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Toward the Climate-Resilient City: Extreme Weather and Urban Climate Adaptation Policies in Two Canadian Provinces

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Abstract

Extreme weather events, such as unusually high or low temperatures, severe winds and heavy precipitation, pose a threat to people and property in cities, and are expected to become more frequent and intense as a result of climate change. Managing this risk requires effective climate adaptation policies – strategic courses of action designed to strengthen urban resilience to climate-related stress. City governments have a key role to play in adaptation policy design, but they appear to face challenges in marshalling political commitment and technical capacity. This article examines elements of urban climate adaptation policy targeting extreme weather and analyzes the policy development process in two major Canadian cities, Toronto and Halifax. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/13876988.2012.665215

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...  "A climate-resilient city… has the capacity to withstand climate change stresses, to respond effectively to climate-related hazards, and to recover quickly from residual negative impacts" (Henstra, 2012). ...
... Examples are most common in literatures such as disaster risk reduction, disaster engineering, external safety, system stability & reliability, operations research, and economic resilience (e.g. Watt & Craig, 1986;Rose, 2007;Henstra, 2012;Martin & Sunley, 2015;Matyas & Pelling, 2014;Furuta, 2015;Shutters et al., 2015;Davidson et al., 2016). ...
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Cities worldwide face climate change and other complex challenges and strive to become more resilient to the shocks and stresses that these bring. The notion of urban (climate) resilience has become highly popular in both research and practice. However, the concept is inherently malleable; it can be framed in different ways, emphasising different problems, causes, moral judgements, and solutions. This review explores contrasting ways of framing urban climate resilience and their potential consequences. It identifies four typical framings: Urban Shock-Proofing (short-term & system focus), Resilience Planning (long-term & system focus), Community Disaster Resilience (short-term & community focus), and Resilient Community Development (long-term & community focus). These framings lead to different approaches to urban resilience and climate adaptation research, science-policy-society interactions, governance, and practical resilience-building. They also offer different synergies with wider sustainability efforts, including the SDGs. Resilience Planning is widely represented in urban climate adaptation research. However, Resilient Community Development, dealing with community self-determination, equity, and deeper long-term socio-political determinants of vulnerability, is currently underdeveloped. Expansion of current scientific and institutional toolboxes is needed to support and build community-based adaptive and transformative capacities. Explicit reflection on framing is important to facilitate collaboration among actors and across disciplinary and departmental siloes.
... Increasingly, initiatives to address global issues like climate change are being taken by local governments, even in the absence of national-or international-level mechanisms. As municipalities represent the level of government closest to the populations that are vulnerable to the impacts of climate disruptions, they are expected to play an important role in the necessary efforts to adapt to climate change (Bulkeley et al., 2012;Ebi and Semenza, 2008;Gore and Robinson, 2009;Henstra, 2012). ...
... The proliferation of frameworks, approaches, guides, policies, and resources for developing indicators and tracking adaptation progress, at the national, regional, and sectorial levels shows the breadth and dynamism of this field of research and practice (Ayers and Faulkner, 2012;Brooks et al., 2011;Dinshaw et al., 2014;Faulkner et al., 2015). Considering the important role that municipalities must play in adapting to climate change (Bulkeley et al., 2012;Ebi and Semenza, 2008;Henstra, 2012), it is more than ever essential to develop capacities to measure their progress in this area (Berrang-Ford et al., 2019). Indeed, the identification of adaptation indicators is critical to helping decisionmaking and to ensuring that funding is directed toward interventions that successfully produce certain adaptation results (Lesnikowski et al., 2017). ...
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Background: Given the important role that municipalities must play in adapting to climate change, it is more than ever essential to measure their progress in this area. However, measuring municipalities’ adaptation progress presents its share of difficulties especially when it comes to comparing (on similar dimensions and over time) the situation of different municipal entities and to linking adaptation impacts to local actions. Longitudinal studies with recurring indicators could capture changes occurring over time, but the development of such indicators requires great emphasis on methodological and psychometric aspects, such as measurement validity. Therefore, this study aimed to develop and validate an index of adaptation to heatwaves and flooding at the level of municipal urbanists and urban planners. Methods: A sample of 139 officers working in urbanism and urban planning for municipal entities in the province of Quebec (Canada) completed an online questionnaire. Developed based on a literature review and consultation of representatives from the municipal sector, the questionnaire measured whether the respondent’s municipal entity did or did not adopt the behaviors that are recommended in the scientific and gray literature to adapt to heatwaves and flooding. Results: Results of the various metrological analyses (indicator reliability analysis, first order confirmatory factor analysis, concurrent validity analysis, and nomological validity assessment analysis) confirmed the validity of the index developed to measure progress in climate change adaptation at the municipal level. The first dimension of the index corresponds to preliminary measures that inform and prepare stakeholders for action (i.e., groundwork adaptation initiatives), whereas the second refers to measures that aim to concretely reduce vulnerability to climate change, to improve the adaptive capacity or the resilience of human and natural systems (i.e., adaptation actions). Conclusion: The results of a series of psychometric analyses showed that the index has good validity and could properly measure the adoption of actions to prepare for adaptation as well as adaptation actions per se. Municipal and government officials can therefore consider using it to monitor and evaluate adaptation efforts at the municipal level.
... Climate change makes urban residents vulnerable to floods, landslides, and extreme weather events (Henstra, 2012;Wamsler et al., 2013). Reduced access to freshwater, frequent hot days and nights, fewer cold days and nights, heavy precipitation, drought, intense tropical cyclones, and high sea levels (UN-Habitat, 2011) are also foreseen. ...
... Planning for urban climate adaptation focus on reducing potential disruption and exploring opportunities (Henstra, 2012;Smith and Levermore, 2008;Wamsler et al., 2013). ...
Conference Paper
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Urbanization is one of the twenty-first century’s most transformative trends, and increasing urban population along with the impacts of climate change provide new challenges and new opportunities. However, there are significant differences in the way countries are perceiving the phenomenon of climate change and implementing adaptation strategies to improve urban climate. This paper reports on a study carried out in New Zealand and aimed at identifying how the country is implementing adaptation strategies through urban design and planning to improve urban climate in the face of climate change. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with New Zealand scholars studying urban climate related issues, urban design and planning practitioners, and governance. The study was designed to provide a wide range of perceptions rather than a set number of interviews in specific cities. The semi- structured interviews focused upon awareness of the need for climate change adaptation, existing urban climate phenomena because of design decisions, existing design strategies to improve climate adaptation, communication of climate change issues, existing policy instruments and implementation of initiatives. The paper discusses the perceptions of interviewees regarding awareness and urgency of action; the role of citizens, governance, and urban designers and planners in the urban climate adaptation agenda; and the role of dramatic events such as the Christchurch earthquakes on acknowledging the need for appropriate design and planning. Results indicate that the geographical condition of New Zealand and its consequent maritime climate means that climate change – particularly effects related to city design – are not seen as a major issue. However, the recent Christchurch earthquakes have sped up the processes of change, making citizens and governance more aware of consequences of inappropriate design and planning.
... Community building is all about how the process itself can generate societal impact, for instance by changing people's perspectives, raising awareness and enhancing public involvement in climate-resilience and sustainability challenges [22,24,25]. The community building goal can thus be seen as an instrument to build support for the change that the implementation of adaptation and mitigation plans bring about in the local context (see Figure 5) [22,26,25]. ...
... This way desired visions and pathways and subsequent climate action plans become more resilient in the face of future uncertainty [44]. Participatory exercises with exploratory scenarios can let participants experience the 'realness' of changes in climate, socioeconomic and technological trends and how this can affect their daily life [38,26]. In urban context, the focus can be on mobility, energy or housing demand. ...
Method
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Human settlements, both urban and rural, face numerous challenges at once: adapting to the impacts of climate change, improving sustainability and reducing greenhouse gas emissions, soil subsidence, urbanisation and renewal, increasing housing demand and goals, unemployment and other economic challenges, and a need for more social cohesion. While governments have knowhow and budgets, and are now developing plans and scenarios for a climate resilience and sustainable settlements, it is the local citizens who will be living in these settlements. Consequently, they should be involved in designing, planning, and building their future environment. However, while many governments are experimenting with citizen participation, it can be difficult to set up meaningful and engaging collaboration between policymakers, citizens, and other local and regional actors. It may be particularly challenging for ‘foresight’ or ‘futures’ processes, which focus on designing future visions and scenarios. Much has been written on the technical aspects of scenario methods, but there is little practical guidance on what might make it engaging to citizens. For citizens, it may feel too technical or distant. Rather than recruiting citizens into what feels like a technical process, it should be an actual collaboration. This toolkit offers practical guidance, tools, and tips on how to set up such collaborations in thinking about and jointly developing the future. The toolkit collects and showcases some of the lessons learned from several international research programs on citizen engagement in the form of a practical exercises and advice on how to apply them. These programs include CoCliServ (Co-development of place-based climate services for Action; funded by EU JPI Climate/ERA4CS), CCAFS (Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security; funded by CGIAR global research partnership), and Utrecht University’s Water, Climate and Future Deltas program. The latter funded the development of this toolkit. In addition to playing a role in the training modules being developed by these, we envision that it may provide inspiration and guidance for other policymakers, consultants and researchers involved in collaboratively tackling local and regional future challenges.
... For instance, regional experiences with extreme weather events can serve as "focusing events" that prompt public officials to engage in adaptation policy discussions (Birkland and DeYoung 2013;Brunner and Nordgren 2012). Extreme weather events can direct policymakers' attention toward local vulnerabilities to climate change, highlighting the vulnerabilities and needs for adaptation (Henstra 2012;Penning-Rowsell et al. 2006). However, in a large survey of drivers for adaptation in US municipalities, Dilling et al. (2017:16) found that extreme weather events are not sufficient to motivate climate action. ...
... We suggest that in this case, a focusing event like Hurricane Juan served an important contextual role for awakening sentiments and instilling contextual knowledge that ultimately informed regional perceptions of climate change risk, serving as an important regional catalyst for activating and motivating sub-national adaptation policy and planning over a decadal time frame. Juan created opportunities for generating capacity and building political support for incrementally taking actions to promote and engage in climate adaptation activities over time (Henstra 2012). The evidence from Nova Scotia suggests that when framed and acted upon appropriately, focusing events like Hurricane Juan can motivate and spur the political will for action to address climate adaptation concerns through substantial and concrete governance measures (Dupuis and Biesbroek 2013). ...
Article
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The impacts of climate change due to more frequent and intense storms, fires, and floods are felt most acutely at the community scale, and local adaptation policy and planning is critically important. However, local practitioners face many barriers that can undermine their capacity to adopt and sustain adaptation initiatives to reduce exposure and vulnerability and strengthen resilience to climate risks. Existing scholarship suggests that national governments play an important role in providing leadership and resources to support local adaptation policy development. However, less research attention has been devoted to investigating sub-national, regional government initiatives to support local adaptation policy and planning in federal states, despite their financial resources and constitutional responsibility to oversee municipalities. This article analyzes how one sub-national government, the provincial government of Nova Scotia (Canada), activated and motivated local adaptation policy and planning through a combination of policy instruments and municipally focused capacity-building initiatives. In addition to describing the structure and dynamics of the provincial mandate for municipal adaptation planning in Nova Scotia, we provide case study evidence to draw insights about the enabling conditions for the successful implementation of climate change adaptation governance initiatives of this kind.
... Leadership in adaptation is far more evident locally than at other tiers of government in North America (Richardson, 2010;Vasseur, 2011;Vrolijks et al., 2011;Carmin et al., 2012;Henstra, 2012). Few municipalities have moved into the implementation stage, however; most programs are in the process of problem diagnosis and planning (Perkins et al., 2007;Moser and Satterthwaite, 2008;Romero-Lankao and Dodman, 2011). ...
... Indeed, recent studies demonstrate that disasters have "focusing power" (Vogel and Henstra 2015, 114) at the local level, prompting both dialogue and action. For example, Henstra (2012) finds that policymakers used a severe storm in Toronto, Canada, to motivate adaptation-focused dialogue and action. We expect that highly focused media attention on a particular topic in the wake of an extreme weather event to be a condition that leads to policy change, while more diffuse media attention across a wide range of topics to limit policy change post-event. ...
Article
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At a global level, climate change is expected to result in more frequent and higher-intensity weather events, with impacts ranging from inconvenient to catastrophic. The potential for disasters to act as “focusing events” for policy change, including adaptation to climate change risk, is well known. Moreover, local action is an important element of climate change adaptation and related risk management efforts. As such, there is a good reason to expect local communities to mobilize in response to disaster events, both with immediate response and recovery-focused activities, as well as longer-term preparedness and adaptation-focused public policy changes. However, scholars also note that the experience of disaster does not always yield policy change; indeed, disasters can also result in policy inertia and failure, perhaps as often or more often than major policy change. This study poses two key research questions. First, we ask to what degree policy change occurs in communities impacted by an extreme weather event. Second, we seek to understand the conditions that lead to adaptation-oriented policy adoption in response to an extreme weather event. Our results suggest two main recipes for future-oriented policy adoption in the wake of an extreme weather event. For both recipes, a high-impact event is a necessary condition for future-oriented policy adoption. In the first recipe for change, policy adoption occurs in Democratic communities with highly focused media attention. The second, less expected recipe for change involves Republican communities that have experienced other uncommon weather events in the recent past. We use a comparative case approach with 15 cases and fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis methods. Our approach adds to the existing literature on policy change and local adaptation by selecting a mid-N range of cases where extreme weather events have the potential to act as focusing events, thereby sidestepping selection on the dependent variable. Our approach also takes advantage of a novel method for measuring attention, the latent Dirichlet allocation approach.
... Professional logic is predicated on professional values, norms and standards, and advances a forward-thinking mindset toward climate action (Henstra, 2012;Hovik et al., 2015). In public organizations, it is fundamentally anchored in expertise, rationality, ethical conduct and impartiality (Skelcher & Smith, 2015). ...
Article
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Climate change can bring about large-scale irreversible physical impacts and systemic changes in the operating environment of public organizations. Research on preconditions for organizational adaptation to climate change has produced two parallel lines of inquiry, one focusing on macro-level norms, rules and expectations and the other on meso-level culture, design and structure within the organization. Drawing on the meta-theory of institutional logics, this study proposes a configurational approach to link institutionally aware top managers with the combination and reconciliation of macro- and meso-level logics. We identify government authority, professionalism and market as macro-level institutional logics, and risk-based logic and capacity-based logic as critical meso-level institutional logics. Our theory proposes that 1) the macro- and meso-level institutional logics co-exist in systematic ways as to produce identifiable configurations, 2) the configurations are differentially associated with climate adaptation, and 3) the effects of each logic differ across the configurations. Using a 2019 national survey on approximately 1000 top managers in the largest U.S. transit agencies, we apply latent profile analysis to identify three distinct clusters: forerunner, complacent and market-oriented. Only the forerunner cluster is adaptive to climate change, while the two others are maladaptive. Findings from the multigroup structural equation modeling also demonstrate varied effects of each institutional logic on adaptation across the clusters, confirming institutional work at play to reconcile and integrate co-existing and potential contradictory logics.
... Collaboration across stakeholder groups is vital for effective risk reduction policies as these individuals bring vital knowledge from their respective areas (Brody et al., 2010), and the collaborative process helps generate trust and commitment to implementation (Innes, 1996;Wondolleck & Yaffee, 2000). Municipalities making advances in adaptation often have individual leaders or champions for such efforts (Burch, 2010;Dannevig, Hovelsrud, & Husabo, 2013;Henstra, 2012). ...
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Increasing coastal flood risk has prompted a proliferation of cities that are adopting risk reduction and adaptation tools. This article inquires into what types of tools local governments tend to adopt for managing coastal flood risk and the factors that may be influencing these choices; in particular, factors related to hazard vulnerability and institutional capacity. Focusing on 40 diverse coastal communities in a study region in Canada, the study utilised data from the communities' Official Community Plans to characterise their approaches to managing coastal flood risk in terms of land use regulations, construction specifications, and/or structural flood protection tools. The data revealed considerable diversity in the portfolio of tools that the communities have adopted. Tool adoption was found to correlate strongly with hazard vulnerability; that is, communities with similar physical and socio‐economic vulnerability conditions tended to take similar adaptation actions. For example, established communities with highly urbanised coastlines tended to rely on structural flood protection while suburban communities with semi‐developed coastlines predominantly utilised land use regulations. Institutional factors such as resource availability and local leadership, which were operationalised using survey data, exhibited surprisingly little correlation with the types of tools that communities adopted.
... Demonstration of adaptation actions' co-benefits to decision-makers have been found to increase appeal and generate necessary buy-in from the diverse stakeholders required for prioritization and implementation of urban adaptation actions (Aall 2012). Political support can also be garnered by associating adaptation with other popular community values, such as sustainability and livability (Henstra 2012). ...
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Asian cities are at the forefront of climate change impacts. Given the size of city economies, the economic losses caused by climate-induced extreme weather can be quite significant. Together, the cities of Guangzhou, Mumbai, Shenzen, Tianjin, Ho Chi Minh City, Kolkata, and Jakarta incurred $1520 million (USD) in annual losses due to coastal flooding in 2005 alone. By 2050, the annual loss incurred as a result of coastal flooding in these cities is projected to increase to $32,079 million. In the light of the projected increase in climate-induced extreme weather events and associated loss, it is important to understand where Asian cities are in terms of climate change adaptation planning and governance. I use publicly available data and information published between 2004 and 2014 to capture urban climate change adaptation activities implemented in Asian cities, their sectoral distribution, and nature. This research finds that Asian cities are at a very early stage of climate change adaptation planning and governance. Countries with a larger number of cities implementing urban adaptation activities are the ones where central governments provide policy directives and support required for urban climate change adaptation planning and governance. There are two major flaws in the way urban climate change adaptation planning and governance is being carried out in Asian cities. First, the majority of urban climate change adaptation activities are concentrated in only one sector-disaster risk management. Second, approximately two thirds of urban climate change adaptation activities are reactive in nature. What cities in Asia need is an optimal mix of proactive and reactive adaptation. Without proactive adaptation actions, cities in Asia will not be able to address the full range of climate change hazards in strategic and cost-effective manner.
... Fifty metrics are utilized to describe these indicators of society (Table 2). Built environment indicators that can modify vulnerability or recovery include multiple (1) infrastructure elements-communications (Martins et al., 2017;Wang & Wang, 2017;Zimmerman, 2017), utilities (Ma et al., 2018;Panteli & Mancarella, 2017;Zimmerman et al., 2017), and transportation (Linnenluecke et al., 2012;Wedawatta et al., 2010)-and housing characteristics (Cutter et al., 2008;Dominelli, 2013;Henstra, 2012;Smoyer, 1998). Twenty-four metrics are compiled to represent the built environment ( Table 2). ...
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Abstract Natural disasters often impose significant and long‐lasting stress on financial, social, and ecological systems. From Atlantic hurricanes to Midwest tornadoes to Western wildfires, no corner of the United States is immune from the threat of a devastating natural hazard event. Across the nation, there is a recognition that the benefits of creating environments resilient to adverse natural hazard events help promote and sustain county and community success over time. The challenge for communities is in finding ways to balance the need to preserve the socioecological systems on which they depend in the face of constantly changing natural hazard threats. The Natural Hazard Resilience Screening Index (NaHRSI; previously entitled Climate Resilience Screening Index) has been developed as an endpoint for characterizing county resilience outcomes that are based on risk profiles and responsive to changes in governance, societal, built, and natural system characteristics. The NaHRSI framework serves as a conceptual roadmap showing how natural hazard events impact resilience after factoring in county characteristics. By evaluating the factors that influence vulnerability and recoverability, an estimation of resilience can quantify how changes in these characteristics will impact resilience given specific hazard profiles. Ultimately, this knowledge will help communities identify potential areas to target for increasing resilience to natural hazard events.
... "A disaster-resilient city can be understood as a city: (a) reduce or avoid current and future hazards; (b) reduce current and future susceptibility to hazards; (c) establish functioning mechanisms and structures for disaster response; and (d) establish functioning mechanisms and structures for disaster recovery [12]." "A climate-resilient city has the capacity to withstand climate change stresses, to respond effectively to climate-related hazards, and to recover quickly from residual negative impacts [13]." "Urban resilience refers to the ability of an urban system-and all its constituent socio-ecological and socio-technical networks across temporal and spatial scales-to maintain or rapidly return to desired functions in the face of a disturbance, to adapt to change, and to quickly transform systems that limit current or future adaptive capacity [10]." ...
Article
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: Numerous studies in urban resilience have been published in the past decade. However, only a few publications have tracked the evolution trends of urban resilience research, the findings of which can serve as a useful guide for scholars to foresee worth-effort research areas and make the best use of precious time and resources. In order to fill the research gap, this study performed a scientometric analysis on the evolution trends of urban resilience research using a versatile software package-CiteSpace. The scientomentric analysis focuses on distribution of lead authors and their institutions, high frequency categories and keywords, high influential journals, author contribution, and evolutionary trends based on co-author analysis, co-word analysis, co-citation analysis and cluster analysis of documents. This study discoveries that first, the U.S., England, Australia, Canada, China and Sweden are the countries that make the most significant contributions in the advancement of urban resilience research; second, the existing urban resilience research focuses primarily on environmental studies, geography and planning development; third, hot topics of the urban resilience research keep shifting from 1993 to 2016; fourth, the knowledge body of urban resilience research consists of five clusters: resilience exploratory analysis, disaster resilience, urban resilience, urban resilience practice, and social-ecological systems; last, the emerging trends in urban resilience research include defining urban resilience, adaptation model, case studies, analytical methods and urban social-ecological systems, resulting in cutting-edge research areas in urban resilience.
... For example, in the domain of municipal cultural policy, which involves choices about arts, culture and heritage, Cardinal (2002) found that policy development involved extensive engagement between municipal staff, artists and the public, which enhanced the legitimacy of the courses of action ultimately selected. Similarly, policy development processes aimed at increasing urban resilience to climate change in both Toronto and Halifax included numerous public engagement forums, which permitted residents to comment on draft proposals and offer alternative policy ideas (Henstra, 2012). If executed well, stakeholder and public engagement can broaden understanding of policy initiatives and generate support for further policy development (Simpson and Bretherton, 2010;Walters et al., 2000). ...
Chapter
This chapter focuses on policy analysis and policy capacity of local governments in Canada. It discusses the nature of local public policy issues, the dynamics of local policy-making, the demand for policy analysis in local government and the specific analytical techniques used by local policy workers. Drawing on content analysis of relevant documents and interviews with municipal policy workers, the chapter presents new evidence about policy analysis at the local level, which has traditionally received less research attention than policy work at the federal and provincial levels.
... 1265). The implementation of resilience challenges the normal functioning of public administrations (Bourgon, 2009;Duit, 2016) by highlighting the need to replace silos with horizontal management (Matyas & Pelling, 2015), take interdependence with external partners into account (Henstra, 2012;McConnell & Drennan, 2006;Valiquette L'Heureux & Therrien, 2013), and encourage flexible and adaptive processes rather than regular routines that maintain the status quo (Pelling & Manuel-Navarrete, 2011;Stark, 2014). ...
Article
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Resilience has risen rapidly over the last decade to become one of the key terms in international policy and academic discussions associated with civil contingencies and crisis management. As government and institutions confront threats like environmental hazards, technological accidents, climate change, and terrorist attacks, they recognize that resilience can serve as a key policy response. However, with the rapid rise of resilience has come uncertainty as to how it should be built and how different practices and approaches should come together to operationalize it. This paper seeks to lay out a research agenda for resilience in the 21st century.
... We find this perspective and our approach to urban WEF security important for many reasons. Global climate change will most probably lead to more frequent and intense extreme events (Henstra, 2012). Urban areas concentrate economic and socio-political activities. ...
Article
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Across the planet, interacting threats are converging in urban areas beset with pressures brought on by global processes such as urbanization and climate change, and the challenges of creating water, energy and food (WEF) security for their populations. With an increased probability of floods and other extremes, goes a heightened potential for cascading effects as WEF security is at risk from an array of tightly bound interdependencies undergirding the WEF nexus. Such interdependencies heighten risk for generalized disruptions, as, for instance, when heavy precipitation triggers a breakdown of transportation infrastructure, leading to failures in energy generation, and provision of food and water. In this paper, we apply a framework to examine how interdependent WEF infrastructural systems mediate the risks that climate extremes pose to urban WEF security. Given that urban WEF security often hinges on dynamics that take place in regions outside city boundaries, we also examine the effect of this dependence on urban FEW security risk. We compare the pre- and post-event governance and infrastructural conditions shaping WEF security in four cities: Boulder Colorado and New York (USA) illustrative of WEF security risks posed by low probability high impact extreme events; and Accra (Ghana) and Mexico City (Mexico), illustrative of governance and infrastructural arrangements that can fail even under low risk high probability extreme events. We find that complex technological and governance failures can amplify negative impacts from extremes. Conversely, institutional actions and infrastructural supports can mitigate these impacts. By understanding interdependencies, cities can anticipate and avoid cascading effects on WEF systems. We reflect on how commonalities and differences in sociodemographic, economic, technological, environmental, and governance configurations relate to different capacities to mitigate risks and adapt.
... .that towns and cities should be able to recover quickly from major and minor disasters" [14] by Henstra (2012) "A climate-resilient city . . . has the capacity to withstand climate change stresses, to respond effectively to climate-related hazards, and to recover quickly from residual negative impacts" [16] by Thornbush et al. (2013) ". . . a general quality of the city's social, economic, and natural systems to be sufficiently future-proof" [17]. ...
Conference Paper
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By 2050, the world's urban population is expected to nearly double, making urbanization one of the twenty-first century's most transformative trends. Populations, economic activities, social and cultural interactions, as well as environmental and humanitarian impacts are increasingly concentrated in cities, and this poses massive sustainability challenges in terms of housing, infrastructure, basic services, food security, health, education, decent jobs, safety and natural resources, among others (UN Habitat III, 2016). The paper explores the paradigm shift from sustainability to resilient nature of cities wherein the key attributes of social, economic and environmental are dovetailed to with stand the contemporary pressures of both natural and man made disasters that have gained momentum due to climate change and terrorism activities etc. The paper outlines the Habitat-III agenda and the various key policy initiatives adopted by Government of India under global commitment for development of resilience human settlements and urban environments in Indian context. The paper traces from the Paris to Ecuador and establishes the key features of sustainable resilience from global to Indian context. The paper then narrows down to deliberate on the status of environmental sustainability and resilience as a smart cities agenda for urban infrastructures, housing and governance and debates on the frameworks for emerging India as energy is crucial indicator that displays the resilient nature of a city.
... At the municipal level, we have seen some progressive climate policies and plans, particularly in larger cities (Rosenzweig et al. 2010). Despite this progress, there remain significant gaps in climate change action at the municipal level (Robinson 2006;Gore and Robinson 2009;Henstra 2011;Ellenwood, Dilling, and Milford 2012;Dilling et al. 2017). The Canadian Institute of Planners (CIP) reports that while there is understanding of climate change as a planning issue, "this awareness does not always translate into an effective or comprehensive response" (CIP 2017b, 5). ...
Article
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In this article, we argue that evidence-based advocacy for climate change action should be a core competency of professional planners. However, data from our case study in Metro Vancouver, Canada, suggests that municipal-level climate change practitioners have conflicting views regarding their professional responsibility to advocate for action on climate change. We contend these tensions stem from twentieth-century planning debates, which oscillate between rational-comprehensive planning versus calls to advocate, in one form or another, for various public interests. Overall, we find that transforming barriers into enablers of action on climate change must include critical engagement with planning theory and education.
... However, the analysis of Laurans and Mermet (2014) found significant failings in influencing policy decisions with few reports of ecosystem service valuation studies being applied in policy and planning decisions. Planning and decision guidelines for technical and social integration offer another approach (Henstra 2012) but numerous studies identify substantive integration constraints (Carmin, Dodman, and Chu 2013;Daniell, Coombes, and White 2014). Laurans and Mermet (2014) found ecosystem service valuation studies rarely being usefully applied in policy and planning decisions, while Funfgeld 2010 found governance, symbolic and cultural dimensions critical. ...
Article
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The successful twenty-first-century cities are likely to be based on new visions and new imaginings of the city as nature and the nature of the city. Water is an integral part of our cities’ evolution with understanding of its values and relationships changing along with the technologies and governance regimes used for managing it. Green or living infrastructure is emerging as a paradigm based on integrating ecological elements to enhance cities and their adaptive capacity. Water is involved in almost all living infrastructure due to its ubiquitous nature and centrality in urban and living systems, for example, in the cooling nature of urban trees. This paper summarises the key water-related findings of the Canberra Urban and Regional Futures project on living infrastructure. The wider application of living infrastructure could generate multiple social and environmental benefits but these are constrained by substantive integration and governance challenges within the intrinsically politicalised processes shaping cities.
...  'the capacity of individuals, communities, institutions, businesses, and systems within a city to survive, adapt, and grow no matter what kinds of chronic stresses and acute shocks they experience' (100 Resilient Cities)  'Urban resilience refers to the ability of an urban system-and all its constituent socioecological and socio-technical networks across temporal and spatial scales-to maintain or rapidly return to desired functions in the face of a disturbance, to adapt to change, and to quickly transform systems that limit current or future adaptive capacity' Early notions of urban resilience focused on specific threats such as 'peak oil' or 'climate change' (Newman, Beatley et al. 2009), and continues in more recent publications addressing issues like urban flooding (Lamond and Proverbs 2009), disaster recovery (Vale and Campanella 2005) or extreme weather (Henstra 2012). ...
Article
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How well does the general public understand the concept of urban resilience? We address this question via an online survey of 500+ citizens living in three large Australian cities (Sydney, Melbourne and Perth). The majority of respondents claim not to know what urban resilience means. Of the remaining respondents, understanding ranges from poor to sophisticated. To circumvent this stated lack of understanding, we cast the concept of urban resilience into a more familiar framework consisting of risk and ability to cope with threats. This allows us to assess perceptions about what may challenge the resilience of Australian cities. Two concerns clearly emerge: (1) violence and social unrest and (2) environmental threats. Analysing a number of constructs from the social psychology literature reveals that these two concerns hold different cognitive signatures, whose understanding may facilitate discussion and communication within a public engagement process.
... It is recognized that this focus on federal policy artificially diminishes the critical role of other levels of government. Particularly important are local governments, due to their management of key public functions that are central to adaptation, their access to knowledge concerning place-based exposure and sensitivity to climate risks, and their experience in engaging and mobilizing the public and stakeholders (Dannevig, Rauken, & Hovelsrud, 2012;Henstra, 2012;Kennedy, Stocker, & Burke, 2010;Lawrence et al., 2015;Vogel & Henstra, 2015). However, circumscribing the study's analytical lens was necessary to put reasonable limits on data collection and to bring the role of federal leadership into sharper relief. ...
Article
Climate adaptation is a complex policy area, in which knowledge, authority, and resources are fragmented among numerous public agencies, multiple levels of government, and a wide range of nongovernmental actors. Mobilizing and coordinating disparate public and private efforts is a key challenge in this policy domain, and this has focused research attention on the governance of adaptation, including the dynamics of interaction among interests and the institutions that facilitate collective action. This paper contributes to the study of adaptation governance by adopting the policy regimes perspective, an analytical framework designed to make sense of the loose governing arrangements surrounding complex, fragmented problems. The perspective's constructs are applied to a longitudinal case study of adaptation governance in Canada, which identifies, analyzes, and evaluates the policy ideas, institutions, and interests that comprise Canada's adaptation policy regime.
... Moreover, tracking how the challenges of collective action are met, and how emerging tensions during pattern shift in governing are dealt with is also fundamental (Bourgon, 2009;Coaffee et al., 2018;Duit, 2016). Notably, the implementation of resilience challenges the normal functioning of city administrations by highlighting the need to replace silos with horizontal management (Matyas & Pelling, 2015), take the views of external partners and voices of citizens into account (Henstra, 2012;Mcconnell & Drennan, 2006;Valiquette L'Heureux & Therrien, 2013), and encourage flexible and adaptive processes rather than regular routines that maintain the status quo (Coaffee, 2019;Stark, 2014). ...
... However, interviewees also mentioned that politicians who are aware still choose not to act accordingly due to other priorities (The Netherlands), an issue that has been raised in the literature on climate adaptation more widely (e.g. Henstra, 2012;Hagen et al., 2016). ...
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Urban climate manifests itself through thermal and wind environments specific to cities and can cause wind danger or overheating. Cities can benefit from preventing these effects through adaptation measures. However, before any action can be taken in improving these urban climate conditions, an awareness of the problems is needed. Numerous studies show that there is awareness of urban climate extremes as a problem, yet that knowledge lacks amongst different actors in society, and may further differ between countries. Therefore, we conducted an international study on the awareness levels regarding urban climate phenomena and the sense of urgency to act within four groups: citizens, local politicians, urban planners and designers, and urban climate experts. Semi-structured interviews with experts in ten countries worldwide were conducted. Results indicate that the urgency to adapt to climate change was acknowledged rather equally for the four groups of actors. In contrast, awareness of urban climate phenomena (urban heat islands and urban wind patterns) amongst citizens and politicians is rather low in most countries. Amongst urban planners and designers and the urban climate experts we observed a generally high awareness regarding urban climate phenomena. Raising awareness requires tailor-made strategies for specific needs of the different actor groups.
... Climate risks adaptation within the context of densely populated urban centers, especially in developing societies, is a major research discussion. Some of the studies that have considered this important issue were critical of the level of societal preparedness for adaptation, which is largely generic despite the realism and the distinctive characteristic nature of climate risk (McLeman, 2010;Henstra, 2012;Runhaar et al., 2012;Marfai et al., 2015;Araos et al., 2016). There is a lack of a real, evidence-based climate risk adaptation policy in the DCs. ...
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Poor electricity supply is a dismal feature of densely populated cities. Within especially developing countries (DCs), this situation prompts consideration for human intervention, such as the use of candles, lanterns and stand-by generators, all of which are major drivers of climate change by the emission of CO (Carbon II Oxide) into the atmosphere. Evidently, the adverse climatic effects such as flooding, hurricane and urban heat-have set-forth extant academic debates. Still, adaptation in densely populated cities within the DCs is surrounded by many uncertainties. This study answers the most fundamental question which is: how are people living in densely populated cities able to adapt to the climate risk induced by using alternative electricity sources? Grounded on the theory of resource-based view (RBV), the study integrates strategic planning techniques into climate risk adaptation, through a survey conducted around three most populated locations in Enugu metropolis of Nigeria. The results indicate a good knowledge of climate change within the area, although the level of public participation in urban development efforts and climate change adaptation remained poor. We argue that much improvement in awareness and compliance to climate risk adaptation will occur in the DCs if more people are involved in the strategic policy and planning process. This study thus reinforces the existence of climate risk in the area, enables increased public participation in policy formulation, simplifies the present complex process in the delivery of urban development goals, and supports achieving the goal of building a society resilient to climate risk.
... There were fewer reports to the hazards of atmospheric cryosphere in Canada, which occupies a large area of cold climate. This is reasonable because Canada has the ability to cope with cold temperature events (Henstra, 2012). ...
Article
The cryosphere is an important component of the global climate system. Cryospheric components are sensitive to climate warming, and changes in the cryosphere can lead to serious hazards to human society, while the comprehensive understanding of cryospheric hazards largely remains unknown. Here we summarized the hazards related to atmospheric, oceanic and land cryosphere. The different types of cryospheric hazards, including their phenomena, mechanisms and impacts were reviewed. Our results suggested that: 1) The recorded hazards from atmospheric cryosphere including frost, hail, freezing rain decreased or showed great spatial heterogeneities, while their future changes are difficult to predict, and the extreme cold events in winter may increase in the future; 2) Sea ice extent declines rapidly, and iceberg numbers will increase. The permafrost-dominated coastline erosion will be exacerbated by climate warming. Meanwhile, the sea level rise is expected to continue in the next decades; 3) The glacier collapse, glacial lake outbursts and paraglacial readjustments will increase in the future. Although the total area of snow cover will decrease, the heavy snow events, snow avalanches, and snowmelt floods will not decrease simultaneously. The permafrost-related rock and debris flow and thaw slump will also increase with permafrost degradation. Taken together, we concluded the cryosphere is shrinking, while cryospheric hazards will likely in a warming climate.
... The 2010s saw accelerated concern for climate adaptation (purposive changes to better cope with climate change), mitigation (stabilisation or reduction of GHG emissions), and resilience (building infrastructure and services to better withstand climate shocks) (Ayers et al. 2014, Henstra 2012, Janetos et al. 2012. The rhetoric turned from environmental factors are relevant to development to climate change shapes development. ...
... A warming climate has produced less predictability in the location, intensity, and duration of winter weather events (O'Neill et al., 2017;Ummenhofer and Meehl, 2017). Urban areas are particularly vulnerable to weather irregularity as much of their infrastructure is designed around the probability of occurrence (e.g., 100-year events) (Henstra, 2012;Bulkeley and Tuts, 2013). In North America and Eurasia, average daily December, January, and February (DJF) temperatures have generally increased in the last century (Cohen et al., 2014). ...
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De-icing salts are applied to roads and walking surfaces to mitigate winter hazards resulting from ice, snow and freezing rain. The vitality of streetside trees, especially those growing in densely built urban areas, is compromised by repeated exposure to de-icing salts. Such trees already experience unfavorable establishment and growing conditions resulting from poor soil quality, inadequate moisture, physical abuse and air pollution−exposure to de-icing salt aggravates these challenges and can be an essential catalyst in tree mortality. Climate change is creating less predictable weather and, in some cases amplifying the intensity of winter storms. Cities that undertake snow and ice management may adopt modified approaches, and those less familiar with this practice may require its episodic adoption. We identify three pathways by which future climate warming may, counterintuitively, result in cities increasing their use of de-icing salt: (a) Warming winter temperatures in cities that were historically too cold to make effective use of sodium chloride (NaCl) for de-icing; (b) cities where daily high temperatures in winter may increase the frequency of freeze-thaw cycles; and, (c) cities in North America and Eurasia that may experience more severe winter weather resulting from greater variability in the circumpolar vortex (CPV). To offset potential damage to existing urban streetside trees and to ensure adequate soil and growing conditions for future trees, there is an immediate need for city foresters to collaborate with traffic safety and public works departments. We present a toolbox of approaches that can facilitate synchronized management efforts, including identifying the location of existing vulnerable trees and re-envisioning future infrastructure that would mitigate tree exposure to de-icing salts. At the same time, we call for the prioritization of research that investigates new potential pathways along which climate change may contribute to the novel adoption of de-icing salts.
... Henstra [95] 2012 "A climate-resilient city can withstand climate change stresses, to respond effectively to climate-related hazards, and to recover quickly from residual negative impacts". ...
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Urbanization is a continuous process for a city’s economic development. Though rapid urbanization provides a huge employment opportunity for people, urban threats also increase proportionately due to natural and man-made hazards. Understanding urban resilience and sustainability is an urgent matter to face hazards in the rapidly urbanized world. Therefore, this study aims to clarify the concept and develop key indications of urban resilience and sustainability from the existing literature. A systematic literature review guided by PRISMA has been conducted using literature from 1 January 2001 to 30 November 2021. It argues that sustainability and resilience are interre-lated paradigms that emphasize a system’s capacity to move toward desirable development paths. Resilience and sustainability are fundamentally concerned with preserving societal health and well-being within the context of a broader framework of environmental change. There are significant differences in their emphasis and time scales, particularly in the context of urbanization. This study has identified key indicators of urban resilience under three major components like adaptive capacity (education, health, food, and water), absorptive capacity (community support, urban green space, protective infrastructure, access to transport), and transformative capacity (communication technology, collaboration of multi-stakeholders, emergency services of government, community-oriented urban planning). This study also identified several indicators under major dimensions (social, economic, and environmental) of urban sustainability. The findings will be fruitful in understanding the dynamics of urban vulnerability and resilience and its measurement and management strategy from developed indicators.
... The Paris Agreement identifies cities as important actors for climate mitigation and adaptation [7]. In the adaptation process, the importance of action by local authorities and stakeholders such as municipalities has been repeatedly emphasized [8][9][10][11]. While local governments cannot solve the problems caused by climate change on their own [12][13][14], municipalities can adopt regulatory or non-regulatory measures for climate change adaptation in key areas: the environment (e.g., water supply, sewer and water purification, drainage); built environments (e.g., construction materials, on-site rainwater management); urban planning regulatory tools (e.g., zoning, new residential sector planning, conservation of wetlands, creation of green spaces), and security (e.g., disaster risk management, emergency measures planning) [15][16][17][18]. ...
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The aim of this study is to identify which psychosocial factors of the theory of planned behavior better predict and explain the adoption of heat and flood adaptation behaviors by municipal authorities in the Province of Quebec, Canada, and to explore the cognitive structures motivating municipal officers to adopt adaptation behaviors. The results of structural equation analyses showed that municipal authorities' attitude toward the adoption of adaptation behaviors (i.e., the degree to which the performance of an adaptive behavior is positively or negatively valued by municipal officers) and perceived control (barriers) over adaptation behaviors significantly contributed to the prediction of readiness to adopt the behavior.
... The study of disaster responses usually falls into the disciplinary domain of emergency management, while pandemic responses (such as SARS, AIDS, Zika, and others) are a traditional topic in the field of public health. In previous years, JCPA has published studies that primarily focused on natural disasters that occurred at various points in time and geography (Comfort 2012a(Comfort , 2012b, such as the 2004 Asian tsunami, 2005 Hurricane Katrina in the US, and the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake in China (Boulos et al. 2012;Henstra 2012;Lai 2012;White and Fu 2012). However, the recent rise of extreme events caused by natural hazards and human-induced crises have only elevated the need for concerted efforts among comparative policy scholars to study crisis policy responses and provide timely lesson drawing. ...
Article
This collection presents an effort to draw on the COVID-19 global pandemic, as a rare “naturally occurring experiment”, to advance the comparative public policy scholarship and disseminate knowledge on international policy approaches to this extreme crisis situation. From a comparative lens, these articles reveal how factors such as partisan politics, intergovernmental relationships, culture, and state capacity shape crisis policy responses in contrast to normal policymaking. This collection also provides important lesson drawing: national–local coordination, social safety nets, and a well-organized sector of community workers are all part of a society’s capacity and resilience in a time of crisis.
... Second, the difficulties and feasibility associated with data collection confine the study to include only state-level adaptation policies, missing information on the agency-specific adaptation practices. The extent of the omitted variable bias, however, is attenuated by the empirical observation about the considerable deficit of adaptation in practice (Bierbaum et al., 2013;Henstra, 2012), with the largest U.S. transit agencies being no exception (Miao et al., 2018a;Welch et al., 2016). A final limitation has to do with the modeling specification. ...
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The study examines the impacts of extreme weather events on public organization performance. In response to the growing call for adaptive capacity development amid a worsening climate, it pays particular attention to the effects of organizational adaptive capacity. Three components of an organization’s adaptive capacity are investigated: formal institutions, organizational slack and contracting out (inverse of capacity). We focus on organizations’ technical efficiency as a key performance indicator. Using a sample of 108 bus transit system in the U.S. Northeast and Midwest from 2008 to 2017, the analysis applies the Battese and Colelli (1995) specification for stochastic frontier analysis (SFA) with panel data. A general model is estimated to incorporate the heterogeneity in both the level and efficiency of output. The results confirm the efficacy of organizational adaptive capacity to enhance efficiency amid extreme weather. Specifically, higher levels of organizational slack or lower levels of contracting out can boost technical efficiency under extreme weather. Formal institutions, while temporarily compromising technical efficiency, holds potential for salient efficiency gains in the long run. The conclusion ends with a discussion on the theoretical and practical implications of this study.
... This is likely the case when severe climate changerelated disasters generate public attention and shake up the status quo. Previous studies have shown that elevated media (Hart 2011) and increased attention to scientific issues (Albrecht and Parker 2019) can influence climate change issue salience and the manner in which environmental policy is implemented (Henstra 2012). These findings are also supported by surveys in Australia (Reser et al. 2012) and in the United States (AP-NORC and EPIC 2019), showing that extreme weather events are seen as the leading cause for changing the public's opinion on the danger of climate change. ...
Article
Long-standing meteorological research has established that anthropogenic climate change increases the risk and intensity of extreme weather events, such as tropical cyclones, floods, and forest fires. However, comparatively little is known about the impact of such events on policy ambition. Studies on the topic emerged only recently and tend to focus on individual country cases. A comprehensive cross-country perspective is still missing. This article addresses the gap in the literature using large-scale analyses on the basis of country-level data from 2008 to 2017. The findings indicate that extreme weather events propel only highly functioning democracies to tackle climate change. Effects among remaining country cases are insignificant. This variation in the data can be attributed to democracies’ concern for the common good and the perspectives of those most affected by climate-related disasters.
... e representative one, which was defined by the Rockefeller Foundation, refers to the capacity of individuals, communities, institutions, businesses, and systems within a city to survive, adapt, and grow regardless of chronic or acute shocks they experience [13]. Current research on city resilience mainly focuses on the system characteristics [14][15][16], construction [17][18][19], evaluation index system [20,21], and policy [22][23][24]. Although current studies are of great importance, the comprehensive overview on resilient cities' research is still lacking. ...
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Resilient city has attracted global attentions as a new concept for cities to deal with risks and challenges in recent years. Numerous researchers have successively conducted in-depth studies on the resilient city from different perspectives. To acquire an overview of resilient city and grasp the current research hotspots, a bibliometric analysis and visualization of the past decade of research on the resilient city was made. The data were collected from 1249 articles published in the Web of Science database from 2010 to 2019. As the widely used bibliometric analysis tools, CiteSpace and VOSviewer were adopted in this study. The temporal distribution of resilient city research, including annual publication outputs and high-cited papers, was symmetrically analyzed. Then, the spatial distribution of resilient city research, including countries, categories, institutions, co-citation journals, author collaboration network, and author co-citation network, was investigated. Hot topics and evolution trends of resilient city were revealed. The results show that the research of resilient city experienced three periods, namely, germination, rapid diffusion, and reflection and innovation periods. Current research focuses on four aspects, including psychological resilience at the microcommunity and group levels, assessment of urban disaster resilience, multiple theoretical frameworks of urban resilience, and urban resilience promotion strategy. Therefore, this study helps scholars and practitioners to gain a comprehensive understanding of the current research progress and evolution trends of the resilient city field.
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Scholarly attention has recently shifted to the creation and redevelopment of urban hazardscapes. This body of work demonstrates how housing is deployed in close proximity to hazards, and how the attendant risks have been communicated—or not—to potential residents. Utilizing the case of Calgary, Alberta, this article uses interview data collected from flood-impacted residents, and looks at their perceptions of development and risk creation. The analyses focus on how people attribute responsibility for development in flood-prone areas, and their views on future development in these areas. Results reveal that many residents argued for more government regulations preventing new development in floodplains. Moreover, they viewed developers as narrow-interested capitalists who fail to protect public safety and work to conceal risk from the public. Others wished to see large structural mitigation projects—dams, levees, or floodwalls—or insisted that homebuyers be informed of flood risk prior to purchase. The article concludes by addressing the implications for scholarly work in urban sociology, environmental sociology, and the sociology of disaster—all of which grapple with tensions between place-making and risk creation.
Chapter
This chapter is an in-depth examination of a critical literacy project implemented by immigrant Mexican-American parent leaders that employed culturally relevant Latina/o and Native American children's literature to create dialogue and promote social action focused on environmental concerns. The Good Heart Chicana/o and Native Science after-school enrichment project was held weekly in elementary schools in the San Fernando Valley. Critical pedagogy served as the conceptual framework and informed the critical literacy strategies. Creative dialogue questions based on the children's literature promoted social action among children and families. Hands-on activities deepened the families' connection to environmental science, technology, engineering, art, and mathematics (E-STEAM) content and careers. Children's interest in science and nature increased. Parent leaders grew in their leadership and ability to address environmental issues in communities.
Article
Urban resilience (UR) is a central concept in enabling cities to be prepared for disasters and unexpected events caused by climate change-induced extreme weather conditions. The field is dedicated to developing solutions and models in this regard. In particular, the emergence of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has threatened certain industries and has compelled cities to re-evaluate and address resilience. This study aims to provide an overview of the subject by examining the academic and industrial literature on UR, categorizing publications, analyzing major trends, as well as highlighting gaps and providing future research recommendations. In this context, 146 journal articles and 9 industrial reports published up to the end of 2020 were examined. Journal articles have been examined under three headings as literature reviews, conceptual models, and analytical models. The approaches and analytical techniques discussed in the field are also examined in the review. These examinations and classifications constitute the originality of the study. Examination of industrial reports has provided us with the opportunity to understand the practices discussed and suggested by practitioners in this field. The results show that the most commonly arising issue in UR is climate change. Finally, the research gaps and future suggestions are presented.
Article
Indicator-based approaches to hazard vulnerability analysis are designed to produce policy-relevant information, but are limited in their ability to incorporate indicators that reflect the complex nature and contextual influence of institutional factors on vulnerability. This study focuses on local government policy and practice as an institutional factor and draws on a survey of municipal practitioners to inform indicators that reflect it. Rather than assess relative vulnerability, the study takes an original approach to construct an index that identifies similarities and differences in forms of capital that influence vulnerability across communities. The index is demonstrated through a case study of 50 coastal communities in British Columbia, Canada. The study uses local practitioner knowledge to inform indicators of institutional capital that influence vulnerability to coastal flood hazards, investigates associations between key indicators, and illustrates that incorporating meaningful indicators of institutional capital can enable contextual analysis of how local policy factors affect vulnerability.
Article
The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether there is a significant correlation between energy subsidies in Mexico and some dimensions of sustainable development. In this sense are analyzed the CO2 emissions, subsidies per capita energy sector, the annual growth rate of gdp, electricity consumption per capita and the production of equivalent fossil fuel energy. This research has been between the 2004-2010 period in the recent history of that country. Finally the results are studied and also are established different recommendations related to energy policy and even are presented some possible future research lines in this entire topic.
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This study advances theory articulating the micro-level processes behind public organization adaptation to extreme weather. It tackles a persistent puzzle about the limited adaptation to extreme weather among public organizations: why does adaptation remain limited after public organizations have experienced repeated extreme weather and some catastrophic consequences? We develop a computational agent-based model that integrates extant theory and data from semi-structured interviews of U.S. public transit agency managers, and use the model to investigate how micro-level cognition and behavior interact with environmental constraints to facilitate or impede the diffusion of adaptation. We articulate in greater detail how experience with influential extreme weather events matters to adaptation, highlighting that such experience is insufficient for adaptation to occur. A key insight is that the potential benefits from both increased risk perception and additional financial resources stemming from disaster- or non-disaster-induced opportunities can be underutilized, absent effective coupling between heightened risk perception and availability of resources that creates windows for adaptation. Using this insight, we further identify managerial and policy interventions with maximum leverage to promote adaptation to extreme weather in public organizations. The experiments find that slowing the decay in risk perception and synchronizing opportunities with extreme weather occurrences can stimulate adaptation. Keywords: Extreme weather; Public organization adaptation; Climate change adaptation; Resilience; Agent-based model; Coupling
Article
Climate change has exposed significant urban vulnerabilities in the Global North and South, leading to calls for sustainable, green, and climate-resilient (SGR) cities. The multilateral development banks (MDBs) financed projects and established initiatives to promote SGR cities during the 2010s. This article qualitatively analyses 60 SGR city projects financed by seven MDBs between December 2009 and August 2020. The contribution of the article is to analyse what the MDBs are financing: What types of projects are being approved? What are their objectives and components? What outcomes are hoped to be achieved? As a microcosm of broader MDB climate interventions, the article evaluates what the MDBs are prioritizing in their SGR city projects and what this means for development and climate change. The article concludes that while the projects advocate interventions to address climate change, maintain economic growth, and build more equitable cities, they conform to a narrow focus on infrastructural development, a technology-based approach that is uncertain to address the complex social and economic factors leading to human-induced climate change.
Chapter
This chapter is an in-depth examination of a critical literacy project implemented by immigrant Mexican- American parent leaders that employed culturally relevant Latina/o and Native American children's literature to create dialogue and promote social action focused on environmental concerns. The Good Heart Chicana/o and Native Science after-school enrichment project was held weekly in elementary schools in the San Fernando Valley. Critical pedagogy served as the conceptual framework and informed the critical literacy strategies. Creative dialogue questions based on the children's literature promoted social action among children and families. Hands-on activities deepened the families' connection to environmental science, technology, engineering, art, and mathematics (E-STEAM) content and careers. Children's interest in science and nature increased. Parent leaders grew in their leadership and ability to address environmental issues in communities.
Preprint
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La résilience urbaine face aux risques, en contexte de changement climatique - Articuler la gestion des évènements extrêmes et les stratégies de développements des territoires pour opérationnaliser la résilience des villes d’aujourd’hui et de demain. La première partie de ce rapport de pré-étude présente la variété des approches existantes sur la résilience et les nombreuses définitions susceptibles de lui être associées. Dans un second temps, en nous intéressant à la place de la résilience dans les politiques publiques, nous mettons en lumière les problèmes que portent le passage du concept à l’action, et notamment, la délicate question de mettre en œuvre une politique publique à partir d’un concept pour lequel il n’existe pas de définition consensuelle, et encore moins d’outil de mesure. Enfin la troisième partie ouvre des perspectives en termes de piste de recherches, de programmes d’actions et de formations, qui compte tenu des éléments des deux parties précédentes, nous paraissent nécessaires pour une opérationnalisation fructueuse du concept de résilience dans les recherches et politiques d’aménagement du territoire et de gestion des risques.
Article
Motivation Climate change is exposing significant urban vulnerabilities. The multilateral development banks (MDBs) have responded by devising a suite of sustainable, green, and resilient (SGR) city advisory services and lending products to prepare cities for future climate change impacts. Purpose The article comparatively analyses SGR city action plans and companion projects drafted by the MDBs. It thus evaluates the translation of analytical work into investments, reviewing what the MDBs are prioritizing and what this means for development and climate change. Methods and approach The article qualitatively analyses 124 SGR city action plans and 65 companion lending operations approved by four MDBs between 2014 and 2021, evaluating action-plan documents and project appraisal, implementation, and results reports. Findings The article finds that while the SGR city action plans propose comprehensive recommendations, the companion projects narrowly focus on infrastructural upgrades that are uncertain to adequately prepare cities for future climate change impacts. Policy implications Multilateral interventions targeting climate change expanded considerably during the 2010s. The MDBs, however, continue to prioritize project-based infrastructural investments financing climate mitigation and resilience actions over more substantive climate adaptation initiatives. This article thus shows that SGR city action plans hold great potential to enact robust and inclusive climate responses but have so far been stymied by the conservatism of project-based investment lending.
Technical Report
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In the ACT, climate change is expected to result in more frequent and severe heatwaves, storms, bushfire risk and drought. The ACT Government commissioned the University of Canberra to develop and undertake the first survey of the community that can be used to assess overall resilience to the expected effects of climate change, and areas of high and low resilience. The survey is intended to be repeated over time to track how successfully residents adapt. A survey of 2,671 people over 18 years old, living in the ‘ACT region’ (ACT, Queanbeyan, Googong) was undertaken during February and March 2018. A person who is highly resilient to all expected effects of climate change would have access to six types of resilience to help them adapt successfully: 1. Individual resilience resources such as income and good social networks that people use to cope and adapt to climate-related events 2. Community resilience resources including government and other institutions that provide support to reduce impacts of climate-related effects 3. Heatwave resilience: access to heat refuges and positive coping strategies, in particular a residence that can be affordably maintained at comfortable temperature 4. Extreme weather resilience: prepared for extreme weather events such as storms, bushfire and flood, including having insurance and clear emergency plans 5. Drought resilience: ability to maintain gardens and nature connection in dry times 6. Awareness and support for action: awareness of expected effects and confidence both to take individual action, and to support government adaptation action.
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The aim of this study is to document climate change adaptation interventions targeting Lyme disease at the municipal level in the province of Quebec (Canada). This exploratory study relies on the theory of planned behavior and certain constructs from the health belief model to identify the factors leading municipal authorities to implement preventive interventions for Lyme disease (PILD). Data were obtained from an online survey sent, during the summer of 2018, to municipal officers in 820 municipalities in Quebec, in all health regions where the population is at risk of contracting Lyme disease (response rate = 36%). The questionnaire was used to measure the implementation of PILD, the intention to implement these interventions, attitudes, perceived social pressure, perceived control (levers and barriers) over interventions, perceived effectiveness of preventive measures, risk, and perceived vulnerability. Results of structural equation analyses showed that attitudes were significantly associated with municipal authorities’ intention to implement PILD, while the intention to implement PILD was a significant predictor of the implementation of PILD. Additional analyses showed that perceived barriers added a moderating effect in the intention-implementation relationship. The prediction of behaviors or practices that municipal authorities could implement to prevent Lyme disease will enable the evaluation over time of the evolution of Quebec municipalities’ adaptation to Lyme disease. Moreover, the examination of the associations of specific psychosocial factors revealed important implications for the design of effective behavior-change interventions, which would allow health officials doing awareness work to create personalized interventions better suited to municipal officers and their specific contexts.
Technical Report
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Census American Community Survey 2008-2012 data are used to construct a spatially explicit Climate-Induced Social Vulnerability Index (CSVI) for the East Tennessee area. This CSVI is a combination of a Social Vulnerability Index (SVI) and a Climate Index. A method is replicated and adapted to derive a custom SVI by Census tract for the counties participating in the East Tennessee Index, and a Climate Index is developed for the same area based on indicators for climate hazards. The resulting datasets are exported as a raster to be integrated and combined within the Urban Climate Adaptation Tool (Urban-CAT) to act as an indicator for communities which may be differentially vulnerable to changes in climate. Results for the SVI are mapped separately from the complete CSVI in this document as results for the latter are in development.
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Natural disaster is an undeniable fact, and preparing to cope with and respond to it is an essential necessity. A resilient city can survive after a traumatic blow to its physical infrastructure, its economy, or its social fabric. Lahijan City, like other cities, requires resiliency measurement. Research tries to survey the degree of resilience of Lahijan encountering natural hazards. The research method is descriptive-analytic; the descriptive method is used to develop theories and literature, and analytical method for the identification of causal relationships and correlations. The performed analyses arebased on the combination of inferential statistics techniques such as one sample t-test and the Delphi technique. The outcome revealed that Lahijan is totally in the low spectrum in terms of resilience (5 > 2.72 > 1), with theoretical median of three, which itself is the result of climate change, urbanization, and globalization. Support and strengthening of community based activities, disaster risk reduction, and capacity increase of institutional adaptability can assist Lahijan residents to encounter to the human hazards, natural hazards, and increasing risks resulting from change.
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Climate change increases the likelihood of extreme weather events such as droughts, fl oods and heat waves, as well as more gradual changes in temperature and precipitation. The city of Cape Town (South Africa) is at risk from projected climate-induced warming and changes in rainfall variability. This makes resource management and infrastructure planning more challenging and increases the urgency of the need to adapt city-level operations to both current climate variability and future climate change. To date, however, the main focus of adaptation planning has been at the national level, and has not adequately addressed municipal-scale adaptation. This paper presents and discusses an overarching framework that would facilitate the development of a Municipal Adaptation Plan (MAP). The example of the city of Cape Town illustrates some of the sector-level assessments and potential climate threats, as well as resource mobilization issues that need to be addressed during the development and implementation of a MAP. In conclusion, a number of barriers to developing a MAP are discussed.
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Particularly since the September 11th attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon, there has been renewed interest in emergency planning in both the private and public sectors. Government emergency planning tends to be conducted by specialized agencies and offices, such as fire departments, police departments or emergency management. Traditionally, most of this planning is oriented toward protecting the public and public structures. Selectively over the decades, some of this planning was oriented toward insuring that government could continue to function following a disaster. At the federal level during the Cold War, much attention was given to the problem of post-nuclear attack government functioning under the rubric of “government continuity.” In the past decade, private sector businesses have begun to plan for business continuity following a variety of disasters including terrorist attacks. In spite of sporadic research indicating that local governments are particularly vulnerable, little attention has been paid to planning for government continuity following disasters or terrorism. This paper reviews the literature on historic disasters and terrorist events to establish the level of danger faced by local government. Then six key planning measures for insuring post-emergency operations are reviewed. Data are presented from a large southwestern U.S. city on levels of municipal department emergency preparedness. The paper closes with a discussion of how human resources departments may be mobilized to make critical and unique contributions to local government preparations for terrorism and disasters.
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As the climate changes, it is likely that risks for infrastructure failure will increase worldwide due to shifting weather patterns and extreme weather conditions becoming more variable and regionally more intense. Existing studies indicate that small increases in weather and climate extremes have the potential to bring large increases in damages to existing infrastructure. Almost all of today's infrastructure has been designed using climatic design values calculated from historical climate data on the assumption that past extremes will represent future conditions. Changes in climate will require changes to these climatic design values, as well as larger societal changes. Uncertainties in the climate change models and in the projections on the magnitudes and directions of future changes limit abilities to design infrastructure for future conditions. Until these uncertainties in the climate change projections are reduced, it will become critically important that climatic design values be calculated as accurately as possible and that values are regularly updated to reflect the changing climate. Since uncertainty is accepted as a part of construction codes and standards, it should be possible to deal with the growing uncertainty of future climate design values through measures such as increasing safety factors, forensic analyses of extreme events and use of climate trends and climate model projections based on surrogate climate variables.
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With regard to their utility in predicting the adoption of household hazard preparations, traditional approaches to public education directed at increasing awareness and/or risk perception have proven ineffective. Discusses reasons why this may have occurred from public education, vulnerability analysis, and community resilience perspectives and outlines strategies for enhancing preparedness. Describes a model of resilience to hazard effects that has been tested in different communities and for different hazards (toxic waste, environmental degradation and volcanic hazards). Drawing upon the health education literature, introduces a model for promoting the adoption on preparatory behaviour. Discusses links between these models, and the need for their implementation within a community development framework.
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This article was submitted without an abstract, please refer to the full-text PDF file.
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Coping with climatic variations or future climate change must be rooted in a full understanding of the complex structures and causes of present vulnerability, and how it may evolve over the coming decades. A theory of the social vulnerability of food insecurity draws upon explanations in human ecology, expanded entitlements and political economy to map the risk of exposure to harmful perturbations, ability to cope with crises, and potential for recovery. Vulnerable socio-economic groups in Zimbabwe and the potential effects of climate change illustrate some of the applications of the theory.
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This paper directs attention to conditions for climate adaptation as an important part of governing climate change in the local arena. Empirical focus is put on attempts to manage flood risks by means of risk management and planning in two Swedish municipalities. Following the need to widen our understanding of how, when and under what conditions climate adaptation occurs, three challenges are particularly emphasized from the case studies: facing the safety vs. scenery conflict where political priorities and reducing societal vulnerabilities prove difficult; the process of deciding what to adapt to, in which the troublesome role of knowledge is striking; and finally, taking responsibility for measures of flood protection. At the end of the paper, analytical generalizations illustrate the need to give increased attention to institutional challenges and challenges emanating from the science–policy interface in order to come to terms with the implementation deficit in governing climate change in the local arena.
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Local governments play a key role in emergency management by developing the necessary policies and concrete procedures for responding effectively to community emergencies and their aftermath. However, because emergency measures in most jurisdictions are rarely, if ever, activated, public managers find it difficult to evaluate and assess the quality of existing emergency management programs. Drawing on expert literature to identify 30 elements of a high-quality local emergency management program, key elements are refined and synthesized into a single framework that provides clear-cut best practices for emergency program evaluation and performance measurement. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1540-6210.2010.02130.x/pdf
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Until recently, public policy solutions to the global problem of climate change have been dominated by the concept of mitigation: reduction of the greenhouse gas emissions that cause global warming. This focus on prevention in both academic research and practical application of climate change policy has resulted in the neglect of an alternative conception, that of adaptation. Adaptation offers an alternate vision of climate change policy, one that recognises a certain degree of climatic al-teration as inevitable, and offers solutions that can allow especially vulnerable populations to sur-vive all climatic hazards, not just man-made climate change. This article discusses both why adaptation has traditionally been neglected in the international discourse on climate change, and also why it has come to have greater prominence in more recent studies and policy initiatives. It further analyses and breaks down the concept of adaptation into 'impacts-driven' and 'vulnerabil-ity-based' methods, to argue that only the latter truly takes account of the socio-economic determi-nants of climate vulnerability, and thus offers effective adaptive solutions to the challenges posed by climate change. A case study of the Inuit population in the Canadian Arctic is employed to demon-strate how a vulnerability-based approach works in practice, offering four possible adaptive solu-tions to the climactic hazards faced by the Inuit. It is concluded that the adaptation approach needs to be mainstreamed into general socio-economic policies, in order to ensure that vulnerable popu-lations are able to face up to the challenges of man-made climate change and everyday climatic hazards.
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Mitigation strategies for natural hazards will always be dealing with risk. With climate change bringing a new set of risks, each with its uncertainties, the risk manager has new challenges. Since natural hazards like tornadoes have large impacts and divert resources towards mitigation and recovery, changing natural hazards are a factor affecting development. In this paper, an analysis of tornado risk in Canada in the context of a changing climate is given which leads to the conclusion that risk-management strategies should assume more frequent events in the future.
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Since the early years of the twenty-first century, the United States has been awakening rapidly to the fact that climate change is underway and that adaptation to the unavoidable impacts of climate change is needed and must be begun now. This chapter provides an historical overview of the public, political, and scientific concern with adaptation in America. It begins by describing the shift from the early concerns with climate change and adaptation to the more recent awakening to the need for a comprehensive approach to managing the risks from climate change, as reflected in the news media. This shift is evident from the recent debates and drafting of adaptation-related bills in Congress; to the rapidly expanding activities at the state and local government levels; to the increasing engagement of nongovernmental organizations, professional associations, scientists, and consultants. This policy rush is not underlain, however, by widespread public engagement and mobilization, nor does it rest on a solid research foundation. To help the United States prepare adequately for the impacts of climate change, funding for vulnerability and adaptation research must be significantly increased. This will facilitate establishing adequate decision support mechanisms; effective communication and public involvement; and building the necessary capacity in science, the consulting world, and in government agencies. KeywordsAdaptation-Federal adaptation policy-State adaptation planning-Local adaptation planning-Media coverage-Public debate-Science policy-Adaptation research-Vulnerability-Barriers to adaptation-Nongovernmental organizations-Actor network-Scale-Cross-scale coordination-United States
Chapter
Mitigation strategies for natural hazards will always be dealing with risk. With climate change bringing a new set of risks, each with its uncertainties, the risk manager has new challenges. Since natural hazards like tornadoes have large impacts and divert resources towards mitigation and recovery, changing natural hazards are a factor affecting development. In this paper, an analysis of tornado risk in Canada in the context of a changing climate is given which leads to the conclusion that risk-management strategies should assume more frequent events in the future.