Article

Parenting style associated with sedentary behaviour in preschool children

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Abstract

There is an absence of studies exploring the relationship between parental style and sedentary behaviour in preschool-aged children. Given the link between parenting style and other health behaviours, and given that preschool children engage in relatively high levels of sedentary behaviour, this study's purpose was to examine if a preschool child's time spent in sedentary activity (i.e. ‘screen-based’ media viewing and quiet play) differed by parenting style and if the behaviour differed between weekdays and weekends. Results showed that parenting style significantly differed for screen-viewing on weekdays (p = 0.004, η = 0.07) and weekends (p = 0.003, η = 0.07), with preschool children of parents employing an authoritative parenting style engaging in the least amount of screen-time. No differences were observed for quiet play. In addition, the authoritative parenting style was a significant predictor of screen-based viewing on weekdays (β = −0.21, p = 0.01) and weekends (β = −0.26, p = 0.002). These preliminary results suggest an association between parenting style and ‘screen-time’ in preschool children.

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... Personal, family, and environmental factors affect the pattern and duration of sedentary behaviors among children/adolescents [16]. The most crucial factors are child gender and age [13,17,18], environment [19][20][21], family socio-economic status [17,18,22], parent characteristics [23], along with their behavioral [24][25][26] and communicative styles [27,28]. ...
... Parental styles are the primary predictors of watching TV among preschoolers on weekdays and on the weekend [25,26]. The Bjelland et al. study in five European countries showed that supportive-authoritative parents and setting regulations had a significant relationship with watching TV and playing computer games, as increases in authoritative parenting reduced the time children spent watching TV and playing computer games [27]. ...
... The correlation between parent-child relationship with the time duration of children watching TV was reported [16,24,28]. In the study of Schary et al. [25] a meaningful correlation was shown between parent communicative [27] revealed that the parent supportive style and the child autonomous behavior resulted in minimum time of watching TV and computer gaming among European children. By setting regulations and making children understand the regulations and reasons behind them, autonomy supportive style promotes more mature functioning on behalf of the children [25,26]. ...
Article
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Background: Light and sedentary behaviors impose heavy challenges on societies. The objectives of this study are to identify child sedentary behaviors, and to examine the relationship between parent knowledge and behavioral style on children's sedentary time in Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was done among children and their parents selected randomly using multi-stage method, from 12 urban districts in Tabriz, Iran;2017. Data were collected through designing a multi-sectional questionnaire adopted from the Bjelland and previous studies to assess the time spent on sedentary behaviors among children/adolescents along with parent knowledge and behavioral style. Results: From 480 children/adolescents and their parents 54.6% came from middle class families, and 55.62% were boys aged 2 to18. The percentage of time spent more than 120 min per day (min/d) on weekdays was for watching television (TV): (girls 24.4%, boys 21.0%), for playing computer and video games: (girls 38.7%, boys 54.7%), for electronic media communication (EMC): (girls 52.8%, boys 60.2%). The associated factors for watching TV: child age [12 years and above OR = 1.37; 95% CI = 0.53-3.54], parent knowledge [OR = 0.59, 95% CI = 0.35-0.99], and communicative styles [OR = 1.43, 95%CI = 1.11-1.86], and for playing computer and EMC: child age [5 years old and above OR = 4.83,95% CI =1.52-15.38, 12 years old and above OR = 13.76, 95% CI= 4.22-24.91], family socio-economic status [middle class OR = 2.52, 95% CI = 1.54-4.11, high class OR = 5.53, 95%CI = 1.80-15.89]. Conclusion: There is an urgent need to combat the unrestricted prevalence of sedentary behaviors among Iranian children/ adolescents who use computers and other electronic devices more than the recommended time every day from early childhood. Parents should be provided with appropriate information about adverse effects of using electronic devices longer than recommended time by children. It is also essential to teach them beneficial communicative styles to monitor their children's sedentary behaviors.
... Previous studies have shown that ESE was related to lower levels of maternal education and employment, single parenthood, maternal obesity, depression (12,13), and parental attitudes (14)(15)(16)(17)(18)(19)(20)(21). Parental attitudes and actions are likely to regulate children's screen use and parents could play leading roles in screen-viewing behavioral change (16,17,22). ...
... In previous studies, the relationship between screening time and parenting style was evaluated (14)(15)(16)(17)(18)(19)(20)(21). A study including the parents of children aged eight to 11 years demonstrated that the authoritative parenting attitude reduced sedentary screen time in boys, whereas a neglectful parenting attitude was a risk factor for high sedentary screen time in both boys and girls (17). ...
... In a study by Schary et al. (18) assessing the parenting attitude and sedentary behavior association in preschool children, similar to our results, the lowest screen time was associated with the authoritative parenting attitude. However, in that research, in adjusted analysis, permissive or neglectful parenting styles were not associated with sedentary behaviors of children (18). In our study, in the multivariate analysis, the strongest relationship between screening time and parenting attitude was determined in the permissive parenting style. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Young children and preschoolers are now growing up in settings filled with a variety of technological devices. Despite the recommendation that parents should limit screen time, many preschoolers are exposed to screens at very early ages and for a long time. This study aimed to investigate the associations between parenting styles and the excessive screen time of preschool-aged children. Material and Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study included preschool children with low screen exposure (<1 hour; n=176) and excessive screen exposure (>4 hours; n=74). A self-completion-structured survey form and Parent Attitude Scale were filled by the mothers. Results: More than half (52.0%) of them were male children. Increased number of children, increased household sizes, mothers being unemployed, birth order ≥2, and home-based care were found to be statistically significantly higher in the excessive screen exposure group than in the low screen exposure group. Mothers and fathers in the excessive screen exposure group had lower educational levels compared with their counterparts in the low screen exposure group (p<0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that mothers’ high authoritative (democratic) scores were associated with low screen exposure(adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 0.3; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.1-0.9). High overprotective and permissive parenting subscale scores were related to excessive screen exposure after adjusting potential confounders (AOR: 2.8, 95% CI: 1.1-6.7; AOR: 4.5, 95% CI: 1.8-11.6). Conclusion: Excessive screening time may indicate a problematic parent-child relationship. Establishing a positive parent-child relationship can be an effective way of managing screen time in preschool children.
... Of the 30 articles included in this review, 14 studies were conducted in the United States, 6 in Australia, three in Canada, two in New Zealand, and one in each of Turkey, Greece, or Netherlands (Tables 2, 3, and 4). Fourteen studies [19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32] (Table 2) examined the association between parental influences and PA, with 12 studies [33][34][35][36][37][38][39][40][41][42][43][44] (Table 3) examined the association between parental influences and screen time, and four studies [45][46][47][48] (Table 4) examined associations of parental influences with both PA and screen time. ...
... The authoritative parenting style was found to be associated with decreased children's screen time by only one study [41]. ...
... Research. Despite substantial evidence suggesting that an authoritative parenting style was associated with older children's PA and sedentary behaviours [53,54], the present systematic review was not able to make such conclusion for young children with only one study included in the review [31,41]. Therefore, the associations of parenting style and young children's PA and sedentary behaviours need more attention in future research. ...
Article
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Parents play a critical role in developing and shaping their children’s physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviours, particularly in the early years of life. The aim of this systematic review is to identify current literature investigating associations of parental influences with both PA and screen time in young children. This systematic review was conducted in November 2013 using 6 electronic databases covering research literature from January 1998 to November 2013. Thirty articles that met inclusion criteria were identified. These studies covered five important aspects of parenting: (1) parenting practices; (2) parents’ role modelling; (3) parental perceptions of children’s PA and screen viewing behaviours; (4) parental self-efficacy; and (5) general parenting style. Findings suggest that parents’ encouragement and support can increase children’s PA, and reducing parents’ own screen time can lead to decreased child screen time. Improving parenting practices, parental self-efficacy or changing parenting style may also be promising approaches to increasing PA time and decreasing screen time of young children.
... Previous studies have shown that ESE was related to lower levels of maternal education and employment, single parenthood, maternal obesity, depression (12,13), and parental attitudes (14)(15)(16)(17)(18)(19)(20)(21). Parental attitudes and actions are likely to regulate children's screen use and parents could play leading roles in screen-viewing behavioral change (16,17,22). ...
... In previous studies, the relationship between screening time and parenting style was evaluated (14)(15)(16)(17)(18)(19)(20)(21). A study including the parents of children aged eight to 11 years demonstrated that the authoritative parenting attitude reduced sedentary screen time in boys, whereas a neglectful parenting attitude was a risk factor for high sedentary screen time in both boys and girls (17). ...
... In a study by Schary et al. (18) assessing the parenting attitude and sedentary behavior association in preschool children, similar to our results, the lowest screen time was associated with the authoritative parenting attitude. However, in that research, in adjusted analysis, permissive or neglectful parenting styles were not associated with sedentary behaviors of children (18). In our study, in the multivariate analysis, the strongest relationship between screening time and parenting attitude was determined in the permissive parenting style. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Young children and preschoolers are now growing up in settings filled with a variety of technological devices. Despite the recommendation that parents should limit screen time, many preschoolers are exposed to screens at very early ages and for a long time. This study aimed to investigate the associations between parenting styles and the excessive screen time of preschool-aged children. Material and methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study included preschool children with low screen exposure (<1 hour; n=176) and excessive screen exposure (>4 hours; n=74). A self-completion-structured survey form and Parent Attitude Scale were filled by the mothers. Results: More than half (52.0%) of them were male children. Increased number of children, increased household sizes, mothers being unemployed, birth order ≥2, and home-based care were found to be statistically significantly higher in the excessive screen exposure group than in the low screen exposure group. Mothers and fathers in the excessive screen exposure group had lower educational levels compared with their counterparts in the low screen exposure group (p<0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that mothers' high authoritative (democratic) scores were associated with low screen exposure(adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 0.3; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.1-0.9). High overprotective and permissive parenting subscale scores were related to excessive screen exposure after adjusting potential confounders (AOR: 2.8, 95% CI: 1.1-6.7; AOR: 4.5, 95% CI: 1.8-11.6). Conclusion: Excessive screening time may indicate a problematic parent-child relationship. Establishing a positive parent-child relationship can be an effective way of managing screen time in preschool children.
... Only three studies examined the relation between parenting styles and SST. They indicated that authoritarian and permissive parenting were associated with greater SST [18,25,27]. ...
... Due to inconclusive results the current tested the association between parenting styles and PA [24,25]. Furthermore, only a few studies tested the association between parenting styles and SST [27,28]. Previous studies indicated that sociodemographic characteristics such as child gender and maternal educational level are associated with both parenting styles and children's SST level [25,26,29]. ...
Article
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Background Children’s activity level, including physical activity (PA) and screen sedentary time (SST), is influenced by environmental factors in which parents play a critical role. Different types of parenting styles may influence children’s activity level. Inconsistent results were found on the association between parenting styles and PA, and few studies tested the association between parenting styles and SST. This study examined the association between parenting styles, PA and SST and the modifying effect of children’s gender and maternal educational level on these associations. Methods Cross-sectional data were collected from parents of children aged 8–11 years old who completed a web-based non-standardized questionnaire (N = 4047). Since 85% of the questionnaires were filled in by mothers, parenting styles are mainly reported by mothers. Multiple linear regression techniques were used to assess the associations between parenting styles (authoritative, permissive, authoritarian and neglectful), and PA and SST (mean min/day). The modifying effect of children’s gender and maternal educational level on these associations was explored. P values ≤.0125 were considered as statistically significant based on the Bonferroni correction for four primary analyses. Results The neglectful parenting style was most widely used (35.3%), while the authoritarian style was least common (14.8%). No significant association was found between parenting styles and PA level. As regards SST, an authoritative parenting style was significantly associated with lower SST in boys while a neglectful parenting style was significantly associated with higher SST in both boys and girls. When the mother had a medium educational level, an authoritative parenting style was significantly associated with lower SST while neglectful parenting was significantly associated with higher SST. Conclusions No association was found between parenting styles and PA. However, an authoritative parenting style was associated with a reduction in SST and a neglectful parenting style with an increase in SST, especially in boys and in children whose mother had a medium education level. Future studies of parenting practices are needed to gain more insight into the role of parents in children’s PA and SST levels, as a basis for the development of interventions tailored to support parents in stimulating PA and reducing SST in children.
... However, other studies report mixed results for the associations between a child's weight and parenting styles in general [31,32]. This indicates a need for more causal evidence [33] as the influence of the parenting environment on a child's weight status is complex [34], though probably existent with child-directed parenting styles logically relating to several childdirected feeding/exercise behaviours [35][36][37][38][39][40][41]. Specifically, parental permissiveness combined with poorer quality of children's diets, less monitoring of food intake, less meal-time structure, fewer food rules [35][36][37], and with higher levels of sedentary behaviour in the form of watching television [38]. ...
... Specifically, parental permissiveness combined with poorer quality of children's diets, less monitoring of food intake, less meal-time structure, fewer food rules [35][36][37], and with higher levels of sedentary behaviour in the form of watching television [38]. Contrastingly, parental authoritativeness combined with more rules in place regarding 'television-time' [39,40]. Finally, parental demandingness, which is low in permissive parenting, combined with a child's higher perceived abilities to exercise [41], increasing the chances of sufficient exercise being a part of daily routines. ...
Article
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Overweight/obese dogs are at increased risk of health issues and it is up to the dog owner to uphold successful weight management. In children, overweight relates to their parent’s permissive style of parenting. We predicted that permissive dog-directed parenting likewise associates with a dog being overweight (including obesity). If styles in parenting dogs indeed associate with a dog’s overweight, these may provide action points for effective weight management. For 2,303 Dutch dog owners, answers on their dog’s (nine-point scale) body condition scores were compared to ways of parenting the dog. We used an adapted version of the 32-item Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire and compared the distributions of dog counts across aggregated body condition score categories of underweight (scores one to three), healthy-weight (scores four and five) and overweight/obese (scores six to nine) with Chi-square tests across the quartiles of a given parenting style. Overweight/obese dogs were overrepresented in the quartile of dog owners with the highest level of permissive parenting, which is in line with findings on parenting styles and overweight/obesity in children. Supplementary logistic regression analyses on the likelihood of dogs being overweight/obese (i.e. having a body condition score of six or higher) confirmed the importance of parenting and identified the risk factors of dogs having little exercise, being of older age, neutered or owned by someone with lower level education. Our results indicate that strategies to promote proper weight management in dogs could benefit from addressing especially a dog owner’s permissiveness in parenting his/her dog.
... Another study found that an authoritative parenting style led to the least amount of screen time in pre-school children on both weekdays and weekend days. 35 Given that authoritative parents compared with permissive parents displayed higher levels of control, the authors speculated that authoritative parents in their study employed parenting practices specific to monitoring and restricting children/s TV viewing. 35 This may suggest that parental control is more effective in reducing children's screen time than parental responsiveness (warmth and hostility). ...
... 35 Given that authoritative parents compared with permissive parents displayed higher levels of control, the authors speculated that authoritative parents in their study employed parenting practices specific to monitoring and restricting children/s TV viewing. 35 This may suggest that parental control is more effective in reducing children's screen time than parental responsiveness (warmth and hostility). ...
Article
Aim: This study aims to investigate if maternal influences are associated with children's outdoor playtime and screen time at the age of 2 years. Methods: A cross-sectional study with 497 first-time mothers and their children was conducted using the data from the Healthy Beginnings Trial undertaken in Sydney, Australia during 2007-2010. Maternal influences included their own physical activity and screen time, television rules for their child, perceived neighbourhood environment, parental self-efficacy and parenting style (warmth and hostility). Children's outdoor playtime, screen time and maternal influences were collected through face-to-face interviews with participating mothers when the children were 2 years old. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the associations between maternal influences and children's outdoor play and screen time. Results: Mothers with low levels of parental hostility and high perceived safe outdoor play environment were more likely to have children playing outdoor for ≥ 2 h/day with adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 2.65 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.68-4.20, P < 0.0001) and AOR 2.44 (95% CI 1.85-3.85, P < 0.0001) respectively. Mothers' own screen time was the sole factor associated with children's screen time (AOR 1.90 (95% CI 1.29-2.81, P = 0.001)). Conclusion: Different maternal influences were independently associated with children's outdoor play or screen time at an early stage of life. Therefore, different intervention strategies are needed to increase children's outdoor playtime and decrease their screen time.
... The link between parenting and child health behaviours and outcomes across a number of child health domains is now well-established (Case and Paxon 2002;Morawska et al. 2015;Park and Walton-Moss 2012;Schary et al. 2012;Skouteris et al. 2011;Yee et al. 2017), and parents also have a vital role to play in guiding children to develop healthy screen use habits. Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have identified numerous parent-level factors associated with high or problematic levels of screen use by young children, including parents' own screen time and attitudes towards screen use, low parental monitoring/ restriction of screen use, and low parental self-efficacy for reducing/limiting children's screen time (Goncalves et al. 2019;Lauricella et al. 2015;Tang et al. 2018;Xu et al. 2015), and there is some evidence that reduced parent-child interaction could mediate the link between excessive screen use and children's psychosocial wellbeing (Zhao et al. 2018). ...
... Conversely, behavioural control and co-viewing are associated with more screen time for pre-school aged children (Thompson et al. 2016). Parenting styles have also been linked with variations in child screen use, and both authoritarian and permissive parenting styles have been associated with more screen time for school-aged children (Langer et al. 2014), whereas authoritative parenting has been associated with less screen time (Schary et al. 2012;Veldhuis et al. 2014). These patterns support the broader literature pinpointing parenting style and behaviour as an important predictor of child behaviour problems (Pinquart 2017), as well as child health behaviours and outcomes more broadly (Adamson and Morawska 2017;Morawska et al. 2017;Owens-Stively et al. 1997). ...
Article
Full-text available
The impact of excessive screen use on child health and development is now a public health concern, and research efforts are focused on finding ways to moderate screen use. To date, the focus has mainly been on school-aged children and adolescents, and the early childhood context has been comparatively neglected. Moreover, relationships between factors likely to influence screen use by young children (e.g., child behaviour, parenting style and self-efficacy) remain largely unexplored. Our study aimed to test relationships between parenting style, parents’ self-efficacy, parental distress, child behaviour, and young children’s screen time. We used a cross-sectional study design. Parents (N = 106) of young children (aged 0–4 years) living in Australia completed an online survey which assessed parent-reported child screen use, screen time-related child behaviour problems, parents’ self-efficacy for managing child behaviour and screen time, parents’ beliefs about the positive/negative effects of screen time, parenting style, general child adjustment and parent efficacy, and parent distress. Correlation coefficients revealed relationships between dysfunctional parenting styles, screen time-related child behaviour problems, and parent self-efficacy for dealing with these behaviours. Using hierarchical multiple regression models, children’s screen time behaviour problems explained the greatest variance in parents’ self-efficacy for managing screen time, and parents’ self-efficacy for managing child screen time explained the greatest variance in parent-reported child screen time. Further research is needed to disentangle these relationships; however, preliminary results suggest that child behaviour difficulties and parents’ self-efficacy warrant further investigation as potentially useful targets for interventions aiming to improve screen use in early childhood.
... The authoritative parenting style has also been associated with greater physical activity in children [22,23], whereas the neglectful style has been associated with lower child physical activity [33]. Regarding sedentary screen time, the authoritative parenting style has been associated with lower sedentary screen time [32,34], whereas the neglectful, permissive and authoritarian parenting styles all have been associated with higher screen time in different studies/populations [32,35]. Studies focusing on parenting practices in relation to children's physical activity have found the most consistent evidence for positive associations between the specific parenting practices of modelling physical activity behaviour, and parental logistic support for physical activity and children's physical activity [24,25]. ...
Article
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Background The aim of the study was to increase understanding of the variation in parental perceptions of their roles and responsibilities in relation to children’s physical activity and sedentary behaviours. Methods This qualitative study was based on data from the Healthy School Start intervention study II, in the form of recorded motivational interviewing (MI) sessions with mothers and fathers participating in the intervention. Forty-one MI sessions where parents discussed physical activity and/or sedentary behaviour were selected for analysis. Data analysis was performed using a phenomenographic approach. Results Three categories describing a structural relationship of parents’ different views on their own role in relation to their child’s habits were identified: 1) The parent decides – Child physical activity according to my beliefs and views as a parent and where I, as a parent, decide, 2) Parent-child interaction – child physical activity is formed in interaction between me as a parent and my child or 3) The child/someone else decides – The child or someone other than me as a parent decides or has the responsibility for my child’s physical activity. All three categories included four subcategories of specific activities: organised activity, activity in everyday life, being active together and screen time, describing practical approaches used in each of the three categories. Conclusions This study found variation in mothers’ and fathers’ perceptions of their roles and responsibilities for their child’s physical activity and sedentary behaviours related to specific types of activities. The results indicate areas where parents need support in how to guide their children and how parental responsibility can have a positive influence on children’s physical activity and sedentary habits.
... Parental perceptions about the dangers of using screen media by their children motivate them to make rules to restrict the usage. According to the studies by Schary, Cardinal and Loprinzi (2012) and Valcke et al (2010), authoritative (i.e., high warmth and control) approach is the most common parenting style adopted by parents. In a study (Goh, Bay and Chen, 2015) from Singapore, it was reported that most of the children seek permission from their parents before using tablet devices. ...
Research Proposal
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The number of children using screen devices (SD) is growing as years pass by. It is essential to understand the reasons and consequences of the usage as childhood plays a vital role in the development of a person. This literature review discusses 73 studies related to the reasons and consequences of children's SD usage. Additionally, we also discuss the effect of the covid-19 pandemic. The main reasons associated with children's SD usage are their age, parental screen time, device access in bedrooms and parenting style. Sleep disturbances, obesity, eye problems, behavioural and socio-emotional problems are the significant consequences. Also, the covid-19 pandemic contributes towards a massive surge in children's SD usage and leads to anxiety and stress. We recommend collaborative rule-setting for screen time between parents and children, educating them about the consequences, and ensuring a balance between physical and online activities.
... On the other hand, children with more screen time in the early years of life were associated with negative parenting, including relaxed and strict parenting, but were inversely related to nurturing parenting in the subsequent year. Our findings on associations between screen time and different patterns of parenting styles support previous studies (16,(23)(24)(25)(26)(27). However, parenting styles were not related to television viewing with and without computer or tablet use in toddlers, preschool and school-aged children in some studies (16,17,23,24,27). ...
Article
Aim: This study examined long-term associations between mother-child interactions and parenting styles and electronic screen time. Methods: We studied 280 healthy children (53.2% girls) enrolled at a mean age of 36 ±0.4 months from February 2015 to September 2016. The study included retrospective data on 267 children who had been recruited from medical facilities in Thailand at six months of age. Mother-child interaction, parenting styles and screen time were assessed at various ages and path analyses were performed to elucidate the directionality and relationships between the variables. Results: Increased mother-child interaction at 18 months of age was positively associated with less screen time at two and three years of age. Likewise, nurturing authoritative parenting at three years of age was directly related to lower media exposure at four years. The total screen time at younger ages had positive direct relationships with relaxed permissive and strict authoritarian parenting styles, but negative direct relationships with nurturing authoritative parenting in subsequent years. Conclusion: Early mother-child interaction and nurturing authoritative parenting were associated with subsequent decreased screen time, while media exposure at the age of two was related to relaxed permissive and strict authoritarian parenting at three years of age.
... Social Learning Theory promotes the idea that "human individuals learn their habits and attitudes in general and towards physical education in special, by observing and imitating their parents. Two features of parental conducts that bolster physical education were noticed by some researchers (Welk et al., 2003;Emma & Jarrett, 2010;Oliver et al., 2010;Mitchell et al., 2012;Schary et al., 2012), more precisely: role modeling and parental support. The first, role modeling, includes a parent's interest in physical activity aside from their effort to be active. ...
... Different parenting styles may affect and predict children's media viewing behaviours. Authoritative parenting styles have been associated with decreased screen time in preschool children (Schary et al., 2012), with relaxed and permissive parenting styles correlated with increased media viewing in early childhood. ...
Article
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Background: During the COVID-19 pandemic, millions of children abruptly moved to online schooling, which required high levels of parental involvement. Family routines were disrupted, potentially increasing parental stress, and may be reflected in greater media screen time use in children. Objectives: To determine whether 1) parenting styles and 2) parenting stress were associated with children's screen time use during the pandemic compared to the pre-pandemic period. Methods: Parents (>18 years of age) were recruited to complete an online survey regarding changes in their children's (6-12 years) screen time use and daily activities before and during the pandemic. Stress and parental involvement were assessed using the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and Alabama Parenting Questionnaires respectively. General linear models assessed whether parenting style and parent stress was associated with children's screen time during the pandemic, adjusting for demographic variables and daily activities. Results: 104 parents were enrolled, and 78 (75%) parents completed the surveys. Children's screen time (e.g., watching television and playing video games) increased significantly, from 2.6 hours to 5.8 hours a day (p=.001) during pandemic-related school closures. Smaller changes in children's screen time use were significantly associated with more parental involvement (p=.017). Parent stress (p=.018) significantly predicted children's screen time use. Lower household income was associated with increased hours of screen time in both models (both, p<.05). Conclusions: Children's screen time nearly doubled during the initial months of the pandemic. Parent stress and parenting styles may be modifiable risk factors to promote children's wellbeing during the ongoing pandemic.
... A neglectful parenting style has been reported to be associated with higher child screen time [31]. Therefore, we might assume that viewing low-quality media content would be associated with problematic screen use, as not avoiding inappropriate media content while guidelines recommend it is considered to be neglect. ...
Article
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Background: Screen media exposure has been increasing in the preschool years. Risky aspects of screen exposure have many potential negative effects on children's health. We aimed to evaluate problematic screen exposure in Turkish preschool children by using a unique tool called the "Seven-in-Seven Screen Exposure Questionnaire" and to investigate factors associated with problematic screen exposure. Methods: A questionnaire form was designed including general descriptive questions in the first part. In the second part, a questionnaire we designed called the "Seven-in-Seven Screen Exposure Questionnaire" was conducted to evaluate problematic screen exposure characteristics. The questionnaire included seven items: daily screen time, viewing with parent(s), setting screen limits, screen exposure during meals and in the hour before bedtime, age of onset of screen exposure, and viewing low-quality content. The total problematic screen exposure score (range 0-13) was generated by summing scores from the seven items. Total scores are classified into two categories: low (< 7) and high (≥ 7). Logistic regression was performed to search for independent parameters associated with problematic screen exposure. Results: One thousand two hundred forty-five mother-child pairs participated in this study. The median age of the children was 3.9 (IQR: 2.9-4.7) years and 51% were males. Overall, 280 children (22.5%) had a problematic screen exposure score of ≥7 (high). The median problematic screen exposure score was 4 (IQR: 3-6). Maternal age of < 30 years; paternal age of ≥30 years; maternal educational level of ≤12 years; the age of 24-48 months; home-based daycare; postponing eating, toileting, or sleeping while using a screen; and using touchscreen devices were found to be associated with an increased risk of having a high problematic screen exposure score. Conclusion: Developing national scales to monitor problematic screen use in children would be more effective than monitoring screen time alone. All of the screen use characteristics not recommended in children would be evaluated using problematic screen exposure scales. The "Seven-in-Seven Screen Exposure Questionnaire" may serve as an example for further studies.
... It was proven that parent-child interaction can also be observed in academic processes (Bean et al., 2003). Similarly, parents can be dominant in directing and shaping their children's behaviors, especially with the effect of parenting styles (Hu & Feng, 2021;Schary et al., 2012). Parenting styles were considered as an important structure in the interaction between parent and child (Carapito et al., 2018). ...
Article
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The main purpose of the present study was to develop a measure examining parent-child interaction, particularly in academic experiences of children. Two studies provided evidence for reliability and validity of 19-item scale. First determining the factorial structure of Parent-Child Interaction Scale (PCIS) was aimed. 256 parents were participated in exploratory factor analysis. According to the results of item analysis, five items were excluded from the item pool because of having low factor loading. Exploratory factor analysis was applied with 14-items. Three factor solution was extracted. The three-factor structure was accounted for 51% total variance of PCIS. As for confirmatory factor analysis, the further analysis was performed with 199 parents. The three-factor structure was tested. Sufficient fit indices were found from confirmatory factor analysis. This means that three factor structure of PCIS was confirmed. Additionally, convergent validity was examined. The results from average variance extracted and composite reliability analysis revealed that convergent validity of the PCIS is sufficient. Finally, internal consistency coefficient was investigated for reliability analysis. The Cronbach's Alpha coefficient supplied evidence for reliability. Overall, it was stated that the PCIS was reliable and valid measure to assess parent-child interaction. It was well known that the concept of parent-child interaction has a wide spread of uses. It may be expressed that the PCIS has potentials to present substantial contributions in education and psychology researches.
Article
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The impact of screen-based devices on children's health and development cannot be properly understood without valid and reliable tools that measure screen time within the evolving digital landscape. This review aimed to summarize characteristics of measurement tools used to assess screen time in young children; evaluate reporting of psychometric properties; and examine time trends related to measurement and reporting of screen time. A systematic review of articles published in English across three databases from January 2009 to April 2020 was undertaken using PROSPERO protocol (registration: CRD42019132599) and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Included articles measured screen time as outcome, exposure, or confounder in children 0-6 years. The search identified 35,868 records, 1035 full-text articles were screened for eligibility, and 622 met inclusion criteria. Most measures (60%) consisted of one to three items and assessed duration of screen time on a usual day. Few measures assessed content (11%) or coviewing (7%). Only 40% of articles provided a citation for the measure, and only 69 (11%) reported psychometric properties-reliability n = 58, validity n = 19, reliability and validity n = 8. Between 2009 and 2019, the number of published articles increased from 28 to 71. From 2015, there was a notable increase in the proportion of articles published each year that assessed exposure to mobile devices in addition to television. The increasing number of published articles reflects increasing interest in screen time exposure among young children. Measures of screen time have generally evolved to reflect children's contemporary digital landscape; however, the psychometric properties of measurement tools are rarely reported. There is a need for improved measures and reporting to capture the complexity of children's screen time exposures.
Chapter
This chapter presents a picture of the contemporary landscape in which families with young children are positioned, and the multiple interpretations of ‘family’. A rationale is offered for the value of engaging in researching with and about young families, including the recognition of children as significant agents within the domestic space of the family home, and other environments in which they are embedded. Contemporary understandings and constructions of families and their dynamic contexts are introduced, whilst noting the need for being critically aware of the dominant discourse that privileges particular narratives, especially those which evolve from specific contexts and paradigms. Chapter 1 of Forging frontiers draws attention to the idiosyncratic nature of ‘the family’ and reminds us that families are situated in contextual social-ecological systems.
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Parents' behaviors, practices, beliefs, and attitudes greatly influence children's active play behavior; however, little research has examined these parental influences on preschool children's sedentary behavior (SB).The purpose of this study was to examine the association between parental influences on preschool SB.One hundred eighty-six parents of preschoolers completed an online survey that examined the parents' own physical activity behaviors, parental practices, parental dimensions, and parental orientations. Hierarchical linear regression analysis was used to examine the association between active play-related parenting behavior, orientations, and practices with preschool SB during the week and weekend.During the weekday (β = - 0.46, P <.001) and weekend (β = - 0.48, P <.001), parental control was inversely associated with preschool screen time among boys.The results of this study suggest that parental control is an independent predictor of screen time during the week and weekend for preschool boys. Future research should include sedentary-specific parenting practices and a qualitative methodology component.If our findings are confirmed by future research, health educators should teach parents how to implement monitoring and control-related parenting practices to minimize preschool SB.
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Tracking of total physical activity (PA), moderate to vigorous activity (MVPA), and sedentary behavior was assessed in 42 young children (mean age at baseline 3.8 years) over a 2-year period using the Actigraph accelerometer. Tracking was analyzed using Spearman rank correlations, percentage agreements, and kappa statistics. Spearman rank correlations were r = .35 (p = .002) for total PA, r = .37 (p = .002) for MVPA, and r = .35 (p = .002) for sedentary behavior. Percentage agreements for PA, MVPA, and sedentary behavior were 38, 41, and 26 respectively. Kappa statistics for PA, MVPA, and sedentary behavior ranged from poor to fair. Results suggest low levels of tracking of total physical activity, MVPA, and sedentary behavior in young Scottish children over a 2-year period
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Objectives Previous research studies examining parental influences on children’s physical activity (PA) have focused primarily on parents’ own PA behavior, as well as their PA-related beliefs and socially supportive behaviors. The present study, although aligned with this mainstream parental influence research, was grounded in a broader child development perspective to examine the influence of parenting style on children’s PA beliefs and quality of parent–child communication.Method Self-report questionnaires were administered to 173 children ranging in age from 9 to 12 years to assess their perceptions of parenting style, parent–child communication patterns, as well as their own perceptions of fitness competence, value, and goal orientation.ResultsChildren’s constellation of beliefs and attitudes regarding PA as well as their perceptions of the parent–child communication process did vary as a function of the type of parenting style they perceived their parents to use. High challenge parenting style was linked to higher perceived fitness competence and value on the part of the children. High support parenting style was linked to more positive perceived parent–child communication patterns.Conclusion Parenting style may be a critical underlying family process variable that impacts children’s development of a positive constellation of beliefs about PA. Future work is needed to link parenting style and children’s PA beliefs to their PA behavior.
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This article illustrates how a life-course perspective can be infused more fully into the research field of physical activity promotion. A life-course perspective is particularly promising in connecting, organizing, and supplementing current knowledge and can potentially stimulate and direct future research and intervention efforts by using a time-sensitive, opportunistic, and developmental approach. The first section summarizes this approach into five key life-course principles including human agency, linked lives, time and place, life-span development, and timing. The second section takes a closer look at three time-based components: trajectories, transitions, and turning points. The final section highlights some of the implications of a life-course perspective for research methods and interventions, especially among children and older adults.
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The aim of this systematic review was to summarise and update the existing literature on determinants of physical activity and sedentary behaviour in young people, considering the methodological quality of the studies. Prospective studies were identified from searches in PubMed and PsycINFO, from April 2004 through November 2010. The authors included studies investigating the association between determinants of overall physical (in)activity and/or sedentary behaviour in healthy children or adolescents. When a determinant was investigated for its association with physical (in)activity and sedentary behaviour assessed between ages of 4-12, or mean age ≤12, it was classified as 'child determinant'. When a determinant was investigated for its association with physical activity and sedentary behaviour assessed between ages of 13-18 or mean age >12, it was classified as 'adolescent determinant'. Included articles were scored on their methodological quality and a best-evidence synthesis was applied to summarise the results. The authors identified 30 papers, of which seven were of high methodological quality. Intention was found as a determinant of children's physical activity. Determinants of adolescents' physical activity were age (ie, older children were more active), ethnicity (ie, being of African--American descent determined being less physically active) and planning. The authors found insufficient evidence for determinants of sedentary behaviour. Studies on determinants of physical activity and sedentary behaviour were in general of poor methodological quality. To develop long-term effective interventions that increase physical activity and decrease time spent in sedentary behaviours in young people, we need more high quality prospective evidence on the determinants of these behaviours.
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To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate maternal child feeding practices, maternal parenting characteristics and mother-child interactions as cross-sectional predictors of child eating and/or weight within the one sample. Maternal pressure for her child to eat was a significant positive correlate of fussiness and a negative correlate of enjoyment. Maternal parenting warmth was associated negatively with child BMIz, while mother-child dysfunctional interaction was associated positively with child BMIz. Our findings suggest that childhood obesity research may be better informed by evaluating not just what mothers do (feeding practices) but also how they parent (parenting behaviours and interactions with their child). Longitudinal studies are needed to identify causal influences of parenting on preschool child eating and weight.
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Parents influence their children's behaviors directly through specific parenting practices and indirectly through their parenting style. Some practices such as logistical and emotional support have been shown to be positively associated with child physical activity (PA) levels, while for others (e.g. monitoring) the relationship is not clear. The objectives of this study were to determine the relationship between parent's PA-related practices, general parenting style, and children's PA level. During the spring of 2007 a diverse group of 99 parent-child dyads (29% White, 49% Black, 22% Hispanic; 89% mothers) living in low-income rural areas of the US participated in a cross-sectional study. Using validated questionnaires, parents self-reported their parenting style (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, and uninvolved) and activity-related parenting practices. Height and weight were measured for each dyad and parents reported demographic information. Child PA was measured objectively through accelerometers and expressed as absolute counts and minutes engaged in intensity-specific activity. Seventy-six children had valid accelerometer data. Children engaged in 113.4 ± 37.0 min. of moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) per day. Children of permissive parents accumulated more minutes of MVPA than those of uninvolved parents (127.5 vs. 97.1, p < 0.05), while parents who provided above average levels of support had children who participated in more minutes of MVPA (114.2 vs. 98.3, p = 0.03). While controlling for known covariates, an uninvolved parenting style was the only parenting behavior associated with child physical activity. Parenting style moderated the association between two parenting practices - reinforcement and monitoring - and child physical activity. Specifically, post-hoc analyses revealed that for the permissive parenting style group, higher levels of parental reinforcement or monitoring were associated with higher levels of child physical activity. This work extends the current literature by demonstrating the potential moderating role of parenting style on the relationship between activity-related parenting practices and children's objectively measured physical activity, while controlling for known covariates. Future studies in this area are warranted and, if confirmed, may help to identify the mechanism by which parents influence their child's physical activity behavior.
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Sedentary behaviour has been linked with a number of health outcomes. Preschool-aged children spend significant proportions of their day engaged in sedentary behaviours. Research into the correlates of sedentary behaviours in the preschool population is an emerging field, with most research being published since 2002. Reviews on correlates of sedentary behaviours which include preschool children have previously been published; however, none have reported results specific to the preschool population. This paper reviews articles reporting on correlates of sedentary behaviour in preschool children published between 1993 and 2009. A literature search was undertaken to identify articles which examined correlates of sedentary behaviours in preschool children. Articles were retrieved and evaluated in 2008 and 2009. Twenty-nine studies were identified which met the inclusion criteria. From those studies, 63 potential correlates were identified. Television viewing was the most commonly examined sedentary behaviour. Findings from the review suggest that child's sex was not associated with television viewing and had an indeterminate association with sedentary behaviour as measured by accelerometry. Age, body mass index, parental education and race had an indeterminate association with television viewing, and outdoor playtime had no association with television viewing. The remaining 57 potential correlates had been investigated too infrequently to be able to draw robust conclusions about associations. The correlates of preschool children's sedentary behaviours are multi-dimensional and not well established. Further research is required to provide a more comprehensive understanding of the influences on preschool children's sedentary behaviours to better inform the development of interventions.
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The aim of the article was to review studies on the tracking of physical activity in all phases of life from childhood to late adulthood. The majority of the studies have been published since 2000. The follow-up time in most studies was short, the median being 9 years. In men, the stability of physical activity was significant but low or moderate during all life phases and also in longterm follow-ups. In women, the tracking was lower and in many cases non-significant. Among both sexes, stability seems to be lower in early childhood than in adolescence or in adulthood and lower in transitional phases, such as from childhood to adolescence or from adolescence to adulthood, than in adulthood. However, the differences in the stability of physical activity between age groups and between different phases of life were small. The number of tracking studies utilising objective methods to measure physical activity was so small that systematic differences in stability between self-report and objective methods could not be determined. A factor which caused differences in tracking results was the adjustment of correlations for measurement error and other error variance. Adjusted coefficients were clearly higher than unadjusted ones. However, adjustment was done only in very few studies. If the different methods used for estimating habitual physical activity and the failure to control for important covariates in studies of tracking are taken into account, physical activity appears to track reasonably well also in the longer term, for example from adolescence to adulthood. The results of the tracking studies support the idea that the enhancement of physical activity in children and adolescents is of great importance for the promotion of public health.
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Exercise is thought to reduce high-risk body fat, but intervention studies are frequently limited by short follow-ups and observational studies by genetic selection. Therefore, we studied the effects of a physically inactive vs active lifestyle on high-risk (visceral, liver and intramuscular) fat in twin pairs discordant for leisure-time physical activity habits for over 30 years. A longitudinal population-based twin study. Sixteen middle-aged (50-74 years) same-sex twin pairs (seven monozygotic (MZ), nine dizygotic (DZ)) with long-term discordance for physical activity habits were comprehensively identified from the Finnish Twin Cohort (TWINACTIVE study). Discordance was initially defined in 1975 and the same co-twin remained significantly more active during the 32-year-long follow-up. Magnetic resonance imaging-assessed visceral, liver and intramuscular fat. In within-pair analyses carried out after the adult life-long discordance in physical activity habits, the physically inactive co-twins had 50% greater visceral fat area compared with the active co-twins (mean difference 55.5 cm2, 95% confidence interval (CI) 7.0-104.1, P=0.010). The liver fat score was 170% higher (13.2, 95% CI 3.5-22.8, P=0.030) and the intramuscular fat area 54% higher (4.9 cm2, 95% CI 1.9-7.9, P=0.002) among the inactive co-twins. All the trends were similar for MZ and DZ pairs. Peak oxygen uptake was inversely associated with visceral (r=-0.46, P=0.012) and intramuscular fat area (r=-0.48, P=0.028), with similar trends in intrapair difference correlations (r=-0.57, P=0.021 and r=-0.50, P=0.056, respectively). The intrapair difference correlation between visceral and intramuscular fat was also high (r=0.65, P=0.009). Regular physical activity seems to be an important factor in preventing the accumulation of high-risk fat over time, even after controlling for genetic liability and childhood environment. Therefore, the prevention and treatment of obesity should emphasize the role of regular leisure-time physical activity.
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To investigate patterns of activity and inactivity in a birth cohort of children followed from 3 to 5 yr and to investigate whether changes in activity occurred over time. Two hundred and forty-four children (44% female) were seen annually at 3, 4, and 5 yr. Physical activity and inactivity was measured by questionnaire (parent-proxy) and by Actical accelerometers for five consecutive days (24-h monitoring) each year in children and once in each parent for 7 d (69% with data). Retention of participants was high (92%). Viable accelerometry data were obtained for 76-85% of children at each age. Reliability estimates ranged from 0.80 (3 yr) to 0.84 (5 yr). Day of the week, season, sex, hours of childcare, or birth order did not affect daily average accelerometry counts (AAC) at any age. Parental activity correlated weakly with the child's activity at 3 and 4 yr (r values = 0.17-0.28), but only the father's activity remained a significant predictor of the child's activity after adjustment for confounders. Children spent approximately 90 min.d in screen time (television, videos, DVD, and computers) with an additional 90 min in other sedentary activities (reading, drawing, and music). Physical activity was significantly reduced at 4 and 5 yr compared with 3 yr in both sexes, whether measured as AAC (24-h data, awake time only, weekend days, weekdays), time in moderate or vigorous activity, or from parental reports of activity. Levels of physical activity declined in boys and girls between the ages 3 and 4-5 yr, whether using objective measures or parental reports of activity.
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This paper examines whether the relationship between parenting style and adolescent depressive symptoms, smoking, and academic grades varies according to ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status. Four parenting styles are distinguished, based on patterns of parent-adolescent decision making: autocratic (parents decide), authoritative (joint process but parents decide), permissive (joint process but adolescent decides), and unengaged (adolescent decides). The sample included 3993 15-year-old White, Hispanic, African-American, and Asian adolescents. Results are generally consistent with previous findings: adolescents with authoritative parents had the best outcomes and those with unengaged parents were least well adjusted, while the permissive and the autocratic styles produced intermediate results. For the most part, this pattern held across ethnic and sociodemographic subgroups. There was one exception, suggesting that the relationship between parenting styles, especially the unengaged style, and depressive symptoms may vary according to gender and ethnicity. More research is needed to replicate and explain this pattern in terms of ecological factors, cultural norms, and socialization goals and practices.
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Environmental changes are expected to lead to decreased time in sedentary behavior and to increased levels of physical activity in populations. Past research has emphasized psychosocial determinants of physical activity. Progress in the field will require more focus on understanding sedentary behaviors and the role of environmental determinants.
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Physical activity has a beneficial effect on bone development in circumpubertal children, although its effect on younger children is uncertain. In this cross-sectional study, we examined associations between physical activity and bone measures in 368 preschool children (mean age: 5.2 years, range: 4-6 years). Physical activity was measured using 4-day accelerometry readings, parental report of children's usual physical activity, and parental report of children's hours of daily television viewing. Total body and site-specific bone mineral content and area bone mineral density (BMD) were measured by dual energy radiograph absorptiometry. After adjustment for age and body size, accelerometry measures of physical activity and parental report of usual physical activity were consistently and positively associated with bone mineral content and BMD in both boys and girls (r = 0.15-0.28). Television viewing was inversely associated with hip BMD in girls (r = -0.15). The proportion of variance in bone measures explained by physical activity in linear regression models ranged from r(2) = 1.5% to 9.0%. In all of these models except total body BMD, at least 1 and often several of the physical activity variables entered as independent predictors. Activity variables most likely to enter the regression models were vigorous physical activity (as determined by accelerometry) and parental ranking of child's usual physical activity. Findings indicate that there are statistically significant and, perhaps important, associations between physical activity and bone measures during early childhood, well ahead of the onset of peak bone mass. This would suggest that intervention strategies to increase physical activity in young children could contribute to optimal bone development.
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The importance of the social environment for dietary behaviour has been highlighted in the past decade. A type of environmental influence that has received increasing research attention in recent years is the influence that parents can have on their children's dietary behaviour through food-related parenting practices. Much of the work done so far, however, has reported inconsistent findings and poorly understood mechanisms of influence. The present study aimed to explore the possible environmental influence of general parenting style on adolescent food choice patterns. Data were collected at schools (N=643; mean age 16.5 years), using self-administered questionnaires on parenting style, fruit intake behaviour and fruit-specific cognitions. Consistent and theoretically predictable differences were found between adolescents who described their parents as authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent or neglectful. Fruit consumption and fruit-specific cognitions were most favourable among adolescents who were being raised with an authoritative parenting style. Children of parents with indulgent parenting styles consumed more fruit than adolescents from authoritarian or neglectful homes. Consequences of these results for the interpretation of earlier studies on the influence of parenting practices are discussed, and a research model is proposed for future studies of parental influences on adolescent dietary behaviours.
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Tracking of total physical activity (PA), moderate to vigorous activity (MVPA), and sedentary behavior was assessed in 42 young children (mean age at baseline 3.8 years) over a 2-year period using the Actigraph accelerometer. Tracking was analyzed using Spearman rank correlations, percentage agreements, and kappa statistics. Spearman rank correlations were r = .35 (p = .002) for total PA, r = .37 (p = .002) for MVPA, and r = .35 (p = .002) for sedentary behavior. Percentage agreements for PA, MVPA, and sedentary behavior were 38, 41, and 26 respectively. Kappa statistics for PA, MVPA, and sedentary behavior ranged from poor to fair. Results suggest low levels of tracking of total physical activity, MVPA, and sedentary behavior in young Scottish children over a 2-year period.
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Pediatric overweight and obesity are becoming an epidemic worldwide, which indicates the need for formulating preventive programs and policies during a child's early years. We identified factors associated with overweight in young children in southwestern France. Children [n = 1780; x (+/-SD) age: 3.9 +/- 0.4 y] were recruited in kindergarten. Medical information on the parents, grandparents, and child as well as the child's 3-d dietary intake, participation in organized sports, and television-viewing habits were ascertained, and anthropometric measurements of the child were taken. The prevalence of overweight was 9.1% when using body mass index >or= 90th percentile of French reference curves as a cutoff. In a multivariate logistic regression, overweight at 4 y was associated with female sex, having an overweight mother, and having >or=1 diabetic grandparent; odds ratios (ORs; 95% CIs) for these variables were 1.9 (1.2, 3.0), 2.2 (1.0, 4.7), and 2.6 (1.6, 4.1), respectively. Being small or large for gestational age was not associated with the risk of overweight at 4 y, whereas this risk was increased for children who were overweight at 9 or 24 mo: ORs (95% CIs) were 4.0 (2.4, 6.9) and 11.7 (6.1, 22.2), respectively. Nutrient intakes did not differ significantly with weight status in girls; however, overweight boys had significantly greater energy and lipid intakes than did their nonoverweight counterparts. Overweight was positively associated with television viewing (>1 h/d) in both sexes and with participation in organized sports in girls only. A family history of overweight or diabetes, overweight in the first 2 y of life, and television viewing are associated with overweight at 4 y. These factors should be considered in developing programs for the prevention of overweight in early childhood.
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Better understanding of the correlates of physical activity and sedentary behaviors in youth will support the development of effective interventions that promote a physically active lifestyle and prevent a sedentary lifestyle. The main goal of this systematic review is to summarize and update the existing literature on correlates of young people's physical activity, insufficient physical activity, and sedentary behavior. A systematic review was conducted and included studies published between January 1999 and January 2005. The 60 reviewed studies showed that for children (age range 4-12), gender (male), self-efficacy, parental physical activity (for boys), and parent support were positively associated with physical activity. For adolescents (age range 13-18), positive associations with physical activity were found for gender (male), parental education, attitude, self-efficacy, goal orientation/motivation, physical education/school sports, family influences, and friend support. For adolescents, a positive association was found between gender (male) and sedentary behavior, whereas an inverse association was found between gender and insufficient physical activity. Ethnicity (Caucasian), socioeconomic status, and parent education were found to be inversely associated with adolescents' sedentary behaviors. For children, the evidence was insufficient to draw conclusions about correlates of insufficient physical activity and sedentary behavior. To gain more insight in the correlates of change in physical activity levels, more prospective studies are needed. Moreover, further research is needed examining the correlates of insufficient physical activity and sedentary behaviors, to develop effective interventions that may help children and adolescents diminish the time they spend on inactive behaviors.
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There is limited evidence in preschool children linking media use, such as television/video viewing and computer use, to obesity and adiposity. We tested three hypotheses in preschool children: 1) that watching > 2 hours of TV/videos daily is associated with obesity and adiposity, 2) that computer use is associated with obesity and adiposity, and 3) that > 2 hours of media use daily is associated with obesity and adiposity. We conducted a cross-sectional study using nationally representative data on children, aged 2-5 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2002. Our main outcome measures were 1) weight status: normal versus overweight or at risk for overweight, and 2) adiposity: the sum of subscapular and triceps skinfolds (mm). Our main exposures were TV/video viewing (< or = 2 or > 2 hours/day), computer use (users versus non-users), and media use (< or = 2 or > 2 hours/day). We used multivariate Poisson and linear regression analyses, adjusting for demographic covariates, to test the independent association between TV/video viewing, computer use, or overall media use and a child's weight status or adiposity. Watching > 2 hours/day of TV/videos was associated with being overweight or at risk for overweight (Prevalence ratio = 1.34, 95% CI [1.07, 1.66]; n =1340) and with higher skinfold thicknesses (beta = 1.08, 95% CI [0.19, 1.96]; n = 1337). Computer use > 0 hours/day was associated with higher skinfold thicknesses (beta = 0.56, 95% CI [0.04, 1.07]; n = 1339). Media use had borderline significance with higher skinfold thicknesses (beta = 0.85, 95% CI [-0.04, 1.75], P=0.06; n = 1334) Watching > 2 hours/day of TV/videos in US preschool-age children was associated with a higher risk of being overweight or at risk for overweight and higher adiposity-findings in support of national guidelines to limit preschool children's media use. Computer use was also related to higher adiposity in preschool children, but not weight status. Intervention studies to limit preschool children's media use are warranted.
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The purpose of this work was to determine relationships between BMI status at ages 4 to 5 years and mothers' and fathers' parenting dimensions and parenting styles. Participants were composed of all 4983 of the 4- to 5-year-old children in wave 1 of the nationally representative Longitudinal Study of Australian Children with complete BMI and maternal parenting data. Mothers and fathers self-reported their parenting behaviors on 3 multi-item continuous scales (warmth, control, and irritability) and were each categorized as having 1 of 4 parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, and disengaged) using internal warmth and control tertile cut points. Using a proportional odds model, odds ratios for children being in a higher BMI category were computed for mothers and fathers separately and together, after adjustment for factors associated with child BMI, including mothers' and fathers' BMI status. The sample was composed of 2537 boys and 2446 girls with a mean age 56.9 months; 15% were overweight and 5% were obese (International Obesity Task Force criteria). Mothers' parenting behaviors and styles were not associated in any model with higher odds of children being in a heavier BMI category, with or without multiple imputation to account for missing maternal BMI data. Higher father control scores were associated with lower odds of the child being in a higher BMI category. Compared with the reference authoritative style, children of fathers with permissive and disengaged parenting styles had higher odds of being in a higher BMI category. This article is the first, to our knowledge, to examine the parenting of both parents in relation to preschoolers' BMI status while also adjusting for parental BMI status. Fathers' but not mothers' parenting behaviors and styles were associated with increased risks of preschooler overweight and obesity. Longitudinal impacts of parenting on BMI gain remain to be determined.
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The aim of this field study was to examine pre- to post-exercise changes in emotions and stress and differences between three exercise activities using a preand post-exercise activity repeated measures design. Volunteer participants (N=93) engaged in aerobics, circuit training, or Tai Chi were tested at exercise locations using the Tension and Effort Stress Inventory (TESI) and a Visual Analogue Scale for hedonic tone. All three activities produced significant reductions in anxiety, anger, sullenness, resentment and tension stress, anda significant increase in hedonic tone. There were no significant differences in the effects of different types of exercise on emotions or stress, apart from circuit trainers scoring higher on provocativeness than Tai Chi participants. Despite the type of exercise performed, activity produced the same immediate benefits in emotional state, in stress reduction, and improved hedonic tone. The improvement in hedonic tone was due solely to significant decreases in unpleasant emotions.
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Introduction: Behavioral science provides the foundation for physical activity interventions. The mediating variable framework is used to assess the status of physical activity interventions and the roles that are, or could be played, by behavioral theory.
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Emerging evidence suggests that parenting style may directly or indirectly influence school-aged children's activity behaviour. Given that relatively fewer studies have been conducted among preschool-aged children, this study's primary purpose was to examine the direct relationships between parental support and parenting style on preschool children's active play behaviour, and determine whether parenting style acts as an effect modifier. One hundred and ninety-five parents completed a questionnaire assessing their parental support, parenting style, and their child's active play behaviour. While controlling for parenting style, parental support was positively associated with active play behaviour (β = 0.30, p
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The primary aim of this review was to identify and evaluate the strength of associations of the key parental factors measured in studies examining early childhood physical activity (PA). A systematic review of the literature, using databases PsychINFO, Medline, Academic Search Complete, PSYCHinfo, and CINHAL, published between January 1986 and March 2011 was conducted; 20 papers were relevant for the current review. While 12 parenting variables were identified, only 5 of these had been investigated sufficiently to provide conclusive findings. There were inconsistencies in the findings involving the social learning variable parental enjoyment and variables involving parental behaviours such as maternal depression and self-efficacy, and rules for sedentary behaviour, and parental perceptions, which included perceived importance of PA, fear of safety, and perception of child's motor competence. Given these inconsistencies, a meta-analysis was conducted to determine whether the method of measuring PA (objective or subjective) influenced the strength of associations between the parental factors and young children's PA. There was no difference in the strength of associations in the studies that used objective or subjective measurement (via parent self-report). Further investigation is needed to clarify and understand the specific parental influences and behaviours that are associated with PA in young children. In particular, longitudinal research is needed to better understand how parental influences and PA levels of children during the formative preschool and early elementary school years are associated.
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Three models of parental control-permissive, authoritarian, and authoritative-are described and contrasted. Pertinent findings concerning the effects on child behavior of component disciplinary practices are reviewed. With these and other findings as the basis for discussion, several propositions concerning the effects on child behavior of parental control variables are critically examined. Finally, the relation between freedom and control is examined and the position defended that authoritative control may effectively generate in the child, behavior which while well socialized is also wilful and independent.
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The objective of this study was to identify specific temperament, parenting, and family variables, and their interactions, which predict problem behaviours and social skills in children. The subjects were 74 5–6 year old children (34 boys, 40 girls). Results showed different combinations of variables predicted each behavioural outcome, and the child's ‘goodness of fit’ in the home was a strong predictor of externalising behaviour and social skills. An interaction between temperamental inflexibility and punitive parenting in the development of parent-rated externalising behaviour problems was found. This study highlights the value of using specific indices of temperament, parenting and family functioning and of pursuing interaction effects in the prediction of children's behavioural development.
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Less than optimum strategies for missing values can produce biased estimates, distorted statistical power, and invalid conclusions. After reviewing traditional approaches (listwise, pairwise, and mean substitution), selected alternatives are covered including single imputation, multiple imputation, and full information maximum likelihood estimation. The effects of missing values are illustrated for a linear model, and a series of recommendations is provided. When missing values cannot be avoided, multiple imputation and full information methods offer substantial improvements over traditional approaches. Selected results using SPSS, NORM, Stata (mvis/micombine), and Mplus are included as is a table of available software and an appendix with examples of programs for Stata and Mplus.
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Compared with our parents or grandparents, we are spending increasing amounts of time in environments that not only limit physical activity but require prolonged sitting—at work, at home, and in our cars and communities. 1 Work sites, schools, homes, and public spaces have been (and continue to be) re-engineered in ways that minimize human movement and muscular activity. These changes have a dual effect on human behavior: people move less and sit more. From an evolutionary perspective, humans were designed to move—to locomote and engage in all manner of manual labor throughout the day. This was essential to our survival as a species. The recent shift from a physically demanding life to one with few physical challenges has been sudden, occurring during a tiny fraction of human existence. Societal indicators of reductions in human energy expenditure and increases in sedentary behavior during the past several decades are particularly striking. In 1970, 2 in 10 working Americans were in jobs requiring only light activity (predominantly sitting at a desk), whereas 3 in 10 were in jobs requiring high-energy output (eg, construction, manufacturing, farming). 2 By 2000, more than 4 in 10 adults were in light-activity jobs, whereas 2 in 10 were in high-activity jobs. 2 Moreover, during the past 20 years, total screen time (ie, using computers, watching television, playing video games) has increased dramatically. In 2003, nearly 6 in 10 working adults used a computer on the job and more than 9 in 10 children used computers in school (kindergarten through grade 12). 3 Between 1989 and 2009, the number of households with a computer and Internet access increased from 15% to 69%. 3 Other significant contributors to daily sitting time—watching television and driving personal vehicles—are at all-time highs, with estimates of nearly 4 hours and 1 hour, respectively.
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OWEN, N., G.N. HEALY, C.E. MATTHEWS, and D.W. DUNSTAN. Too much sitting: the population health science sedentary behavior. Exerc. Sport Sci. Rev., Vol. 38, No. 3, pp. 105-113, 2010. Even when adults meet physical activity guidelines, sitting for prolonged periods can compromise metabolic health. Television (TV) time and objective measurement studies show associations, and breaking up sedentary time is beneficial. Sitting time, TV time, and time sitting in automobiles increase premature mortality risk. Further evidence from prospective studies, intervention trials, and population-based behavioral studies is required.
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Television viewing time, the predominant leisure-time sedentary behavior, is associated with biomarkers of cardiometabolic risk, but its relationship with mortality has not been studied. We examined the associations of prolonged television viewing time with all-cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer, and non-CVD/noncancer mortality in Australian adults. Television viewing time in relation to subsequent all-cause, CVD, and cancer mortality (median follow-up, 6.6 years) was examined among 8800 adults > or =25 years of age in the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study (AusDiab). During 58 087 person-years of follow-up, there were 284 deaths (87 CVD deaths, 125 cancer deaths). After adjustment for age, sex, waist circumference, and exercise, the hazard ratios for each 1-hour increment in television viewing time per day were 1.11 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03 to 1.20) for all-cause mortality, 1.18 (95% CI, 1.03 to 1.35) for CVD mortality, and 1.09 (95% CI, 0.96 to 1.23) for cancer mortality. Compared with a television viewing time of <2 h/d, the fully adjusted hazard ratios for all-cause mortality were 1.13 (95% CI, 0.87 to 1.36) for > or =2 to <4 h/d and 1.46 (95% CI, 1.04 to 2.05) for > or =4 h/d. For CVD mortality, corresponding hazard ratios were 1.19 (95% CI, 0.72 to 1.99) and 1.80 (95% CI, 1.00 to 3.25). The associations with both cancer mortality and non-CVD/noncancer mortality were not significant. Television viewing time was associated with increased risk of all-cause and CVD mortality. In addition to the promotion of exercise, chronic disease prevention strategies could focus on reducing sitting time, particularly prolonged television viewing.
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Although moderate-to-vigorous physical activity is related to premature mortality, the relationship between sedentary behaviors and mortality has not been fully explored and may represent a different paradigm than that associated with lack of exercise. We prospectively examined sitting time and mortality in a representative sample of 17,013 Canadians 18-90 yr of age. Evaluation of daily sitting time (almost none of the time, one fourth of the time, half of the time, three fourths of the time, almost all of the time), leisure time physical activity, smoking status, and alcohol consumption was conducted at baseline. Participants were followed prospectively for an average of 12.0 yr for the ascertainment of mortality status. There were 1832 deaths (759 of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and 547 of cancer) during 204,732 person-yr of follow-up. After adjustment for potential confounders, there was a progressively higher risk of mortality across higher levels of sitting time from all causes (hazard ratios (HR): 1.00, 1.00, 1.11, 1.36, 1.54; P for trend <0.0001) and CVD (HR:1.00, 1.01, 1.22, 1.47, 1.54; P for trend <0.0001) but not cancer. Similar results were obtained when stratified by sex, age, smoking status, and body mass index. Age-adjusted all-cause mortality rates per 10,000 person-yr of follow-up were 87, 86, 105, 130, and 161 (P for trend <0.0001) in physically inactive participants and 75, 69, 76, 98, 105 (P for trend = 0.008) in active participants across sitting time categories. These data demonstrate a dose-response association between sitting time and mortality from all causes and CVD, independent of leisure time physical activity. In addition to the promotion of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and a healthy weight, physicians should discourage sitting for extended periods.
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Low levels of physical activity (PA) and highly sedentary leisure habits (SLH) in youth may establish behavioral patterns that will predispose youth to increased chronic disease risk in adulthood. The purpose of this paper was to examine associations of demographic and psychosocial factors with self-reported PA and SLH in young adolescents. A general linear mixed model predicted self-reported PA and SLH in the spring from demographic and psychosocial variables measured the previous fall in 3798 seventh grade students. PA and SLH differed by race, with Caucasian students reporting among the highest PA and lowest SLH. Perceptions of higher academic rank or expectations predicted higher PA and lower SLH. Depressive symptomatology predicted higher SLH scores but not PA. Higher self-reported value of health, appearance, and achievement predicted higher PA and lower SLH in girls. Girls who reported that their mothers had an authoritative parenting style also reported higher PA and lower SLH. Determinants of PA and SLH appear to differ from each other, particularly in boys. Development of effective programs to increase PA and/or decrease SLH in young adolescents should be based on a clear understanding of the determinants of these behaviors.
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Physical activity tracking studies can determine when children settle into activity patterns and their risk for maintaining sedentary behaviors. This study examined the tracking of activity and sedentary behavior in relation to adiposity during middle childhood. Activity intensities and patterns were examined during a 3-year interval in a population-based study of children using accelerometry and survey methods. Data were collected and analyzed from 1998 to 2004. Participants (n = 379) were, on average, 5.6 (standard deviation [SD] +/- 0.5) years at baseline and 8.6 (SD +/- 0.5) years at follow-up. Adiposity was measured with whole-body, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Correlation coefficients and odds ratios were used to assess tracking. The association of activity with adiposity was tested using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Over the 3-year interval, Spearman rank-order correlation coefficients between baseline and follow-up activity measures were low to moderate (r = 0.18 to 0.39). Sedentary behavior was more predictable than overall activity, and tended to be more stable (r = 0.37 to 0.52), with the exception of video playing in boys (r = 0.18). Children maintaining a high degree of vigorous activity and low levels of TV viewing were less likely than peers to be in the upper quartile for adiposity at follow-up, and were less likely to gain adiposity during the study period. Sedentary behavior, including TV viewing, is moderately stable during middle childhood. Health promotion programs that specifically target maintaining high levels of vigorous activity and low levels of TV viewing may help reduce the increasing prevalence of childhood obesity.
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Childhood overweight and obesity is a major public health issue. A better understanding of factors associated with sedentary behaviours would provide valuable insight for tailoring interventions to prevent or reduce overweight among youth. Data were collected from 25,416 grade 9 to 12 students attending 76 secondary schools in Ontario, Canada, using the Physical Activity Module of the School Health Action, Planning and Evaluation System (SHAPES). Sex specific multivariate logistic regression analyses were then used to examine how physical activity, BMI, social influences, and smoking behaviour were associated with screen time, time spent reading, and time spent on homework. The average screen time per day was 2.7 (+/-1.7) hours, yet 48.1% of students reported spending less than one hour reading per week and 30.2% spent less than an hour of time on homework per week. Among males, being underweight (< or = 5% percentile BMI, adjusted for age and sex) was associated with more screen time (OR 1.23, 95%CI 1.01-1.50) and time spent reading (OR 1.19, 95%CI 1.00-1.43), whereas being at risk of overweight (> or = 85% percentile BMI, adjusted for age and sex) was associated with less time spent on homework (OR 0.75, 95%CI 0.65-0.85). Conversely, among females, being at risk of overweight was associated with more screen time (OR 1.24, 95%CI 1.10-1.41), and time spent reading (OR 1.19, 95%CI 1.05-1.35). Aside from BMI, other factors associated with sedentary behaviours included physical activity, parental encouragement and support for physical activity, close friend physical activity behaviour, and smoking status. We found that students are highly involved in screen-based sedentary behaviours, but spend a limited time on more productive sedentary behaviours, like reading and homework. Developing a better understanding of sedentary behaviours is critical for preventing and reducing obesity among youth populations.