Reproduction and larval morphology of Ophryotrocha puerilis, O. labronica, O. nologlandulata, O. hartmanni, and O. bacci are described. All species have been cultivated in the laboratory. The morphology of adults and larvae is uniform, but there is a considerable variation in the shape of the egg masses. The interrelations between members of the genus Ophryotrocha are discussed: Gonochoric ... [Show full abstract] species have the same type of egg mass and the same chromosome number. O. puerilis is unique as a protandrous hermaphrodite. Among contemporary hermaphrodites with male and female segments, fusiform egg masses with a rigid surface are correlated with one larval type, gelatinous egg masses with another larval type.