erosion has rendered an urgency to study and describe the actual consistency of carob pods. Therefore, this experiment was conducted on carob collected from two regions, Aleppo in Syria and Crete in Greece. Pods from every sample were analyzed for physical characteristics like length, width, thickness, number of seeds per pod, seed weight and pulp weight. Specific biochemical markers were determined for the methanol extract of carob pods from the two samples of seeds. In the findings we noticed a clear difference between the two samples in most physical traits except number of seeds per pod. There was no significant difference in the specific biochemical markers between the two samples of carob cultivars. The knowledge of morphological and physiological characters is of great importance for the industries and conservation purposes, thus in-depth studies in this area are imperative.
... Our study demonstrates the enormous morphological variability of carob accessions across Algeria, with traits that overlap with carob trees to other countries of the Mediterranean basin (Table 3 and 4). Especially for the pod parameters; such as Cypriot pods with a mean length of 15.24 cm (Kyratzis et al., 2021), Spanish pods with a mean width of 2.11 cm (Albanell et al., 1996), and Moroccan pods with a mean thickness at 0.64 cm (El Kahkahi et al., 2014). Similar results were found for seed dimensions very close to Spanish seed cultivars, presenting extreme values passed from 0.75 to 1.10 cm and 0.59 to 0.80 cm, respectively (Albanell et al., 1996). ...
... Especially for the pod parameters; such as Cypriot pods with a mean length of 15.24 cm (Kyratzis et al., 2021), Spanish pods with a mean width of 2.11 cm (Albanell et al., 1996), and Moroccan pods with a mean thickness at 0.64 cm (El Kahkahi et al., 2014). Similar results were found for seed dimensions very close to Spanish seed cultivars, presenting extreme values passed from 0.75 to 1.10 cm and 0.59 to 0.80 cm, respectively (Albanell et al., 1996). However, the Algerian carob germplasm presents the most range variation of seed thickness compared to the Mediterranean populations, with a coefficient of variation (11.35 %). ...
... Its mean was 0.41 cm, coinciding with those observed among Tunisian populations and Syrian accessions (Naghmouchi et al., 2009;Mahfoud et al., 2018). The weight of the Algerian pods overlaps with those observed by Albanell et al. (1996), who obtained a range from 5.09 g to 29.84 g, with an average weight of 14.88 g in Spanish pods. 2) and by Korkmaz et al. (2020) for Turkish wild trees (mean = 6.43). ...
Full-text available
Sixty-six carob accessions from 19 sites throughout Algeria were analysed by leaf, pod and seed characteristics to assess their genetic diversity and identify the Algerian carob cultivars that could be used as germplasm for breeding programs. We compared Algerian accessions with carobs from different Mediterranean countries, and the results showed a high level of morphological similarity between Algerian and Spanish carob pods. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed highly significant differences (p ˂ 0.001) between accessions for all the quantitative traits. Correlation analysis between variables indicated that seed yield could be improved by selecting light, thin and narrow carob pods. Multiple correspondence analysis explained a total variance of 30.22 % and illustrated three distinct leaf classes. Principal component analysis (PCA) proposed two main groups of variables, one based on seed performance and the other targeting pod potential. Hierarchical classification (HC) with seven clusters revealed considerable genetic diversity among the Algerian carob accessions studied, and indicated that the type of bioclimate did not influence their distribution, suggesting that morphometric traits are probably controlled more by genes that by bioclimate. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA), clustering and heatmap plotting identified 11 potential cultivars, 10 female and one hermaphroditic.
... sylvestris, this species forms one of the most characteristic associations of the lowest zone of the Mediterranean vegetation and is thus considered to be a climax community (Oleo-Ceratonion) [9]. The Carob tree is cultivated in the Mediterranean countries including Spain, Portugal, Italy, Morocco, Tunisia and Algeria [50,1,4,9,8,54,45,59], in Turkey [11], in south Africa and USA [27]. In Algeria, carob tree has been reported to be very common in the Tell region by [39] and [50] and frequently cultivated in the Saharan Atlas [50]. ...
... Seed source choice is important in a restoration and management perspective [12]. Morphological characterization of carob pods and seeds around the Mediterranean region has been carried out on spontaneous populations of the species [35,11]; on cultivars [4,54,8,59,38,29] or both types [28,18,45,23,19]. Carob pod and seed traits (i.e. ...
... Among the 4 modalities of seed color recorded, the light-brown was the most represented across all provenances except Annaba and Jijel which rather showed a higher proportion of dark-brown seeds. Among the three modalities of seed surface recorded, the dominant one corresponded to the smooth surface in agreement with other sources [4,9,46]. Among the three modalities of seed shapes registered, the rounded shape concerned half of the seeds and was represented at very high rates in Setif and Relizane. ...
Full-text available
Description of the subject. In Algeria, the carob tree extends over a large area from East to West. Yet data on the pattern of morphological variation of its pods and seeds across such area are lacking, despite the usefulness of a good understanding of intraspecific variation of such traits for domestication, conservation and sustainable management purposes. Objective: The present study aims at describing morphological variation in pod and seed traits of such populations and addresses the following questions: (a) what is the level of variation within and between wild carob populations; (b) and how is such variation spatially distributed? Methods: 07 wild carob populations of northern Algeria were investigated for pod and seed morphology. Results: Significant differences between provenances were observed for all quantitative traits. Slight differences between trees were also observed. Pod shape and seed surface were the most uniform traits among provenances. Within-provenance, the proportion of polymorphic trees for a given qualitative trait was variable. The pattern of variation did not reflect ecological conditions at site of origin suggesting rather a mosaic of variations. Conclusion: This study provides a first insight into carob genetic resources in Algeria through morphological characters of pods and seeds. It indicates a good potential of Algerian populations as a source of raw material for future breeding programs. RESSOURCES GÉNÉTIQUES DU CAROUBIER (CERATONIA SILIQUA L.) EN ALGÉRIE: APERÇU Á TRAVERS LA MORPHOLOGIE DES GOUSSES ET DES GRAINES Résumé Description du sujet: En Algérie, le caroubier s'étend sur une vaste zone allant d'Est en Ouest, mais on manque de données sur le patron de la variation morphologique de ses gousses et de ses graines dans cette zone, malgré l'utilité d'une bonne compréhension de la variation intra-spécifique de ces caractères pour la domestication; la conservation et la gestion durable. Objectifs: La présente étude vise à décrire la variabilité morphologique des caractères des gousses et des graines de ces populations et aborde les questions suivantes: a) quel est le niveau de variation à l'intérieur et entre les populations du caroubier sauvage; (b) et comment cette variation est-elle répartie spatialement? Méthodes: 07 populations spontanées du caroubier du nord de l'Algérie ont été étudiées pour la morphologie des gousses et des graines. Résultats: Des différences significatives entre les provenances ont été observées pour tous les caractères quantitatifs. De légères différences entre arbres ont aussi été observées. La forme et l'aspect des surfaces des gousses sont les plus uniformes entre les provenances. Au sein des provenances, la proportion d'arbres polymorphes pour un caractère qualitatif donné est variable. Le patron de variation ne reflète pas les conditions écologiques du site d'origine et suggère plutôt une mosaïque de variation. Conclusion. Cette étude fournit un premier aperçu des ressources génétiques du caroubier en Algérie à travers les caractères morphologiques des gousses et des graines. Elle indique un bon potentiel des populations algériennes comme source de matière de base pour les futurs programmes de sélection.
... These results were also observed for carob seeds from other sources in humid regions of Morocco 5,26 . The results obtained for these parameters (length, width and weight of the seeds) are comparable to the results observed in Spain 27 . ...
... Seed thickness shows indifference to environmental factors. This result was also reportedin work done in Spain 27 . ...
Full-text available
The carob tree, Ceratonia siliqua L., a typical thermophilic sclerophyllous species, is a multipurpose tree (agronomic, silvicultural and pastoral) with aromatic and medicinal properties. Due to its geographical distribution, it occupies different countries of the Mediterranean. In Morocco, this species spreads over the different bioclimatic from the arid in the south to the humid in the north. The present work, study the morphological diversity of the seeds of five carob tree ecotypes distributed along a rainfall gradient (from the arid in the south to the humid one towards the north of the country). The shape parameters studied are the length, width, thickness, weight, volume and density of the seeds.The results obtained show that the carob tree ecotypes are characterized by significant differences in the different morphological parameters of the seeds among the five ecotypes studied. Indeed, dry land seeds are generally reduced in length, volume and weight, while those in humid regions are larger in weight and size. Those of the dry sowing areas have moderate parameters. The variance analysis shows that the origin of the ecotypes hada significant effect on the various shape parameters. Moreover, the multiple comparison of averages revealed different distinct groups. ACP analysis revealed that seed weight and volume is strongly correlated with the first component (the bioclimatic origin and the annual rainfall of the site of origin). While the second component corresponds to the parameters of length, width and thickness of the seeds. As for the factor 3, it corresponds to the density of the seeds which is not dependent on the other variables.In terms of conclusion, it is deduced that in Morocco, the carob tree seeds are characterized by a large morphological diversity which varies according to the rainfall gradient.
... We found a strong correlation between weight of seeds and length of pod (r = 0.76). These results agree with the reports of Albanell et al. (1996) for Spanish cultivars, and Boublenza et al. (2019) for cultivars from northern Algeria. According to Tous et al. (2009), cultivars with large pods and high pulp contents have a lower seed yield, with a negative correlation of -0.79. ...
Full-text available
The results of morphological and AFLP variability of 120 plants of carob tree (Ceratonia siliqua L.), collected from 12 different locations (10 biological replicates for each location) on the coast and islands of the southern Croatian Adriatic, indicate high molecular and morphological variability among these carob populations. Analysis of molecular variance revealed significant differences among populations (26.07%; p < 0.001;  = 0.05). Out of the total variability, 22.49% refers to the variability among, and 77.51% within populations. UPGMA and STRUCTURE analysis based on AFLP genetic data clustered carob populations into three main groups representing three real genetic populations. UPGMA analysis based on morphological traits of leaves, pods, and seeds clustered carob populations into five groups. Mantel test showed significant correlation between morphological and genetic data (r = 0.58, p  0.001;  = 0.05). According to the high genetic and morphological variability, the germplasm collection in the analysis could represent an important genetic pool for future breeding programmes. The goal of future research should be the conservation of C. siliqua in its natural habitats, and the establishment of gene banks of genetic resources with the purpose of creating new carob cultivars in breeding programmes.
... L'étude de la variabilité du caroubier a été envisagée par des marqueurs morphologiques et agronomiques de la gousse, la graine, la feuille, la fleur, etc., puis par des marqueurs biochimiques (Batlle et al., 1996 ;Barracosa et al.,1996 ;Afif et al., 2006 Les caractères morphologiques des gousses et des graines constituent un marqueur quantitatif largement utilisé avec vigueur, productivité, résistance aux maladies, sexe de l'arbre et précocité comme caractères différenciant les cultivars de caroubier (Albanell et al., 1996 ;Barracosa et al., 2007 ;Naghmouchi et al., 2009 Gharnit et al., 2004 ;. Actuellement, les cultivateurs se focalisent de plus en plus sur le critère rendement de graines, qui sont mieux valorisées et plus rentables (production de la galactomannane) que le produit de la pulpe. ...
Full-text available
The carob tree (Ceratonia siliqua L.) is a forest tree with a wide distribution in northern Algeria and around the Mediterranean. It is listed among the under-utilized species whose development and cultivation are to be encouraged. However, good valuation of the species requires knowledge of its genetic resources. Seven (07) Algerian provenances of the carob tree extending from Tlemcen, in the west, to Annaba, in the east, and covering different bioclimates (semi-arid, sub-humid and humid) and different altitudes (32 to 1050 m ), were studied for leaf, pod and seed morphology and the content of some physicochemical parameters of pulps, seeds and leaves. Random sampling on 20 trees per provenance at a rate of 20 pods and 20 mature leaves per tree was carried out. That is a total of 140 trees, 2800 pods, 2800 seeds and 2800 leaves measured for quantitative characteristics (leaf size, number of leaflets per leaf, size of pods and seeds, total pod weight, number of seeds per pod, seed yield) and qualitative traits (pod and seed color, shape and surface; leaf color and presence / absence of the terminal leaflet). The physicochemical study of the three plant parts (leaf / pulp / seed) focused on the dry matter content, the ash, fat and total sugars content. Results showed a significant variability in the pod, seed and leaf morphology among the carob tree provenances. Leaf morphological study provided data on such trait characteristics for the first time on the Algerian carob tree. The biochemical study showed in particular the superiority of certain provenances for the pulp sugar content. Provenance clustering indicates, however, that the variability evidenced does not reflect the conditions (i.e. bioclimate, altitude and continentality) at the site of origin. The morphological study indicates the existence of provenances at the top position and others at the bottom position for pod and leaf dimensions, while the biochemical study, in particular the pulp total sugar content, does not confirm this ranking. Keywords : Ceratonia siliqua L., Algeria ; morphology ; phytochemistry ; provenance ; variation. Le caroubier (Ceratonia siliqua L.) est un arbre forestier à large répartition en Algérie du nord et dans le pourtour méditerranéen. Il est répertorié parmi les espèces sous-utilisées et dont la valorisation et la culture sont à encourager. Toutefois, une bonne valorisation nécessite la connaissance de la ressource génétique de l’espèce. Sept (07) provenances algériennes du caroubier s’étendant depuis Tlemcen, à l’Ouest, jusqu’à Annaba, à l’Est, et couvrant différents bioclimats (semi-aride, subhumide et humide) et différentes altitudes (32 à 1050 m), ont été étudiées pour la morphologie des feuilles, des gousses et des graines et la teneur en quelques paramètres physico-chimiques des pulpes, des graines et des feuilles. Un échantillonnage aléatoire sur 20 arbres par provenance à raison 20 de gousses et de 20 feuilles matures par arbre a été fait. Soit un total de 140 arbres, 2800 gousses, 2800 graines et 2800 feuilles mesurées pour les caractères quantitatifs (taille de la feuille, nombre de folioles par feuille, taille des gousses et graines, poids total, nombre de graines par gousse, rendement en graines) et qualitatifs (couleur, forme et aspect de la surface des gousses et des graines ; couleur de la feuille et présence/absence de la foliole terminale). L’étude physico-biochimique des trois parties végétales (feuille/ pulpe/graine) a porté sur le taux de matière sèche, la teneur en cendres, en matière grasse et en sucres totaux. Les résultats ont montré une variabilité significative de la morphologie des gousses, des graines et des feuilles du caroubier selon les provenances géographiques. L’étude morphologique des feuilles a permis de fournir des données sur ses caractères pour la première fois chez le caroubier algérien. L’étude biochimique a montré notamment la supériorité de certaines provenances pour le taux de sucres des pulpes. Le classement des provenances indique toutefois que la variabilité mise en évidence ne reflète pas les conditions (i.e. bioclimat, altitude et continentalité) du site d’origine. L’étude morphologique indique l’existence de provenances bien classées et d’autres mal classées aussi bien pour les dimensions des gousses que des feuilles, tandis que l’étude biochimique, en particulier la teneur en sucres totaux des pulpes, ne conforte pas ce classement. Mots clés : Ceratonia siliqua L., Algérie, morphologie, phytochimie, provenance, variabilité. شجرة الخروب (Ceratonia siliqua L.) هي شجرة غابية واسعة الانتشار في شمال الجزائر وفي منطقة البحر الأبيض المتوسط. وهذا النوع مدرج ضمن الأنواع التي لم تُستغل استغلالاً كافياً والتي ينبغي تشجيع تقييمها وزراعتها. الا أن التقييم الجيد يتطلب معرفة الموارد الوراثية للأنواع. في سبعة (07) مناطق جزائرية للخروب تمتد من تلمسان غربا، إلى عنابة شرقا وتشمل ظروف مناخية متنوعة من رطبة الى شبه جافة وعلى ارتفاعات مختلفة (32 إلى 1050 م). من أجل دراسة مورفولوجيا الأوراق، والقرون، والبذور، ومحتوى بعض الخصائص الفيزيوكيميائية للب، والبذور، والأوراق. أخذنا عينات عشوائية من 20 شجرة لكل منطقة مع 20 قرنا و20 ورقة بالغة لكل شجرة. وما يقاس مجموعه 140 شجرة، و2800 قرن، و2800 بذرة و2800 ورقة، لدراسة الخصائص الكمية (حجم الورقة، وعدد الوريقات لكل ورقة، وحجم القرون والبذور، والوزن الكلي، وعدد البذور لكل قرن، والمردود). والخصائص النوعية (لون وشكل ومظهر سطح القرن والبذور؛ لون الورقة وعدم وجود الوريقة الطرفية). وفحصنا من خلال الدراسة الفيزيوكيميائية للأجزاء النباتية الثلاثة (ورقة/لب/بذرة) محتوى المادة الجافة والرماد والدهون والسكر الكلي. وأظهرت النتائج تبايناً كبيراً في مورفولوجيا القرون والبذور وأوراق الخروب بين المناطق الجغرافية. وقد أتاحت الدراسة المورفولوجية للأوراق تقديم بيانات عن هذه الصفات لشجرة الخروب لأول مرة في الجزائر. وأظهرت الدراسة الفيزيوكيميائية بشكل خاص تفوق مناطق معينة على محتوى السكر في اللب. ومع ذلك، فإن تصنيف المناطق يشير إلى أن التباين الذي تم تسليط الضوء عليه لا يعكس الظروف المناخية او الارتفاع لموقع المنطقة. وتشير الدراسة المورفولوجية إلى وجود مناطق مصنفة بشكل جيد ومناطق أخرى غير مصنفة لكل من أبعاد القرون والأوراق، في حين أن الدراسة الفيزيوكيميائية، ولا سيما المحتوى الكلي للسكر في اللب، لا تدعم هذا التصنيف. الكلمات المفتاحية: شجرة الخروب – الجزائر – مورفولوجيا – فيتو كيمياء – منطقة – تغيرات.
... Carob trees may be male, female and hermaphrodite. Female cultivars are the most important trees in commercial groves of Mediterranean countries (Albanell et al., 1996;Arista et al., 1999). ...
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the morphological characteristics of seeds of nine populations of north-west Algerian Carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) and to evaluate the relationship between seeds color and coat dormancy by studying the effect of soaking in pure sulfuric acid (chemical scarification) on seed germination, for several durations (Control, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 14, 18, 24, 30 and 36 h). The results showed these seeds were very diverse morphologically. The mean seeds length (range between 0.826 ± 0.058 cm and 0.996 ± 0.055 cm), the mean seeds width (range between 0.656 ± 0.056 cm and 0.710 ± 0.048 cm) and the mean seeds weight (range between 0.143 ± 0.011 g and 0.186 ± 0.011 g) were studied. Four colors of the seed coats have been identified in this study: chocolate brown, clear brown, greenish brown and yellowish brown. The results have revealed that the seeds with clear color (yellowish brown) showed high coat dormancy, their maximum germination percentage were 2%. However, the seeds with a chocolate brown color, does not present dormancy, their maximum germination percentage was between 80 and 88 % without any pretreatment. Moreover, seeds of Ceratonia siliqua with yellowish brown color were more resistant to prolonged periods of soaking in pure sulfuric acid (18, 24 and 30 h), but the chocolate brown seeds are more fragile for prolonged soaking durations, they lose their viability beyond 10 h in acid. The histochemical features of the seed coats have indicated that there are not anatomic differences between the 4 seed colors of different cultivated and spontaneous populations.
The carob tree ( Ceratonia siliqua ) shows interesting prospects for some coastal Mediterranean growing areas and is widely used for industrial, agricultural, and ornamental purposes. It can be an alternative crop adapted to part-time farming and can also be used to regenerate vegetation in areas with a mild climate and erosion problems. Four Spanish carob cultivars were examined (Banya de Cabra, Duraio, Matalafera, and Rojal) to determine the one that performed the best for planting new orchards in northeastern Spain (Catalonia). The trees in this rain-fed trial (average rainfall of 500 mm) were planted in 1986 using seedling rootstocks that were budded in 1987. The trees were trained using the free-vase system and were spaced 8 × 9 m (138 trees/ha including 12% pollinators). The results showed that ‘Rojal’ was the earliest bearing cultivar. However, no significant differences were observed for cumulative pod production 18 years after budding. With respect to cumulative seed yield, ‘Duraio’ had the highest production (95 kg/tree). The lowest tree vigor (trunk cross-section) was observed in ‘Matalafera’. ‘Rojal’ trees produced the largest pods (average fruit weight of 18.9 g) and lowest seed content (11.8%), while ‘Banya de Cabra’ and ‘Duraio’ produced the smallest fruit (weighing 15.3 and 16.2 g, respectively) with the highest seed content (15.2% and 17.3%, respectively). Gum content, expressed as a percentage of the dry weight, was highest in ‘Duraio’ (56.9%) and was lowest in ‘Rojal’ (54.1%). Thus, in terms of kernel and pod production, ‘Duraio’ appeared to be the best-performing female cultivar for planting new carob orchards.
Locust (Carob) bean gum (LBG) is a natural nonstarch galactomannan, nonionic branched heterogeneous seed gum utilized in various fields due to its flexible integral properties. Over the years, use of LBG and its hydrogel-derived formulations has gained popularity in food, pharmaceutical, biomedical, cosmetic, and other fields. Due to its flexible physicochemical properties, its viscoelastic, swellability, and release-retarding abilities have been improved by grafting or synergy with other compatible polymers without altering its biodegradable, biocompatible, nontoxic, or nonmutagenic characteristics. LBG has been used as a carrier in various drug delivery systems. Current trends in innovative techniques have evolved novel versions of LBG through various chemical modifications processes. LBG, in combination with other polymers and grafted forms, have been extensively used in fabrication of hydrogel-derived formulations with specific functions. Hydrogel derived from LBG responds to various stimuli that are required in the delivery of various therapeutic actives based on requirement of applications. This chapter is compiled on LBG and its derived hydrogels using reported scientific literature in depth to focus on LBG-derived hydrogel formulations and evaluations following its sources, properties, extraction, and processing of LBG powder and versatile applications in various fields to extend its utility in the future.
Seventy-nine cocoa or chocolate products and eighteen carob products were analyzed by HPLC for caffeine and theobromine content. After extraction into boiling water, the methylxanthines were identified and quantified with the use of a reverse phase column. Mean theobromine and caffeine levels respectively, were 0.695 mg/g and 0.071 mg/g in cocoa cereals; 1.47 mg/g and 0.152 mg/g in chocolate bakery products; 1.95 mg/g and 0.138 mg/g in chocolate toppings; 2.66 mg/g and 0.208 mg/g in cocoa beverages; 0.621 mg/g and 0.032 mg/g in chocolate ice creams; 0.226 mg/g and 0.011 mg/g in chocolate milks; 74.8 mg/serving and 6.5 mg/serving in chocolate puddings. Theobromine and caffeine levels in carob products ranged from 0-0.504 mg/g and 0-0.067 mg/g, respectively.
Carob bean gum: properties and applications
  • H Neukam
Neukam H. 1988. Carob bean gum: properties and applications. Proceedings of the /1 International Carob Symposium, 551-555.
Cocoa powder alternatives, some experiences from practice
  • A C Norden
Norden A.C. 1981. Cocoa powder alternatives, some experiences from practice. Conf. Manuf. Mark. 18:32-33.
Criteria for recognizing carob tree varieties
  • S Marakis
Marakis S., Kalaitzakis J. and Mitrakos K. 1988. Criteria for recognizing carob tree varieties. Proceedings of the //International Carob Symposium, 195-208.
Aspetti mor-fologici e carpologici di cultivar di carrubo (Ceratonia siliqua L
  • F G Crescimano
  • Michele A De
  • R Dilorenzo
  • G Occorso
Crescimano F. G., De Michele A., DiLorenzo R., Occorso G. and Raimondo A. 1988. Aspetti mor-fologici e carpologici di cultivar di carrubo (Ceratonia siliqua L.). Proceedings of the /1 International Carob Symposium, 169-181.
Determinacion de taninos en extractos azu-carados obtenidos a partir de Ia pulpa de algarroba
  • A Mulet
  • J Pou
Mulet A., Cafiellas J., Pou J. and Rosello C. 1988. Determinacion de taninos en extractos azu-carados obtenidos a partir de Ia pulpa de algarroba. Proceedings of the //International Carob Symposium, 1473-481.