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Putting a value on trees - CTLA guidance and methods

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Abstract

Arboriculturists and urban foresters frequently need to put a monetary value on amenity trees. There is interest in the UK in exploring various alternatives to currently familiar valuation methods. This paper describes the basic concepts of amenity, value, valuation and amenity value to provide a conceptual framework for valuation and a well documented context within which consider one specific valuation alternative: the CTLA guidance and methods developed for amenity tree valuation in North America. The CTLA guidance and methods are grounded in generally accepted principles of professional valuation practice, rely on readily available data and are well developed and ready to use. A Regional Plant Appraisal Committee (UKI-RPAC) has introduced supplemental guidance for the region.

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... Amenity trees are any that are not grown or managed for their value as a timber or other crop and that provide other benefits or values (Cullen, 2007). Examples include trees found in parks and other open spaces, or lining the sides of streets, railways, rivers and canals and in gardens. ...
... Examples include trees found in parks and other open spaces, or lining the sides of streets, railways, rivers and canals and in gardens. There are many reasons for wanting and needing to value amenity trees: for example, setting and justifying budgets (Cullen, 2007), calculating loss of amenity and replacement value following wilful or negligent damage of trees, and urban forest management planning and decision-making. Other reasons may include determining tree value and amenity status required for insurance claims (such as in subsidence cases), tax deductions, or real estate value contributions. ...
... Other reasons may include determining tree value and amenity status required for insurance claims (such as in subsidence cases), tax deductions, or real estate value contributions. In other words, valuation is a tool to provide the information required as a basis for rational decision-making (Cullen, 2007). However, with such a diverse range of decisions, the context and, therefore, the method for valuation varies. ...
Article
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Valuing amenity trees is important for calculating loss of amenity and replacement value following wilful or negligent damage, and for several aspects of urban forest management: planning, budget setting and decision-making. Capital Asset Value for Amenity Trees (CAVAT) is a tool for valuing amenity trees; it was first presented publicly in 2003. It includes two methods: the Full Method, which is used to provide a compensation replacement value for single trees; and the Quick Method, which is used to determine the value of a population of trees as an asset, for asset management purposes. CAVAT is widely adopted across the UK within local authority tree departments, and by major land-holding and transport organisations. It is also incorporated into the Joint Mitigation Protocol for use in the assessment of subsidence cases. This paper presents CAVAT for the first time in a formal publication. It describes the uses for which it has been designed, it comprehensively describes the methodology and shows where this deviates from similar valuation tools. Five case studies are presented as examples of its application and demonstration of its suitability-for-use. Finally, future potential developments that would facilitate wider use of CAVAT are also presented.
... Land in cities is generally a scarce resource that is used intensively, closely governed and if not, is strictly dictated by economic considerations (Cullen, 2007). However, it is becoming more apparent that a city must have adequate amenity spaces to make it liveable and sustainable (Grey & Deneke, 1986;Jim, 2003). ...
... Trunk formula method The trunk formula method (CTLA) is one of the most commonly used methodologies for estimating tree value. This method works on the assumption that benefits associated with a tree can be reproduced by replacing the tree and, therefore, replacement cost is an indication of value (Cullen, 2000(Cullen, , 2007. The trunk formula methodology is comprised of several factors involving tree size, species, condition and location, which are used to determine tree value. ...
... The Helliwell equation is as follows. The formula was adapted from Watson (2002) and Cullen (2007). ...
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This study compared estimated appraised value of trees using cost- and benefit-based approaches. Benefit-based appraisals provide estimates which highlight the relative contribution of different benefit types. Cost-based approaches are linked to regional market and nursery stock prices and/or tabulated through a point rating system with the inclusion of a monetary factor. The approaches used were the Council of Tree and Landscape Appraisers trunk formula, and the Helliwell approach. There were striking differences in the appraised value of the same trees (Albizia saman) between the two methods but this tended to be limited to trees of smaller girth sizes. The proposed benefit-based approach used in this study used a product score obtained through the rating of some 11 attributes/factors with no association to a monetary conversion factor (MCF). The same tree species used as in the cost-based methods were used in the benefit-based approach but this approach required the selection of four different specimens ranging from weak to highly desirable. The data collected showed that on each extreme end of the scale, there was some 98.6% difference in appraised value of trees. The key objective in the development of this proposed methodology was to allow for a rapid, effective decision-making process on tree removal and/or replacement for field arborists. Where the situation warrants a cost-based system for issues such as compensation, there are already established cost-based methodologies in place, which can serve this purpose. There is, therefore, no added advantage to introduce a new system with a MCF; rather a simplistic benefit-based methodology was an advantageous alternative. This provided fair and reasonable estimates of the value of trees by illustrating the relative contribution of the different benefits. Ultimately, the employment of both cost- and benefit-based methodologies may be necessary in some situations where a holistic approach is required for tree valuation. Although assigning a monetary value to a tree is based predominantly on the perception of the appraiser, establishing the value of trees is still fundamental to arboriculture and urban forestry. Without an estimate of tree value, there is little to motivate investment in tree management.
... En cambio, Contato-Carol et al. (2008) mencionan que los métodos suizo y finés ofrecen valores mayores; el CTLA fue mediano al igual que el modelo francés, mientras que el método de capitalización sería el más objetivo. Pero, Cullen (2007) cuestiona la fórmula del CTLA por ser subjetiva, debido a que los valores asignados a las variables producen diferencias estadísticamente significativas. Según Randrup (2005), los elementos que soportan las fórmulas se basan en diferentes modelos, los que varían en forma y valor final del árbol. ...
... In contrast, Contato-Carol et al. (2008) mention that the Swiss and Finn methods offer higher values; the CTLA was medium like the French model, while the capitalization method would be the most objective. But, Cullen (2007) questions the CTLA formula to be subjective, due to the fact that values assigned to variables produce statistically significant differences. According to Randrup (2005), the elements supporting the formulas are based on different models, those that vary in shape and final value of the tree. ...
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Urban trees contribute to environment through their biological and amenity functions, and are an economic and social value for cities, as well as a sustainability value. However, their value in monetary terms is difficult to quantify, it is given mainly by formulas, being a practice adopted in several cities. The objective of this study was to compare seven formulas used in ten municipalities of Chile (seven communes of the great Santiago: La Florida, La Pintana, Maipú, Ñuñoa, Peñalolén, Renca and Vitacura; and three cities: Antofagasta, Concepción and Talca), besides the formula of Council of Tree Landscape Appraiser (CTLA) USA. The formulas were applied to two trees of 14 species selected in different urban contexts in Talca, determining the differences and similarities of the monetary results of the appraisal. For the statistical analysis the Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric variance test and the Fisher’s least significant difference (LSD) test were used. The results show a wide dispersion of monetary values obtained by formula and per specie, with statistically significant differences in both cases. Only the formula of the municipalities Concepción, La Pintana and Maipú (COPIMA) has a similar performance to that of CTLA regarding the dispersion of the values obtained. The results are consistent with international studies that suggest the use of formulas to assess the urban trees, especially when including variables such as location, condition and amenities of the tree, as compared to those formulas of capitalization or those that are oriented only to assess damage. For Chile, the best formula recommended was that of COPIMA.
... These various formulas will indeed have different levels of acceptance and validity even within their country of origin. The Helliwell Method, for example, is accepted and regularly used in the UK, as is the CTLA Method in the U.S. and Canada (Cullen 2005;Cullen 2007). But even within these countries their acceptance is not complete among all legal contexts and by individual tree appraisers because of the variability in the range of estimated values (Watson 2001;Watson 2002). ...
... Contato-Carol et al. (2008) noted that the Swiss and Finnish Methods had higher values, while similar mid-range values were obtained with both the CTLA and French Methods, which are due to the inclusion of aesthetics and ornamental variables, as previously mentioned; although, in larger specimens, the CTLA Method presented higher values than did the French Method. The commonly used CTLA Method's validity has been questioned because of its subjectivity, which leads to statistically significant differences (Cullen 2007) and mid-range monetary values when compared with other formulas (Contato-Carol et al. 2008;Ponce-Donoso et al. 2012). Further, the CTLA Method showed lower values when compared to other methods, indicating the need to test the different methods outside their country of origin because extreme differences are not always obvious (Watson 2002). ...
Article
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Monetary valuation using urban tree appraisals can be performed with formulas, a common practice in many countries. This study compares twelve parametric type formulas: Amenity Valuation of Tree and Woodlands (Helliwell), Standard Tree Evaluation Method (STEM), French Method, Italian Method, Tedesco, Norma Granada, Trunk Replacement Formula (CTLA), Burn-ley Method, Danish Method, Swiss Method, and two Chilean formulas used in Municipalities of Concepción, La Pintana, and Maipú (COPIMA Method), and Peñalolén Method. Formulas were then applied to 30 trees located in Santiago, Talca and Concepción, Chile. Researchers used eight appraisers divided into two groups, according to senior-level and junior-level experience. Statistical differences were determined using the Kruskal-Wallis test of non-parametric variance , while Fisher's least significant difference test was used to identify homogeneous groups. The results show a wide dispersion of values that were high for " emblematic " trees and low for young or low-vigor trees. Formula, type of appraisers, and inter-appraiser differences formed nine, two, and three groups, respectively. The lowest-appraised trees were obtained using the Danish and French Method, while the highest values were obtained with the Burnley, Helliwell, and STEM formulas. Although there were differences in tree value according to the type of appraiser, when comparing difference among appraisers, researchers found these were not due to experience level. Given the wide range of values found, the study authors cannot recommend any specific formula(s) for assessing urban trees, as results will depend on the variables of interest used in the formulas and their intended application and use.
... Many methods exist for assessing the values of ecosystem services from trees and forests (Bateman et al., 2011), but only some of them are suitable for an urban context, where 'aesthetic' (Price, 2003), 'amenity' (Cullen, 2007) or 'ornamental' (Contato-Carol et al., 2008 ) aspects are more relevant . Typically, urban foresters and economists rely on three groups of methods (Price, 2003; Cullen, 2007; Contato-Carol et al., 2008): (1) hedonic pricing (HP); (2) compounded replacement costs; (3) parametric methods. ...
... Many methods exist for assessing the values of ecosystem services from trees and forests (Bateman et al., 2011), but only some of them are suitable for an urban context, where 'aesthetic' (Price, 2003), 'amenity' (Cullen, 2007) or 'ornamental' (Contato-Carol et al., 2008 ) aspects are more relevant . Typically, urban foresters and economists rely on three groups of methods (Price, 2003; Cullen, 2007; Contato-Carol et al., 2008): (1) hedonic pricing (HP); (2) compounded replacement costs; (3) parametric methods. The first group of approaches considers that, like other attributes, amenity values are a determinant of property prices, therefore their effect on the housing markets can be estimated through econometric models. ...
Article
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The Asian longhorned beetle (ALB), Anoplophora glabripennis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), is one of the most harmful invasive species in Europe and North America, causing enormous economic damage to broadleaved trees growing in urban parks and gardens. As a quarantine species, everywhere it has been introduced ALB has led to the application of expensive eradication programmes often associated with additional indirect costs due to the loss of ornamental value connected with the presence of trees in urban areas. The aims of this article are to quantify the impact of ALB in terms of tree mortality and their ornamental value during the first year eradication of an infestation in Northern Italy, and to perform an economic assessment of the eradication programme vs inaction. During the first year of eradication 367 ALB infested trees were removed from the infestation area at a total cost of about €48 000, comprising scientific advice (21 per cent), tree survey (38 per cent) and plant removal (41 per cent). The ornamental value of the infested trees was assessed at about €850 per tree. The ALB eradication programme allowed a reduction of 52 per cent of the damage expected in the following year, corresponding to an ornamental value of about €300 000. The ornamental value of the saved trees was ∼6 times higher than the costs for their protection.
... En cambio, Contato-Carol et al. (2008) mencionan que los métodos suizo y finés ofrecen valores mayores; el CTLA fue mediano al igual que el modelo francés, mientras que el método de capitalización sería el más objetivo. Pero, Cullen (2007) cuestiona la fórmula del CTLA por ser subjetiva, debido a que los valores asignados a las variables producen diferencias estadísticamente significativas. Según Randrup (2005), los elementos que soportan las fórmulas se basan en diferentes modelos, los que varían en forma y valor final del árbol. ...
... In contrast, Contato-Carol et al. (2008) mention that the Swiss and Finn methods offer higher values; the CTLA was medium like the French model, while the capitalization method would be the most objective. But, Cullen (2007) questions the CTLA formula to be subjective, due to the fact that values assigned to variables produce statistically significant differences. According to Randrup (2005), the elements supporting the formulas are based on different models, those that vary in shape and final value of the tree. ...
Article
Full-text available
Urban trees contribute to environment through their biological and amenity functions, and are an economic and social value for cities, as well as a sustainability value. However, their value in monetary terms is difficult to quantify, it is given mainly by formulas, being a practice adopted in several cities. The objective of this study was to compare seven formulas used in ten municipalities of Chile (seven communes of the great Santiago: La Florida, La Pintana, Maipú, Ñuñoa, Peñalolén, Renca and Vitacura; and three cities: Antofagasta, Concepción and Talca), besides the formula of Council of Tree Landscape Appraiser (CTLA) USA. The formulas were applied to two trees of 14 species selected in different urban contexts in Talca, determining the differences and similarities of the monetary results of the appraisal. For the statistical analysis the Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric variance test and the Fisher’s least significant difference (LSD) test were used. The results show a wide dispersion of monetary values obtained by formula and per specie, with statistically significant differences in both cases. Only the formula of the municipalities Concepción, La Pintana and Maipú (COPIMA) has a similar performance to that of CTLA regarding the dispersion of the values obtained. The results are consistent with international studies that suggest the use of formulas to assess the urban trees, especially when including variables such as location, condition and amenities of the tree, as compared to those formulas of capitalization or those that are oriented only to assess damage. For Chile, the best formula recommended was that of COPIMA. Key words: arboriculture,
... The observed high no of trees species retained or planted by the respondents is an indication that the people in the study area appreciates the ecosystem functions of trees around them and the capacity of trees to provide different goods and services to satisfy their economic and social needs. Similar observation has been reported by De Groot et., (2007) and Scott, (2007). ...
Article
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Amenity uses of landscape trees to mankind in terms of provision of healthy environment and other aesthetic values are sometimes greater than the monetary value of their marketable wood. This study assesses the diversity and distribution of trees used for amenity purposes in Ekiti State. A total of one hundred and sixty pre-tested questionnaires were randomly administered to respondents for collection of data. Results obtained revealed that Thirty one (31) different trees/shrubs are planted for amenity purposes in the study area with Ficus thonningii having the highest percentage of occurrence (10.51 %). These trees are mostly planted in schools (18.96 %), hospitals (17.63 %) and markets (16.91 %,) by the respondents across the study area to provide various economic, socio-cultural and environmental benefits. Considering the important role been played by these urban trees/shrubs in environmental amelioration, government should enact laws mandating estate developers to plant trees in their compound for urban greening.
... The important basis of a liveable city is good urban planning, in which there is as much green infrastructure with trees planted in the ground as possible [7]. While preserving existing trees and planting new ones is an effective way to reduce thermal stress in urban areas, via shading and evapotranspirational cooling [8][9][10][11][12][13], the aesthetic and recreational values of trees [14] contribute equally to human well-being [15]. Furthermore, an adequate amount of green surfaces can reduce noise pollution [8,16], break the monotony [2], and change the perception [6] of urban open spaces in densely built inner cities. ...
Article
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Urban spaces are often dominated by paved surfaces and ongoing processes of densification; consequently, intensifying the urban heat island effect. In order to strengthen the liveability of urban spaces, an adequate amount of green spaces is needed. Trees in planters are an alternative greening solution; however, the lack of root space due to underground infrastructure poses a challenge. Furthermore, temporal aspects such as tree growth, tree death, and growth responses to environmental factors are frequently overlooked in projects that use trees in planters. In multiple case studies that employ the method “Research through Drawing” we analyse five selected projects, which deal in sharply contrasting ways with the temporal aspects of trees in planters. Our results show that promising approaches exist, albeit they are not described explicitly in either written or graphical form. Consequently, temporal aspects are only vaguely considered in the projects’ design concept. This results in the neglect of the further use of trees in planters in temporary projects, or in the disregard for tree death in the design and responses to it in permanent projects. Therefore, the potential of trees in planters as an alternative and complementary greening solution remain unexploited. To overcome this, a coherent temporal approach that considers growth, death of plant parts or whole plants, and that is developed as an integral part of the design concept and communicated graphically, would ensure that the involved actors and their respective tasks are well coordinated throughout the lifetime of a project.
... • metoda CTLA -Guide for Plant Appraisal využívaná v USA jako oficiálně schválený nástroj pro územní plánování (Cullen 2007) -z této metody vychází také metodiky používané ve Slovinsku pro oceňování v lesnictví (Nižaradzeová 2009 Nákladové ocenění se používá jak pro odhad ekologické újmy ke kompenzaci (Kolařík a kol. 2018), tak pro aproximaci celospolečenské hodnoty dřevin (Pearce 2001); může tedy vyjadřovat obojí. ...
Technical Report
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Veřejně dostupná technická zpráva detailně popisuje inovovaný metodický postup. Zatímco inovovaná metodika oceňování dřevin AOPK ČR ve verzi k roku 2021 obsahuje především aktualizovaný postup ocenění, který je pro zachování přehlednosti textu pro uživatele komentován pouze stručně, komplexní podklady k metodice a inovaci metodického postupu pro rok 2021 jsou shrnuty ve veřejně dostupné Technické zprávě k Metodice oceňování dřevin rostoucích mimo les (verze 2021), která metodiku AOPK ČR (verze 2021) v tomto směru doplňuje. Technická zpráva je určena pro pokročilejší uživatele i širší odbornou veřejnost v oborech ochrany přírody, územního plánování, ekosystémových služeb, ekonomických nástrojů či environmentálního vzdělávání. Obsahuje informace nezbytné pro možné budoucí aktualizace metodiky. Text technické zprávy není zaměřen úzce pouze na metodiku AOPK ČR, ale zabývá se i tématy, která jsou řešena napříč ochranou životního prostředí, i napříč vědeckými obory a obory z praxe - tato témata tvoří rámec pro samotný metodický postup. ENG: Technical report accompanying the Methodology for non-forest woody plants appraisal including calculation of compensatory measures for felled or damaged woody plants NCA CR (version 2021); The publicly available technical report describes the updated methodological procedure in detail. While the updated methodology NCA CR on tree assessment (version 2021) contains mainly the updated valuation procedure, which is only briefly commented so that the text retains clarity, the comprehensive background to the methodology and the innovation of the methodological procedure for 2021 is summarised in the publicly available Technical Report on the Methodology for Valuation of Woody Plants Growing Outside Forests (version 2021), which complements the AOPK CR methodology (version 2021) in this respect. The Technical Report is intended for more advanced users and for the wider professional public in the fields of nature conservation, spatial planning, ecosystem services, economic instruments and environmental education. It contains information necessary for potential future updates of the methodology. The text of the technical report is not narrowly limited to the methodology itself, but addresses also broader topics relevant across environmental protection, as well as across various scientific and practitioner disciplines - these topics form the framework for the methodology itself.
...  Metodika oceňování okrasných rostlin na trvalém stanovišti (Bulíř, 2013), která vychází z Kochovy metody používané v Německu a Rakousku, kde je uznávána soudy pro náhrady škody na okrasných rostlinách (Ibid.),  metoda "CTLA -Guide for Plant Appraisal" využívaná v USA jako oficiálně schválený nástroj pro územní plánování (Cullen, 2007) -z této metody vychází také metodiky používané ve Slovinsku pro oceňování v lesnictví (Nižaradzeová, 2009),  nebo metoda "CAVAT -Capital Asset Value for Amenity Trees" používaná ve Velké Británii (Neilan, 2017 Nákladové ocenění se používá jak pro odhad ekologické újmy ke kompenzaci (Kolařík a kol., 2018), tak pro aproximaci celospolečenské hodnoty dřevin (Pearce, 2001). Celospolečenská hodnota dřeviny zahrnuje hmotné i nehmotné přínosy -např. ...
Article
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Pro oceňování dřevin rostoucích mimo les se v ČR velmi často využívá tzv. Metodika oceňování dřevin rostoucích mimo les AOPK ČR, a to zejména za účelem kompenzace ekologické újmy vzniklé při kácení či poškození dřevin. Příspěvek v úvodu shrnuje východiska této metodiky, která je založena na nákladovém ocenění. Podstatná část textu příspěvku představuje výsledky revize a aktualizace cen výpěstků stromů používaných v nákladovém způsobu oceňování. Diskutujeme vývoj charakteristických cen rostlinného materiálu pro různé skupiny taxonů a velikostní kategorie stromů. Výsledky revize cen budou využity pro úpravu nastavení cenové úrovně dřevin v příští aktualizaci Metodiky AOPK ČR. Development of prices of tree nursery products in the context of woody plants appraisal Summary The Methodology of woody plants appraisal by Nature Conservation Agency of the Czech Republic is a tool frequently used for assessment of plants growing out of forest, and in particular for compensation of environmental damage in case of plant felling or plant damage. The article briefly explains the foundation in cost-based assessment, and presents the results of revision of selected cost items in detail. We discuss the development of characteristic prices of plant material for taxon groups and size categories of trees. The results will be applied in the next revision of Methodology of NCA CR.
... Ideas and approaches to these paradigms were of course pioneered by the late Rodney Helliwell (1967Helliwell ( , 2008Helliwell ( , 2018, and this is a debate with which he would have undoubtedly engaged. Alternative approaches such as the CTLA (Council of Tree and Landscape Appraisers) guidance were presented by Cullen (2007) and debated at the amenity trees conference in the year preceding that; and the present author also responded to the debate (Price, 2007). ...
... Valuation formulas exist under the assumption that by making it exceedingly expensive to remove a tree, private landowners will find it less desirable (Nowak, 1993). Many cities around the world use these formulas, yet they vary widely in their assumptions and the data they use (e.g., CAVAT formula in the UK; CTLA formula in the US; see Cullen, 2007;Doick et al., 2018). Some compensatory value formulas have been updated using calculations of the economic value of the services provided by trees, but the vast majority of them are still based on willingness to pay methods, the cost of tree replacement, the value of a tree to its owner, or data based on amenity valuations generated by expert panels (Nowak et al., 2002). ...
Technical Report
Local government strategies and policies aimed at increasing tree planting and canopy-cover have become a familiar feature in many cities. However, the role of private urban land areas in a city’s ambitious plans to retain and increase the number of trees and canopy-cover is usually overlooked. In 2019, the University of Melbourne was funded by Horticultural Innovation Australia and partnered with a reference group of local experts, including academics, local government and industry partners, to investigate the mechanisms (regulations and incentives, or “sticks and carrots”) that cities have to retain, protect, and plant trees in private lands. This academic literature review forms the first milestone of this project. The review highlights the importance of private property rights and planning laws for determining how cities influence what happens to trees on private land. Most urban jurisdictions where private property comes with strong rights and planning laws based on a hierarchical, top-down model, cannot protect trees over an owner’s right to protect their interests which may involve tree removal. However, many Canadian, Australian, US, and European cities have created local laws to protect private trees from being removed or altered. These provisions include regulatory mechanisms, such as requiring tree removal permits, maintaining significant tree registries, applying compensatory value formulas, or requiring arborist reports or building standards, as well as educational and social mechanisms, such as sponsoring volunteer programs and tree-give-away programs. Some researchers have argued for jurisdictions to remove strict individual tree protections (i.e., those that protect specific trees to be removed, as in significant tree registries, or blanket laws that protect all trees from removal or alteration) because they are not effective. To support this, they have highlighted their limited coverage, such as exclusion of major land uses and medium/small trees, and the high approval rates of tree-removal permits. Enforcing existing regulations continues to be a challenge for many local governments. The effectiveness of existing regulations is dependent on the ability, willingness, and resourcing capacity of the authority that enforces it. Researchers have lauded the use of other mechanisms, such as education, to help protect trees in private lands. However, not only have these mechanisms not been described adequately, but their effectiveness has not been directly measured. Only a few empirical studies have assessed the effectiveness of tree-protection laws in terms of increased tree numbers or tree-canopy cover. The usual approach is to compare tree-cover or tree numbers among cities with and without these protections between two points in time. These studies have shown mixed results. In the US, tree-protection laws appear to be effective, which means that cities with tree-protections have increased or retained tree-cover over two points of time. However, in other contexts, tree protections are not as effective, since increased tree-cover cannot be explained solely by the effect of these protections. The different context of cities and the different types of tree-protection specifications makes this type of research difficult to conduct. This research will be complemented by a review of progressive case studies, mining information from non-academic sources, and by a synthesis of the opinions and experiences of international experts on the efficacy of tree-protection mechanisms through interviews and international workshops carried out in during 2019.
... subjetividad, lo cual puede tener como consecuencia estas diferencias en el ranking (Cullen, 2007), aspecto que estaría afectando su valor monetario. ...
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Evaluación de la fórmula que determina el valor monetario del arbolado urbano en Montevideo, Uruguay
... Hollis, 2007) also uses this. Hollis (2007) and Cullen (2007) contend that tree valuation should reflect accountancy norms. An asset which deteriorates with life or use (a "wasting asset") should not be valued at its full ("as new") replacement cost, because its period of remaining service is less than that of a new replacement. ...
Article
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CAVAT’s system for amenity tree valuation is based on planting cost, modified by size and several physical and aesthetic factors. It does not represent actual replacement cost. Its adaptation for aesthetic valuation is contentious, partly because of arguable subjective judgements. The supposed mental frame of valuers causes serious miscalculation of unit value, because installation cost is divided by current basal area, not predicted lifetime basal area. Deriving an “annual unit value” offers a way to circumvent this problem. Which basket of services is valued is unclear. The value offers a possible starting point in negotiating compensation, but not “a market price” for amenity trees. While some problems are endemic to expert valuations, others are specific to this system. Identifying them might help in revising the system, to provide a value both rational and reasonable.
... Já em áreas agrícolas, estas árvores são comummente abatidas para minimizar a sombra sobre os espaços de cultivo, e, assim, aumentar a produtividade dos mesmos. Neste contexto, atendendo quer à sua importância, quer às ameaças que vêm enfrentando nos últimos anos, a proteção destas árvores em sistemas antró-picos ou seminaturais tem sido um tópico amplamente discutido, recomendando-se diversas medidas que apoiam a sua conservação, nomeadamente: a) Identificação e proteção de árvores de grande porte e conjuntos arbóreos de interesse cultural e ecológico (Bäuerle & Nothdurft, 2011;Lindenmayer, 2016;Moga et al., 2016); b) Proibição do abate de conjuntos arbóreos compostos por árvores de grandes dimensões (Blicharska & Angelstam, 2010;Franklin & Johnson, 2012); c) Implementação de medidas que diminuam a mortalidade das ár-vores de grande porte já existentes e que promovam o crescimento a longo prazo das árvores de menores dimensões (Manning et al., 2013;Lindenmayer & Laurance, 2017); d) Retenção de árvores de grande porte em locais de grande pressão humana, tais como áreas de gestão florestal ou de produção agrícola monoespecífica (Kraus & Krumm, 2013); e) Aumento do conhecimento sobre a importância das árvores de grande porte, à escala global, introduzindo a sua proteção nos principais documentos políticos normativos (Convenção sobre a Diversidade Biológica, Convenção Europeia da Paisagem, Estratégia Florestal da União Europeia), ou mesmo através da criação de uma política global que oriente os diversos países no reconhecimento da importância destas árvores (Blicharska & Mikusinski, 2014) e na ação para a sua proteção; f) Valorização económica das árvores de grande porte e criação de incentivos para a sua proteção, com base na quantificação dos serviços dos ecossistemas prestados pelas mesmas (Cullen, 2007;Blicharska & Mikusinski, 2014;Doick et al., 2018); g) Inclusão de medidas de proteção de árvores que apresentem dimensões ou idade acima de determinados valores de referência definidos por espécie, e, na União Europeia, a sua inclusão na Diretiva Habitats como "Habitats de Interesse Comunitário", permitindo a proteção de árvores a uma escala transnacional e para lá do nível de espécime individual (Blicharska & Mikusinski, 2014). ...
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Humans are changing Earth’s biodiversity at unprecedent rates, mainly by destroying or degrading ecosystems. Large old trees can be both a symbol of cultures, as well as an ecosystem per se. They play essential ecological roles in e.g. hydrologic and micro/meso-climatic regimes, carbon storage and nutrient cycling while also providing habitat for a multitude of living organisms. They retain distinct structures such as cavities and large dead branches, usually called Tree-Related Microhabitats (TreMs) that are substrate to feed, roost, forage and nest for thousands of species. Microhabitat-bearing trees are key elements at the landscape scale since they can harbour many specialized species of flora and fauna, some of which endangered. Larger trees can support more biodiversity than their smaller relatives, since the amount and diversity of TreMs generally increases with the trees’ ‘diameter at the breast height’ (DBH). The intensity of this relationship changes when comparing different species, particularly among Central European deciduous and evergreen trees, where the former often reach higher TreMs diversity than the later. In Southern Europe, particularly in Portugal, there is a lack of information regarding the diversity, ecology and importance of large old trees and TreMs. Collect local knowledge on large old trees and TreMs is the baseline to support local planning measures and conservation strategies. In this study we aim to identify and characterize the diversity of large old trees existing in the municipality of Lousada. Specifically, we aim to a) identify and map large old trees and associated TreMs, and b) understand the spatial distribution of the drivers associated to the present TreMs diversity. So far, around 7200 trees were identified and are being characterized regarding several parameters (e.g. tree species, DBH, species origin and anatomy, management type, presence and type of TreMs). Preliminary results show that TreMs diversity generally increases with the tree’s DBH, although, it varies with tree’s species and its nativeness. On average, native deciduous trees (particularly Quercus robur), have higher TreMs diversity than evergreen ones (native and exotic) and than exotic deciduous species. Also, depending on the surrounding land use of the tree, pruning frequency has a significant effect on the diversity of TreMs.
... Existing and widespread tree assessment methods in Hungary include the Radó-method (Radó 1997), the Párkányi-method (Jószainé Párkányi 2007) and the so-called MFE method (Szaller 2013). International methods are sometimes utilized as well, including the Helliwell-method (Helliwell 2008), the S. T. E. M. method (Flook 1996), the Burnley-method (Moore 1991), the CAVAT-method ( Doick et al. 2018) and the CTLA Trunk Formula method (Guide for Plant Appraisal 2000;Cullen 2007). While these assessment systems are certainly useful for a wide variety of purposes, none of them is particularly useful for selecting the most significant specimens from a large number of trees. ...
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The protection of urban image and cityscape has become the target of professional attention in Hungary since the introduction of Urban Image Handbooks and urban image regulations. Trees are a major part of local image in Hungary. Using GIS methods we established that built-in areas are usually surrounded by sparsely wooded areas and groves, which are taller than the vast majority of buildings. Therefore, trees play a dominant role in shaping urban character. Effects of trees on urban living conditions, livability and the ecosystem services they provide, have been intensively researched in recent years. However, the role of individual trees in determining local image has been out of the focus of research. Although trees located on public property have been inventoried in past decades, information about their aesthetic properties and image value is scarce. In addition, there is an almost complete lack of knowledge regarding trees standing on private land, even though a large proportion of these are also visible from public areas, therefore having an impact on urban image. Tree protection regulations also fail to adequately address the topic. Identifying the individual trees with the most profound effect on the visual image of an urban area is a difficult task-not only due to of the lack of information, but also because there are no established methods for determining the aesthetic and image value of urban trees. At the Szent István University, Department of Landscape Protection and Reclamation, we attempted to develop a methodology to evaluate the importance of individual trees from the standpoint of urban image and streetscape, with District XXII of Budapest as the study area. Using a three-step method based on the analysis of aerial photographs and fieldwork, we identified the top 1% of all individual trees with the most dominant impact on the surrounding urban landscape-706 out of an estimated 70.000. We inventoried and analyzed several aspects of these trees and their environment (e.g. soil, condition, health). The results show that there is no direct connection between the urban image value of trees and their ecological, dendrological or nature conservation importance. Our research suggests that trees with the most profound impact on the cityscape are different from those with the highest ecological value. This makes it clear that efficient protection of urban image requires a new approach towards tree evaluation as well.
... Existing and widespread tree assessment methods in Hungary include the Radó-method (Radó 1997), the Párkányi-method (Jószainé Párkányi 2007) and the so-called MFE method (Szaller 2013). International methods are sometimes utilized as well, including the Helliwell-method (Helliwell 2008), the S. T. E. M. method (Flook 1996), the Burnley-method (Moore 1991), the CAVAT-method ( Doick et al. 2018) and the CTLA Trunk Formula method (Guide for Plant Appraisal 2000;Cullen 2007). While these assessment systems are certainly useful for a wide variety of purposes, none of them is particularly useful for selecting the most significant specimens from a large number of trees. ...
Article
The protection of urban image and cityscape has become the target of professional attention in Hungary since the introduction of Urban Image Handbooks and urban image regulations. Trees are a major part of local image in Hungary. Using GIS methods we established that built-in areas are usually surrounded by sparsely wooded areas and groves, which are taller than the vast majority of buildings. Therefore, trees play a dominant role in shaping urban character. Effects of trees on urban living conditions, livability and the ecosystem services they provide, have been intensively researched in recent years. However, the role of individual trees in determining local image has been out of the focus of research. Although trees located on public property have been inventoried in past decades, information about their aesthetic properties and image value is scarce. In addition, there is an almost complete lack of knowledge regarding trees standing on private land, even though a large proportion of these are also visible from public areas, therefore having an impact on urban image. Tree protection regulations also fail to adequately address the topic. Identifying the individual trees with the most profound effect on the visual image of an urban area is a difficult task-not only due to of the lack of information, but also because there are no established methods for determining the aesthetic and image value of urban trees. At the Szent István University, Department of Landscape Protection and Reclamation, we attempted to develop a methodology to evaluate the importance of individual trees from the standpoint of urban image and streetscape, with District XXII of Budapest as the study area. Using a three-step method based on the analysis of aerial photographs and fieldwork, we identified the top 1% of all individual trees with the most dominant impact on the surrounding urban landscape-706 out of an estimated 70.000. We inventoried and analyzed several aspects of these trees and their environment (e.g. soil, condition, health). The results show that there is no direct connection between the urban image value of trees and their ecological, dendrological or nature conservation importance. Our research suggests that trees with the most profound impact on the cityscape are different from those with the highest ecological value. This makes it clear that efficient protection of urban image requires a new approach towards tree evaluation as well.
... i-Tree Eco calculates the total tree replacement cost (i.e. the cost of having to replace each tree with a tree of similar size), following the CTLA (Council of Tree and Landscape Appraisers) methodology (Cullen, 2007). However, this is not equivalent to the "amenity value" of a tree, which is regarded in the UK as its contribution to enjoyment by the public, because of "rarity, cultural or historic value, its contribution to, and relationship with, the landscape"; or "its contribution to the character or appearance of a conservation area" 15 . ...
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This paper describes an i-Tree Eco tree survey successfully undertaken to support the community’s interest in its trees in Petersfield, Hampshire, UK using “citizen science” volunteers. It discusses the advantages and disadvantages of using a community approach, particularly with regards to use of volunteers, project management, cost and data quality. The paper makes recommendations for future i-Tree Eco surveys using citizen scientists. It identifies complementary data acquisition to support the needs of communities to understand their trees and the benefits they receive from them.
... The methods used to value the benefits and costs of trees vary greatly depending on the purpose of valuation, which can range from real estate assessment to damage claims evaluation (Cullen, 2007). A review by Roy et al. (2012) found that most studies valued urban trees using benefit-cost analysis (BCA, or CBA). ...
Article
Understanding the benefits provided by urban trees is important to justify investment and improve stewardship. Many studies have attempted to quantify the benefits of trees in monetary terms, though fewer have quantified the associated costs of planting and maintaining them. This systematic review examines the methods used to jointly analyse the costs and benefits of trees in the urban landscape, assesses the relative balance of benefits and costs, and attempts to understand the wide variation in economic values assigned in different studies. The benefits most frequently studied are those related to environmental regulation and property values, and the available data show that these usually outweigh the costs. Aesthetic, amenity, and shading benefits have also been shown to provide significant economic benefits, while benefits in terms of water regulation, carbon reduction and air quality are usually more modest. Variation in benefits and costs among studies is attributed largely to differences in the species composition and age structure of urban tree populations, though methodological differences also play a role. Comparison between studies is made difficult owing to differences in spatiotemporal scope, and in the way urban forest composition and demographic structure were reported. The overwhelming majority of studies concern deciduous trees in Northern America, and much less is known about urban forests in other regions, especially in the tropics. Future work should thus seek to fill these knowledge gaps, and standardise research protocols across cities. In light of ambitious goals in many cities to increase tree cover, ongoing advances in valuation methods need to provide a more comprehensive accounting of benefits and costs, and to better integrate economic assessment into the decision-making process.
... For the vitality and health assessment it was used condition system developed by the professional community, the Council of Tree and Landscape Appraisers (CTLA, 2000). The CTLA system (CTLA, 2000), is implemented in the various tree appraisal method and serve as a good tool for the valuation of plants (Cullen, 2007). It is a subjective assessment of the tree's structural integrity and health at the time of appraisal, given by trained and experienced professional who has been on site. ...
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Populus nigra L. is one of the rarest and most endangered tree species in Western and Central Europe. Its genetic diversity is of great importance in enabling a native riparian population to survive and reproduce under changing environmental conditions. The aim of this research was assessment of P. nigra viability in one of the best preserved riparian ecosystems in Europe, Special Nature Reserve “Gornje Podunavlje” (Upper Danube), Serbia. Additionally, the analysis of the genetic diversity was made to support the effective conservation in the future. During our study, we have mapped 931 P. nigra trees, which were used for the assessment of present native population. Furthermore, we used 14 microsatellite markers to assess the genetic structure of this this population. Viability assessment showed considerable occurrence of P. nigra in the research area, even though the results show fragmentation. P. nigra occurs mostly individually or in small groups of trees, and has a non-sustainable age structure due to insufficient or lacking regeneration. Despite the limited size of the studied population, the apparent overall genetic diversity was high (He = 0.759) and comparable to other known native populations of P. nigra along the Danube basin. However, the results also confirmed existence of recent bottleneck effect. Significantly positive and quite high Fis value (0.147) was noted, which may be ascribed to the “Wahlund effect” because of the population substructure that was revealed by the STRUCTURE analysis (K=2). Although results say that coverage of native stands is not so promising, most of selected trees within our research assessed showed good viability with potential for natural reproduction However, the problem is that suitable areas for natural seedling establishment are scarce and with that gene flow is probably limited. The fragmentation of the area must be reduced and isolated stands must be interlinked as there is need to create larger non-fragmented areas.
... Ti su izrazi ~esto u uporabi kao istozna~nice, ali ipak izme|u njih postoji razlika s obzirom na kontekst. Tako Cullen (2007) obja{njava da se izraz appraisal uglavnom koristi kao istozna~nica, ali ne mora nu`no ozna~avati monetarne vrijednosti, dok se evaluation u literaturi zna~enjem razlikuje od zna~enja valuation i predstavlja ocjenu fizi~kih obilje`ja te mo`e biti jedan korak u postupku vrednovanja. ...
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Urban forests provide multiple benefits whereas wood production is less important in comparison to benefits such as mitigating air pollution and heath island effect, providing fresh water or recreational opportunities to growing urban population (Konijnendijk 2000). However these benefits are usually non-marketable. There are several typologies of forest benefits (services), while Tyrväinen et al. (2005) brings typology of benefits and uses of urban forests and trees (Table 1). Putting value on urban forest benefits helps decision makers to make informed decisions about urban forests, ideally based on cost- benefit analysis. This is in line with concept of usable science, whereas scientific results can serve as valuable information to political actors in the process of deliberation (Stevanov et al. 2011). The purpose of this paper was to give a literature analysis related to valuation of non-marketable urban forest benefits. Search engine Science Direct gave 38 results covering the period 1997-2012, with 24 papers published in the last five years (Table 2). Qualitative analysis showed that the most common valuation methods were hedonic pricing method (HPC) and contingent valuation method (CVM), while meta-analysis, as one of benefit transfer methods, was rare (Table 2). These methods use urban residents’ stated or revealed wiliness to pay (WTP) for urban forest benefits. Selected papers addressed different types of urban forests (street trees, trees in the park, forests or recreation areas) or trees as element of open spaces. Majority of studies are published by authors from USA (13) and China (8). Urban forest located within range of up to 500 m significantly affected valuation, as well as type, size, free access or level of crime in the neighbourhood. Recreational benefits were most commonly valuated. Results of valuation studies have to be interpreted in context of limitations of each method applied. Valuation studies of urban forest benefits in Croatia are still rare. Growing urban population and other pressures negatively influence urban forests. Putting monetary values on them could help in their conservation. This paper may be helpful to researchers, urban planners, landscape architects, and other consumers of urban forest benefits. There is almost no such research in Croatia, which indicates need to put more emphasis on this type of research in future.
... ranada, Helliwell and STEM formulas. Donoso et al. (2012) show high values for the STEM method, low ones for the Burnley method and on average for CTLA. In contrast, Carol et al. (2008) mention that the Swiss and Finn methods offer higher values; the CTLA was medium like the French model, while the capitalization method would be the most objective. But, Cullen (2007) questions the CTLA formula to be subjective, due to the fact that values assigned to variables produce statistically significant differences. According to Randrup (2005), the elements supporting the formulas are based on different models, those that vary in shape and final value of the tree. McPherson (2007) uses a model based on profit ...
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Urban trees contribute to environment through their biological and amenity functions, and are an economic and social value for cities, as well as a sustainability value. However, their value in monetary terms is difficult to quantify, it is given mainly by formulas, being a practice adopted in several cities. The objective of this study was to compare seven formulas used in ten municipalities of Chile (seven communes of the great Santiago: La Florida, La Pintana, Maipú, Ñuñoa, Peñalolén, Renca and Vitacura; and three cities: Antofagasta, Concepción and Talca), besides the formula of Council of Tree Landscape Appraiser (CTLA) USA. The formulas were applied to two trees of 14 species selected in different urban contexts in Talca, determining the differences and similarities of the monetary results of the appraisal. For the statistical analysis the Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric variance test and the Fisher’s least significant difference (LSD) test were used. The results show a wide dispersion of monetary values obtained by formula and per specie, with statistically significant differences in both cases. Only the formula of the municipalities Concepción, La Pintana and Maipú (COPIMA) has a similar performance to that of CTLA regarding the dispersion of the values obtained. The results are consistent with international studies that suggest the use of formulas to assess the urban trees, especially when including variables such as location, condition and amenities of the tree, as compared to those formulas of capitalization or those that are oriented only to assess damage. For Chile, the best formula recommended was that of COPIMA.
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A cost–benefit analysis (CBA) is an economic approach to estimate the value of alternative programs, policies or management options. Net present value in CBA is one of the standard approaches to value the future benefits of investments. Due to the complexity of urban tree benefits, little is known about how to estimate the monetary value of the ecosystem services that urban trees provide as future benefits. We modeled the economic analyses of emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis) management scenarios for urban ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) in New Jersey. These scenarios include: (1) no infestation or baseline scenario, (2) infestation with no action, (3) immediate removal and replacement and (4) the treatment of ash trees. The net present value for each management option is calculated using discount rates of 0%, 2% and 5%. The National Tree Benefit Calculator (NTBC) tool is used to quantify the economic value of the ecosystem services provided by the ash trees based on their diameter at breast height (DBH) values. The horizon over which benefits and costs are calculated was set at up to 20 years to estimate the net present value of ash trees that have DBH values of 4 inches. Results from the NPV outputs conclude that across most discount rates, the treatment of ash trees provided greater dollar (USD) values of ecosystem services over time when compared to inaction or the removal and replacement of ash trees. The present research suggests that removing and replacing ash trees is not cost effective at any discount rate due to the high future costs associated with retaining the newly planted trees over a twenty-year time horizon.
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Economic valuation of urban trees is important for their management and to ensure that such trees are maintained and protected. However, numerous models for valuing urban trees are currently available, which has led to great variation in the final price. It has also resulted in multiple models being used within the same country, thus confusing the courts. Against this background, researchers examined whether the horizontal cross-sectional area of the tree should be used as the basis for extrapolating tree replacement cost in a linear fashion. Researchers also developed a model, the Linear Index of Tree Appraisal (LITA) model, which uses tree cross-sectional area to extrapolate from a band of known prices to a base price for any desired tree size, which can then be adjusted using an appropriate factor depending on tree vitality/damage. The LITA model is easy to use and to update, does not have any limitations concerning tree species or sizes, and does not rely on subjective judgments except in assessment of tree damage. It provides a simple method for determining the replacement cost of urban trees and is thus designed to work where 'soft' values are sometimes difficult to justify.
Chapter
During summer 2007, a research team went all around Portland, Oregon, visiting more than 3,000 homes. At each house, they counted the number of trees in the front yard and along the sidewalk. They wrapped a tape around each tree to measure its circumference, and visually assessed its condition. Actually, calling it a team is a bit too generous a description. As the paper wryly notes, “all the data collection was conducted by one student,” which might make this one of the more repetitive jobs a student might ever hold (Donovan and Butry 2010).
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Green infrastructure have been widely spread to counter the negative effects of urbanization. However, their economic feasibility still generates discussion between researchers, investors and suppliers, leading to the need for more accurate and case-specific cost-benefit analysis. This study pretends to analyze the economic feasibility of greening transport infrastructures, in particular road tunnels. The proposed methodology includes the life-cycle costs and benefits of green systems. Its incremental approach considers economic appraisal components (financial, economic and socioenvironmental) and transport infrastructures dimensions (infrastructure, user and surroundings). This study simulates five green case studies in underground passages of a roadway with high traffic intensity in Lisbon, Portugal. Four out of five scenarios are economically feasible using a life-cycle of 40–50 years and a discount rate of 4,8 %. The final net present values range from 33.961 to 5.079.356 €. Discount and inflation rates, financial costs, reduction of the noise inside the tunnels, creation of new functional areas and aesthetical improvements have great significant impact on projects’ economic return.
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La valoración del arbolado urbano es un tema a desarrollar porque contribuye a conocer más sobre el estado de la vegetación tanto por su valor individual como social y cultural. El árbol posee un gran valor patrimonial en las ciudades y es por ello que se lo considera como un elemento integrante de la infraestructura urbana. En la actualidad, bajo la perspectiva de la economía ambiental, se estudia el valor económico que poseen los árboles en las distintas localidades. El objetivo del presente trabajo es establecer una valoración económica del árbol en tres barrios de la ciudad de Bahía Blanca: Villa Mitre, Pacífico y Villa Miramar. Para ello se seleccionaron algunas especies arbóreas y se obtuvo el Valor Ambiental. Este indicador considera diferentes variables como por ejemplo la localización, la condición sanitaria, la excepcionalidad y algunos aspectos culturales. Los datos obtenidos fueron correlacionados con el valor de suelo inmobiliario de las propiedades de cada barrio lo que permitió obtener el Valor Ambiental Monetario. Junto con el valor de mercado del árbol según la especie se elaboró el Valor Ambiental Propietario. Como resultado se comprobó que el arbolado público de alineación genera un aporte sustancial al valor de la propiedad individual. Esto se observó principalmente en el Barrio Pacífico mientras que esta influencia fue menor en el Barrio Miramar. Fraxinus americano y Robinia seudo acacia var. umbraculífera fueron las dos especies que mayor contribución realizan en el valor delas propiedades en relación con las otras especies arbóreas seleccionadas.
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This paper provides a brief overview of the Arboricultural Journal from its inception in 1965 until 2015, with comments on some of the main topics, and thoughts on the development of arboriculture over this time, together with the role of the journal, both now and in the future. There were 163 issues of the journal over this period, and it has not been possible to mention every single item or topic, so the comments which follow are inevitably selective, and there may be some bias towards the subjects that have been of greatest interest to the reviewer or which appear to be of particular importance.
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La práctica de valoración del arbolado urbano llevada a cabo en contextos urbanos, se realiza habitualmente a través de la aplicación de fórmulas. El objetivo del estudio fue comparar los resultados monetarios obtenidos en la aplicación de 12 fórmulas, 2 chilenas y 10 de otros países, efectuadas por cuatro tasadores iniciados. Se tasaron 30 árboles en tres distintas comunas de Chile, Santiago, Talca y Concepción, generándose 1.440 datos. Los resultados fueron analizados utilizando análisis de varianza no paramétrico de Kruskal-Wallis y la prueba de comparación múltiple de mínima diferencia significativa de Fisher (DMS). Los valores más altos se obtuvieron con STEM, Helliwell y Burnley, mientras que valores medios se obtuvieron con Tedesco, N. Granada, COPIMA y M. Italiano, y valores menores con M. Peñalolén, M. Suizo, CTLA, M. Francés y M. Danés. Se encontró diferencia significativa entre las fórmulas, conformando seis grupos, y no entre tasadores. El valor base y la composición de la fórmula siguen teniendo un alto impacto en el resultado final de la valoración. El uso de la prueba estadística no paramétrica amplía el análisis de las fórmulas.
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The CTLA Trunk Formula Method is an industry-standard tool for appraising large trees. The goal of this study was to measure its precision in the field and to look for possible ways to improve the formula or its implementation. Fourteen certified arborists independently appraised the same ten trees, and the results of their appraisals were analyzed. This study focused on the attributes of Trunk Area, Species, Location, and Condition. In the results, the attributes with the highest variance among appraisers were Trunk Area and the Condition Rating. In the past, much of the variation among appraisers has been attributed to personal bias due to lack of experience, and it has been suggested that variance would decrease with experience. These results give evidence to the contrary - the group of appraisers with the highest variance was the group that performed appraisals most frequently. The most valuable information from this study was the identification of four key elements of error involved in the appraisal process: personal value error, personal observation error, measurement error, and systematic error.
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Heritage trees in cities represent special natural-cum-cultural assets of cities. They could contribute substantially to the quality of urban life and social welfare through the provision of an array of biological, aesthetical, environmental, and cultural benefits. The conservation of this rare and unique natural asset is a challenging endeavor in developing countries, such as China, where the intense pressures of rapid urbanization must be confronted. There is an urgent need to present these trees to the public in a way which reflects their true value to society. The present study estimated public willingness-to-pay (WTP) for the conservation of heritage trees in Guangzhou, south China by applying the contingent valuation method (CVM). The results revealed that the mean WTP was about RMB24.67 per household for common heritage tree species (with a 95% confidence interval of RMB17.46 to RMB31.88), and RMB31.26 per household for rare heritage tree species (with a 95% confidence interval of RMB21.60 to RMB40.97), respectively. Public WTP is insensitive to the rarity status of some heritage tree species, indicating that all old trees are considered as a special rare natural resource, and that there is also a general lack of publicity of the endangered status of those old trees. Analysis also showed that although people could ascribe high importance to the special cultural and biological values of urban heritage trees, it is the overall value of heritage trees, particularly the recreational value, that determines respondents’ decision ‘to pay’ or ‘not to pay’ for their conservation. This recognition of the importance of various values has no impact on respondents’ decision about ‘how much to pay’. Income level is the only significant socioeconomic variable in WTP function, indicating that respondents’ decision about ‘how much to pay’ is mainly based on their economic resources. Thus, it is necessary to foster public environmental awareness and responsibility in order to link individual moral obligation with conservation behavior in educational processes.
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La valoración del arbolado urbano es una práctica adoptada en diversas ciudades del mundo. Este estudio comparó las fórmulas internacionales de Council of Tree and Landscape Appraiser (CTLA), Burnley, Helliwell y Standard Tree Evaluation Method (STEM), y tres chilenas que se aplican en los municipios de Concepción, La Pintana y Maipú (COPIMA), Ñuñoa y Peñalolén, en 14 árboles diferentes, ubicados en la ciudad de Talca (Chile). El objetivo fue identificar las diferencias y similitudes del resultado monetario de estas fórmulas, realizada por un único profesional. Fueron analizados utilizando la prueba de varianza no paramétrica de Kruskal–Wallis y la prueba de comparación múltiple de Duncan. Se concluyó que las fórmulas chilenas no presentaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas con las fórmulas internacionales de Burnley y CTLA; mientras que la de Peñalolén y COPIMA no la tuvo con Helliwell. Por su parte, la fórmula STEM es la que presentó diferencias con todas las fórmulas chilenas analizadas. En la valoración por árbol se obtuvieron diferencias estadísticamente significativas, independientemente de la fórmula utilizada, siendo la excepción cuando corresponde a especies emblemáticas o destacan en alguna amenidad. Asimismo, se observó que el valor base sigue teniendo un alto impacto en el resultado final de la valoración y el uso de la prueba estadística no paramétrica amplía el análisis de las fórmulas.
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Las concentraciones de carbono (C) total y en la biomasa microbiana del suelo (CBMS), y la respiración basal del suelo (RBS) en bosques templados naturales (testigo) y rodales con aprovechamiento (después de uno y 20 años de la extracción), fueron determinadas en dos regiones (seca y húmeda) con bosques templados en Oaxaca, México, con el fin de explorar efectos del manejo en la dinámica de las fracciones biológicamente activas de la materia orgánica del suelo. Los valores medios de C-total fueron mayores en la región seca que en la húmeda. La mayor cantidad de precipitación media anual produjo menor RBS, pero tuvo efectos inconsistentes en la concentración de CBMS dependiendo de la cantidad de lluvia en el año de muestreo. En la región seca, el CBMS fue mayor en la estación seca que en la de lluvias y la RBS mayor en los suelos recolectados en la estación de lluvias que en aquellos recolectados en la seca. El aprovechamiento disminuyó las concentraciones de C-total y de CBMS, y la RBS. En la región húmeda, la estacionalidad en las lluvias no afectó la concentración de CBMS ni la RBS. En esta región, la principal respuesta al raleo del bosque fue el aumento en la concentración de C-total. Se concluye que los almacenes de carbono en el suelo y los efectos del raleo del bosque en las fracciones activas de la materia orgánica del suelo variarán dependiendo de los detalles en la cantidad de lluvia que recibe el sitio anualmente.
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The appraisal of urban trees is a practice adopted in diverse cities of world. This survey compared international formulae: Council of Tree Landscape Appraiser (CTLA), Burnley, Helliwell and Standard Tree Evaluation Method (STEM) and three Chilean methods applied in municipalities of Concepción, La Pintana, Maipú (COPIMA), Ñuñoa and Peñalolén, in 14 different trees located in Talca city (Chile). The objective was to identify the differences and similarities of the monetary result in the application of these formulae, which was realized by a professional. These were analyzed using a non parametric variance test of Kruskal – Wallis and the multiple comparisons Duncan test. It was possible to determine that the Chilean formulae did not present statistically significant differences with the international formulae of Burnley and CTLA; whereas Peñalolén and COPIMA formulae did not present any difference when contrasted with Helliwell. In addition, the STEM formula presented differences with all the Chilean analyzed formulae. In the valuation by tree, statistically significant differences were obtained, which showed the independence of the used formula. The exception was when being applied to emblematic species or to species that stand-out in some amenity. Likewise, it was observed that the basic value continues having a high impact in the appraisal final result and the use of the statistical test applied allows extending this type of analyses.
Article
Some of the benefits gained from applying a rigour of process to tree valuation could be exported to wider forms of tree appraisal in the UK, such as development site surveys. Indeed, surveyors may already use depreciation methods intuitively, but unconsciously, on development sites. The advantage of unconscious usage is that practitioners have a pre-existing familiarity with these broader appraisal methods; the disadvantage of unconscious practice is that the process remains unfocussed and lacking in internal coherence—no ‘grammar’ of process. Alignment with more universal methods of quality categorisation than those currently employed in UK practice (i.e. British Standard 5837: 2005 Trees in relation to construction), could lead to a greater transparency of process and greater consistency in consultants' reports. Cross-fertilisation with more disciplined appraisal techniques, such as CTLA's Trunk Formula Method (TFM), is proposed, rather than straight substitution by them. A full TFM appraisal may be too detailed an exercise for each individual tree on a development site; nor is the financial valuation of each tree proposed. Rather, the proposal is that the TFM depreciation factors (Species, Condition, Location) inform the future review of BS5837's quality categorisation process, imparting to it, the basic grammar that is currently lacking. Tree officers could also develop this grammar to more readily justify Tree Preservation Order designations, beyond essentially visual criteria, and through the addition of the monetary factors, when seeking high-level fines. Despite 40 years of amenity tree valuation in the UK, arboriculturalists remain singularly unversed in the broader appraisal language. Familiarisation with and adaptation of CTLA methods, which draw upon this grammar, could help expose arboriculturalists to the language and allow them to communicate valuations more universally to the other professions and industries to which arboriculture must increasingly relate.
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Street trees, and especially urban street trees, provide major services to people and places. They generate local character and distinctiveness and add value to properties, and increase the desire to live or work in a particular locale. Not only that but they improve quality of life and they benefit human health. We even know now that these trees help climate-proof our urban centres by lowering summer temperatures up to several degrees, by attenuating storm-generated runoff and minimising flood risk, and by removing particulates and other pollutants from the city atmosphere. But such urban street trees are at risk and with likely cuts in UK local government services, the threats will soon increase dramatically. These trees, especially in an urban environment are stressed and require care and attention and their champions are often local government tree officers. This provision of service costs money and necessitates well-qualified professional support. However, observations in a number of conurbations over thirty years or more, and discussions with senior tree officers, suggests that local government and other responsible bodies often prefer to remove trees which they deem to be problematic. Generally this means those now mature forest trees that were planted by Victorian and Edwardian developers. This action is in order to minimise maintenance costs, to avoid damage to pavements, and to resolve other potential problems that officers, elected members, or the public associate with the older and bigger trees. Of course in urban areas there is the additional problem that these big trees were not planted in optimum conditions and the ambient environmental stresses sometimes but by no means always lead to premature decline. There are many examples of excellent practice in urban street tree management but one worries about the future in a DIY ?Bigger Society? scenario. Professional practice must be maintained even in the face of intransigent economic issues affecting both public and private sectors. The marked decline in arboricultural practitioners taking up options of professional training is a clear indication of the depth of the economic impacts of the downturn. However, it is argued that these trees bring huge benefits to a community and to a conurbation and that this includes enhanced economic prosperity. The problem with this is that the costs are borne by local government which is increasingly cash-strapped, but the benefits which accrue are to local business and to the community at large. The cost and the benefits are not placed with the same organization and so to transfer the financial incentive to maintain the resource there needs to be a movement of tax revenues to the service provider. This is not what central government will wish to hear.
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The following survey of the non-market valuation literature was undertaken as part of the Houston Advanced Research Center’s Valuing Nature in Texas Program, an ongoing research initiative to demonstrate the intangible but real economic value provided by the natural environment in the state of Texas. In Texas as elsewhere, nature is often overlooked in planning and development decisions. Decision-making processes associated with the environment and natural resources are typically complex, and rarely based solely on economic considerations; indeed economics is but one of many factors – such as social, cultural, political and religious considerations as well as personal beliefs and values– that may play a role in decisions about how development occurs and nature is utilized. Nevertheless, it is also often the case that economics is a central if not the defining aspect of many such decisions. Dollar values can often provide a common unit of measure, and if crucial economic information and data are absent, the effectiveness of decision-making process can be greatly impaired. Thus, an important challenge to more widespread recognition of many important ecological goods and services in decision making is the lack of information and understanding regarding their economic value. The Valuing Nature in Texas program is a response to this challenge. Using innovative applications of a variety of non-market valuation techniques, the program seeks to provide economic representation of the ecosystem, and help decision-makers achieve more effective stewardship and preservation of some of the state's most unique natural resources. 1. INTRODUCTION 2. CONTINGENT VALUATION a. OVERVIEW i. History ii. Method iii. Survey Techniques b. PROS AND CONS c. ADDRESSING METHODOLOGICAL CHALLENGES d. APPLICATION TO URBAN HABITAT e. APPLICATION TO INSTREAM WATER f. CONTINGENT VALUATION REFERENCES 3. HEDONIC PRICING a. OVERVIEW i. History ii. Method b. PROS AND CONS c. ADDRESSING METHODOLOGICAL CHALLENGES d. APPLICATION TO URBAN HABITAT e. APPLICATION TO IN-STREAM WATER f. SEPARATING BUNDLED NON-MARKET BENEFITS AND COSTS g. HEDONIC PRICING REFERENCES 4. TRAVEL COST a. OVERVIEW i. History ii. Method b. PROS AND CONS c. ADDRESSING METHODOLOGICAL CHALLENGES d. APPLICATION TO URBAN HABITAT e. APPLICATION TO INSTREAM WATER f. TRAVEL COST REFERENCES 5. COMBINED APPROACHES a. COMBINED APPROACHES REFERENCES 6. INCORPORATING GEO-SPATIAL DIFFERENTIATION a. GEO-SPATIAL REFERENCES
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An increasing amount of information is being collected on the ecological and socio-economic value of goods and services provided by natural and semi-natural ecosystems. However, much of this information appears scattered throughout a disciplinary academic literature, unpublished government agency reports, and across the World Wide Web. In addition, data on ecosystem goods and services often appears at incompatible scales of analysis and is classified differently by different authors. In order to make comparative ecological economic analysis possible, a standardized framework for the comprehensive assessment of ecosystem functions, goods and services is needed. In response to this challenge, this paper presents a conceptual framework and typology for describing, classifying and valuing ecosystem functions, goods and services in a clear and consistent manner. In the following analysis, a classification is given for the fullest possible range of 23 ecosystem functions that provide a much larger number of goods and services. In the second part of the paper, a checklist and matrix is provided, linking these ecosystem functions to the main ecological, socio–cultural and economic valuation methods.
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Revitalization programs are under way in many inner-city business districts. An urban forestry program can be an important element in creating an appealing consumer environment, yet it may not be considered a priority given that there are often many physical improvements needs. This research evaluated the role of trees in consumer/ environment interactions, focusing on the districtwide public goods provided by the community forest. A national survey evaluated public perceptions, patronage behavior intentions, and product willingness to pay in relationship to varied presence of trees in retail streetscapes. Results suggest that consumer behavior is positively correlated with streetscape greening on all of these cognitive and behavioral dimensions. Research outcomes also establish a basis for partnerships with business communities regarding urban forest planning and management.
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This is a (favourable) review of my book "Time, Discounting and Value", published more than 25 years ago. Another review has described the book as "woefully under-recognised". I can offer a free electronic copy of the book, should anyone wish to e-mail me at c.price@bangor.ac.uk.
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Organisations involved with nature protection or the conservation of biodiversity are generally interested in wildlife and in meeting the requirements of legislation on biodiversity. Recently, organisations such as English Nature, the government agency responsible for biodiversity protection in England, have been given responsibility to obtain data on how the environment contributes to people's social well-being and quality of life. In urban landscapes, particularly those that have been disturbed by large-scale industrial processes, natural areas defined in strict ecological terms hardly exist. In Britain there is a significant amount of land that has been disturbed to a greater or lesser degree over the last 200 or more years as a result of many industrial processes. Much of this land has been recycled for other uses including agriculture, housing, industry, open space, parks and woodlands. In some places natural regeneration into early successional woodland has taken place but usually quite a heavy series of interventions such as reshaping of the land, drainage, the addition of soil or soil forming materials and planting of trees and shrubs have been the preferred methods of restoration to woodland (Moffat 1997). In a number of areas in Britain industrial or extractive land uses have been located in rural areas where the restoration has been able to create links with other woodlands existing in the landscape.
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The 3-year Chicago Urban Forest Climate Project examined how trees affect these components of the regional urban ecosystem. The region`s tree cover has increased from a presettlement level of about 13 percent to nearly 20 percent today. There are an estimated 50.8 million trees in the region; 66 percent in good or excellent condition. The trees tend to be small; 77 percent less than 15 cm d.b.h. Street trees are only 10 percent of the city`s trees, but 24 percent of leaf surface area because they are typically larger than off-street trees. During 1991, the region`s trees removed an estimated 6,145 tons of air pollutants, providing air cleansing worth $9.2 million. Each year they sequester an estimated 315,800 metric tons of carbon and provide residential heating and cooling energy savings that, in turn, reduce carbon emissions from power plants by 12,600 tons annually. Increasing tree cover 10 percent or planting about three trees per building lot is estimated to save annual heating and cooling costs by $50 to $90 per dwelling unit once the trees mature. The net present value of services trees provide is estimated as $38 million, or $402 per planted tree. The present value of long-term benefits are more than twice the present value of costs.
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Methods for the valuation of visual amenity are very briefly discussed, including the possible relevance of using costs as a basis for calculating values. Other amenity values which may be derived from trees and woodlands, such as shelter, shade, biodiversity, pollution control, and flood alleviation are also briefly considered. The basis for the Helliwell System for the visual amenity valuation of trees and woodlands is then described, and comparison made with other methods, including the Council of Tree and Landscape Appraisers (CTLA) approach. Current thoughts on the way forward for such methods are outlined.
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A multistudy research program has investigated how consumers respond to the urban forest in central business districts of cities of various sizes. Trees positively affect judgments of visual quality but, more significantly, may influence other consumer responses and behaviors. Survey respondents from all regions of the United States favored trees in business districts, and this preference was further reflected in positive district perceptions, patronage behavior, and product pricing. An overview of the research is provided, with implications for the economics of local communities.
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This paper is a review of research in Chicago that linked analyses of vegetation structure with forest functions and values. During 1991, the regions trees removed an estimated 5575 metric tons of air pollutants, providing air cleansing worth 9.2 million. Each year they sequester an estimated 315 800 metric tons of carbon. Increasing tree cover 10% or planting about three trees per building lot saves annual heating and cooling costs by an estimated 50 to 90 per dwelling unit because of increased shade, lower summertime air temperatures, and reduced neighborhood wind speeds once the trees mature. The net present value of the services trees provide is estimated as 402 per planted tree. The present value of long-term benefits is more than twice the present value of costs.
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Since the late 1960s, the valuation of ecosystem services has received ample attention in scientific literature. However, to date, there has been relatively little elaboration of the various spatial and temporal scales at which ecosystem services are supplied. This paper analyzes the spatial scales of ecosystem services, and it examines how stakeholders at different spatial scales attach different values to ecosystem services. The paper first establishes an enhanced framework for the valuation of ecosystem services, with specific attention for stakeholders. The framework includes a procedure to assess the value of regulation services that avoids double counting of these services. Subsequently, the paper analyses the spatial scales of ecosystem services: the ecological scales at which ecosystem services are generated, and the institutional scales at which stakeholders benefit from ecosystem services. On the basis of the proposed valuation framework, we value four selected ecosystem services supplied by the De Wieden wetlands in The Netherlands, and we analyze how these services accrue to stakeholders at different institutional scales. These services are the provision of reed for cutting, the provision of fish, recreation, and nature conservation. In the De Wieden wetland, reed cutting and fisheries are only important at the municipal scale, recreation is most relevant at the municipal and provincial scale, and nature conservation is important in particular at the national and international level. Our analysis shows that stakeholders at different spatial scales can have very different interests in ecosystem services, and we argue that it is highly important to consider the scales of ecosystem services when valuation of services is applied to support the formulation or implementation of ecosystem management plans.
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Anoplophora glabripennis Motschulsky, a wood borer native to Asia, was recently found in New York City and Chicago. In an attempt to eradicate these beetle populations, thousands of infested city trees have been removed. Field data from nine U.S. cities and national tree cover data were used to estimate the potential effects of A. glabripennis on urban resources through time. For the cities analyzed, the potential tree resources at risk to A. glabripennis attack based on host preferences, ranges from 12 to 61% of the city tree population, with an estimated value of $72 million-$2.3 billion per city. The corresponding canopy cover loss that would occur if all preferred host trees were killed ranges from 13-68%. The estimated maximum potential national urban impact of A. glabripennis is a loss of 34.9% of total canopy cover, 30.3% tree mortality (1.2 billion trees) and value loss of $669 billion.
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This paper presents a new approach to study the optimal rotation policy with amenity valuation under uncertainty. We first postulate the stochastic forest value and assume plausibly that monetary value of amenities is a continuous and non-negative function of forest value thus presenting the trade-off between timber revenues and amenity values. Second, instead of using a dynamic programming approach, we derive a recursive representation of the total forest value and solve the optimal rotation threshold by applying ordinary non-linear programming techniques. Third, we characterize under certain set of conditions how the properties of both the expected cumulative value and the expected marginal cumulative value, accrued from amenity services, depend on the precise nature of the monetary valuation of amenities and what is the impact of volatility on these concepts. Finally, we illustrate our results explicitly in models based on logistic growth by focusing on the role of amenity valuation and volatility of forest value in the determination of Wicksellian and Faustmannian thresholds. Our theoretical and numerical findings emphasize the crucial importance of the nature of amenity valuation for the impact of higher volatility of forest value on the rotation thresholds.
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Various aspects of consultancy work, including the need for expertise, independence, and impartiality, are considered in the context of fee rates, tendering, and the consultant: client relationship.
Article
Various individual tree appraisal methods emerged during the first half of the 20th century. Development of North American industry consensus methods was undertaken in 1947. These methods have been refined and elaborated, and additional guidance has been provided in subsequent revisions. Appraisers and appraisal users, however, are not always aware of the most current methods and guidance and may, unknowingly, rely on outdated versions. The purpose of this paper is to provide an accurate and quick reference to the chronology of North American industry-wide consensus methods and guidance for tree and plant appraisal. The differences among methods, guidance, and standards are also explained.
Article
Values produced by formula methods of tree appraisal used in five different countries were compared (CTLA)-United States, Standard Tree Evaluation Method (STEM)-New Zealand, Helliwell-Great Britain, Norma Granada-Spain, and Burnley-Australia). Nine individuals appraised the same six trees using all five methods. The CTLA and Helliwell methods consistently produced the lowest values, and the Norma Granada method values were most often the highest. There was a strong relationship between variation among appraisers and the mathematical operations used in calculating the formula values. The Helliwell method, which multiplies all of the rated factors together, consistently produced the highest variation among appraisers. STEM, which adds all the factors together, consistently produced the lowest variation among appraisers. Minimizing the number of multiplication operations used in the formulas is an effective way of reducing appraiser variation, but in doing so, the influence of individual factors may be diminished too much.
Article
The emerald ash borer (EAB), a phloem-feeding beetle native to Asia, was discovered killing ash trees in southeastern Michigan and Windsor, Ontario, in 2002. Like several other invasive forest pests, the EAB likely was introduced and became established in a highly urbanized setting, facilitated by international trade and abundant hosts. Up to 15 million ash trees in urban and forested settings have been killed by the EAB. Quarantines in the United States and Canada restrict the movement of ash trees, logs, and firewood to prevent new introductions. Research studies are underway to assist managers leading eradication and containment efforts. Long-term efforts will be needed to protect ash in urban and forested settings across North America.
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Article
Recent research into the effects of woodland on the value of property is presented. Reviews of techniques available to measure the amenity value of trees are followed by a brief description of the data sources and the hedonic price method (HPM); the analytical technique adopted in the study. The results of the study are then outlined. The paper concludes with a brief discussion which places the amenity value of trees in context. Résumé On présente des recherches récentes sur les effets de la forêt claire sur la valeur des propriétés. On passe en revue les techniques dont on dispose pour mesurer la valeur des arbres en tant qu'agrément et l'on donne ensuite une description des sources des données et de la méthode du prix hédonique (HPM): la technique analytique choisie pour l'étude. Par la suite on ébauche les résultats de l'étude. L'article se termine par une discussion sommaire qui met en contexte la valeur des arbres en tant qu'agrément. Sumario Se presenta una reciente investigación de los efectos del arbolado sobre el valor de una propiedad. La revisión de las técnicas disponibles para medir el valor de amenidad de los árboles es seguido por una breve descripción de los recursos de datos y el método de precio hedónico (HMP), la técnica analítica adoptada en este estudio. Se esbozan los resultados del estudio. El trabajo concluye con un breve tratamiento que coloca el valor de amenidad de los árboles en su contexto.
Article
Pre-planning tree surveys involve the collection of information to help designers incorporate existing trees into development layout design. Their use to date and the essential features of a model method are discussed. Such a method will clearly identify the role of the surveyor and the nature of the subjective information required. Other essential features include ease of data collection/interpretation and adaptability for use in a wider arboricultural context. Initially there should be two stages of professional arboricultural input to ensure that trees are effectively considered in the planning process. For 12 years preplanning tree surveys have been modelled around the British Standards (BS) method (BS 5837—Trees in Relation to Construction) despite it not satisfying these obvious requirements.An updated method of pre-planning tree assessment is proposed based on Safe Useful Life Expectancy (SULE). Guide-lines are suggested for how this method will be used in practice. It is suggested that the time has come for a natural progression from the existing BS 5837 method to a modification based on SULE.
Article
People's values and ways of viewing and interpreting the world around them provide the framework in which they assess and describe their use of woodlands and debate and understand wider environmental issues. Publics' values for woodlands and trees are a key element of sustainable forest management, as values underlie people's actions and behaviour and, without a greater understanding and awareness of this, organizations will often continue to experience conflict over management. The research described in this paper focuses on the social and cultural values of woodlands and trees in both urban and rural areas in the north-west and south-east of England. Using a qualitative methodology, in-depth discussion groups were held with a range of respondents from different socio-economic backgrounds to discuss people's relationships and interactions with woodlands. The analysis of the discussion group data highlights a number of major themes. These themes include publics' feelings of well-being gained from using and viewing woodlands, conflict and confusion over what is viewed as anti-social behaviour and issues concerned with who owns land. The themes also highlight the importance of education and learning about the environment, people's sense of personal and community identity in relation to woodlands as well as issues of management for conservation, economic and public benefit. The research helps to describe and explain the ways in which woodlands and trees are perceived and used within contemporary society. Implications for future policy development are explored, emphasizing the need for effective public participation, the importance of addressing people's safety worries, the significance of education in a multi-sensory environment and the importance and meaning of place.
Article
In 1989, the Danish Parliament announced a forest policy goal to double the forest area within 60–100 years. One of the objectives of this policy was to improve the recreational possibilities for the urban population. Therefore, focus has been on enhancing public afforestation projects close to urban centres with little nearby forest. We know from previous research that mature local forests possess significant amenity values; the question is whether this is also true for afforestation projects. This study examines the residents’ willingness to pay (WTP) for proximity to urban-fringe afforestation projects, using a hedonic pricing approach to estimate the effect on house prices in the neighbourhood of two afforestation projects. In both cases a significant increase in house prices in the time of afforestation is found; an increase the larger the closer the house is to the new forest. The study also examines the role of property taxes when the rise is proportional to house prices. The increased annual property tax people expect and are willing to pay in addition to the premium on the house value has to be included in the analysis to avoid serious misestimation of the total welfare economic implications of the afforestation.
Article
All the usual methods for valuing non-market benefits and costs may be applied to the aesthetic values of urban trees. However, evaluation has most usually been undertaken by one of two apparently dissimilar methods. The expert approach uses a mixture of measurement and judgement. Different versions of the approach have different quantitative input, produce divergent results, and theoretical justifications of their cash value are lacking. The hedonic approach attempts to derive cash values from house prices. Here too problems of quantification arise, in choice of appropriate variables, in the form of relationships and in interaction of variables. An approach using the human eye's ability to synthesise disparate variables may overcome these problems, but there remain problems of collinearity between environmental and demographic variables. At least explicit recognition of judgement in the process allows open discussion of these problems.
Article
The environmental and economic benefits of trees have been studied relative to a variety of interests including their influence on real estate value. This study investigates the effect of trees and landscaping on office rental rates, based on a comparison of 85 office buildings that comprise 270 individual and unique leases in the Cleveland, Ohio, U.S., metropolitan area. Data that describe the quantity, functionality, and quality of landscaping were gathered from each of the buildings including landscape maturity, the percentage of ground cover (trees, turf, pavement, etc.), and functional attributes (building shade, noise buffer, space definition, recreation, visual screen, and aesthetics). Multiple regression analysis in the form of a hedonic equation was conducted to isolate the economic effects of landscaping. Office attribute data including lease information, physical attributes, and distance variables were used to calibrate the basic model, and landscaping data were added to the hedonic equation to determine if individual and/or interactive variables had any effect on contracted rental rates. The individual analysis of the variables showed a strong positive effect for those buildings with good landscaping aesthetics and building shade provided by trees. Conversely, landscaping that provides a good visual screen produced significant negative impacts on rental rates.
Article
In urban communities, arboriculture clearly contributes to the health of the biological ecosystem; does it contribute to the health of the social ecosystem as well? Evidence from studies in inner-city Chicago suggests so. In a series of studies involving over 1,300 person-space obser- vations, 400 interviews, housing authority records, and 2 years of police crime reports, tree and grass cover were systematically linked to a wide range of social ecosystem indicators. These indicators included stronger ties among neighbors, greater sense of safety and adjustment, more supervision of children in outdoor spaces, healthier patterns of children's play, more use of neighborhood common spaces, fewer incivilities, fewer property crimes, and fewer violent crimes. The link between arboriculture and a healthier social ecosystem turns out to be surprisingly simple to explain. In residential areas, barren, treeless spaces often become "no man's lands," which discourage resident interaction and invite crime. The presence of trees and well-maintained grass can transform these no man's lands into pleasant, welcoming, well-used spaces. Vital, well- used neighborhood common spaces serve to both strengthen ties among residents and deter crime, thereby creating healthier, safer neighborhoods.
Article
Benefit-based tree valuation provides alternative estimates of the fair and reasonable value of trees while illustrating the relative contribution of different benefit types. This study compared estimates of tree value obtained using cost- and benefit-based approaches. The cost-based approach used the Council of Landscape and Tree Appraisers trunk formula method, and the benefit-based approach calculated the net present value (NPV, total future benefits minus costs discounted to the present) of future benefits and costs using tree growth data and numerical models. In a hypothetical example, the value of a 40 year old green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) was $5,807 using the cost-based approach and either $3,102 (for a tree growing in Fort Collins, CO, U.S.) or $5,022 (for a tree growing in Boulder, CO) using the benefit-based approach. This example, however, did not consider planting and management costs. In a multitree example, 15 years after planting five pistache (Pistacia chinensis) street trees in Davis, California, the trunk formula (cost-based) value was $8,756, whereas the benefit-based value NPV of benefits was negative at discount rates ranging from 0% to 10%. Negative NPVs occurred because future sidewalk repair costs were projected to be in excess of benefits, a relationship not fully captured in the cost-based approach to valuation. Removing and replacing the five pistache street trees was not cost-effective at 7% and 10% discount rates, primarily because high future sidewalk repair costs associated with retaining the trees were heavily discounted. Planting the five pistache trees in their current location was not an economically sound decision, but planting the same trees in a nearby shrub bed would have saved an estimated $1,102 (10%) to $12,460 (0%) over 40 years. These examples illustrate the use of the benefit-based approach as a decision support tool for design and management.
Article
Urban forest managers often are required to make decisions about whether to retain or replace an existing tree. In part, this decision relies on an economic analysis of the benefits and costs of the alternatives. This paper presents an economic methodology that helps address the tree replacement problem. The procedures apply to analyzing the benefits and costs of existing trees as well as future replacement trees. A case study, involving a diseased American elm (Uimus americana) is used to illustrate an application of the methodology. The procedures should prove useful in developing economic guides for tree replacement/retention decisions.
Purpose – This paper aims to examine the conceptual arguments surrounding accounting for heritage assets and the resistance by some New Zealand museums to a mandatory valuing of their holdings. Design/methodology/approach – Evidence was derived from museum annual reports, interviews and personal communications with representatives of the Institute of Chartered Accountants of New Zealand (ICANZ) and a range of New Zealand museums. Findings – ICANZ's requirement that heritage assets be accounted for in a manner similar to other assets is shown as deriving from a managerialist rationality which, in espousing sector neutrality, assumes an unproblematic stance to the particular nature and circumstances of museums and their holdings. Resisting the imposition of the standard, New Zealand's regional museums evince an identity tied more strongly to notions of aesthetic, cultural and social value implicit in curatorship, than to a concern with the economic value of their holdings. Museum managers and accountants prefer to direct their attention to what they see as more vitally important tasks related to the conservation, preservation and maintenance of heritage assets, rather than to divert scarce funds to what they see as an academic exercise in accounting. Originality/value – The paper points to some of the difficulties inherent in the application of a one‐size‐fits‐all application of an accounting standard to entities and assets differentiated in their purpose and essence.
Article
As forested areas become more populated, the aesthetic values associated with logging-in-progress are increasingly driving public reaction to and concern about timber harvesting. Using a video-based survey, this research assessed the public's visual and aural preferences for five ground-based timber harvest yarding methods—a forwarder, rubber-tired cable skidder, bulldozer, farm tractor, and workhorse—based on a battery of attributes and situations. In addition, this study investigated the relationships between several possible explanatory variables—respondents' gender, knowledge of timber harvesting, and place of residence—and their preferences for the logging methods studied. Survey respondents preferred the horse and farm tractor methods for their visual, aural, and forest disturbance effects, whereas the forwarder method ranked highest for efficiency. The horse and tractor methods also were preferred for logging in residential areas. In several cases, survey respondents' gender and knowledge of timber harvesting were associated with their preferences for the logging methods studied.
Article
The emerald ash borer (EAB), a phloem-feeding beetle native to Asia, was discovered killing ash trees in southeastern Michigan and Windsor, Ontario, in 2002. Like several other invasive forest pests, the EAB likely was introduced and became established in a highly urbanized setting, facilitated by international trade and abundant hosts. Up to 15 million ash trees in urban and forested settings have been killed by the EAB. Quarantines in the United States and Canada restrict the movement of ash trees, logs, and firewood to prevent new introductions. Research studies are underway to assist managers leading eradication and containment efforts. Long-term efforts will be needed to protect ash in urban and forested settings across North America.
Article
Increasingly, city trees are viewed as a best management practice to control stormwater, an urban-heat–island mitigation measure for cleaner air, a CO2-reduction option to offset emissions, and an alternative to costly new electric power plants. Measuring benefits that accrue from the community forest is the first step to altering forest structure in ways that will enhance future benefits. This article describes the structure, function, and value of street and park tree populations in Fort Collins, Colorado; Cheyenne, Wyoming; Bismarck, North Dakota; Berkeley, California; and Glendale, Arizona. Although these cities spent $13–65 annually per tree, benefits ranged from $31 to $89 per tree. For every dollar invested in management, benefits returned annually ranged from $1.37 to $3.09. Strategies each city can take to increase net benefits are presented.
Article
Quantitative information on residents' valuations attached to urban forests is needed for assessing urban land-use. The aim of this study is to value implicitly non-priced urban forest amenities by comparing dwelling prices and specific amounts of amenities associated with dwelling units. The empirical study is based on data from the sales of terraced houses in the district of Salo in Finland. According to the estimation results a one kilometer increase in the distance to the nearest forested area leads to an average 5.9 percent decrease in the market price of the dwelling. Dwellings with a view onto forests are on average 4.9 percent more expensive than dwellings with otherwise similar characteristics.
Article
This paper provides a historical perspective for the discussion on ecological economics as a special field of research. By studying the historical background of ecological economics, the present discussions and tensions inside the field might become easier to understand and to relate to. The study is inspired by other studies of the emergence of new research areas done by sociologists and historians of science, and includes both cognitive and social aspects, macro trends and the role of individuals. The basis for the paper is a combination of literature studies and interviews with key researchers from the field. The story opens with the emergence of the new environmental agenda in the 1960s, which was influenced by the scientific development in biology and ecology. Then it is outlined how the environmental challenge was met by economics in the 1960s. Around 1970, the basic ideas of ecological economics were given modern formulations, but it took a long gestation period from the beginning of the 1970s to the end of the 1980s, before ecological economics took shape. During this gestation period, the personal relationships between the actors were formed, and the meetings that were decisive for the formal establishment of ecological economics took place.
Article
The purpose of this special issue is to elucidate concepts of value and methods of valuation that will assist in guiding human decisions vis-à-vis ecosystems. The concept of ecosystem service value can be a useful guide when distinguishing and measuring where trade-offs between society and the rest of nature are possible and where they can be made to enhance human welfare in a sustainable manner. While win-win opportunities for human activities within the environment may exist, they also appear to be increasingly scarce in a ‘full’ global ecological–economic system. This makes valuation all the more essential for guiding future human activity. This paper provides some history, background, and context for many of the issues addressed by the remaining papers in this special issue. Its purpose is to place both economic and ecological meanings of value, and their respective valuation methods, in a comparative context, highlighting strengths, weakness and addressing questions that arise from their integration.
Article
As the contributions to ecological economics are very diverse, recent years have seen some discussion on both how to delimit the field, and in which direction it should develop. The intention with this paper is to contribute to the discussion by outlining important trends in the development of the field from the late 1980s to the early 2000s. The study is inspired by other studies in the sociology and history of science, in particular by the theoretical framework regarding scientific fields as reputational organizations, which draws attention to both cognitive and social aspects of the formation of a field. The basis for the paper is a combination of literature studies, interviews with key researchers in the field, and ‘participant observations’. The paper outlines the characteristic cognitive features of ecological economics at the time of the birth of the field. It is then described how the development in ecological economics was influenced by broader social factors during the following years, and how the field was shaped by the inflow and outflow of different groups of researchers. The emergence of different research programmes is outlined, as is the organizational development. Finally, the characteristics of ecological economics are summarized and the future prospects are briefly assessed.
Article
Amenity values are first analysed and related to the human senses that enable people to enjoy them; they include freedom to wander, sporting, and the pursuit of scientific knowledge. The history of woodland landscape in Britain begins with the big parks of the greater noblemen, proceeds to the ornamental grounds of lesser landowners throughout the country, and ends with a growing share of public or corporate ownership. A large number of public authorities with various legal powers are now concerned with the maintenance of woodland amenities, sometimes on their own properties, and sometimes on land under private ownership. The financial value of these attractions is recognized by the systems for taxing property nationally, and for levying local rates; it also finds expression in prices of house property. Amenity values must be estimated in a different way to timber values, since they arise from an asset that can be continuously enjoyed, but is tied to one spot. By contrast, timber values come from a commodity that is harvested once only, but can be transported over long distances. In Britain, where the area of woodland is relatively small, and a large number of people have the time and the means to travel to the woods, amenity values run high. Their maintenance merits study by forest managers.
Article
An urban fringe planting project in the South Hertfordshire Community Forest is described. Economic appraisal shows that eligibility for the Farm Woodland Scheme increases net present value significantly, but continuing agricultural use of the site would still be much more profitable than timber production. However, planting would redistribute and concentrate development hope value on to an adjacent unplanted area, open the prospect of redeveloping a redundant farm building site and improve neighbourhood amenity. Hence planning policy, development opportunities and the housing market will be important determinants of overall profitability.
Article
This paper describes a project undertaken during 2001/2002 which developed a method for valuing hedgerows adjacent to the inland waterway network of Great Britain. The method enables the landowner, British Waterways, to manage their valuable environmental asset to achieve a good level of biodiversity and robust habitat balanced against the heavy amenity use the 3000 km canal network endures. Valuation techniques were developed using a combination of new and existing ecological indices for components of biodiversity, hedgerow structure and amenity, and synthesised into an index in an innovative combined approach. The resultant index was then applied to a sample 20 km section of hedge alongside the Grand Union Canal in Southeast England. The results obtained reflect the hedgerows' present value, and highlight factors that might improve or limit their future increase in value. The results from the case study application also demonstrate that there is a positive relationship between hedgerow structure and biodiversity, and that hedgerows in urban areas are less biodiverse and structurally sound than those in rural areas. Furthermore, there is a zone within rural areas influenced by the adjacent urban areas and/or higher amenity use. The paper concludes with an assessment of the approaches' strengths and weaknesses with a view to its compatibility with other hedgerow evaluations, such as HEGS, its use by other agencies or landowners, and to aid hedgerow management and future development.
Article
Urban trees serve important environmental, social and economic functions, but similar to other natural endowments they are not customarily depicted in monetary terms. The needs to augment protection, funding and community support for urban greening call for proper valuation. Heritage trees (HTs), the cream of urban-tree stock, deserve special attention. Existing assessment methods do not give justice to outstanding trees in compact cities deficient in high-caliber greenery, and to their social-cultural-historical importance. They artificially separate evaluation from valuation, which should be a natural progression from the former. Review of tree valuation methods suggested the formula approach to be more suitable than contingent valuation and hedonic pricing, and provided hints on their strengths and weaknesses. This study develops an alternative formulaic expert method (FEM) that integrates evaluation and valuation, maximizes objectivity, broadly encompasses the key tree, tree-environment and tree-human traits, and accords realistic monetary value to HTs. Six primary criteria (dimension, species, tree, condition, location, and outstanding consideration) branched into 45 secondary criteria, each allocated numerical marks. Each primary criterion was standardized to carry equal weight, and a tree's maximum aggregate score is capped at 100. A Monetary Assignment Factor (MAF) to consign dollar value to each score unit was derived from three-year average per m(2) sale price of medium-sized residential flats. The applicability of FEM was tested on selected HTs in compact Hong Kong. The aggregate score of a tree multiplied by MAF yielded monetary value, which was on average 66 times higher than the result from the commonly-adopted Council of Tree and Landscape Appraisers method. The computed tree values could be publicized together with multiple tree benefits to raise understanding and awareness and rally support to protect HTs. The property-linked FEM could be flexibly applied to other cities, especially to assess HTs in compact developing cities.
Article
Forests produce benefits over and above the revenue yielded from timber and other wood based products. Most important among these may be the recreational benefits for visitors, which have been examined in several studies. Total benefits for residents are perhaps more accurately captured in property values since, ceteris paribus, the price of a house reflects willingness to pay to live near an environmental amenity such as a forest to gain access to it, and also the amenity (non-use) value of the forest in so far as it creates a pleasant landscape. However, the total non-priced value of forestry is not the sum of HPM and ITCM benefit estimates. Recreational benefits will typically be less, and will be subsumed in the HPM estimates, since the hedonic price is partly induced by the value of recreational access. Copyright Kluwer Academic Publishers 1992