Article

The Relationship between Self-compassion and Other-focused Concern among College Undergraduates, Community Adults, and Practicing Meditators

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Abstract

The present study examined the link between self-compassion and concern for the well-being of others. Other-focused concern variables included compassion for humanity, empathetic concern, perspective taking, personal distress, altruism and forgiveness. Participants included 384 college undergraduates, 400 community adults, and 172 practicing meditators. Among all participant groups, higher levels of self-compassion were significantly linked to more perspective taking, less personal distress, and greater forgiveness. Self-compassion was linked to compassion for humanity, empathetic concern, and altruism among community adults and meditators but not college undergraduates. The strength of the association between self-compassion and other-focused concern also varied according to participant group and gender. The strongest links tended to be found among meditators, while women tended to show weaker associations than men.

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... So far, little attention has been paid to compassion, which could play a significant role in this process. The numerous benefits of compassion are not only in its role in caring for others (Kirby et al., 2017) and improving emotional intelligence (Barnard and Curry, 2011), but also in its wider impact on society through the associated humanity, prosocial behavior (Leiberg et al., 2011), and altruism (Neff and Pommier, 2013). There is now an increasing interest in studying the effects of interventions based on compassion toward others on outgroup attitudes and prosocial behavior (e.g., Hunsinger et al., 2014;Lueke and Gibson, 2016;Sinclair et al., 2016;Berger et al., 2018). ...
... Being compassionate toward oneself could help promote feelings of compassion and concern for others, since a common mechanism in both compassion and selfcompassion is the awareness that failure and suffering are part of human nature and all people are worthy of love and understanding (Neff, 2003). Nurturing self-compassion has been associated with greater compassion for humanity, concern for the suffering of others, as well as altruism and forgiveness (Neff and Pommier, 2013). Even though the research on compassion toward sexual minorities is scarce, there is reason to believe that both compassion toward others and oneself could be positively associated with attitudes toward suffering groups, including sexual minorities. ...
... Since self-compassion makes us realize that we all suffer, we are able to connect ourselves with others (Germer and Neff, 2013), and higher levels of self-compassion could be associated with increased compassion for others. Neff and Pommier (2013) point out that self-compassion is significantly correlated with other-focused concern (including compassion for humanity) and both compassion and self-compassion seem to be important for the development of emotional intelligence (Di Fabio and Saklofske, 2021). In fact, people higher in self-compassion are able to calm themselves in difficult situations without getting carried away by negative reactions (Neff, 2003) thus be more prepared to cope with other people's suffering. ...
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Article
Nurturing compassion is not only beneficial for one’s well-being in terms of feelings and cognitions directed toward oneself, but it can also have positive effects on attitudes toward other people through associated humanity and recognition of the universality of suffering. Having compassion toward others may be particularly beneficial in intergroup relations, as minority and stigmatized groups often experience a lack of compassion from the majority. The present study ( N = 244) examines the relation between self-compassion, compassion toward others, and the level of trust and positive attitudes toward members of sexual minorities. The results of path analysis suggest that the relationship between compassion for others and attitudes toward people belonging to sexual minorities is mediated by intergroup trust. Fostering compassion could therefore play an important role in increasing trust and improving attitudes toward the people belonging to stigmatized minorities.
... On the other hand, studies have found that females have slightly lower self-compassion and higher compassion to others than men (Yarnell et al., 2018), due to females' natural propensity towards nurturing and compassionate care than men (Neff & Pommier, 2013). This gender difference may have also affected the present study, as seven out of ten participants were females. ...
... In support, a study conducted in the USA where the majority of the participant self-identified as Caucasian found that participants practicing Buddhist meditation were more self-compassionate than college undergraduates and older adults recruited from the wider community. The majority of the participants practicing Buddhist meditation also self-identified as Buddhist (Neff & Pommier, 2013). In contrast, studies that explored practicing Buddhists in Asian collectivistic countries (e.g., Japan), where people's lifestyle is influenced by high levels of social interconnectedness (Neff et al., 2008), discovered lower self-compassion and higher self-criticism than people in Western societies (Kitayama & Markus, 2000). ...
... The social pressure to abide by cultural norms in Asian people may explain their low self-compassion (Neff et al., 2008). Thus, despite the strong Buddhist influence of compassion, cultural differences may explain why Asian Buddhist people living in Western countries indicated higher self-compassion (Neff & Pommier, 2013), and Asian Buddhist people living in Asian countries indicated lower self-compassion and higher self-criticism instead (Kitayama & Markus, 2000). In fact, Wong (2006) emphasised that the lives of many Asian people living in Asian countries are controlled by external forces, pain and tragedy that are beyond their control, which may explain their general lack of self-compassion. ...
Thesis
The concept and benefits of practicing compassion have been recognised and discussed in the contemplative traditions for thousands of years. However, it is within the last two to three decades, that research and psychotherapy have shown an increased interest in integrating compassion for addressing mental health difficulties and increased well-being. Although heavily influenced by Buddhist philosophy and Eastern traditions, compassion related studies and interventions are mostly developed and applied in the Western communities. In fact, compassion-based studies are particularly scarce in the Asian context. Therefore, whilst briefly outlining the theories and existing compassion-based interventions, this thesis explored the cross-cultural applicability of compassion-based interventions in the Asian communities. A rigorous qualitative investigation discussed that compassion is a culturally embraced concept in Sri Lanka, a Buddhist influenced, collectivistic Asian community, and discussed the challenges Sri Lankan participants (n = 10) experience when practicing compassion. Participants discussed that showing compassion to others was easier than showing compassion to themselves, whilst religion, society, and upbringing influenced these experiences. To understand whether these compassionate experiences are similar across cultures, a cross-sectional quantitative study was conducted among Sri Lankan (n = 149) and UK (n = 300) participants. This study indicated that some similarities (e.g., compassion to and from others, depression, anxiety) and some differences (e.g., self-compassion and self-reassurance, fears of compassion and external shame were higher in the Sri Lankan group, and social safeness was higher in the UK group) existed in the levels of compassion, and facilitators and inhibitors of compassion across the two samples. Therefore, it was important to note that the impact of compassion-based interventions might have cross-cultural differences. To test this, a longitudinal Compassionate Mind Training was implemented among Sri Lankan (n = 21) and UK participants (n = 73), which produced promising results towards increasing compassion for the self and others, along with significant reductions in distress and improvements in well-being in participants across both countries. Thus, this thesis suggests that although research is limited in exploring the cross-cultural applicability of compassion, compassion-based interventions can be used effectively in the Asian communities.
... Self-compassion is about being kind and understanding towards oneself, understanding one's experiences as part of the universal human experience and being mindful of thoughts and feelings while not over-identifying with them (Neff, 2003). Compassion and self-compassion have been connected with increased caring for oneself and others (Jazaieri et al., 2016;Neff and Pommier, 2013;Welp and Brown, 2014), cultivating a sense of connectedness with others (Neff, 2003), successful and sustainable leadership (Boyatzis, 2005), and proenvironmental values, intentions and donations (Pfattheicher et al. 2015). Compassion for someone or something requires the recognition of the other as inherently connected with one's being. ...
... Here I realized the connection between being critical of current unsustainable systems and structures and the need to look at myself and my intimate environment if I want to change these systems. This realization mainly came through reading the work on self-compassion by Neff & Pommier (2013) who explains how the ability to cultivate compassion to ourselves (which requires a mindful connection to our bodies, feelings and emotions), enables our ability to feel compassion towards others and is linked to altruism, pro-environmental behaviour and successful leadership. As I have mentioned in the introduction of this thesis, it made me wonder if I had stumbled upon the piece of the puzzle that was missing in my attempts to understand certain problematics in our modern-day world. ...
... In fact, Verheage (2018) argues that an intimate connection to ourselves, which includes self-knowledge and self-care is an imperative for any intimate relationship with someone else. Furthermore, Kristin Neff and others (Neff and Pommier 2013;Welp and Brown 2014) have showed, cultivating self-compassion ultimately leads to increased other focused concern and altruism, the ability to look at others compassionately. As described in the results, spending time in ecovillages supported this learning process of connecting to other people in a different way, characterized by vulnerability, compassion and authenticity. ...
... However, their research findings have been limited, and empirical research on mediating mechanisms in the relationships between self-compassion and empathy remains unclear. Regarding the research findings, several studies have demonstrated a positive association between self-compassion and empathy (as measured by Toronto Empathy Questionnaire) (Lyvers et al., 2020) while other research has supported mixed results (Marshall et al., 2020) or they did not report any relationships between self-compassion and empathetic concern which is a subscale of empathy (Neff & Pommier, 2013). Previous studies have also shed light on the direct influences of (1) self-compassion on empathy (Lyvers et al., 2020;Welp & Brown, 2014), (2) self-compassion on self-esteem (Barry et al., 2015;Souza & Hutz, 2016;Tran et al., 2022c), and (3) self-esteem on empathy (Huang et al., 2019;Sa et al., 2019). ...
... Cross-sectional studies have found a positive link between self-compassion and empathy (e.g., Lyvers et al., 2020;Marshall et al., 2020;Neff & Pommier, 2013;Welp & Brown, 2014). According to Yang et al. (2019), 'self-compassion involves treating oneself with kindness rather than harsh judgment, viewing imperfection as an inherent part of shared human experience rather than seeing them as isolating, and being mindful of painful feelings rather than over-identifying with them' (p. ...
... Therefore, self-compassion improves different elements of empathy and provides special qualities of being motivated by love, forgiveness, and kindness (Sinclair et al., 2017). For example, in a sample of 384 college undergraduates, higher levels of self-compassion were significantly related to greater perspective taking as a subscale of empathy (Neff & Pommier, 2013). Among 253 young adults from two Australian universities, all three positive self-compassion subscales-self-kindness, common humanity, and mindfulness were significantly positively associated with empathy (Lyvers et al., 2020). ...
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Article
Empathy is a critical element of subjective well-being and an important personality trait among undergraduate students. To improve empathy among undergraduate students, the current study examined the relationship between self-compassion and empathy and the mediating role of self-esteem in this relationship. Participants were six hundred and twenty-two (320 males and 302 females) students from five Viet-namese universities, aged 18-21 years (M age = 19.5; SD age = 0.95 years), who completed the self-compassion scale (SCS), empathy scale in adults (BES-A), and self-esteem scale of Toulouse (ETES). The results indicated that (1) self-compassion was positively associated with empathy; (2) self-esteem mediated the relationship between the two variables. Therefore, enhancing undergraduate students' self-compassion may be an effective way to improve their empathy. However, additional studies are required to elucidate the role of self-compassion in the educational context.
... Also, selfkindness, another self-compassion component, should be associated with less negative intergroup attitudes because it involves individuals' inclination to love, care, and support (Neff, 2003a(Neff, , 2003b. Individuals who are more kind toward themselves might be more kind to others (Neff & Pommier, 2013;Pommier et al., 2020), including outgroup members. And mindfulness, the third self-compassion component, is also linked with less negative attitudes (Gervais & Hoffman, 2013;Salvati et al., 2019) due to its foundation in a nonjudgmental mind-set, attention, and awareness (Brown et al., 2007). ...
... The present research tests if compassion for others -a desire to care for and relieve others' sufferings (Pommier et al., 2020;Underwood, 2002) -is a mediator of the self-compassion and intergroup attitudes relation (Fuochi et al., 2018). Individuals who are more compassionate toward themselves are also more compassionate toward others (Neff & Pommier, 2013;Pommier et al., 2020). Self-compassion and compassion toward others both underlie individual differences in general care during, and the desire to alleviate, experiences of suffering and feeling inadequate (Neff & Pommier, 2013;Pommier et al., 2020). ...
... Individuals who are more compassionate toward themselves are also more compassionate toward others (Neff & Pommier, 2013;Pommier et al., 2020). Self-compassion and compassion toward others both underlie individual differences in general care during, and the desire to alleviate, experiences of suffering and feeling inadequate (Neff & Pommier, 2013;Pommier et al., 2020). In addition, individuals with high self-compassion are theoretically more likely to perceive others as similar to themselves (via common humanity) and, thus, be more compassionate toward them. ...
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Article
Self-compassion, rooted in common humanity, self-kindness, and mindfulness, is an adaptive self-concept that assuages defensiveness to self-image threats. We hypothesized that self-compassion would buffer the need to express negative intergroup attitudes and that this relation would be explained by compassion for others. In a preregistered study, participants (N = 163) with stronger self-compassion rooted in common humanity, but not self-kindness or mindfulness, expressed less negative attitudes toward outgroups than those with lower self-compassion rooted in common humanity. Moreover, this relation persisted even after controlling for self-esteem, a construct related to but distinct from self-compassion. Finally, compassion for others mediated the relation between self-compassion and intergroup attitudes. These findings support the positive and unique role of individual-level self-compassion in intergroup relations.
... Memusatkan perhatian pada diri sendiri bukan berarti hanya mementingkan dirinya sendiri, hanya saja merasa kurang memiliki tanggun jawab terhadap orang lain (Arnett, 2000;Peer & McAuslan, 2016). Mahasiswa yang berada pada masa emerging adulthood juga belum memiliki jumlah pemahaman yang seimbang antara kemampuan memahami dirinya sendiri dengan kemampuan memahami orang lain (Neff & Pommier, 2013). Hal ini kemudian membuat individu yang sedang berada pada masa emerging adulthood sering melebihlebihkan kekhasan dirinya sendiri dari pada orang lain serta terjadi ketidakseimbangan untuk memberi perhatian terhadap orang lain dan memberi perhatian terhadap dirinya sendiri (Neff & Pommier, 2013). ...
... Mahasiswa yang berada pada masa emerging adulthood juga belum memiliki jumlah pemahaman yang seimbang antara kemampuan memahami dirinya sendiri dengan kemampuan memahami orang lain (Neff & Pommier, 2013). Hal ini kemudian membuat individu yang sedang berada pada masa emerging adulthood sering melebihlebihkan kekhasan dirinya sendiri dari pada orang lain serta terjadi ketidakseimbangan untuk memberi perhatian terhadap orang lain dan memberi perhatian terhadap dirinya sendiri (Neff & Pommier, 2013). ...
... Individu yang memiliki self compassion mampu menghadapi pikiran menyakitkan yang muncul tanpa menghindar atau melebih-lebihkannya, mampu mengelola kekecewaan dan kegagalan dengan menumbuhkan rasa mengasihi diri sendiri (Neely et al., 2009). Self compassion ialah kemampuan individu untuk melakukan suatu tindakan ketika menghadapi situasi yang sulit dengan tetap menunjukkan sikap yang mengasihi diri sendiri (Bluth & Blanton, 2014;Neff & Pommier, 2013). Peranan self compassion bukan hanya untuk meredakan rasa sakit saat dalam masa yang sulit, namun juga mengakui bahwa rasa sakit tersebut adalah bagian dari pengalaman hidup semua orang (Bluth & Blanton, 2014). ...
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Article
Tujuan pelaksanaan pelatihan flourishing untuk membantu anggota organisasi meningkatkan self compassion. Mahasiswa memiliki kesempatan mengembangkan diri secara akademis dan secara sosial selama belajar di perguruan tinggi. Usia mahasiswa saat belajar di perguruan tinggi biasanya berada pada masa emerging adulthood. Salah satu karakteristiknya ialah identity exploration yang terdiri dari eksplorasi relasi romantis, eksplorasi pekerjaan dan eksplorasi cara pandang akan dunia. Salah satu cara mahasiswa melakukan eksplorasi pekerjaan dengan mengikuti organisasi. Anggota Organisasi Mahasiswa Universitas X Surabaya juga mengalami hal serupa. Saat masa kepengurusan, sedang terjadi pandemi Covid-19 dan mengharuskan seluruh pelaksanaan kegiatan secara daring. Hal ini menyebabkan persoalan self compassion karena anggota organisasi memilih pasif, mengisolasi diri dan mengkritik diri berlebihan ketika mengalami kesulitan. Metode penelitian menggunakan teknik penelitian quasi experimental, yaitu teknik penelitian dengan menggunakan desain one group pretest posttest design. Pelaksanaan pelatihan selama 2 hari dan 6 sesi melalui aplikasi Zoom Meeting. Hasil analisis uji beda wilcoxon (0.289; p<0.05) menunjukkan adanya perbedaan self compassion antara sebelum dan setelah pemberian pelatihan flourishing, namun perbedaan yang terjadi tidak signifikan. Hal yang menyebabkan kondisi ini ialah interaksi sosial belum berfungsi secara utuh di dalam organisasi dan adanya faktor tahap perkembangan pada usia mahasiswa, sehingga pelatihan flourishing tidak dapat meningkatkan self compassion secara signifikan.
... Self-compassion is measured by the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS) (Neff, 2003a). The SCS shows positive correlation with compassion (Neff & Pommier, 2013), empathic concern (Neff & Pommier, 2013), altruism (Neff & Pommier, 2013), helping intentions (Welp & Brown, 2013) Other studies also focused on an examination of the effects in higher education, where the SCS correlated with higher social-connectedness (Neff, 2007), perspective-taking (Neff & Pommier, 2013), sense of coherence (Ying, 2009) and forgiveness (Neff & Pommier, 2013), and with lower self-criticism (Neff, 2007), anxiety (Neff, 2007), depression (Neff, 2007;Ying, 2009), rumination (Neff, 2007), thought suppression (Neff, 2007) and personal distress (Neff & Pommier, 2013). ...
... Self-compassion is measured by the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS) (Neff, 2003a). The SCS shows positive correlation with compassion (Neff & Pommier, 2013), empathic concern (Neff & Pommier, 2013), altruism (Neff & Pommier, 2013), helping intentions (Welp & Brown, 2013) Other studies also focused on an examination of the effects in higher education, where the SCS correlated with higher social-connectedness (Neff, 2007), perspective-taking (Neff & Pommier, 2013), sense of coherence (Ying, 2009) and forgiveness (Neff & Pommier, 2013), and with lower self-criticism (Neff, 2007), anxiety (Neff, 2007), depression (Neff, 2007;Ying, 2009), rumination (Neff, 2007), thought suppression (Neff, 2007) and personal distress (Neff & Pommier, 2013). ...
... Self-compassion is measured by the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS) (Neff, 2003a). The SCS shows positive correlation with compassion (Neff & Pommier, 2013), empathic concern (Neff & Pommier, 2013), altruism (Neff & Pommier, 2013), helping intentions (Welp & Brown, 2013) Other studies also focused on an examination of the effects in higher education, where the SCS correlated with higher social-connectedness (Neff, 2007), perspective-taking (Neff & Pommier, 2013), sense of coherence (Ying, 2009) and forgiveness (Neff & Pommier, 2013), and with lower self-criticism (Neff, 2007), anxiety (Neff, 2007), depression (Neff, 2007;Ying, 2009), rumination (Neff, 2007), thought suppression (Neff, 2007) and personal distress (Neff & Pommier, 2013). ...
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Thesis
The application of mindfulness in management practice and education has recognized notable growth in recent years. The development of mindfulness has shown positive effects in several domains such as stress management, work engagement, well-being and cognitive flexibility. However, the effect of mindfulness training in the domain of interpersonal relationships is still a rather unexplored area. Furthermore, little evidence has so far explored the domain of relational mindfulness that focuses on the development of awareness of one and other’s condition in a social context. In order to address the lack of evidence, the goal of this thesis is to develop and validate an 8- week mindfulness-based intervention (MBI) named Relational Mindfulness Training (RMT). Research was conducted in the pilot (N = 66) and main study (N = 128) that included students of the University of Economics in Prague. Results showed a significant effect of participation in RMT on mindfulness, self-compassion, authentic leadership, compassion, perceived stress and subjective happiness. Results from the main study further confirmed significant effects of RMT participation on mindfulness, self-compassion and perceived stress in the long run, and indicated that individuals who maintained the individual practice after the end of intervention showed notably better results than individuals who did not. However, the individual practice did not affect the level of compassion. It suggests that an increase of compassion was not affected by an individual practice but by a relational practice of RMT. Two studies described in this thesis are the first ones that validate the effects of a relational-based mindfulness program in management education and the first ones to validate the effects of MBI in the Czech Republic. They also suggest that training in relational mindfulness has a potential to become a beneficial part of management education curriculum as it may help future leaders to handle their challenges in more aware and caring way.
... • Anksiyete ve TSSB belirtilerini azaltmaktadır (Owens ve ark., 2012;Neff, Pommier, 2012;Neff, Germer, 2013;Tesh ve ark., 2015). ...
... Travma yaşamış bireylere yönelik bilinçli farkındalık temelli uygulamalardan özellikle Mindfulness Temelli Stres Azaltma Programı (MBSR) uygulamalarının olumlu yönden etkili olduğu yapılan bazı çalışmalarda görülmektedir (Owens ve ark., 2012;Neff, Pommier, 2012;Ghahari, 2017). Bu uygulama oturumların sayısı 6-12 arasında değişmektedir. ...
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Conference Paper
Amaç: Araştırmanın amacı, ampute futbolcuların yeni tip koronavirüs salgınına yönelik algı ve tutumlarının çeşitli değişkenlere göre incelenmesidir. Materyal ve Metot: Çalışmaya 2020–2021 futbol sezonunda görüşü alınan 66 ampute futbolcu katılmıştır. Veri toplama araçları olarak “Kişisel Bilgi Formu” ve Artan ve ark. (2020) tarafından geliştirilen “Koronavirüs (Covid - 19) Salgınına Yönelik Algı ve Tutumları Değerlendirme Ölçeği” kullanılmıştır. Katılımcıların ölçek alt boyutları farklı değişkenlere göre sınanmıştır. Bu alt boyutlar genel algı (tehlikelilik, bulaşıcılık), nedenler algısı (komplo, çevre, inanç), kontrol algısı (makro, kişisel, kaçınılmazlık) ve kaçınma davranışları (bilişsel kaçınma, ortak alanlardan kaçınma, kişisel temastan kaçınma) olarak belirtilmiştir. Araştırmaya katılan ampute futbolculardan elde edilen veriler SPSS-22 paket program ile analiz edilmiştir. verilerin normal dağıldığı tespit edilmiştir. Bu nedenle iki gruplu karşılaştırmalar için bağımsız örneklemler için T-Testi ikiden fazla gruplar için ANOVA testi uygulanmış ve farklılığın hangi düzeyde olduğunu belirlemek için Bonferoni testi uygulanmıştır. Bulgular: Yapılan istatiksel analizler sonucunda; evli olan katılımcıların algı ve tutumlarının daha yüksek olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Fakat nedenler algısı (komplo) ve kaçınma davranışları (kişisel temastan kaçınma) (p<0.05) hariç diğer parametrelerde anlamlı farklılık tespit edilmemiştir (p>0.05). Covid-19 geçiren ve geçirmeyen katılımcılar incelendiğinde nedenler algısı (çevre) boyutunda anlamlı farklılık tespit edilmiştir (p<0.05). Katılımcılar doğuştan ve sonradan ampute olanlar olarak değerlendirildiğinde; sonradan ampute olan katılımcıların algı ve tutumlarının tüm alt boyutlarda yüksek olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Sonradan ampute olan katılımcıların genel algı (tehlikelilik, bulaşıcılık), nedenler algısı (komplo) ve kontrol algısı (kaçınılmaz) alt boyutları sonuçlarına göre doğuştan ampute olan katılımcılara göre anlamlı derecede farklılaştığı tespit edilmiştir (p<0.05). Katılımcılar eğitim durumuna göre karşılaştırıldığında; genel algı (tehlike, bulaşıcılık), nedenler algısı (komplo), kontrol algısı (makro, kişisel), kaçınma davranışları (bilişsel kaçınma, ortak alanlardan kaçınma, kişisel temastan kaçınma) alt boyutlarında farklılık tespit edilmiştir. Yapılan post hoch testi sonrasında eğitim seviyesi yükseldikçe covid-19 algı ve tutumlarının da yükseldiği tespit edilmiştir. Sonuç: Araştırma sonuçlarına göre, ampute futbolcuların Covid-19 pandemisine yönelik algı ve tutumlarının yüksek olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Ampute futbolcular gibi diğer dezavantajlı gruplara yönelik rehabilitasyon çalışmalarının artırılması önerilmektedir. Covid-19 ve benzeri küresel nedenli problemlerde bilgilendirme çalışmalarına önem verilmelidir.
... • Anksiyete ve TSSB belirtilerini azaltmaktadır (Owens ve ark., 2012;Neff, Pommier, 2012;Neff, Germer, 2013;Tesh ve ark., 2015). ...
... Travma yaşamış bireylere yönelik bilinçli farkındalık temelli uygulamalardan özellikle Mindfulness Temelli Stres Azaltma Programı (MBSR) uygulamalarının olumlu yönden etkili olduğu yapılan bazı çalışmalarda görülmektedir (Owens ve ark., 2012;Neff, Pommier, 2012;Ghahari, 2017). Bu uygulama oturumların sayısı 6-12 arasında değişmektedir. ...
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Amaç: Covid-19 olarak bilinen koronavirüs Çin’in Wuhan kentinden başlayıp tüm dünyayı etkisi altına almıştır. Bu salgın tüm tedbirlere rağmen ülkemizi de etkisi altına almış ve hemen hemen her bireyimizi etkilemiştir. Ampute futbolcular da bu süreçten fiziksel ve psikolojik olarak etkilenmiştir. Ampute futbol liginin uzun süre ertelenmesi ve covid-19 döneminde kısa ve uzun süreli kapanmalar pandeminin ampute futbolcularda olumsuz etkilerini artırmıştır. Bu çalışmanın amacı Ampute futbolcuların covid-19 salgınına yönelik korkularını tespit edip, sporcu ve antrenör ilişkilerine etkisini incelemektir. Yöntem: Araştırma bir betimsel bir araştırmadır. Çalışmaya 2020-2021 Ampute Süper Liginde oynayan farklı takımlardan yaşları 14-43 arasında değişen 66 ampute (33 doğuştan engelli, 33 sonradan engelli) futbolcu katılmıştır. Katılımcıların demografik bilgileri alınmış ve katılımcılara ‘Covid-19 Korkusu Ölçeği’ ve ‘Sporcu- Antrenör İlişkisi Envanteri’ uygulanmıştır. Ölçekler ampute oluş zamanı, medeni durum, covid-19 hastalığına yakalanıp yakalanmama durumuna ve eğitim durumuna göre incelenmiştir. Normallik analizi; katılımcı sayısı>50 olduğundan Komogrov-Smirnov Testi ile sınanmış ve verilerin normal dağıldığı tespit edilmiştir. İkili grup karşılaştırmaları için Bağımsız Örneklem T Testi, çoklu grup karşılaştırmaları için ANOVA testi uygulanmıştır. Bulgular: Yapılan istatiksel analizler sonucunda ampute oluş zamanına göre Covid-19 korkusu arasında anlamlı farklılık bulunmazken (p>0.05), sporcu-antrenör ilişkisi bakımından sonradan ampute olanlar aleyhine anlamlı farklılık tespit edilmiştir (p<0.05). Medeni duruma göre karşılaştırıldığında evli ve bekar katılımcıların Covid-19 korkusu arasında bekar katılımcılar aleyhine anlamlı farklılık varken (p<0.05), sporcu-antrenör ilişkisi arasında anlamlı farklılık tespit edilmemiştir (p>0.05). Covid-19 hastalığına yakalanıp yakalanmama durumuna göre incelendiğinde Covid-19 korkusu ve sporcu-antrenör ilişkisi bakımından anlamlı farklılık bulunmamıştır (p>0.05). Katılımcılar eğitim durumuna göre incelendiğinde Covid-19 korkusu ve sporcu-antrenör ilişkisi bakımından ortalama düzeyinde farklılaşsa da bu fark anlamlı düzeyde bulunmamıştır (p>0.05). Sonuç: Araştırma sonuçlarına göre; ampute futbolculardan bazılarının covid-19 sürecinden korktuğu ve bu korku sonrasında sporcu-antrenör ilişkilerinin de etkilendiği tespit edilmiştir. Pandemi gibi etki derecesi geniş olaylarda yaşlı, çocuk veya engelliler gibi dezavantajlı gruplara yönelik rehabilitasyon hizmetlerinin artması gerektiği önerilmektedir.
... Although we do not suggest that these three forms of compassion are the same, they may all impact positively on wellbeing, prosociality, and cognitive functioning, albeit via different pathways. Self-compassion has been shown to have positive effects on wellbeing (MacBeth & Gumley, 2012), and some theorists suggest that it may lead to greater compassion for others (Neff & Pommier, 2013). Studies have found evidence that self-compassion is linked to empathy, compassion for others, and altruism in adults (Neff & Pommier, 2013), and to prosocial behaviour in adolescents (Marshall et al., 2020), and that "self-reassurance" and compassion for others involve similar neuronal activity (Longe et al., 2010), suggesting that the underlying neural basis may be similar for compassion for self and others. ...
... Self-compassion has been shown to have positive effects on wellbeing (MacBeth & Gumley, 2012), and some theorists suggest that it may lead to greater compassion for others (Neff & Pommier, 2013). Studies have found evidence that self-compassion is linked to empathy, compassion for others, and altruism in adults (Neff & Pommier, 2013), and to prosocial behaviour in adolescents (Marshall et al., 2020), and that "self-reassurance" and compassion for others involve similar neuronal activity (Longe et al., 2010), suggesting that the underlying neural basis may be similar for compassion for self and others. It is possible that compassion is a "mode" that can be applied either to oneself or to others, Content courtesy of Springer Nature, terms of use apply. ...
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Objectives Interventions involving kindness- and compassion-based meditation (KCBM) have been shown to have various benefits for adults, and there is growing interest in using KCBMs with children. This systematic review explores the effects of KCBM on wellbeing, prosociality, and cognitive functioning in children and adolescents. Methods Studies were eligible if they examined interventions that contained a proportion of KCBM above a set threshold, included child participants only, used any or no control group, and included at least one outcome measure related to wellbeing, prosociality, or cognitive functioning. Studies were assessed for quality using the Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies, and findings were synthesised narratively. Results A systematic literature search of 11 databases up to February 2020 identified 3,073 papers. Ten studies were eligible for inclusion in the review, including 807 children. There was evidence of improvements in wellbeing in 47% of wellbeing outcome measures (including stress, anxiety, depression, negative affect, markers of inflammation, mindfulness, and self-compassion). Prosociality and cognitive functioning (visual perception and motor accuracy) were examined in 1 study each, and there was evidence of improvements in both outcomes. Effect sizes ranged from small to large. There was some evidence that interventions were more effective with younger, non-clinical populations and where intervention teachers were experienced. Study quality was generally weak. Conclusions There was no strong evidence base for positive effects of KCBM with children. However, the findings of the review are encouraging given the early stage of development of the field, and further research is warranted. Recommendations for future research include more robust methodological design, improved reporting, and a focus on developmental mechanisms of change. Systematic Review Registration PROSPERO CRD42014013065.
... The self-compassionate individual tends to forgive other people. Depending on this situation, the individual has a lower perception of threat and level of negative emotions (Neff & Pommier, 2013;Neff et al., 2007) because the feeling of threat is a cause of negative emotions such as anxiety or fear (Folkman, 2008). Negative emotions are important triggers of emotional reactivity (Berry et al., 2005;Edmondson, 2004). ...
... Since individuals cannot develop positive communication with the people around them, the individuals cannot develop self-compassion towards other individuals. Consequently, a decrease in forgiveness will be observed (Neff & Pommier, 2013;Wang et al., 2012). On the other hand, the individual cannot realize the opportunities, positive relationships, and potential around them. ...
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The ultimate goal of life is happiness, according to Plato. Perhaps the most critical questions in the life of human beings have been on happiness and processes that affect happiness. The present study was planned during the COVID-19 pandemic; perhaps human beings are most needed for happiness. The original hypothetical model and the findings constitute the powerful and different aspects of the present study. This study determined a hypothetical model to examine the relationships among happiness, forgiveness, emotional reactivity, and emotional security. The participant group of the study consists of a total of 916 individuals from Turkey, 617 women, and 299 men. The age scale of the participants is between 18-25. Participants completed the Heartland Forgiveness Scale, the Emotional Security Scale, the Emotional Reactivity Scale, and the Oxford Happiness Scale. Mediation analysis was conducted using Hayes’ (2017) process macro. According to the proposed model in the study, emotional reactivity mediates the relationship between forgiveness and happiness. As the individual’s forgiveness increases, their emotional reactivity decreases, and as the emotional reactivity decreases, the individual’s level of happiness increases.
... Selfcompassion is defined as being open to new experiences and being affected by the suffering of others in such a manner that the individual makes their problems and suffering tolerable. In addition, this concept means understanding that other people experience similar experiences and problems that occur in their life (32,33). Per the investigations, an individual capable of being properly selfcompassionate enjoys a higher level of psychological health and well-being (34)(35)(36)(37). ...
Article
Objective: This study investigated the mediating role of self-compassion in the relationship of perceived stress with physiological well-being and self-care behaviors among patients suffering from type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Materials and Methods: In this descriptive, cross-sectional study, 369 patients with T2DM were selected through purposive and consecutive sampling from the cities of Rasht and Rezvanshahr (Northern Iran) in 2020-21. The participants completed the perceived stress scale (PSS-4), summary of diabetes self-care activities (SDSCA) questionnaire, Ryff's scale of psychological well-being (RSPWB), and self-compassion scale (SCS-SF). The data were processed through structural equation modeling (SEM) in AMOS-24. Bootstrapping was carried out in MACRO to analyze the mediating relationships. Results: The perceived stress had a negative and significant correlation with self-compassion (r= -0.456), psychological well-being (r= -0.699), and self-care behaviors (r= -0.671) (For all cases P< 0.01). In addition, self-compassion had a positive and significant relationship with psychological well-being (r= 0.760) and self-care behaviors (r= 0.657) (P< 0.01). The modified structural model had the desired fitting with the collected data (CFI= 0.955, RMSEA= 0.079, χ2/df= 2.842). Following the bootstrapping analysis, self-compassion significantly mediates the relationship between perceived stress, psychological well-being (P< 0.0001), and self-care behaviors (P< 0.0001). Conclusion: Self-compassion can serve as a shield against and reduce the destructive effects of stress on the psychological well-being and self-care behaviors of diabetic patients. The beneficial effects of self-compassion can be used in diabetic psychotherapy protocols to improve psychological well-being and self-care behaviors.
... Mindfulness is an emotional regulation strategy (Leyland et al., 2019) that inhibits the impact of negative affect (Chambers et al., 2009) and self-compassion facilitates adaptive psychological functioning (Neff et al., 2007). However, a decline in mindfulness and self-compassionate behaviour is marked by the presence of judgment, berating oneself for being inadequate, isolation (Neff & Pommier, 2013), suppression, rumination (Brown & Ryan, 2003), experiential avoidance and general psychological symptoms (Baer et al., 2004). Hence negative life situations such as a decline in wellbeing are related to primarily escapist motivation to relieve oneself of adverse emotions thereby forming the basis for the problematic use of technology, smartphones in the present context. ...
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The relationship between wellbeing and Problematic Smartphone Use (PSU) has been explored in the past, however, the role of the potential mediators of this association is a relatively neglected area of research. Therefore, the current study examined mindfulness and self-compassion as mediators of the relationship between wellbeing and PSU in 220 university students. WHO-5 Wellbeing Index, Mindful Attention Awareness Scale- State, Self-Compassion Scale- Short form and Smartphone Addiction Scale- Short version were used for assessing wellbeing, mindfulness, self-compassion, and PSU respectively. Wellbeing had a direct and indirect effect on PSU. In addition, results supported a serial mediation model where wellbeing was found to influence PSU via mindfulness and self-compassion in a sequential manner. The results expanded the Compensatory Internet Use Theory (CIUT) to understand PSU and have implications for the management of PSU.
... Pelo contrário, a autocompaixão envolve justamente reconhecer o sofrimento, o fracasso e as inadequações como fazendo parte da condição humana e que todas as pessoas são dignas de compaixão e não apenas si mesmo (Neff, 2003b (Neff & Pommier, 2013). De fato, a autocompaixão não está associada a tendências de narcisismo e autoestima (Neff, 2003b ...
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Apesar das repetidas relações entre autocompaixão e saúde mental e a relevância dos esquemas iniciais desadaptativos (EID’s) para compreensão do funcionamento da personalidade, ainda é internacionalmente escasso o número de estudos que relacionam tais construtos. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar as relações entre os componentes da autocompaixão e os EID’s. A amostra foi composta por 328 estudantes universitários, com idade média de 25,39 (DP=6,99). Como instrumentos, foram utilizados a Escala de Autocompaixão de Neff (SCS) e o Questionário de Esquemas de Young (YSQ-S3). Os resultados mostraram correlações negativas e significativas entre os EID’s e os componentes da autocompaixão, sugerindo que quanto maior a intensidade do esquema, menores os níveis de autocompaixão. Compreender a forma como as características individuais se relacionam com os componentes da autocompaixão pode nortear o desenvolvimento de intervenções mais apuradas para a promoção dos benefícios da autocompaixão.
... Differences have also been observed according to age: people over 35 years old are more likely to report a high self-compassion profile (Souza, & Hutz, 2016;Wu, Schroevers, & Zhu, 2021). In contrast, other research has found no differences according to age (Neff, & Pommier, 2013). Finally, people with lower educational status present profiles of more compassion toward themselves (Lopez et al., 2018;Stellar et al., 2012). ...
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Self-compassion is considered a protective factor that promotes positive psychology, happiness, emotional regulation and embodiment. Self‐compassion offers an approach wherein individuals in dance can pursue optimal participation and performance without compromising health and well‐being. The present study aimed to explore self-compassion among recreational dancers and discover possible differences between tango and ballet. More specifically the study examined: i) the levels of self-compassion in recreational tango and ballet dancers; ii) differences in self-compassion according to demographic characteristics; and iii) differences between tango and ballet dancers. The research was based on several adults from various cities in Greece who participated in tango and ballet for recreational reasons during their leisure time. One hundred and ninety-one dancers (20 men and 171 women), between the ages of 17 and 62, completed the self-compassion scale of Mantzios, Wilson and Giannou (2015), which consists of twenty-six items. The answers were given on a five-point Likert scale, while the reliability of the scale was successfully tested. In addition, the questionnaire contained the collection of other data such as demographic characteristics. According to the first aim, the high scores on self-compassion among recreational dancers showed a relationship between self-compassion and dance, and a positive influence of ballet and tango practice. The second hypothesis was partially confirmed as statistically significant differences emerged only between the age groups with those over forty years of age to show higher levels of self-compassion. Regarding the third aim of the research, differences were found between types of dance. Tango participants showed higher levels of self-compassion than ballet participants. Specific dance teaching interventions are discussed based on somatic and embodiment theory, to create healthier mental, emotional and behavioral patterns for dancers, schools, academies or companies. Received: 2 August 2022 / Accepted: 20 October 2022 / Published: 5 November 2022
... También fue posible identificar una correlación débil entre algunos puntajes de las subescalas de compasión y autocompasión, lo que coincide con reportes previos que indican que si bien ambos constructos están relacionados conceptualmente, las correlaciones tienden a ser débiles (Neff y Pommier, 2013) a causa de que a la mayoría de las personas les es más sencillo manifestar compasión por los demás que por ellos mismos (Neff, 2003a;Neff y Pommier, 2013), aunque los motivos por los que ocurre tal divergencia en la población mexicana deben investigarse aún. ...
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RESUMEN La autocompasión es la capacidad de estar en contacto con el propio sufrimiento abriéndose a la experiencia y generando la motivación de aliviarlo por medio de una actitud bondadosa, libre de prejuicios, y entendiendo las experiencias dolorosas como un fenómeno común a la existencia humana. El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo evaluar las propiedades psicométricas de la Escala de Autocompasión en población mexicana. La muestra estuvo conformada por 343 participantes, seleccionados por un método no probabilístico, cuyo único requisito fue tener nacionalidad mexi-cana. El análisis de los datos mostró una buena confiabilidad del instrumento, así como índices de bondad de ajuste adecuados para dicha escala, confirmando una estructura de seis factores y un elemento de orden superior. Se concluye que es un método adecuado para evaluar el mencionado constructo en México. Palabras clave: Autocompasión; Compasión; Atención plena; Afecto negativo; Me-ditación. ABSTRACT Antecedents. Self-compassion is the capacity to be in contact with one's own suffering, while maintaining an open attitude towards the experience, and generating the motivation to alleviate it through a kind attitude, free of prejudice. It also includes understanding painful experiences as a common phenomenon in human existence. Objective. The aim of the present study was to adapt and evaluate the psychometric properties of the Self-compassion Scale in Mexico. Method/participants. A total of 343 Mexican citizens, recruited through a non-probabilistic sampling participated. Results. Data analysis revealed good reliability of the instrument and adequate goodness-of-fit for the scale, thus confirming a six-factor structure and a higher order factor. Discussion. It is concluded that this instrument is adequate to assess Self-compassion in Mexico.
... In one study, Szekeres and Wertheim (2015) found significant improvements for wellbeing, stress, and self-reported mindfulness for people practicing this style of Vipassana, although this and similar research (Krygier et al., 2013) was in the context of an intensive retreat. More robust evidence is evident for the favorable effects of cultivating practices, which typically include compassion-based practices like self-compassion and loving-kindness (Neff & Pommier, 2013;Salzberg, 2002) that are typically orientated toward cultivating positive emotional states (Salzberg, 2002). While our study found an association between the use of cultivating practices for positive affect and life satisfaction, meta-analyses have found modest evidence of beneficial effects from practicing cultivating practices for positive emotions (Zeng et al., 2015) and stress, but not for life satisfaction, and negative emotions (Galante et al., 2014). ...
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Objectives Meta-analyses of meditation studies have revealed mixed modest evidence of benefits across a range of outcomes. However, because this evidence-base is predominantly from brief interventions, it is unclear whether it accurately reflects how contemporary meditators practice or the dose–response relationship between amount of practice and outcome. This study sought to characterize how contemporary meditators practice, examine any possible dose–response relationships between historical practice and measures of psychological wellbeing, and explore which characteristics of practice most strongly predict favorable psychological outcomes. Methods One thousand six hundred and sixty-eight meditators (M = 1095 h practice, SD = 2365) responded to advertisements in meditation practice communities and social media. We explored associations between demographics, meditation practice characteristics, and outcomes including positive and negative affect, psychological distress, and life satisfaction in a cross-sectional study design. Results Historical meditation practice (accumulated lifetime hours) was significantly associated with favorable psychological outcomes (|r| ranging from .18 to .28). Model fit was optimized with a generalized additive model (average increase in R² = 2.22), indicating non-linear effects. The strength of association between practice time and outcomes was generally strongest for approximately the first 500 h, before plateauing. Several practice types including Vipassana (as taught by S.N. Goenka) and cultivating practices (e.g. compassion, lovingkindness) were more strongly predictive of favorable psychological outcomes. Conclusions Benefits of meditation accrue over time in a non-linear manner, and show variation based on practice context. These results highlight the importance of understanding how the benefits of meditation accrue over longer time durations than typical standardized programs.
... Each domain has to do with compassion, but the object and the subject of compassion differed (from the most frequently mentioned to the least): self-compassion, compassion to others, compassion from others, and mutual compassion. Comparably, other authors divided compassion in a similar way: compassion for others, compassion from others, and self-compassion (e.g., Neff and Pommier, 2013;Beaumont et al., 2016;Gilbert et al., 2017;López et al., 2018). ...
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Despite the continuous efforts to understand coping processes, very little is known about the utilization of best coping strategies during the COVID-19 pandemic. In this study, we aimed to analyze the coping strategies of individuals who scored high on an adaptive coping questionnaire in order to understand the most adaptive coping strategies during the COVID-19 pandemic. We used consensual qualitative analysis in a team of four researchers and one auditor. The convenience sample from which we identified the high scorers comprised 1,683 participants (67% women, 32.35% men, and 0.65% did not report their gender) with a mean age of 31.02 years (SD = 11.99) ranging between 18 and 77 years old. Based on their scoring in the COPE Inventory, nine participants were selected from the sample with the highest scores in coping skills in at least two out of its 15 subscales. In-depth repeated interviews with six participants for the main analysis were conducted, and three were added to check the data saturation. The results showed that the most adaptive coping strategies used during the COVID-19 pandemic could be categorized into four main domains: self-compassion, compassion to others, compassion from others, and mutual compassion. The most frequently mentioned and the most elaborated upon by our respondents was the domain of self-compassion. The most interesting finding was the emergence of the fourth type of compassion, labeled mutual compassion , which referred to deliberate attempts to take care of oneself and others while suffering together in order to elevate the suffering for both. This kind of compassion might arise in the situations of collective suffering, such as a catastrophe or a pandemic and might have the additional benefit of bringing people closer to each other in difficult times.
... While self-compassion is elicited in times of suffering (Germer, 2009), it may also be affected by how the individual overcame these difficult experiences or left them unresolved. While self-compassion is greatly influenced by attachment experiences in childhood (Germer, 2009;Moreira et al., 2018), aging and emotional maturity based on various life experiences may also positively influence self-compassion in adulthood (Neff & Pommier, 2013). During emotional distress, the quality of interpersonal experiences, especially with attachment figures (i.e., a partner and mother), may enhance or suppress self-compassion afterwards (Latheren et al., 2020). ...
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Aim: This observational study aimed to describe the rate and degree of difficult experiences with COVID-19 pandemic-related changes (DE) during pregnancy , clarify the relationship between DE and self-compassion of women postnatally, and investigate the influence of compassion from a partner (CP) and compassion from the woman's mother (CM) on this relationship. Methods: Data from 46 1-month postnatal women in Japan were collected through a self-report questionnaire from October to December 2020. Self-compassion was measured using the Japanese version of the Self-Compassion Scale; DE, CP, and CM were measured using original questions based on prior studies. Results: Almost all participants (97.8%) experienced more than one DE during pregnancy. Data analyses revealed that DE in maternity hospitals (d = 0.76), DE in social support (d = 0.53), and CM (d = 0.64) were associated with self-compassion. A two-way analysis of variance suggested that CM moderated the relationship between self-compassion and DE in preparation for the baby (η 2 = 0.11) and the birth plan (η 2 = 0.11), whereas CP moderated the relationship between self-compassion and DE in social support (η 2 = 0.07). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that self-compassion negatively correlates with DE in maternity hospitals and social support. Additionally, CM may buffer the influence of DE in preparation for the baby and the birth plan on self-compassion; moreover, CP may buffer the influence of DE in social support on self-compassion. This study highlights the importance of supporting perinatal women to adapt to COVID-19-related changes through cooperation with their families, which may increase self-compassion. K E Y W O R D S
... Singer and Klimecki (2014) state that the possibility of harming the interests of the person or the group to which one is affiliated may prevent the individual from showing compassion to others or frighten him or her. A study by Neff and Pommier (2013) reports that the higher level of self-compassion an individual has, the higher this individual will empathize with others and be willing to help another person in case of need. It is stated that individuals with self-compassion are able to forgive their own mistakes and manage to live in some way or other. ...
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The main purpose of this research is to examine whether adults' trait anxiety, state anxiety, and gender together predict the fears of compassion (fear of compassion for others, fear of compassion from others, and fear of self-compassion). Besides, in this study, it was aimed to examine whether fears of compassion differ significantly according to trait anxiety levels (low, medium and high). The study group consisted of 437 (241 female and 196 male) adults. Data were collected using the State-Trait Anxiety Scale, the Fears of Compassion Scale, and the Personal Information Form. Data were analyzed using Multiple Linear Regression Analysis and One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Research findings of this study shows that adults' trait anxiety, state anxiety, and gender together predicts the 18% of the total variance in fear of compassion to others, 15% of total variance in fear of compassion from others, and 16% of total variance in fear of self-compassion. In addition, this study shows that while adults' anxiety levels (high, medium, and low) decrease, their fears of compassion decreases. The findings are discussed based on the relevant literature. The limitations of the research and suggestions for future theoretical and practical research are presented. Article Information
... Previous research did not find any significant difference in self-compassion viewed from gender (Iskender, 2009;K. D. Neff et al., 2008; K. D. Neff & Pommier, 2013;Raque-Bogdan et al., 2011). Research by Sun et al. (2016) found that male and female teenagers show the same self-compassion related to understanding that problem is common for all people (common humanity) and they behave with full awareness without judging themselves (mindfulness), so this attitude has a positive effect to the relation with other people, autonomy, and personal growth in teenagers. ...
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Adolescence is a stage of development in life that is full of emotional turmoil, conflict, and stress, of which often lead to teenagers’ vulnerability to depression symptoms. A potential serious case if the depression symptoms are not treated well includes risk of suicidal ideation and suicide behaviour. This research aims to investigate and test the role of self-compassion to depression symptoms in teenagers mediated by emotion regulation-cognitive reappraisal. Participants in this research were 627 teenagers (N=627) with an age range of 15-18 years old, including 508 girls (81%) and 119 boys (19%). Mediation analysis using Process by Andrew F. Hayes, model 4, shows that emotion regulation —cognitive reappraisal (p=0.001; p<0.05) mediates the role of self-compassion to depression symptoms in teenagers. Emotion regulation—cognitive reappraisal serves as a partial mediator to the role of self-compassion to depression symptoms. Teenagers with self-compassion treat themselves positively by realizing and accepting negative emotions that leads to reduction of these negative emotions. It improves the capability of cognitive reappraisal, that brings new interpretation towards a more positive view for reducing depression symptoms.
... 24 High self-compassion may increase AILO by increasing compassion and empathy towards others. In literature, there are varying findings about the relationship between selfcompassion and compassion for others 25,26 . More comprehensive studies are needed to understand this relationship in healthcare professionals. ...
Article
Giriş: Önceki çalışmalar, COVID-19 pandemisi sırasında sağlık çalışanlarında stres, kaygı düzeyleri ve depresif semptomların normal popülasyona göre daha yaygın olduğunu göstermiştir. Çalışmamızın amacı, hastalığı sevdiklerine ve başkalarına bulaştırma konusunda belirgin kaygı yaşayan sağlık çalışanlarının depresyon, kaygı ve stres düzeylerini, baş etme stratejilerini ve öz-anlayış düzeylerini karşılaştırmaktır. Yöntem: Çalışmamız Mayıs 2020'de yapılmıştır. Örneklemi COVID-19 pandemisi sırasında aktif olarak çalışan 113 sağlık profesyoneli oluşturmuştur. Araştırma ölçekleri Google Forms programı aracılığıyla elektronik ortama aktarılmış ve katılımcılara ulaştırılmıştır. Bulgular: Çalışmamızda sağlık çalışanlarının kaygılarının en önemli nedeninin hastalığı sevdiklerine bulaştırmak olduğu saptanmıştır. Hastalığı sevdiklerine bulaştırma kaygısı olan kişilerin, hastalığı sevdiklerine bulaştırma kaygısı olmayanlara göre daha işlevsel başa çıkma stratejileri kullandıkları, depresyon, kaygı ve stres düzeylerinin daha düşük olduğu ve öz-şefkat düzeylerinin daha yüksek olduğu bulundu. Sonuç: Hastalığı sevdiklerine bulaştırma kaygısı taşıyan sağlık çalışanlarında bu kaygının işlev kaybından çok işlevsel bir etkisi olabileceği gözlemlendi. Sağlık profesyonellerini depresyon, kaygı ve stresten korumak için bireylerin öz-anlayış becerilerini ve işlevsel başa çıkma stratejilerini kazanmalarına yönelik çalışmalar yapılmalıdır.
... When talking about the social environment's influence, we assume the way performers perceive and appraise their environment, interactions and conditions often conveyed by coaches through the creation of a certain type of environment (e.g., autonomy supportive, compassionate). Studies have revealed that developing caring environment and compassion for self and others have a range of benefits on psychological processes (Neff, 2011;Jazaieri et al., 2013;Keltner et al., 2014) and social relationships (Penner et al., 2004;Crocker and Canevello, 2012;Neff and Beretvas, 2013;Neff and Pommier, 2013). Research in sport psychology has highlighted that when role models show an accepting attitude toward performers, regardless of outcomes, these positive interactions also encourage athletes to respond in more self-accepting ways (Ingstrup et al., 2017). ...
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Being mentally tough while evaluating oneself in a compassionate way is still a difficult path for performers. Self-compassion, characterized by the ability to be kind to oneself, to see one’s experiences as part of the larger human experience and have a balanced awareness to one’s emotions and thoughts, was recently studied as a stepping stone to performance optimization and personal development. Despite a mistrust of this concept in the sports world, various studies show its benefits within athletes. A major question remains the environment that fosters or hinders the development of self-compassion: when role models extend compassionate attitudes, does it allow performers to respond in more self-compassionate ways? The relationship between self-compassion, mental toughness, and social environment is still unclear and is an important direction for future research within performers. This semi-systematic literature review aims at proposing an overview of the state of the art regarding self-compassion, mental toughness, and the influence of performer’s, and social environments. Sixteen studies were retrieved. We conclude that the number of multi-day intervention programs and longitudinal studies should be increased. The studies should also consider assessing the specific aspects of performance culture and settings. In addition, overall performance-specific measures could be developed to assess general levels of self-compassion. The development of a theoretical framework explaining how self-compassion affects a performer, the role of their entourage and its link to other psychological resources, such as mental toughness, could help to better understand this concept.
... Previous research has shown that there are significant gender differences in Compassion, with most studies showing that women have higher levels of Compassion [32][33][34][35][36]. This is an expected result as it may be related to women's emotional structure and maternal instinct [37]. ...
... Interestingly, individuals endorse higher levels of compassion for others than for the self, and compassion and self-compassion have been found poorly (Pommier et al., 2020) or not related (Neff & Pommier, 2013). People may also declare themselves more compassionate than self-compassionate due to social desirability, which shows a positivealthough weakrelationship with compassion (Pommier et al., 2020). ...
Article
The present multi-sample study (N = 723) explores in depth the construct of dispositional compassion and its assessment, relying on two recent multidimensional scales: the Sussex-Oxford Compassion Scale – toward Others (SOCS-O; Gu et al., 2020) and the Compassion Scale (CS; Pommier et al., 2020). First, we validated the two scales in Italian, finding substantial support for their original factor structures and second-order solutions aggregating first-order factors into a general dispositional compassion factor. Second, we tested the simultaneous links between SOCS-O and CS facets via network analysis to identify which facets stand at the core of dispositional compassion or are more distal. Kindness (CS) and Feeling (SOCS-O) facets were more central components of compassion, leaning on the ability to tune in to (CS Mindfulness) and understand others’ pain (SOCS-O Universality) and connected to the urge to alleviate that pain (SOCS-O Acting). Third, we explored the nomological net of correlates of dispositional compassion and examined the differences between the SOCS-O and the CS in their relationship with the correlates. Results supported the convergent and discriminant validity of the scales and showed that the SOCS-O, compared to the CS, may capture some emotionally aversive sides of compassion.
... Previous research has shown that there are significant gender differences in Compassion, with most studies showing that women have higher levels of Compassion [32][33][34][35][36]. This is an expected result as it may be related to women's emotional structure and maternal instinct [37]. ...
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The aim of this study is to examine the role of Compassion towards others as a mediator between Social Job Resources (social support climate, coordination, and positive leadership), Healthy Employees (psychological well-being such as resilience, engagement, and optimism) and Healthy Organisational Outcomes (in-role performance, extra-role performance and commitment) from a gender perspective in healthcare professionals. Through the multiple analyses of variance, structural equation models, and multiple-group analyses in a sample of 1420 healthcare professionals from different public and private hospitals in Spain, this study proved the existence of gender differences, with women perceiving higher levels of Compassion. Moreover, this study shows that Compassion partially mediates the relationship between Social Job Resources and Healthy Employees. In addition, Compassion partially mediates the relationship between Social Job Resources and Healthy Organisational Outcomes. Finally, Healthy Employees mediate the positive relationship between Social Job Resources and Healthy Organisational Outcomes. This is an innovative contribution to the limited research examining Compassion towards others as a personal resource that can have a positive impact in the workplace. The results also propose a way to develop and conduct interventions in order to increase Compassion towards others in the healthcare context.
... While self-compassion is elicited in times of suffering (Germer, 2009), it may also be affected by how the individual overcame these difficult experiences or left them unresolved. While self-compassion is greatly influenced by attachment experiences in childhood (Germer, 2009;Moreira et al., 2018), aging and emotional maturity based on various life experiences may also positively influence self-compassion in adulthood (Neff & Pommier, 2013). During emotional distress, the quality of interpersonal experiences, especially with attachment figures (i.e., a partner and mother), may enhance or suppress self-compassion afterwards (Latheren et al., 2020). ...
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Aim: This observational study aimed to describe the rate and degree of difficult experiences with COVID-19 pandemic-related changes (DE) during pregnancy, clarify the relationship between DE and self-compassion of women postnatally, and investigate the influence of compassion from a partner (CP) and compassion from the woman's mother (CM) on this relationship. Methods: Data from 46 1-month postnatal women in Japan were collected through a self-report questionnaire from October to December 2020. Self-compassion was measured using the Japanese version of the Self-Compassion Scale; DE, CP, and CM were measured using original questions based on prior studies. Results: Almost all participants (97.8%) experienced more than one DE during pregnancy. Data analyses revealed that DE in maternity hospitals (d = 0.76), DE in social support (d = 0.53), and CM (d = 0.64) were associated with self-compassion. A two-way analysis of variance suggested that CM moderated the relationship between self-compassion and DE in preparation for the baby (η2 = 0.11) and the birth plan (η2 = 0.11), whereas CP moderated the relationship between self-compassion and DE in social support (η2 = 0.07). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that self-compassion negatively correlates with DE in maternity hospitals and social support. Additionally, CM may buffer the influence of DE in preparation for the baby and the birth plan on self-compassion; moreover, CP may buffer the influence of DE in social support on self-compassion. This study highlights the importance of supporting perinatal women to adapt to COVID-19-related changes through cooperation with their families, which may increase self-compassion.
... A limited number of studies have examined compassion for others together with self-compassion (e.g., Mongrain et al., 2011;Neff and Pommier, 2013). Notably, an fMRI study revealed that they involve similar brain regions (Longe et al., 2010) suggesting that people who are more compassionate toward others could certainly learn to be more compassionate or kind toward themselves. ...
Article
Background: Opioid-related deaths continue to rise. Psychological trauma is commonly comorbid with Opioid Use Disorder (OUD). Adverse childhood experiences can disrupt the development of emotion regulation, increasing risk of substance use. Self-compassion may reduce OUD risk and outcomes by facilitating emotion regulation, decreasing the toxicity of shame, and reducing internalized stigma that can hinder recovery. Mindfulness practice enhances self-compassion. Methods: This study is part of a pilot (N = 18) of the Mindful Recovery OUD Care Continuum (M-ROCC) during buprenorphine office-based opioid treatment (OBOT). The present study was conducted to gain a deeper understanding of the intervention's effects on self-compassion development, and to explore differential changes in self-compassion during the intervention among participants with varying intensity of trauma exposure measured by high levels of childhood adversity (defined by 4+ adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) at baseline). We conducted secondary analyses of a subset of qualitative interview data (N = 11 unique participants) collected for the pilot study (weeks 4 and 24, 14 total interviews) to elaborate upon changes in Self-Compassion Scale (SCS-SF) scores. Results: In the primary pilot study, participants' mean SCS-SF scores shifted significantly from baseline to week 24, β = 0.22, p = 0.028. This change is elaborated upon through interviews. Despite pervasive challenges to becoming more self-compassionate (e.g., trauma histories and substance use), participants reported increased compassionate self-responding and decreased uncompassionate self-responding. Mindfulness training was identified as the primary mechanism underlying the shift. Kindness to self and others and-to a lesser extent an increased sense of common humanity-were also identified as key to overall self-compassion. Compared to those in the lower ACEs group, participants in the higher ACEs group tended to have lower baseline self-compassion scores (d = 1.09, p = 0.055). Conclusion: M-ROCC may increase self-compassion among patients with OUD during OBOT by increasing compassionate, and decreasing uncompassionate, self-responding. Patients with OUD with greater childhood adversity tended to have lower levels of self-compassion, which improved with M-ROCC. Future trials with larger samples are needed to confirm these potential outcomes, mechanisms, and differential impacts between ACEs subgroups.
... Negatively worded items were reverse coded, and the mean score across all items calculated with higher mean scores indicative of higher levels of self-compassion. Data collected using this measure have shown acceptable reliability in assessing selfcompassion in community and student samples (Cronbach's α = 0.93; Neff & Pommier, 2013) and in adults with inflammatory bowel disease (Cronbach's α = 0.94; Sirois et al., 2015). In the present study, scores derived from this instrument displayed excellent levels of internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.95 to 0.97). ...
Article
Part 1 involved pilot testing two programs for people with celiac disease (self-regulation, SR; or SR plus self-compassion, SR+SC). Results from focus groups revealed participants wanted more and tailored content, and new content bi-weekly versus weekly. In Part 2, we assessed the feasibility of delivering the programs online and the effects of the programs on behavioural and psychological outcomes. All participants reported significant improvements on adherence to a gluten-free diet, quality of life, self-regulatory efficacy (SRE) and concurrent SRE. The SR+SC group reported significant improvements in self-compassion and medium effect size reductions in anxiety and depression. Findings from this study can be used to inform guidelines for strategies to help people to effectively manage and cope with celiac disease.
... The purpose of this study, which incidentally occurred during the COVID-19 pandemic, was to determine whether the delivery of a MPPI program, developed by the primary author and components of which were previously tested in schools and universities (i.e., Lambert et al., 2019a, b), could impact satisfaction with life, positive and negative affect, indicators of mental health, perceptions of school kindness, and levels of mental toughness. PPIs included for example, positive reminiscing (Speer & Delgado, 2017), mental contrasting (Oettingen et al., 2015), and self-compassion (Neff & Pommier, 2013) (see Appendix for full content). Changes in physical activity, sleep duration, social media use and time playing video/online games were also explored. ...
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Positive psychology interventions hold great promise as schools around the world look to increase the wellbeing of young people. To reach this aim, a program was developed to generate positive emotions, as well as improve life satisfaction, mental toughness and perceptions of school kindness in 538 expatriate students in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. Starting in September 2019, the program included a range of positive psychology interventions such as gratitude, acts of kindness and mental contrasting as examples. Life satisfaction and mental toughness at mid-year were sustained or grew by the end of the year. Positive affect, emotional wellbeing and social wellbeing increased at post-intervention 1, compared to baseline. However, this improvement reverted to baseline levels at post-intervention 2, when data were collected during the COVID-19 pandemic. Only psychological wellbeing, negative affect, perceptions of control, and school kindness were increased at post-intervention 2. During the lockdown, students moved less, but slept and scrolled more. Those who extended their sleep duration reported greater wellbeing. Boosting wellbeing through the use of positive psychology interventions works – even in a pandemic – and extended sleep duration appears to be a driving factor for this observation.
... This finding also confirms the findings of an earlier study that showed that self-compassion and high caregiving are related . Although there are several studies whose findings show small positive correlations between compassion for others and compassion for self (Neff and Pommier, 2012;Breines and Chen, 2013), there is one contradictory experimental study that found that self-compassion and compassion for others are not related (Leary et al., 2007). ...
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Aim This study aims to translate the Compassionate Engagement and Action Scales (CEAS) into Turkish and to test their subsequent validity, reliability, and psychometric properties. Turkey is one of the blended cultures with eastern and western elements under the influence of traditional religion. This cultural diversity brings about a rich context to study compassion and its relationship to mental health. The scales assess the ability to be sensitive to suffering and engage and then take helpful actions in compassion. The motivation for compassionate engagement and action is measured at three ‘flows’ as follows: (1) compassion for others; (2) compassion from others; and (3) compassion for self. Methods The sample consists of 525 college students aged 18 years or older. The participants completed the CEAS Turkish Form for Others, Self and from Others, Self-Compassion Scale Short Form, Compassionate Love Scale, and Self-Criticism Scale. Results The confirmatory factor analyses were conducted using AMOS version 27 to examine the validity of the three scales with two different factor structures each. All the three models show good fits to the data. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for the CEAS for Others and for Self and from Others are good to excellent (between 0.70 and 0.95 for all subscales). Compassion for self, compassion for others, and compassion from others correlated modestly. Conclusion It can be concluded that the Turkish version of the Compassionate Engagement and Action Scales for Others and Self and from Others has sufficient psychometric properties and can be used as a reliable and valid measure to assess compassionate engagement and action.
... Self-compassion (SC) is conceptualized as being kind and understanding to oneself rather than judgmental (self-kindness), interpreting one's personal experiences as part of human experience (common humanity), and being aware of one's painful thoughts and feelings without over-identifying with them (mindfulness) (Neff, 2003). Dispositional SC is positively correlated with ER (Finlay-Jones et al., 2015), empathy (Neff & Pommier, 2013) and prosocial behavior (Welp & Brown, 2014). Explicit long-term training of SC increases levels of dispositional SC among adolescents (Bluth et al., 2016) and supporting SC through simple instructions mediates effects of situation-specific self-related negative emotions (Leary et al., 2007). ...
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Bullying poses a risk for equity and justice in learning. It can compromise learning achievement and hinter task performance. Emotions are key to handling bullying, thus need to be understood for the development of anti-bullying technological supports. We investigate effects of combining implicit and explicit emotion regulation strategies on empathy and conflict resolution styles among adolescents in a school bullying context. Based on dual-process framework of emotion regulation (Gyurak et al., 2011), the experimental group engaged in self-compassion induction as explicit regulation in combination with narrative construction as implicit regulation whereas the control group completed narrative construction only. The combination of implicit and explicit regulation was associated with significant increases in self-compassion subscales of self-kindness and mindfulness. It also elicited indicators of prosocial conflict resolution style: namely other-inclusion behavior and a tendency to inclusive choice of beneficiary from the bystander perspective. Effects on empathy were not larger with additional explicit support.
... This can be logically explained in two ways. First, self-compassion is closely associated with compassion for others [83][84][85], as it is inward compassion, giving oneself care and concern when facing experiences of suffering [44]. In fact, some studies have supported this interpretation. ...
Article
Background: A culture of shared leadership is widespread among palliative care teams based on a commitment to valuing and including all people equally. As compassion is a core value for end-of-life care work, compassionate leadership may be the best way to lead in palliative care. Aims: The aims of this study were twofold: (1) to adapt and validate the Compassionate Leadership Self-reported Scale in a sample of palliative care professionals; and (2) to study the relation between compassionate leadership and associated concepts of self-compassion, awareness and self-care. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 296 Spanish end-of-life care professionals was conducted. Analyses included descriptive statistics, a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) with four-correlated factors, reliability estimates and a structural model. Results: Results suggested there were medium to high levels of compassionate leadership in the sample. The CFA showed an adequate overall fit: χ2 (98) = 277.595 (p < 0.001); CFI = 0.986; SRMR = 0.047; RMSEA = 0.088 [0.076, 0.100]. Reliability estimates for four subscales of compassionate leadership (attending, understanding, empathising and helping) were also adequate, ranging from 0.72 to 0.96. Finally, the structural model predicting compassionate leadership suggested that the dimensions of attending and understanding were most highly related to positive self-compassion and awareness; empathising, to self-care and awareness; and helping, to positive self-compassion and self-care. Conclusion: The Compassionate Leadership Scale has adequate psychometric properties when used to assess compassionate leadership in the context of end-of-life care. Our results indicate that self-compassion, awareness and self-care are important correlates of such compassionate leadership.
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The COVID-19 pandemic altered buyers’ concerns and resulted in more complex demand for high-involvement goods, such as financial products. These changes seem likely to persist after the pandemic. Additionally, other unforeseen events, although likely not as pervasive as the pandemic, could occur at any time. In this context, the ability of salespeople to keep their mental abilities sharp is vital in overcoming challenges and moving forward. This study highlights the emerging psychological capacities that help salespeople cope with new work circumstances following the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as dealing with other unforeseen events, and identifies ways to develop these psychological capabilities. Findings from in-depth interviews with 20 salespeople suggest that patience (P), consideration (C), and responsibility (R) are the emerging psychological capacities that motivate salespeople to achieve positive outcomes during and after the pandemic. These capacities can be developed through the exercise of passion and purpose, gratitude, long-term thinking, self-reflection, and self-compassion. We found the P.C.R. framework to fit the existing psychological capital (PsyCap) model, providing nuances to our understanding of PsyCap by proposing a framework with the emerging psychological capacities that salespeople require to succeed in the post-COVID personal selling environment. The study’s limitations and future research directions are also discussed.
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Emotions play a key role in the development and maintenance of human relationships. Compassion, relating to other emotions such as love and tolerance, has an undeniable effect on human relations. Compassion having many definitions in the literature, has three different domains. These are compassion for self, for others and from others. Compassion must be defined according to three concepts. Because compassion’s definitions are related to one of these three domains. But when compassion is defined in a single aspect, it is incomplete and insufficient. Therefore, in order for a person to be characterized as compassionate, he should be compassionate to himself, to others, and to accept compassion towards from others. But when compassion is mentioned, people remember only, compassion for others, but not for self and from others. When we look at the studies on compassion, only this domain of compassion is generally considered. In addition, lately, self-compassion, which expresses compassion towards one's self, has also been included in the studies. However, compassion has another domain. This is compassion from others. Evaluating compassion, it is necessary to consider these three domains. Therefore, in this study, the concept of compassion and compassion domains are described in line with the available sources.
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Previous research has examined the relationship between particular personality disorders (PDs) and self-compassion. However, the field has developed new methods for assessing and diagnosing personality psychopathology, and previous work has not extended to the Alternative Model for Personality Disorders (AMPD) of the DSM-5. The current study aimed to examine associations between self-compassion and personality psychopathology using an evidence-based assessment and diagnosis approach. The study used Neff’s Self-Compassion Scale (SCS) in addition to Criterion A (elements of personality functioning) and Criterion B (pathological traits) of the AMPD in order to observe associations between PDs and self-compassion. The results indicated that there were strong associations between identity and self-compassion, as well as that self-compassion and its components were moderately negatively associated with the majority of the AMPD personality traits. The findings can help to establish working treatment methods for individuals with PDs as well as provide support for the evidence-based hybrid dimensional-categorical model of personality assessment.
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En las últimas décadas, el estrés se ha convertido un una experiencia habitual para muchas personas y, por ende, debido a sus consecuencias en el organismo, en un importante problema de salud pública. El estrés es un generador de problemas de salud física y psicológica de índole muy diversa: agotamiento, deterioro cognitivo, síntomas depresivos, ansiedad, conductas de evitación, trastornos de salud mental, etc., (Everly y Lating, 2013, citado por Morson et al, 2020, p. 2039). Frente a esta situación existe una tendencia de búsqueda de equilibrio y plenitud por parte de una sociedad que se encuentra, por lo general, superada, ansiosa y, en muchos casos, incluso deprimida. (Domínguez y Arias, 2020; Sloterdijk, 2017). Se necesitan, por tanto, intervenciones que sean capaces de reducir la respuesta de reactividad al estrés.
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Previous studies have revealed a positive relationship between self-esteem and prosocial behavior. Based on social mentality theory, the authors propose that self-compassion as a self-soothing system moderates the relationship in adolescents girls and not in adolescent boys. A total of 540 adolescents from 12 to 14 years old completed the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Self-Compassion Scale, and Prosocial Tendencies Measure. The results showed that both self-esteem and self-compassion were positively correlated with prosocial behavior, self-compassion moderated the relationship between self-esteem and altruistic or anonymous prosocial behavior, and self-compassion moderated the relationship between self-esteem and dire prosocial behavior and the moderating effect was moderated by gender. In conclusion, the present study indicates that self-esteem and self-compassion, as two important aspects of the self, are beneficial to prosocial behavior in adolescence. Self-compassion strengthens the relationship between self-esteem and specific prosocial behavior, especially for adolescent girls.
Chapter
Educators have the best job in the world. They have the responsibility of helping others find their purpose in life. Every profession there is depends on them. Why is it that people with the greatest responsibility tend to not make time to care for themselves? We have often heard you cannot pour from an empty cup. In order for you to be effective and make a difference in the lives of others, you must be certain you are up for the task. The responsibility of helping others achieve their goals sometimes means putting yours on the back burner. This can lead to burnout. Educators must be better to themselves so they can be good to their students.
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The purpose of this study was to compare self-compassion in athletes with and without exposed exercise addiction. The research method was a descriptive and causal-comparative. The statistical population consisted of the sports team of University of Tehran. Initially, status of all students was assessed based on Exercise Addiction Scale (Griffiths et al. 2004), and 25 athletes with exposed (Score 24 or above) and 20 athlete without exposed exercise addiction (Grade 12 or lower) were identified according to guidelines of this scale. In addition, subjects were asked to complete Eating Disorders Scale (Stice et al. 2000) because of their high Comorbidity with exercise addiction. Then five athlete were excluded because of eating disorder symptoms. Finally, 20 athlete with exposed exercise addiction were selected and compared through Self-Compassion Scale (Rice et al. 2011). One way ANOVA results reveled that mean scores of self-compassion characteristic of the students with exposed are significantly lower than students without exposed exercise addiction . The findings of this study indicated the need to consider self-compassion characteristic as a risk factors of exercise addiction phenomenon, and they have many applications in the field of preventive and therapeutic interventions of use behaviors.
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Compassion-focused therapy helps increase couples 'emotional security by regulating emotional systems, which can ultimately improve couples' attachment styles. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of compassion focused therapy (CFT) on attachment styles of couples with marital conflict. In this study, a single case design of asynchronous multiple baseline type was used. The statistical population of this study was married couples with marital conflict referring to Hamedan counseling centers. Accordingly, three couples who had marital conflict were selected by purposive sampling. Compassion-focused therapy was performed in three stages: baseline, intervention (8 sessions of 90 minutes), and follow-up, and couples responded to the Adult Attachment Style (Collins and Reed, 1990). Data analyzed with visuals inspection, improvement percentage and reliable change index (RCI) strategies. The results showed that the rate of improvement after treatment and follow-up is for secure attachment styles (36.33-33.93), avoidance (40.37-37) and anxiety (26.47-25.98), respectively. Therefore, the research findings indicate that compassion-focused therapy can be used as an effective treatment to improve the attachment styles of couples with marital conflict
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Objective: The mental health issues among college students have increased significantly in recent years. The primary purpose of this study was to explore and describe the relationship between self-compassion, compassion for others, and a sense of well-being among undergraduate college students. Participants: This study surveyed N = 651 college students aged 18-24 years at an urban university in the Northeast. Methods: Students completed an online survey through Survey Monkey that was comprised of questions about their selfcompassion, compassion for others, and overall sense of well-being. Results: The results indicate that self-compassion, compassion for others, and sense of well-being are positively related. Exploratory tests for sex differences showed that females reported having significantly higher compassion for others while males reported having substantially higher self-compassion. Conclusion: The authors discuss the implications of the results and suggest a need for more compassion education programs at institutions of higher education. Suggestions are made for future experimental research that measures the impact of self-compassion and compassion for others, especially after the COVID-19 pandemic that impacted many college students' education, economy, relationships, and job prospects.
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Research supports the positive implications of applying humanistic constructs such as empathy and compassion in counseling supervision. However, there is a clear lack of counseling supervision approaches that utilize compassion, specifically to facilitate the development of counselors‐in‐training. This article introduces a compassion‐supported developmental approach to supervision.
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Abstract Discusses interpersonal forgiveness, examining the questions: 1) What is interpersonal forgiveness; 2) Can we devise a model to help people forgive; and 3) What are the psychological outcomes for those who forgive. The authors express some concerns about the direction the field of forgiveness studies seems to be taking regarding each question.
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Reviews the literature on sex differences in empathy (defined as vicarious affective responding to the emotional state of another) and related capacities (affective role taking and decoding of nonverbal cues). The literature is discussed according to method used to assess empathy and affective role taking. Where appropriate, meta-analyses were also computed. In general, sex differences in empathy were found to be a function of the methods used to assess empathy. There was a large sex difference favoring women when the measure of empathy was self-report scales; moderate differences (favoring females) were found for reflexive crying and self-report measures in laboratory situations; and no sex differences were evident when the measure of empathy was either physiological or unobtrusive observations of nonverbal reactions to another's emotional state. Moreover, few sex differences were found for children's affective role taking and decoding abilities. (156 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The goals of this study were (a) to determine whether we could differentiate between sympathetic and distress reactions using facial and heart-rate markers as well as self-report indices; (b) to examine age and sex differences in markers of the two different modes of affective response; and (c) to examine the relations of questionnaire indices of empathy, parental attitudes toward the expression of emotion, and participants' social presentational concerns to indices of sympathy and distressed responding. Third and sixth graders and adults were induced to experience sympathy and distress with mood induction procedures. Heart-rate change differed across the two inductions, as did facial expressions (for sadness and sympathy, but not distress, facial expressions) and self-reported reactions (especially for females). Females exhibited more facial sympathy and reported more distress than males. The various markers of emotional response generally related predictably to questionnaire indices of empathy. There was some support for the notion that parents who encourage the expression of emotion by their children have children who score high on empathy and are relatively unlikely to experience personal distress in sympathy-evoking contexts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This study measured heart-rate variability and cortisol to explore whether Compassion-Focused Imagery (CFI) could stimulate a soothing affect system. We also explored individual differences (self-reported self-criticism, attachment style and psychopathology) to CFI. Participants were given a relaxation, compassion-focused and control imagery task. While some individuals showed an increase in heart rate variability during CFI, others had a decrease. There was some indication that this was related to peoples self-reports of self-criticism, and attachment style. Those with an increase in heart rate variability also showed a significant cortisol decrease. Hence, CFI can stimulate a soothing affect system and attenuate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity in some individuals but those who are more self-critical, with an insecure attachment style may require therapeutic interventions to benefit from CFI.
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Two words, sympathy and empathy, are commonly used to describe three distinguishable things. These are: i) an elementary, involuntary capacity which puts us in touch with the emotional state of another; ii) the use of ‘trial identification’ to discover, consciously or unconsciously, the emotional state of another; iii) the affect of compassion. Because these three usages have not been clearly sorted out, and because the word sympathy has been disparaged, empathy has been overused, and a variety of technical terms (including intersubjectivity, recurrent primary identification, projective identification, alpha function etc.), all of which have important specialised applications, have been used confusingly to describe functions at a much higher level of generality. This paper attempts to sort out the three meanings with reference to the history of the two words, and also to show that the use of clear general terms gives us a more intelligible linguistic base from which other matters can be considered: in particular, whether an origin can be discerned for judgements of value other than that of superego internalisation.
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This purpose of this study is to develop a brief version of Sprecher and Fehr’s Compassionate Love Scale (2005). This was accomplished by administering the 21-item scale to college student participants and subsequently selecting five items for a brief version. The five items were selected based on the evaluation of high correlation coefficients between individual item responses and the overall total 21 questions from the original scale, the results of factor analysis, and items that had moderate means and high standard deviations. The correlation between the original and brief version is 0.96, while the internal reliability of the brief version, using Cronbach’s alpha, is 0.90.
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Self-critical individuals are more likely to become and remain depressed (Blatt, Experiences of depression: Theoretical, research and clinical perspectives, American Psychological Association Press, Washington, DC, 2004). This vulnerability to depression may reflect the association of trait self-criticism with difficulties self-soothing and resisting self-attacks. The current study tested the impact of two self-help interventions designed to reduce depression by improving these two intrapersonal deficits. The first was designed to foster compassionate self-relating whereas the second was designed to foster resilient self-relating. Seventy-five distressed acne sufferers were assigned to one of three conditions: a self-soothing intervention, an attack-resisting intervention, or a control condition. The interventions consisted of daily imagery-based self-talk exercises inspired by Gilbert’s (Genes on the couch: Explorations in evolutionary psychotherapy, Brenner-Routledge, Hove, 2000) social mentatlities theory and compassionate mind training (Gilbert and Irons, Compassion: Conceptualisations, research and use in psychotherapy, Brunner-Routledge, London, 2005). In two weeks, the self-soothing intervention lowered shame and skin complaints. The attack-resisting intervention lowered depression, shame, and skin complaints, and was especially effective at lowering depression for self-critics. Implications for the treatment of self-criticism and depression are discussed.
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This project brought together the constructs of goal and emotion regulation as a way of understanding college students’ well-being, building on previous work that identified the ability to disengage in goal pursuit and to redirect energy toward alternative goals as an important contributor to well-being. In Study 1, we assessed the amount of variance in well-being accounted for by measures of goal management, adding to the regression measures of student stress and self-compassion, the latter defined as a healthy form of self-acceptance and characterized as a tendency to treat oneself kindly in the face of perceived inadequacy. In Study 2, the stress scale was replaced by measures of perceived need and availability of support. Across studies, although factors such as goal management, stress, and need for and availability of support were important predictors of well-being, self-compassion accounted for a significant amount of additional variance in well-being.
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This study examined the relation of self-compassion to positive psychological health and the five factor model of personality. Self-compassion entails being kind toward oneself in instances of pain or failure; perceiving one’s experiences as part of the larger human experience; and holding painful thoughts and feelings in balanced awareness. Participants were 177 undergraduates (68% female, 32% male). Using a correlational design, the study found that self-compassion had a significant positive association with self-reported measures of happiness, optimism, positive affect, wisdom, personal initiative, curiosity and exploration, agreeableness, extroversion, and conscientiousness. It also had a significant negative association with negative affect and neuroticism. Self-compassion predicted significant variance in positive psychological health beyond that attributable to personality.
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Two studies are presented to examine the relation of self-compassion to psychological health. Self-compassion entails being kind and understanding toward oneself in instances of pain or failure rather than being harshly self-critical; perceiving one’s experiences as part of the larger human experience rather than seeing them as isolating; and holding painful thoughts and feelings in mindful awareness rather than over-identifying with them. Study 1 found that self-compassion (unlike self-esteem) helps buffer against anxiety when faced with an ego-threat in a laboratory setting. Self-compassion was also linked to connected versus separate language use when writing about weaknesses. Study 2 found that increases in self-compassion occurring over a one-month interval were associated with increased psychological well-being, and that therapist ratings of self-compassion were significantly correlated with self-reports of self-compassion. Self-compassion is a potentially important, measurable quality that offers a conceptual alternative to Western, more egocentric concepts of self-related processes and feelings.
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Describes the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI) and its relationships with measures of social functioning, self-esteem, emotionality, and sensitivity to others. 677 male and 667 female undergraduates served as Ss. Each of the 4 IRI subscales displayed a distinctive and predictable pattern of relationships with these measures, as well as with previous unidimensional empathy measures. Findings provide evidence for a multidimensional approach to empathy. (29 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).
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This study investigated age differences in cognitive and affective facets of empathy: the ability to perceive another's emotions accurately, the capacity to share another's emotions, and the ability to behaviorally express sympathy in an empathic episode. Participants, 80 younger (M(age) = 32 years) and 73 older (M(age) = 59 years) adults, viewed eight film clips, each portraying a younger or an older adult thinking-aloud about an emotionally engaging topic that was relevant to either younger adults or older adults. In comparison to their younger counterparts, older adults generally reported and expressed greater sympathy while observing the target persons; and they were better able to share the emotions of the target persons who talked about a topic that was relevant to older adults. Age-related deficits in the cognitive ability to accurately perceive another's emotions were only evident when the target person talked about a topic of little relevance to older adults. In sum, the present performance-based evidence speaks for multidirectional age differences in empathy.
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What is compassion? And how did it evolve? In this review, we integrate 3 evolutionary arguments that converge on the hypothesis that compassion evolved as a distinct affective experience whose primary function is to facilitate cooperation and protection of the weak and those who suffer. Our empirical review reveals compassion to have distinct appraisal processes attuned to undeserved suffering; distinct signaling behavior related to caregiving patterns of touch, posture, and vocalization; and a phenomenological experience and physiological response that orients the individual to social approach. This response profile of compassion differs from those of distress, sadness, and love, suggesting that compassion is indeed a distinct emotion. We conclude by considering how compassion shapes moral judgment and action, how it varies across different cultures, and how it may engage specific patterns of neural activation, as well as emerging directions of research.
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Thesis--University of Texas at Austin. Vita. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 209-219).
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The objective of this study was to explore the meaning and experiences of compassion and self-compassion for individuals with depression and anxiety. An interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) epistemology and methodology were adopted as the study was focused on understanding the meaning and experiences of participants towards self-compassion from existing theory. Ten participants were selected based on a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Ed.-text revision diagnosis of depression or an anxiety disorder. Individuals were excluded from this study if they had additional diagnoses which impacted significantly on their disorder or on ethical grounds if participation was seen as psychologically distressing. Participants completed a semi-structured interview with questions were based on existing self-compassion research. Interviews lasted an hour and were analysed using IPA methodology. Participants' reflections suggested that they saw compassion having two central qualities: kindness and action. Participants reported that they thought having compassion for themselves felt meaningful in relation to their experiences and useful in helping with their depression or anxiety. However, participants reflected that they felt being self-compassionate would be difficult either because the concept itself felt challenging to enact or their experience of psychological disorder had negatively impacted on their ability to be self-compassionate. Participants' positive perceptions of self-compassion offer encouragement to clinicians as it appears people can connect with the concept meaningfully as well as seeing it as being useful. Clinicians focusing on self-compassion may gain greater efficacy when they incorporate both aspects within interventions. Findings about the difficulties associated with self-compassion provide valuable information as to why people find it difficult to adopt which can be used in the development of future clinical interventions.
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This research examined self-compassion and self-esteem as they relate to various aspects of psychological functioning. Self-compassion entails treating oneself with kindness, recognizing one's shared humanity, and being mindful when considering negative aspects of oneself. Study 1 (N=2,187) compared self-compassion and global self-esteem as they relate to ego-focused reactivity. It was found that self-compassion predicted more stable feelings of self-worth than self-esteem and was less contingent on particular outcomes. Self-compassion also had a stronger negative association with social comparison, public self-consciousness, self-rumination, anger, and need for cognitive closure. Self-esteem (but not self-compassion) was positively associated with narcissism. Study 2 (N=165) compared global self-esteem and self-compassion with regard to positive mood states. It was found that the two constructs were statistically equivalent predictors of happiness, optimism, and positive affect. Results from these two studies suggest that self-compassion may be a useful alternative to global self-esteem when considering what constitutes a healthy self-stance.
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The need for social connection is a fundamental human motive, and it is increasingly clear that feeling socially connected confers mental and physical health benefits. However, in many cultures, societal changes are leading to growing social distrust and alienation. Can feelings of social connection and positivity toward others be increased? Is it possible to self-generate these feelings? In this study, the authors used a brief loving-kindness meditation exercise to examine whether social connection could be created toward strangers in a controlled laboratory context. Compared with a closely matched control task, even just a few minutes of loving-kindness meditation increased feelings of social connection and positivity toward novel individuals on both explicit and implicit levels. These results suggest that this easily implemented technique may help to increase positive social emotions and decrease social isolation.
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In 2 studies, the authors examined whether relationship goals predict change in social support and trust over time. In Study 1, a group of 199 college freshmen completed pretest and posttest measures of social support and interpersonal trust and completed 10 weekly reports of friendship goals and relationship experiences. Average compassionate goals predicted closeness, clear and connected feelings, and increased social support and trust over the semester; self-image goals attenuated these effects. Average self-image goals predicted conflict, loneliness, and afraid and confused feelings; compassionate goals attenuated these effects. Changes in weekly goals predicted changes in goal-related affect, closeness, loneliness, conflict, and beliefs about mutual and individualistic caring. In Study 2, a group of 65 roommate pairs completed 21 daily reports of their goals for their roommate relationship. Actors' average compassionate and self-image goals interacted to predict changes over 3 weeks in partners' reports of social support received from and given to actors; support that partners gave to actors, in turn, predicted changes in actors' perceived available support, indicating that people with compassionate goals create a supportive environment for themselves and others, but only if they do not have self-image goals.
Book
Contemporary theories have generally focused on either the behavioral, cognitive or emotional dimensions of prosocial moral development. In this volume, these three dimensions are brought together while providing the first comprehensive account of prosocial moral development in children. The main concept is empathy - one feels what is appropriate for another person's situation, not one's own. Hoffman discusses empathy's role in five moral situations. The book's focus is empathy's contribution to altruism and compassion for others in physical, psychological, or economic distress. Also highlighted are the psychological processes involved in empathy's interaction with certain parental behaviors that foster moral internalization in children and the psychological processes involved in empathy's relation to abstract moral principles such as caring and distributive justice. This important book is the culmination of three decades of study and research by a leading figure in the area of child and developmental psychology.
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To facilitate a multidimensional approach to empathy the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI) includes 4 subscales: Perspective-Taking (PT) Fantasy (FS) Empathic Concern (EC) and Personal Distress (PD). The aim of the present study was to establish the convergent and discriminant validity of these 4 subscales. Hypothesized relationships among the IRI subscales between the subscales and measures of other psychological constructs (social functioning self-esteem emotionality and sensitivity to others) and between the subscales and extant empathy measures were examined. Study subjects included 677 male and 667 female students enrolled in undergraduate psychology classes at the University of Texas. The IRI scales not only exhibited the predicted relationships among themselves but also were related in the expected manner to other measures. Higher PT scores were consistently associated with better social functioning and higher self-esteem; in contrast Fantasy scores were unrelated to these 2 characteristics. High EC scores were positively associated with shyness and anxiety but negatively linked to egotism. The most substantial relationships in the study involved the PD scale. PD scores were strongly linked with low self-esteem and poor interpersonal functioning as well as a constellation of vulnerability uncertainty and fearfulness. These findings support a multidimensional approach to empathy by providing evidence that the 4 qualities tapped by the IRI are indeed separate constructs each related in specific ways to other psychological measures.
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