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Although potassium permanganate has been used for taste- and-odor improvement for many years, only recently has this compound been considered as a disinfectant for newly laid mains, replacing such standard disinfecting agents as chlorine or hypochlorite solution.
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... A large amount of CH 4 is usually produced from stored liquid dairy manure, which is rich in volatile solids that can be converted into methanogenic substrates through the action of different physiological groups of bacteria (Barret et al., 2013). Chemical oxidants such as Na 2 S 2 O 8 and KMnO 4 , and NaOCl may disinfect the slurry environment and oxidize organic substrates (Hamilton, 1974;Mikutta et al., 2005;Siregar et al., 2005), which may release byproducts such as MnO 2 , CO 2 , and/ or complex organic intermediates. Thus, with disinfectant and organic substrate removal capabilities of these chemical oxidants (Hoag et al., 2000;Siregar et al., 2005;Chen et al., 2015), microorganisms that produce CH 4 in stored liquid dairy manure can be inhibited. ...
Stored liquid dairy manure is a hotspot for methane (CH 4 ) emission, thus effective mitigation strategies are required. We assessed sodium persulfate (Na 2 S 2 O 8 ), potassium permanganate (KMnO 4 ), and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) for impacts on the abundance of microbial communities and CH 4 production in liquid dairy manure. Liquid dairy manure treated with different rates (1, 3, 6, and 9 g or mL L ⁻¹ slurry) of these chemicals or their combinations were incubated under anoxic conditions at 22.5 ± 1.3°C for 120 d. Untreated and sodium 2‐bromoethanesulfonate (BES)‐treated manures were included as negative and positive controls, respectively, whereas sulfuric acid (H 2 SO 4 )‐treated manure was used as a reference. Quantitative real‐time polymerase chain reaction was used to quantify the abundances of bacteria and methanogens on Days 0, 60, and 120. Headspace CH 4 /CO 2 ratios were used as a proxy to determine CH 4 production. Unlike bacterial abundance, methanogen abundance and CH 4 /CO 2 ratios varied with treatments. Addition of 1 to 9 g L ⁻¹ slurry of Na 2 S 2 O 8 and KMnO 4 reduced methanogen abundance (up to ∼28%) and peak CH 4 /CO 2 ratios (up to 92‐fold). Except at the lowest rate, chemical combinations also reduced the abundance of methanogens (up to ∼17%) and CH 4 /CO 2 ratios (up to ninefold), although no impacts were observed when 3% NaOCl was used alone. With slurry acidification, the ratios reduced up to twofold, whereas methanogen abundance was unaffected. Results suggest that Na 2 S 2 O 8 and KMnO 4 may offer alternative options to reduce CH 4 emission from stored liquid dairy manure, but this warrants further assessment at larger scales for environmental impacts and characteristics of the treated manure.
Chemical oxidants were assessed for potential effects on methanogens and methane production.
The abundance of methanogens and CH 4 production were affected by Na 2 S 2 O 8 and KMnO 4 .
Na 2 S 2 O 8 and KMnO 4 had similar effects on CH 4 production compared with acidification.
Na 2 S 2 O 8 and KMnO 4 may provide options to mitigate CH 4 emissions from stored liquid dairy manure.
... Chlorine levels should not decrease below 25 mg/L during the 24-h holding period before repeat bacteriological testing. In pipes free of extraneous debris, free available chlorine (1 to 2 mg/L), potassium permanganate (2.5 to 4.0 mg/L), or copper sulfate (50 mg/L) have been used to meet coliform requirements [23,24]. Only free available chlorine, however, was found to eliminate large numbers of heterotrophic bacteria . ...
Drinking water can deteriorate in microbial quality during distribution to the consumer, introducing taste, odor, and occasionally waterborne pathogens. Bacteria can be introduced into distributed water by several pathways. Some organisms become established in the pipe environment and eventually from a biofilm community if not effectively controlled by water supply process barriers and treatment to minimize assimilable organic carbon. Disinfection is a process designed for the deliberate of a number of pathogenic microorganisms. This study is devoted for evaluating the effect of chlorine as a disinfecting agent at different site in Dakahlia Governorate (DG), on retaining microbiological water quality. Over 70 sites from different places in DG have been investigated for the microbiological quality of water in the network. This investigation has been performed through the determination of residual chlorine at the beginning and at the extreme terminal of the distribution systems. In addition, the total coliform (MNP/100ml) and the total bacteria count (cells/ml) were checked. Recommendations for maintenance of the water supply network at the investigated places have been discussed.
... Chlorine levels should not decrease below 25 mg/L during the 24-h holding period before the line is flushed and bacteriological testing is repeated. In pipes free of extraneous debris, free available chlorine (1 to 2 mg/L), potassium permanganate (2.5 to 4.0 mg/L), or copper sulfate (5.0 mg/L) have been used to meet coliform requirements (Martin et al., 1982;Harold, 1934;Hamilton, 1974). Only free available chlorine, however, was found to eliminate large numbers of heterotrophic bacteria (Buelow et al., 1976). ...
The purpose of a water supply distribution system is to deliver to each consumer safe drinking water that is also adequate in quantity and acceptable in terms of taste, odor, and appearance. Historically, the initial network of pipes was a response to present community needs that eventually created a legacy of problems of inadequate supply and low pressure as the population density increased (Frontinus, 1973; Baker, 1981). To resolve the problems caused by increasing water demand along the distribution route, reservoir storage was created. Pressure pumping to move water to far reaches of the supply lines and standpipes was incorporated to afford relief from surges of pressure. In some areas, population growth exceeded the capacity of a water resource, so other sources of water were incorporated and additional treatment plants were built to feed into the distribution network. Another response was to consolidate neighboring water systems and interconnect the associated distribution pipe networks.
Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is ubiquitous in raw drinking water and can efficiently scavenge oxidants, such as permanganate. Here, changes to DOM induced by permanganate oxidation under typical drinking water treatment conditions (6 µM, 1 hr) to bulk DOM properties, DOM functional groups, and DOM chemical formulae were examined for two DOM isolate types (terrestrial and microbial). Permanganate oxidation did not mineralize DOM, rather changes were compositional in nature. Optical properties suggest that permanganate oxidation decreased DOM aromaticity (decreased SUVA-254), decreased DOM electron donating capacity, and decreased DOM average molecular weight (increased E2/E3 ratios). Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy second derivative analyses revealed that permanganate does not oxidize DOM alkene groups, suggesting permanganate access to functional groups may be important. Four ionization techniques were used with ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry: negative and positive ion mode electrospray ionization and negative and positive ion mode laser/desorption ionization. The results from all four techniques were combined to understand changes in DOM chemical formulae. It was concluded that nitrogen-containing aromatic compounds and alkylbenzenes were oxidized by permanganate to form nitrogen-containing aliphatic compounds and benzoic acid-containing compounds. This work highlights how multiple ionization techniques coupled with UHR-MS can enable a more detailed characterization of DOM.
This article was excerpted from AWWA 1974 WQTC papers. Discussed are AWWA standards for the disinfection of water mains and recommendations covering the areas of protection of new pipe sections at the construction site, restriction on the use of joint‐packing materials, preliminary flushing of pipe sections, pipe disinfection, and bacteriological testing for pipe disinfection.
Passage of the Safe Drinking Water Act and recent concern over chlorinated organics in potable water has quickened interest in the technology of water disinfection. The authors review the present state of water-disinfection technology and provide a glimpse of what the future might hold.
The "AWWA Standard for Disinfecting Water Mains" (AWWA C601-68) has fallen into disuse by a number of water utilities because of repeated bacteriological failures following initial disinfection with the recommended highdose chlorination. Other methods of disinfection, including the use of potassium permanganate and copper sulfate, do not alleviate this problem. Physical cleanliness of new mains is of primary importance and may result in successful disinfection with the low free-chlorine residuals in distribution-line water.
The most common disinfection method is chlorination, however, it has been known that the practice of chlorination for water treatment in the Mississippi River area has caused a significant increase in mortality. The objective of this research was to search for effective disinfectants to replace chlorine. Three cationic surfactants have been tested for their bactericidal properties under various conditions. It has been found that 1 mg of cetyldimethyl-benzylammonium chloride can destroy about 4500 coliforms in one liter water within 10 minutes, under neutral pH conditions and room temperature. Cationic quaternary ammonium compound, therefore, can be a potential candidate disinfectant for replacing chlorine when necessary.
ABSTRACTA new chloramine agent, 3-chloio-4, 4-dimethyl-2-oxazolidinone, has been tested in a laboratory scale water treatment plant as to its efficacy in water disinfection. The agent seems to be equally effective as compared to chlorine gas in this application. The results of preliminary toxicity studies on the agent are very encouraging. The agent has a long shelf life both in water solution and in the solid state. Being a solid, the agent is clearly less hazardous to handle than chlorine gas. The agent appears to inhibit oxidative corrosion of metals as well. The agent is less likely to produce toxic halocarbons (e.g., chloroform) in water than is chlorine gas. Possibly most important from the standpoint of water disinfection, the agent is a “slow release” one for its positive chlorine, which provides prolonged bactericidal activity.
The disinfection of drinking water by chlorination has in recent years come under closer scrutiny because of the potential hazards associated with the production of stable chlorinated organic chemicals. Organic chemical contaminants are common to all water supplies and it is now well-established that chlorinated by-products are obtained under conditions of disinfection, or during tertiary treatment of sewage whose products can ultimately find their way into drinking water supplies. Naturally occurring humic substances which are invariably present in drinking waters are probably the source of chloroform and other halogenated methanes, and chloroform has shown up in every water supply investigated thus far.
The Environmental Protection Agency is charged with the responsibility of assessing the public health effects resulting from the consumption of contaminated drinking water. It has specifically undertaken the task of determining whether organic contaminants or their chlorinated derivatives have a special impact, and if so, what alternatives there are to protect the consumer against bacterial and viral diseases that are transmitted through infected drinking waters. The impetus to look at these chemicals is not entirely without some prima facie evidence of potential trouble. Epidemiological studies suggested a higher incidence of cancer along the lower Mississippi River where the contamination from organic chemicals is particularly high. The conclusions from these studies have, to be sure, not gone unchallenged.
The task of assessing the effects of chemicals in the drinking water is a difficult one. It includes many variables, including differences in water supplies and the temporal relationship between contamination and consumption of the finished product. It must also take into account the relative importance of the effects from these chemicals in comparison to those from occupational exposure, ingestion of contaminated foods, inhalation of polluted air, and many others. The susceptibility of different age, genetic, and ethnic groups within the population must also be carefully considered. The present review discusses: the reasons for disinfection; the general occurrence of chlorinated organics in drinking water; the chemistry in the synthesis of chlorinated organics under aqueous conditions; and alternatives to chlorine for disinfection.