ArticlePDF Available

Emotional, Social, and Cognitive Intelligence and Personality as Predictors of Sales Leadership Performance


Abstract and Figures

Leaders of sales organizations must recruit and inspire salespeople to grow the organization. Skepticism remains about the role of emotional and social intelligence (ESI) in effective leadership. ESI is criticized as not providing distinctive variance in leadership performance beyond general intelligence and personality. This study assessed the role of the behavioral level of ESI competencies on leader performance. The number of new recruits was shown to predict new cash invested 6 years later. ESI significantly predicted leader performance (i.e., recruitment) whereas measures of generalized intelligence and personality did not. Adaptability and influence were two competencies distinctively predicting sales leadership performance.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Journal of Leadership &
Organizational Studies
19(2) 191 –201
© Baker College 2012
Reprints and permission:
DOI: 10.1177/1548051811435793
Good looks, a firm handshake, height, weight, extrover-
sion, wit—these attributes have been linked to what makes
a successful salesperson. Yet how does one sell to, motivate,
or inspire (i.e., lead) salespeople? Although the characteris-
tics of what leads to successful salespeople have long been
an area of interest for both researchers and practitioners, the
characteristics of leaders in sales organizations that affect
performance has been largely neglected. Emotional intelli-
gence (EI), the “the ability to monitor one’s own and others’
feelings and emotions, to discriminate among them and to
use this information to guide one’s thinking and actions”
(Salovey & Mayer, 1990, p. 189), has been associated with
sales performance (Rozell, Pettijohn, & Parker, 2006).
Emotional and social intelligence (ESI) also has an emerg-
ing track record of being linked to leadership performance
(Kerr, Garvin, Heaton, & Boyle, 2006). Scholars have sug-
gested that future research should look at the particular
context of sales leadership and the impact of leaders EI as
a contributing factor in the success of sales organizations
(Ingram, LaForge, Locander, MacKenzie, & Podsakoff,
2005). This study is an attempt to build insight and specify
causal factors in understanding sales leadership.
Contingency theories of management and leadership
effectiveness have contended that the leader should have
characteristics and behavior suited to the job demands and
organizational environment (Boyatzis, 1982). Building on
earlier contingency theories, such as Fielders (1967),
Boyatzis (1982) claimed that competencies, as well as traits
such as generalized intelligence and personality, would
affect performance, depending on the job function and orga-
nization. Functional leadership theory also claimed that the
leaders job was to do anything necessary to make the orga-
nization effective (Hackman & Walton, 1986). Models of
indirect leadership contend that influence processes, from a
top-down perspective, include indirect leadership beginning
with ideas and mental models of higher organizational-level
managers on what to do (visions and goals), as well as how
to get it done (implementation; Larsson, Sjoberg, Vrbanjac,
& Bjorkman, 2005).
The current research sought to test how ESI competen-
cies, cognitive intelligence (g), and personality would
affect performance when the job—sales leadership—and
organization—a specific financial services company—
were held constant.
is et al.Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies
© Baker College 2012
Reprints and permission: http://www.
Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA
Christopher Newport University, Newport News, VA, USA
Vaudreuil-Dorion, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
Corresponding Author:
Richard E. Boyatzis, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid
Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
Emotional, Social, and Cognitive Intelligence
and Personality as Predictors of Sales
Leadership Performance
Richard E. Boyatzis
, Darren Good
, and Raymond Massa
Leaders of sales organizations must recruit and inspire salespeople to grow the organization. Skepticism remains about the
role of emotional and social intelligence (ESI) in effective leadership. ESI is criticized as not providing distinctive variance
in leadership performance beyond general intelligence and personality. This study assessed the role of the behavioral level
of ESI competencies on leader performance. The number of new recruits was shown to predict new cash invested 6 years
later. ESI significantly predicted leader performance (i.e., recruitment) whereas measures of generalized intelligence and
personality did not. Adaptability and influence were two competencies distinctively predicting sales leadership performance.
leadership, emotional intelligence, competencies, intelligence, personality
192 Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies 19(2)
To do this, we need to address the current issues with
validity as it relates to EI and leadership. Although EI has
been glorified as a key ingredient in leader effectiveness, it
has also been labeled as misdirection and lacking sufficient
empirical validation (Matthews, Zeidner, & Roberts, 2002).
A primary cause of such skepticism stems from the belief
that the EI construct does not add incremental value to g or
personality (Davies, Stankov, & Roberts, 1998; Harms &
Credé, 2010; MacCann, Roberts, Matthews, & Zeidner,
2003). As a result, scholars have suggested the need to study
EI along with both g and personality in predicting real-world
outcomes (Antonakis, Ashkanasy, & Dasborough, 2009;
Brody, 2004; Cherniss, 2010). In fact, “EI’s predictive utility
beyond cognitive ability and personality is considered to be
its litmus test” (Walter, Cole, & Humphrey, 2011, p. 47). Yet
in the leadership literature, only one study to date examines
EI beyond g and personality, looking at its impact on oth-
ers’ ratings of leader emergence (Cote, Lopes, Salovey, &
Miners, 2010). The present study investigates EI’s impact
on leadership performance beyond g and personality in a
context with a clear objective outcome. Sales leadership
provides such a functional context. This is the potential
contribution of the study to the empirical literature and,
therefore, assists in further refining theoretical frameworks
about EI and its impact on leadership.
The Context of Sales Leadership
Sales leadership is “the leadership activities performed by
those in a sales organization to influence others to achieve
common goals for the collective good of the sales organiza-
tion and company” (Ingram et al., 2005, p. 137). Although
selling may be thought of as a largely autonomous process,
sales leaders have an impact on the environments they lead
and on organizational performance outcomes (Dubinsky &
Skinner, 2002; Mulki, Jaramillo, & Locander, 2009). Like
any organizational leader, they are responsible for articulat-
ing a compelling vision and aligning followers in a way that
motivates them to achieve on behalf of the organization. Yet
sales leaders have some unique challenges that are not as
pressing in leadership roles within other more traditional
organizational structures (Colletti & Chonko, 1997). Central
among these is the predicament of assessing performance
by simultaneously using short-term and longer term metrics
(Ingram et al., 2005). This challenge is evident in the con-
text of the sales leaders we investigated for this study.
In the present study, we look at the sales leadership of
divisional executives (DEs) who work for a leading finan-
cial services company. The DEs’ personal compensation
and that of their sales staff is entirely based on the office’s
financial performance. They sell financial products from an
approved portfolio. They recruit and train financial advisors
(FAs) and their managers, whose total compensation pack-
age is also entirely based on commissions for new cash
invested by clients, as it is for the DEs. The firm provides
recommended systems for sales, service, recruitment, and
development of financial consultants. Often, the DE con-
ducts the training and mentoring of the FAs directly. This is
an example of the combination of direct and, at times, indi-
rect leadership (Waldman & Yammarino, 1999; Yammarino,
1994). Therefore, the most important aspect of the DE’s job
is to continually grow the organization’s assets under man-
agement (AUM) through growing the number and quality of
the FAs. Asset management firms make money on the AUM.
There are only two ways in which to increase this: market
effect (which can go up or down) and growth in net cash.
The DE leads the organization of branch or office managers
and FAs who sell the products and report to them directly. As
FAs grow in their role over time and become senior, they
begin to accumulate AUM on behalf of the organization.
Senior FAs are vital to the firm but are not enough to
ensure long-term growth. Generally, more senior FAs have
more tenured clients, and these sometimes leave the organi-
zation. Thus, the senior FAs’ gross “cash in” may be good but
once “cash out” is deducted (e.g., from clients taking invest-
ments elsewhere), there may be a decline, particularly if the
total amount of their business is large. For example, a senior
FA could bring in $10 million in new cash invested by new
clients but lose $12 million in accounts from older clients
who move to another AUM firm, which is reasonable if he or
she has a total of $150 million in client’s AUM. The resulting
net assets are down. Also, senior FAs are more likely to leave
the firm, and when this happens, they often take their existing
clients with them. To avoid the decline that comes with sea-
soned clients and to foster growth, a steady stream of new
FAs need to be recruited to join the organization. Therefore,
the number of new FAs recruited becomes a major perfor-
mance indicator for the sales executive in this business.
Predicting Performance With Recruitment
Recruiting FAs is considered an important measure in this
sales context (Spiro, Stanton, & Rich, 2008). Put simply, the
more FAs, the more cash comes in. The more newer FAs, the
more “newer” cash comes in, increasing net cash. Although
the number of FAs may not fully account for net cash
invested (i.e., the quality of recruits and/or retention may
also have an impact), it still predicts long-term AUM perfor-
mance, as illustrated in the time lag analysis of this sales
force offered in the Method section of this article. But there
is a time lag in how new FAs can generate new clients and
bring new cash invested into the firm.
A Sales Leader’s ESI
A sales leader, like any organizational leader, must create an
alignment and direction to meet the needs of the organiza-
tion. As an organizational leader, he or she is tasked with
carrying out longer term objectives as opposed to short-
term operations (Lussier, 2009). In the sales context of the
Boyatzis et al. 193
current study we are concerned with factors that affect a
sales leaders ability to influence followers in the recruiting
of new FAs as a way of demonstrating leadership perfor-
mance. The purpose of this study is to show that in addition
to intelligence and aspects of personality, a leaders EI will
affect recruiting numbers.
All leadership interactions are, in part, emotional activi-
ties. Ashforth and Humphrey (1995) stated, “The experi-
ence of work is saturated with feeling” (p. 144). Therefore, a
leaders ability to intra- and interpersonally understand and
manage emotion affects how followers respond (Humphrey,
Pollack, & Hawver, 2008; Rosete & Ciarrochi, 2005). As
such, the EI of a leader should affect the organization at
every level of interaction in both direct and indirect ways
(Chrusciel, 2006).
At the dyadic level, a DE’s EI is used in supporting and
influencing followers to execute the successful recruitment
of new FAs. How sales leaders emotionally respond through-
out the recruiting process will likely influence the followers’
emotional response to it as well (Bono & Ilies, 2006; Sy,
Cote, & Saavedra, 2005). Additionally a leader who manages
emotions effectively can influence followers to carry out a
recruitment process in more successful ways. A follower who
works for an emotionally intelligent leader develops higher
levels of trust and confidence in the leader and in the organi-
zation: both of which are important criteria for carrying out
successful recruitment efforts. It is partially through an itera-
tive process of relating well to followers (behaving with EI)
that the leader is able to convey a sense of organizational
identity, which then guides individuals collectively at the
team, branch office, and organizational level (Gittell, 2001).
Prati, McMillan-Capehart, and Karriker (2009) suggest
that strong organizational identity is fostered through the
leaders proper use of emotional and relational skills. To
build an organization that continues to recruit new FAs, the
sales leader must establish a sense of organizational identity
in which followers see the organization as a part of who
they are (Mael & Ashforth, 1992). This can influence a
clanlike culture (Deshpandé, Farley, & Webster, 1993) in
which self-interest is regularly set aside for the larger needs
of the organization (Prati et al., 2009). In a sales context,
this is essential, as the group sees hiring new employees as
a contribution to the needs of the whole. The leader plays a
significant role in shaping this emotional community
(Gittell, 2001) by setting an emotional tone and pace for
others to follow (Mulki et al., 2009). The emotionally intel-
ligent sales leader provides the affective environment in
which motivation by the firm to recruit others is provided
(Sosick & Megerian, 1999).
Emotional Intelligence
This study tests the relationship between ESI and effective-
ness of sales leaders beyond the effects of personality and
g. In general, ESI represents “a set of interrelated abilities
for identifying, understanding, and managing emotions, both
in the self and in others” (Matthews, Emo, Funke, Zeidner,
& Roberts, 2006, p. 96). Although there have been various
attempts to organize the differing forms of ESI, in general
the ESI construct has been conceptualized as abilities, a
mixed-model or trait approach, or a set of behavioral com-
petencies. The ability model conceptualizes ESI as a mental
skill assessed through a performance test (Mayer–Salovey–
Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test [MSCEIT]; Mayer,
Salovey, & Caruso, 2000). Other EI theories have been
called mixed-models, because of the treatment of ESI as a
combination of aspects of emotional skill, competencies,
and traits (Mayer et al., 2000). For example, Bar-On’s (1997)
model is assessed using the Emotional Quotient Inventory
(EQ-i), primarily a self-report. The EQ-i has strong theo-
retical overlap with aspects of personality as measured by
the Big Five (MacCann et al., 2004).
The competency approach offers a behavioral perspec-
tive to ESI (Cherniss, 2010), based on 40 years of identify-
ing competencies that predict work success. A competency
is defined as a behavior with the associated intent of rec-
ognizing, understanding, and using emotional information
about oneself or others that leads to or causes effective or
superior performance (Boyatzis, 2009). This approach is
based on behavioral observation or informant reports, not
This behavioral level of ESI complements the ability and
trait theories (Mayer, 2009). Whereas some have argued
that ESI is a manifestation of intelligence and personality
(Matthews et al., 2002), others suggest that ESI competen-
cies provide a more direct way of understanding workplace
outcomes than general EI (Riggio, 2010). Although the
“definitions of EI are often varied for different researchers,
they nevertheless tend to be complementary rather than
contradictory” (Ciarrochi, Chan, & Caputi, 2000, p. 540). It
is likely that the underlying ability to manage one’s emo-
tions, as assessed through a performance measure such as
the MSCEIT, will create a self-schema or self-image and
self-attributions that would be evident in self-assessment
measures of ESI-related themes (McClelland, 1951). Until
the person has to respond to environmental, situational, or
job demands, the behavioral manifestations of a person’s
ESI will not appear (Boyatzis, 2009). The latter emerges as
demonstrated behavior, seen by others who live or work
around the person. In this way, the behavioral level of ESI
is most likely to relate to job performance and outcomes
(Cherniss, 2010; Riggio, 2010).
Hypothesis 1: ESI competencies as seen by others
will significantly predict sales leader performance.
Seeking Incremental Validity
As stated earlier, it is important when establishing validity
of any of the EI models to demonstrate variance explained
194 Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies 19(2)
beyond personality and g. Some measures of general men-
tal ability have been predictive of job performance (Schmidt
& Hunter, 2004) and leadership (Judge, Colbert & Ilies,
2004). Studies have cited cognitive intelligence as a major
predictor of leadership effectiveness (Lord, De Vader, &
Alliger, 1986). Measures of EI have been demonstrated to
correlate significantly with g (Van Rooy & Viswesvaran,
2004). Specifically, the emotional understanding section of
the MSCEIT correlates with crystallized intelligence (aver-
age r = .38) across multiple studies (Roberts, Schulze &
MacCann, 2008). Since g explains a considerable amount
of variance in some studies of workplace performance and
given its theoretical relationship to ESI, assessing the
impact of g is important in establishing incremental predic-
tive validity of ESI (Walter et al., 2011).
Hypothesis 2: Cognitive intelligence will signifi-
cantly predict sales leader performance.
Like general intelligence, there is concern about ESI’s
ability to predict job success beyond personality, especially
with the mixed-model or trait approaches (Matthews et al.,
2002). A range of organizational outcomes have been associ-
ated with aspects of personality, including job performance
(Barrick & Mount, 1991; Lord et al., 1986; Zaccaro, 2007)
and leader performance (Judge, Bono, Ilies, & Gerhardt,
2002). Conscientiousness has been repeatedly cited as a
predictor of effectiveness in many jobs, including leadership
(Arvey, Rotundo, Johnson, Zhang, & McGue, 2006) and sales
(Barrick, Mount, & Strauss, 1993). Scholars have suggested
that EI is simply another way of studying personality under a
revised naming convention (Davies et al., 1998). For exam-
ple, the MSCEIT is correlated with Agreeableness (Mayer,
Roberts, & Barsade, 2008), whereas the EQ-i, shows high
correlations with traits in the Big Five (Dawda & Hart, 2000).
Therefore, assessing the impact of personality is important
in assessing the incremental, predictive capacity of ESI.
Hypothesis 3: Personality traits will significantly pre-
dict sales leader performance.
Results have been mixed in the few studies testing the
incremental capacity of ESI beyond personality and intelli-
gence (Bastian, Burns, Nettelbeck, 2005; Harms & Credé,
2010; Rode, Arthaud-day, Mooney, Near, & Baldwin, 2008;
Rode et al., 2007). Although EI predicted academic success
(Petrides, Frederickson, & Furnham, 2004), its significance
disappears beyond measures of g and personality (Barchard,
2003; Newsome et al., 2000; Rode et al., 2007). Rode et al.
(2007) found that the MSCEIT predicted a small but sig-
nificant variance in students’ public speaking beyond intel-
ligence and personality but did not significantly predict GPA
or the capacity to work well in groups.
In nonacademic life, the MSCEIT demonstrated unique
variance explained beyond personality and g in predicting
Anxious Thoughts (ΔR
= .06), yet failed to find incremen-
tal validity from self-report or ability EI in problem solving
(Bastian et al., 2005). At work, the MSCEIT did not show
unique variance in salary, perceived job, and career success
of new workers when measured along with personality and
g (Rode, Mooney, et al., 2008). Cote and Miners (2006) did
not show direct effects of EI assessed with the MSCEIT in
later steps of a hierarchal regression on bosses’ assessment
of job performance, but EI and g had a significant incre-
mental variance (ΔR
= .02) of the interaction of EI and g.
At the same time, Downey, Lee, and Stough (2011) showed
that EI, assessed through a self-report, was a significant pre-
dictor of revenue for recruitment consultants, whereas g and
personality were not.
Two recent meta-analyses have attempted to shed addi-
tional light on this question of incremental validity in the
context of job performance. Mixed results were found
regarding incremental validity of EI, concluding that ability
measures (e.g., MSCIET) do not demonstrate incremental
validity (Joseph & Newman, 2010). Yet they found that self-
report, mixed-model measures of EI did add incremental
variance beyond intelligence and personality (ΔR
= .14).
Similar findings for ability measures and slightly less robust
findings for the mixed-model self-reports (ΔR
= .068) were
reported by O’Boyle, Humphrey, Pollack, Hawver, and
Story (2010).
This study attempts to add to the literature by testing the
behavioral approach to EI in predicting sales leadership
performance beyond g and personality. As explained earlier,
recruiting capacity of the division leader is used as a mea-
sure of sales leadership performance.
Hypothesis 4: ESI competencies as seen by others
will predict sales leadership performance beyond
personality and intelligence.
The independent variables were collected first, and the
control and dependent variable were collected 12 months
later. Data were collected before the global financial market
crisis of 2008. The company functioned smoothly through
the crisis and maintained its independence.
Participants were DEs of a financial services company, with
more than 4,000 full-time financial consultants. The com-
pany had 79 DEs. Each division had multiple offices serving
individual, family, and organizational clients. Of the DEs,
67 fit the eligibility criteria: 1 or more years in the leadership
Boyatzis et al. 195
role and in good standing with the firm. Of these, 62 com-
pleted assessment instruments, but 2 were incomplete. The
final sample was 60.
Criterion measure of leader performance. The ultimate
measure of a DE’s sales leadership in this company is new
cash invested by clients. New cash invested might reflect
client relationships built in the past or by a predecessor. The
duration of client relationships for this firm is considered
long within the industry.
A principal function of the DE in this company is to
recruit and hire financial consultants, as evident in other
sales management positions (Spiro et al., 2008). So it was
decided to use a more contemporaneous measure of perfor-
mance in a 1-year horizon as the number of financial con-
sultants recruited. The belief is that cash brought in during
the 1 year will not adequately reflect a leaders perfor-
mance, as it may be associated with existing relationships.
Yet recruitment numbers over time will lead to cash brought
into the firm.
In the time frame of this study (a 1-year period), the
recruitment of FAs is the best measure available to predict
long-term success. With compensation packages being
100% commission based and training costs being minimal,
total recruitment should lead to longer term results. Table 1
shows the relationship of recruits by the entire organization
over a 7-year period regressed against current cash brought
in. Recruitment of FAs shows a significant impact on new
cash invested by clients with a 6-year lag. This lag in FA
recruitment impact is because of the natural maturation
period in sales of growing new business. FAs usually move
from nonsignificant business in the first few years to sub-
stantial production thereafter.
The company studied mirrored retention in the industry
during this period: 4-year retention of financial consultants
was about 31% (Honan, 2009). Therefore, although reten-
tion is a challenge, it is a constant in the industry. Yet with
operations dependent 100% on commission, the impact of
turnover (often accounting for 1.5 to 2.5 times the employ-
ee’s salary) is of less concern. For this context, a challenge
is continual recruiting even while many people maintain a
pessimistic view of sales (Lysonski & Durvasula, 1998).
Therefore, for a 1-year period, the best possible indicator of
long-term sales success is recruitment numbers.
“g.” The Ravens Advanced Progressive Matrices (APM)
was used to measure cognitive intelligence (i.e., g; Ravens,
1962). It is a widely used nonverbal measure of fluid rea-
soning or Spearman’s g. The APM consists of 36 items.
Each item shows an array of geometric shapes and asks the
respondent to choose from a set of alternatives for the miss-
ing graphic that fits the patterns present in the array. It is a
paper-based test that is administered with or without a time
limit. These tests were self-administered, so it was decided
not to impose a time limit. Given that the Ravens APM and
the Mill Hill Vocabulary (MHV) Scale administered together
is one of the most widely used measures of cognitive intel-
ligence in the past 60 years, the reliability and validity data
are apparent in the literature.
The MHV Scale has been recommended for use along
with the APM to compensate for gender differences in
visual assessment (Ravens, 1962). It is a multiple-choice
vocabulary test that measures crystallized intelligence. The
two intelligence test scores (the APM and the MHV Scale),
representing fluid intelligence and crystallized intelligence,
were transformed into a composite factor score.
Personality. The NEO Personality Inventory–Revised was
used to measure personality traits (Costa & McCrae, 1992).
It is a self-report with 240 items. It assesses five domains of
personality: Openness, Conscientiousness, Extroversion,
Agreeableness, and Neuroticism. Internal consistency coef-
ficients range from .86 to .95 and stability coefficients rang-
ing from .51 to .83 have been found in 3-, 6-, and 7-year
longitudinal studies (Costa & McCrae, 1992). The NEO Per-
sonality Inventory–Revised has been validated against other
personality inventories and projective techniques (Costa &
McCrae, 1992). A scale score for each of the five traits was
calculated as an average item score and then standardized.
Emotional and social intelligence competencies. The ESI
competencies demonstrated by each subject were assessed
with the Emotional and Social Competency Inventory
(ESCI; Boyatzis & Goleman, 2007). The ESCI is an infor-
mant, multisource assessment, often called a “360°.” For
each of the 72 items, peers and subordinates of the executive
described how frequently he or she typically demonstrated
the behavior described in the item. Since it is a demonstra-
tion of behavior, self-assessment from the subjects was
Table 1. Regression of Number of Financial Consultants
Recruited Against New Cash Invested by Clients
Recruitment Variable β t Significance
7 Years earlier −.03 −0.152 .88
6 Years earlier .40* 2.327 .02
5 Years earlier −.04 −0.176 .86
4 Years earlier .24 1.221 .23
3 Years earlier −.03 −0.171 .87
2 Years earlier .16 1.057 .29
1 Year earlier .05 0.326 .75
F change 9.357**
NOTE: Over the 2 years from the start of this study, the number of divi-
sions had grown to 86.
*p < .05. **p < .01.
196 Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies 19(2)
discarded for the analysis. The test has been shown to have
desired reliability and validity (Wolff, 2007), good model
fit, and convergent and divergent validity at the scale level
in a sample of more than 67,000 test takers (Boyatzis &
Gaskin, 2010). A variety of performance and job outcome
validation studies are reviewed for this test and its earlier
versions in Boyatzis (2009).
The ESCI assesses 12 competencies: Emotional Self-
Awareness, Adaptability, Achievement Orientation, Emotional
Self-Control, Positive Outlook, Empathy, Organizational
Awareness, Inspirational Leadership, Influence, Conflict
Management, Coach and Mentor, and Teamwork. Scales
were calculated as an average item score per competency.
The ESI composite was an average scale score across all 12
competencies. All scores were standardized for analysis.
A confirmatory factor analysis was then run on the 12
scales with these items (χ
= 2005.91, degrees of freedom
[df] = 968, comparative fit index [CFI] = .919, root mean
square error of approximation [RMSEA] = .045, standard-
ized root mean square residual [SRMR] = .047) showing a
good fit. A second confirmatory factor analysis with all of
the competencies as a single score was conducted (χ
1961.3, df = 968, significance = .000, CFI = .923, RMSEA
= .044, SRMR = .0566), also showing good fit.
The average “others” views of the target person calcu-
lates an estimate of consensus views about their behavior.
The choice from whom to solicit such information is a
dilemma. People completing such assessments typically
choose which “others” from whom to collect the informa-
tion in research and practice (Farr & Newman, 2001). It is
believed that any bias in those asked to complete surveys
would be distributed across the sample (Shipper, Hoffman,
& Rotondo, 2007). Information came from an average of 9
informants per executive, with a range of 3 to 16. Informants
were assured of the confidentiality of their responses. An
aggregate others was calculated for each division executive
ESI composite of others’ observations of the leader.
Control variable: Size of division. Since larger divisions
could hire more financial consultants, size of the division
was calculated as the number of full-time financial consul-
tants working in that division at the end of the year. It was
treated as a control variable in the study. The number of
financial consultants recruited is likely to be affected by the
size of the division, so this was considered an important
variable to include in the analysis.
The correlations among variables are described in Table 2.
The size of the division was highly, positively correlated to
the leadership performance measure, as was conscientious-
ness. The ESI composite of others’ observations of the leader
was significantly, positively correlated with the number of
FAs recruited. The measure of cognitive ability, g, did not
significantly correlate with any other variable. ESI compos-
ite did not correlate with g or with any of the personality
Hierarchal, multiple regressions were calculated testing
three models, first size, then g and personality, then ESI, as
shown in Table 3. For number of FAs recruited, in Model 3,
size and ESI are positively significant. Model 3 shows that
only ESI adds significant, incremental, unique variance
beyond all other variables (ΔR
=.026, p < .05) in predicting
number of FAs recruited. Interaction effects were tested for
g and personality, ESI and g, and ESI and personality in
regressions. None were significant nor did they add any
unique variance. Additionally, as expected cash investments
for the 1 year under study did not show any significant rela-
tionship to any of the independent variables.
To summarize, Hypothesis 1 was supported. Hypothesis
2 and 3 were not supported. Hypothesis 4 was supported.
This study sought to address the argument in the leadership
literature as to whether ESI is merely a variation of tradi-
tionally constructed intelligence or personality. The litera-
ture has not previously seen a simultaneous test of these
Table 2. Correlation Matrix
Variable 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
1. Financial consultants recruited
2. g .23
3. Agreeableness −.08 −.03
4. Conscientiousness .30* .14 .41**
5. Extroversion .09 −.08 .32** .20
6. Neuroticism −.08 −.14 −.44** −.47** −.36**
7. Openness −.15 .16 .17 −.02 .33** −.18
8. Emotional and social intelligence .33** .04 −.15 −.14 .12 .10 −.17
9. Size .84** .11 −.15 .20 .10 .03 −.20 .23
*p < .05. **p < .01.
Boyatzis et al. 197
Table 3. Hierarchal Regression on the Number of Financial
Consultants Recruited
Variable β R
Step 1 .73
Size of division .86**
Step 2 .76 .02
g .13
Agreeableness −.06
Conscientiousness .07
Extroversion .03
Neuroticism −.01
Openness −.02
Step 3 .78 .03
Emotional intelligence/
social intelligence
NOTE: Ranges of tolerance and variance inflation factor for the three
steps were as follows: size, .784-1.275; g, .884-.1.131; personality traits,
.691-1.599; emotional intelligence/social intelligence, .830-1.205 (n = 60,
Durbin–Watson = 1.739).
*p < .05. **p < .01.
three constructs against an objective measure of leader
performance (Walter et al., 2011). This study examined ESI
competencies as measured by “others’ observations” and
found that ESI competencies improved prediction of leader
performance beyond g and personality.
Although a small sample, this study showed that ESI
competencies do add value to understanding leader perfor-
mance as measured by the number of FAs recruited. Given
the 1-year time frame of this study, this was believed to be
the strongest predictor of future AUM.
The results provided no evidence for the predictive
capacity of g and personality. Of the personality traits, only
conscientiousness demonstrated a significant first-order
correlation to effectiveness, but it failed to demonstrate any
significance in the regressions. As predicted, ESI demon-
strated unique variance beyond division size, g, and person-
ality. This is surprising given the consistent evidence from
other studies and meta-analyses about the importance of g
and specific personality traits such as conscientiousness
(Judge et al., 2002; Lord et al., 1986; Zaccaro, 2007). Given
that this study assessed them controlling for a job and the
organization, this suggests that there are more contingent
factors that may be affecting the relationships reported in
earlier studies. All of the subjects in this study were execu-
tives, so we might have witnessed a restricted range effect.
Although the distribution of scores on the measures of g
was similar to senior occupational samples according to the
technical manuals, the restricted range could be a result of
promotion policies or practices within this firm. The same
argument might apply to the lack of unique variance from
the personality traits assessed. Firm practices may have
resulted in less variation in these personality traits within
this sample than shown in other studies.
Although the added variance is small, the overall finding
is still an important contribution to help refute the claim that
ESI does not provide any incremental validity beyond g and
personality. A major difference in this study was that it
tested incremental validity of the behavioral level of ESI
competencies and an independent criterion measure of per-
formance in a work setting (Cherniss, 2010; Riggio, 2010).
Furthermore, the use of a sales leadership context provided
an objective outcome measure.
Although it was stretching the statistical power of the
small sample size, curiosity led to calculating regressions of
the competencies within the EI and SI clusters on the one
measure of leader effectiveness that had shown a significant
relationship. Separate regressions were used because of the
small sample size. The results showed that Adaptability and
Influence were significant predictors of the number of
financial consultants recruited within each of the clusters,
as shown in Tables 4 and 5.
Adaptive selling has shown to predict sales for insurance
agents along with a domain specific test of EI (Kidwell,
Hardesty, Murtha, & Sheng, 2010). The particularly potent
role of the influence competency is consistent with this
being a sales organization with all levels of management
and professionals on full commission-based compensation.
Influence is how they sell to a client and, therefore, it
appears how they help, inspire, motivate, or manage each
Adaptability is also cited as a key ingredient in lead-
ership effectiveness (Heifetz & Linsky, 2002). So
although we can infer that ESI is an overall factor of
importance to recruitment, it may also be important in
the training and development of leaders in this context.
Future research may focus on the role of the specific ESI
competencies of Adaptability and Influence. Assessment
centers assess characteristics related to the behavioral
approach to ESI. A meta-analysis of assessment center
studies found that g, personality, and behaviors similar
to ESI contributed significant unique variance in job
performance (Meriac, Hoffman, Woehr, & Fleisher,
2008). They also found that Influencing contributed one
of the two highest unique variances with Organizing and
Recently there has been a call from EI scholars to pay
attention to the specifics of context in the study job perfor-
mance and EI (Chernis, 2010; O’Boyle et al., 2010). This
study looks at sales leadership and its relationship to new
cash invested by clients and recruitment of new FAs. In this
context, recruitment is the primary driver of overall division
success. Although results from the EQ-i have been shown to
predict successful recruiters (Handley, 1997), this aspect of
leader performance has not been previously studied with an
ESI measure.
198 Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies 19(2)
Table 4. Multiple Linear Stepwise Regression of Emotional Intelligence Competencies on Number of Financial Advisors Recruited (n = 60)
Standardized Coefficients Collinearity Statistics
Model β t Significance Tolerance Variance Inflation Factor
Constant ˜.0 0.000 1.000
Adaptability .343 2.439 .018 .651 1.537
Achievement Orientation .204 0.1337 .187 .552 1.810
Positive Outlook .200 1.388 .171 .617 1.620
Emotional Self-Awareness −.114 −0.835 .407 .690 1.449
Emotional Self-Control −.031 −0.250 .803 .850 1.177
F change 4.771 .001
Table 5. Multiple Linear Stepwise Regression of Social Intelligence Competencies on Number of Financial Advisors Recruited (n = 60)
Standardized Coefficients Collinearity Statistics
Model β t Significance Tolerance Variance Inflation Factor
Constant ˜.0 0.000 1.000
Conflict Management −.209 −1.372 .176 .670 1.492
Coach and Mentor −.011 −0.062 .951 .497 2.011
Empathy .003 0.017 .987 .477 2.097
.155 0.818 .417 .430 2.326
Influence .334 2.168 .035 .651 1.536
.169 0.951 .346 .493 2.029
Teamwork −.031 −0.159 .874 .408 2.453
F change 1.794 .108
Limitations and Future
Research and Practice
A limitation of this study is the small sample size. The find-
ings need to be replicated with a larger sample. The quality
of FAs recruited and recruitment ability of the executive
should also be examined in future research. The ESI of the
branch managers and the FAs would also offer important
data in assessing how EI affects organizational perfor-
mance driven from multiple levels of an organization.
Furthermore, important organizational outcome data could
help explain the mediating factors between ESI and recruit-
ment (e.g., commitment).
Another limitation that plagues most, if not all, research
using 360° assessment is that we do not know the precise
impact of allowing a participant to decide which others to
ask for survey completion. The method used in this study
is common practice and suspected to be lacking in possi-
ble selection bias, but it would be a contribution to the
field if research was done to determine or eliminate this
The findings suggest a refined focus for training and
development activities in a sales context. To develop the FAs
into effective leaders, the company could develop training,
assessment and development, and coaching activities to help
them develop and practice ESI behaviors. This may be espe-
cially important for a competency such as adaptability, which
can be improved with training (Heslin, 2005). Generally, the
findings suggest the importance of training future sales lead-
ers about the emotional aspects of leadership in influencing
followers to promote organizational objectives. Although EI
is consistently linked to selling effectiveness (Rozell et al.,
2006; Sojka & Deeter-Schmelz, 2002), current FAs may not
be as aware of the impact that it continues to have on true
“inside sales”—that within organizations.
In conclusion, ESI and the behavioral level of measure-
ment of ESI appear to contribute significant, unique vari-
ance in predicting leadership effectiveness, specifically in
recruitment, as compared with g and personality. If ESI
competencies are different from g and personality, then
using them in research and applications will be adding to
the validity of the research and utility of the applications.
Boyatzis et al. 199
Declaration of Conflicting Interests
The authors declared no potential conflicts of interest with respect
to the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.
The authors received no financial support for the research, author-
ship, and/or publication of this article.
Antonakis, J., Ashkanasy, N. M., & Dasborough, M. (2009). Does
leadership need emotional intelligence? Leadership Quarterly,
20, 247-261.
Ashforth, B. E., & Humphrey, R. H. (1995). Labeling processes
in the organization: Constructing the individual. Research in
Organizational Behavior, 17, 413-461.
Arvey, R. D., Rotundo, M., Johnson, W., Zhang, Z., & McGue, M.
(2006). The determinants of leadership role occupancy:
Genetic and personality factors. Leadership Quarterly, 17,
Barchard, K. A. (2003). Does emotional intelligence assist in the
prediction of academic success? Educational and Psychological
Measurement, 63, 840-858.
Bar-On, R. (1997). The Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i):
A test of emotional intelligence. Toronto, Ontario, Canada:
Multi-Health Systems.
Barrick, M., & Mount, M. (1991). The Big Five personality
dimensions and job performance: A meta-analysis. Personnel
Psychology, 44, 1-26.
Barrick, M. R., Mount, M. K., & Strauss, J. P. (1993). Conscien-
tiousness and performance of sales representatives: Test of the
mediating effects of goal setting. Journal of Applied Psychology,
78, 715-722.
Bastian, V. A., Burns, N. R., & Nettelbeck, T. (2005). Emotional
intelligence predicts life skills, but not as well as personality
and cognitive abilities. Personality and Individual Differences,
39, 1135-1145.
Bono, J. E., & Ilies, R. (2006). Charisma, positive emotions, and
mood contagion. Leadership Quarterly, 17, 317-334.
Boyatzis, R. E. (1982). The competent manager: A model for
effective performance. New York, NY: John Wiley.
Boyatzis, R. E. (2009). A behavioral approach to emotional intel-
ligence. Journal of Management Development, 9, 749-770.
Boyatzis, R. E., & Gaskin, J. (2010). A technical note on the ESCI
and ESCI-U: Factor structure, reliability, convergent and
discriminant validity using EFA and CFA. Boston, MA: Hay
Boyatzis, R. E., & Goleman, D. (2007). Emotional Competency
Inventory (now the Emotional and Social Competency Inven-
tory). Boston, MA: Hay Group.
Brody, N. (2004). What cognitive intelligence is and what
emotional intelligence is not. Psychological Inquiry, 15,
Cascio, W., & Boudreau, J. W. (2008). Investing in people: Finan-
cial impact of human resource initiatives. Upper Saddle River,
NJ: Prentice Hall.
Cherniss, C. (2010). Emotional intelligence: Toward clarification of
a concept. Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 3, 110-112.
Chrusciel, D. (2006). Considerations of emotional intelligence
(EI) in dealing with change decision management. Manage-
ment Decision, 44, 644-657.
Ciarrochi, J., Chan, A., & Caputi, P. (2000). A critical evaluation
of the emotional intelligence construct. Personality and Indi-
vidual Differences, 28, 539-561.
Colletti, J. A., & Chonko, L. (1997). Change management initia-
tives: Moving sales organizations to high performance. Journal
of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 17, 1-30.
Cote, S., & Miners, C. T. H. (2006). Emotional intelligence, cogni-
tive intelligence and job performance. Administrative Science
Quarterly, 51, 1-28.
Cote, S., Lopes, P., Salovey, P., & Miners, C. (2010). Emotional
intelligence and leadership emergence in small groups. Lead-
ership Quarterly, 21, 496-508.
Costa, P. T., & McCrae R. R. (1992). NEO-PI-R professional manual.
Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.
Davies, M., Stankov, L., & Roberts, R. D. (1998). Emotional intel-
ligence: In search of an elusive construct. Journal of Personal-
ity and Social Psychology, 75, 989-1015.
Dawda, D., & Hart, S. D. (2000). Assessing emotional intelli-
gence: Reliability and validity of the BarOn Emotional Quo-
tient Inventory (EQ-I) in university students. Personality and
Individual Differences, 28, 797-812.
Deshpandé, R., Farley, J. U., & Webster, F. E., Jr. (1993). Corporate
culture, customer orientation, and innovativeness in Japanese
firms: A quadrad analysis. Journal of Marketing Research, 57,
Downey, L. A., Lee, B., & Stough, C. (2011). Recruitment consul-
tant revenue: Relationships with IQ, personality and emotional
intelligence. International Journal of Selection and Assess-
ment, 19, 280-286.
Dubinsky, A. J., & Skinner, S. J. (2002). Going the extra mile:
Antecedents of salespeople’s discretionary effort. Industrial
Marketing Management, 31, 589-598.
Farr, J. L., & Newman, D. A. (2001). Rater selection sources of
feedback. In D. W. Bracken, C. W. Timmreck, & A. H. Church
(Eds.), The handbook of multisource feedback (pp. 96-113).
San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Fiedler, F. E. (1967). A theory of leadership effectiveness.
New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Gittell, J. H. (2001). Supervisory span, relational coordina-
tion, and flight departure performance: A reassessment
of post-bureaucracy theory. Organization Science, 12,
Hackman, J. R., & Walton, R. E. (1986). Leading groups in orga-
nizations. In P. S. Goodman (Ed.), Designing effective work
group (pp. 72-119). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
200 Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies 19(2)
Handley, R. (1997, April). AFRS rates emotional intelligence. Air
Force Recruiter News, 28, 797-812.
Harms, P. D., & Credé, M. (2010). Emotional intelligence and
transformational and transactional leadership: A meta-analysis.
Journal of Leadership and Organization Studies, 17, 5-17.
Heifetz, R. A., & Linsky, M. (2002). Leadership on the line: Staying
alive through the dangers of leading. Boston, MA: Harvard
Business School Press.
Heslin, P. A. (2005). Experiencing career success. Organizational
Dynamics, 34, 376-390.
Honan, M. (2009). Canadian sales force and retention, 2009. Windsor,
CT: Life Insurance Management Research Association.
Humphrey, R. H., Pollack, J. M., & Hawver, T. H. (2008). Lead-
ing with emotional labor. Journal of Managerial Psychology,
3, 151-168.
Ingram, T. N., LaForge, R. W., Locander, W. B., MacKenzie, S. B.,
& Podsakoff, P. M. (2005). New directions in sales leadership
research. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management,
25, 137-154.
Joseph, D. L., & Newman, D. A. (2010). Emotional intelligence:
An integrative meta-analysis and cascading model. Journal of
Applied Psychology, 95, 54-57.
Judge, T. A., Bono, J. E., Ilies, R., & Gerhardt, M. W. (2002). Per-
sonality and leadership: A qualitative and quantitative review.
Journal of Applied Psychology, 87, 765-780.
Judge, T. A., Colbert, A. E., & Ilies, R. (2004). Intelligence and
leadership: A quantitative review and test of theoretical propo-
sitions. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89, 542-552.
Kerr, R., Garvin, J., Heaton, N., & Boyle, E. (2006). Emotional
intelligence and leadership effectiveness. Leadership &
Organization Development Journal, 27, 265-279.
Kidwell, B., Hardesty, D. M., Murtha, B.R. & Sheng, S. (2010).
Emotional intelligence in marketing exchanges. Journal of
Marketing, 75, 78-95.
Larsson, G., Sjoberg, M., Vrbanjac, A., & Bjorkman, T. (2005).
Indirect leadership in a military context: A qualitative study on
how to do it. Leadership & Organization Development Journal,
26, 215-227.
Lord, R. G., De Vader, C. L., & Alliger, G. M. (1986). A meta-
analysis of the relation between personality traits and leader
perceptions: An application of validity generalization proce-
dures. Journal of Applied Psychology, 71, 402-410.
Lysonski, S., & Durvasula, S. (1998). A cross-national investiga-
tion of student attitudes toward personal selling: Implications
for marketing education. Journal of Marketing Education, 20,
Mael, F., & Ashforth, B. E. (1992). Alumni and their alma mater:
A partial test of the reformulated model of organizational iden-
tification. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 13, 103-124.
Matthews, G., Emo, A. K., Funke, G., Zeidner, M., & Roberts, R. D.
(2006). Emotional intelligence, personality, and task-induced
stress. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 12, 96-107.
Matthews, G., Zeidner, M., & Roberts, R. (2002). Emotional intel-
ligence: Science & myth. Cambridge: MIT Press.
MacCann, C., Roberts, R. D., Matthews, G., & Zeidner, M.
(2004). Effects of empirical option weighting on the reliability
and validity of performance-based emotional intelligence (EI)
tests. Personality and Individual Differences, 36, 645-662.
Mayer, J. D. (2009, September). Emotional intelligence as a multi-
level concept. Keynote at the second International Emotional
Intelligence Congress, Santander, Spain.
Mayer, J. D., Roberts, R. D., & Barsade, S. D. (2008). Human abili-
ties: Emotional intelligence. Annual Review of Psychology, 59,
Mayer, J. D., Salovey, P., & Caruso, D. (2000). Models of emo-
tional intelligence. In R. J. Sternberg (Ed.), The handbook
of intelligence (pp. 396-420). New York, NY: Cambridge
University Press.
McClelland, D. C. (1951). Personality. New York, NY: William
Meriac, J. P., Hoffman, B. J., Woehr, D. J., & Fleisher, M. S. (2008).
Further evidence for the validity of assessment centers dimen-
sions: A meta-analysis of the incremental validity criterion-
related validity of dimension ratings. Journal of Applied Psy-
chology, 93, 1042-1052.
Mulki, J. P., Jaramillo, J. F., & Locander, W. B. (2009). Critical
role of leadership on ethical climate and salesperson behav-
iors. Journal of Business Ethics, 86, 125-141.
Newsome, S., Day, A. L, & Catano, V. M. (2000). Assessing the
predictive validity of emotional intelligence. Personality &
Individual Differences, 29, 1005-1016.
O’Boyle, E. H., Jr., Humphrey, R. H., Pollack, J. M., Hawver, T. H.,
& Story, P. A. (2010). The relation between emotional intelli-
gence and job performance: A meta-analysis. Journal of Orga-
nizational Behavior, 32, 788-818.
Petrides, K. V., Frederickson, N., & Furnham, A. (2004). The role
of emotional intelligence in academic performance and devi-
ant behaviour at school. Personality and Individual Differences,
36, 277-293.
Prati, L., McMillan-Capehart, A., & Karriker, J. (2009). Affecting
organizational identity. Journal of Leadership & Organiza-
tional Studies, 15, 404-415.
Ravens, J. C. (1962). Advanced progressive matrices, set I [Test
booklet]. London, England: H. K. Lewis. (Distributed in the
United States by The Psychological Corporation, San Antonio,
Riggio, R. (2010). Before emotional intelligence: Research on
nonverbal, emotional, and social competences. Industrial and
Organizational Psychology, 3, 178-182.
Roberts, R. D., Schulze, R., & MacCann, C. (2008). The mea-
surement of emotional intelligence: A decade of progress?
In G. Boyle, G. Matthews, & D. Saklofske (Eds.), The Sage
handbook of personality theory and assessment (Vol. 2,
pp. 461-482). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
Rode, J., Mooney, C., Arthaud-Day, M., Near, J., Baldwin, T.,
Rubin, R., & Bommer, W. (2007). Emotional intelligence and
individual performance: Evidence of direct and moderated
effects. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 28, 399-421.
Boyatzis et al. 201
Rode, J. C., Mooney, C. H., Arthaud-day, M. L., Near, J. P.,
Rubin, R. S. S., Baldwin, T. T., & Bommer, W. H. (2008). An
examination of the structural, discriminant, nomological, and
incremental predictive validity of the MSCEIT. Intelligence,
36, 350-366.
Rode, J. C., Arthaud-Day, M. L., Mooney, C. H., Near, J. P. &
Baldwin, T. T. (2008). Ability and personality predictors of
salary, perceived job success, and perceived career success in
the initial career stage. International Journal of Selection and
Assessment, 16, 292-297.
Rosete, D., & Ciarrochi, J. (2005). Emotional intelligence and its
relationship to workplace performance outcomes of leadership
effectiveness. Leadership & Organization Development Journal,
26, 388-399.
Rozell, E. J., Pettijohn, C. E., & Parker, R. S. (2006). Emotional
intelligence and dispositional affectivity as predictors of per-
formance in salespeople. Journal of Marketing Theory and
Practice, 14, 113-124.
Salovey, P., & Mayer, J. D. (1990). Emotional intelligence. Imagi-
nation, Cognition, and Personality, 9, 185-211.
Schmidt, F. L., & Hunter, J. (2004). General mental ability in the
world of work: Occupational attainment and job performance.
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 86, 162-173.
Shipper, F., Hoffman, R. C., & Rotondo, D. M. (2007). Does the 360
feedback process create actionable knowledge equally across cul-
tures? Academy of Management Learning and Education, 6, 33-50.
Sojka, J. Z., & Deeter-Schmelz, D. R. (2002). Enhancing the emo-
tional intelligence of salespeople. Mid-American Journal of
Business, 17, 43-50.
Sosick, J., & Megerian, J. (1999). Understanding leader emotional
intelligence and performance. Group and Organization
Management, 24, 367-391.
Spiro, R. L., Stanton, W. J., & Rich, G. A. (2008). Management
of a sales force (12th ed.). Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.
Sy, T., Cote, S., & Saavedra, R. (2005). The contagious leader:
Impact of the leaders mood on the mood of group members,
group affective tone, and group processes. Journal of Applied
Psychology, 90, 295-305.
Van Rooy, D. L., & Viswesvaran, C. (2004). Emotional intelli-
gence: A meta- analytic investigation of predictive validity and
nomological net. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 65, 71-95.
Waldman, D. A., & Yammarino, F. J. (1999). CEO charismatic
leadership: levels of management and levels of analysis
effects. Academy of Management Review, 24, 266-285.
Walter, F., Cole, M. S., & Humphrey, R. H. (2011). Emotional
intelligence: Sine qua non of leadership or folderol? Academy
of Management Perspectives, 25, 45-59.
Wolff, S. B. (2007). Emotional and social competency inventory
technical manuals. Boston, MA: Hay Group.
Yammarino. F. J. (1994). Indirect leadership: transformational
leadership at a distance. In B. M. Bass & B. J. Avolio (Eds.),
Improving organizational effectiveness through transforma-
tional leadership (pp. 26-47). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
Zaccaro, S. J. (2007). Trait-based perspectives of leadership.
American Psychologist, 62, 6-16.
Richard E. Boyatzis is Distinguished University Professor and
professor in the Departments of Organizational Behavior,
Psychology and Cognitive Science at Case Western Reserve
University. His research focuses on emotional intelligence compe-
tencies, leadership development and coaching.
Darren Good is an Assistant Professor of Management, in the
Luter School of Business at Christopher Newport University. His
research focuses on leader development with an emphasis on flex-
ibility and adaptability in real-time dynamic contexts.
Raymond Massa is a financial services executive and teaches
classes at Concordia University and Case Western Reserve
University. His research focuses on sales and sales management
effectiveness and emotional intelligence.
... However, studies examining the relationship between leadership and intelligence are limited to emotional intelligence, social intelligence and cognitive intelligence. In the literature, studies have been carried out on leadership and emotional intelligence (Antonakis, Ashkanasy, and Dasborough, 2009;Cavazotte, Kamal et al., 2017;Edelman and Knippenberg, 2018;Hajncl and Vučenović, 2020;Higgs, 2002;Maamari and Majdalani, 2017;Mathew and Gupta, 2015), cognitive intelligence (Boyatzis et al., 2012;Hoffman and Frost, 2006;Rosete and Ciarrochi, 2005), social intelligence (Boyatzis et al., 2012;Hoffman and Frost, 2006;Garg, Jain and Punia, 2021;Shahid, 2017). Riggio, Murphy and Pirozzolo (2002) examining the relationship between leadership and intelligence, they associated leadership with social, emotional, successful cognitive and sociopolitical intelligence. ...
... However, studies examining the relationship between leadership and intelligence are limited to emotional intelligence, social intelligence and cognitive intelligence. In the literature, studies have been carried out on leadership and emotional intelligence (Antonakis, Ashkanasy, and Dasborough, 2009;Cavazotte, Kamal et al., 2017;Edelman and Knippenberg, 2018;Hajncl and Vučenović, 2020;Higgs, 2002;Maamari and Majdalani, 2017;Mathew and Gupta, 2015), cognitive intelligence (Boyatzis et al., 2012;Hoffman and Frost, 2006;Rosete and Ciarrochi, 2005), social intelligence (Boyatzis et al., 2012;Hoffman and Frost, 2006;Garg, Jain and Punia, 2021;Shahid, 2017). Riggio, Murphy and Pirozzolo (2002) examining the relationship between leadership and intelligence, they associated leadership with social, emotional, successful cognitive and sociopolitical intelligence. ...
Full-text available
The aim of this study is to investigate whether there is a relationship between moral intelligence levels and ethical leadership behaviors. For this purpose, the study examined the relationship between moral intelligence and ethical leadership behaviors of academic leaders. The research population consists of academicians working at a state university and having administrative duties. Dean, deputy dean, chief of department, director of research and application center, assistant director research and application center, director of vocational school were selected as administrative duties. The data of the study were collected by online survey method. Three-dimensional moral intelligence scale and four-dimensional ethical leadership scale expressions were directed to academicians with administrative duties. The questionnaire was sent to all academic leaders through the press and public relations office via e-mail. 133 questionnaires were used in the analysis and the data were analyzed with the SPSS 26 program. According to the correlation results, it was concluded that there is a significant and strong relationship between moral intelligence and ethical leadership behavior and its sub-dimensions and ethical leadership. The results of the regression analysis revealed that empathy, self-control, and kindness, which are the sub-dimensions of moral intelligence, are effective on ethical leadership behavior.
... Furthermore, some studies have reported a positive relationship between academic performance and social intelligence in leaders of sales organizations (Boyatzis et al., 2012). Similarly, several studies have shown that successful intelligence-i.e., analytical, creative, and practical skills-is also related to academic performance (Tan et al., 2012;Aljughaiman andAyoub, 2013, Ayoub, 2018;Mandelman et al., 2013Mandelman et al., , 2015Sternberg et al., 2014;Mourgues et al., 2015). ...
Full-text available
The current study investigated correlations among gifted students’ academic performance; emotional, social, analytical, creative, and practical intelligence; and their implicit theories of intelligence. Furthermore, it studied the effect of gender and grade on these variables. The participants included 174 gifted fifth (41.4%) and sixth (58.6%) grade students, comprising 53.4% male and 46.6% female. The following analytical, creative, and practical intelligence tests were administered: Aurora Battery, the emotional intelligence scale, the implicit theories of intelligence scale, and an assessment scale of students’ performances. The results revealed significant correlations among academic performance, kinds of intelligence, and implicit theories of intelligence. There were no significant differences between the male and female students in these measures. There were, however, significant differences between the fifth and sixth grade students, with the sixth-grade students showing higher levels of all kinds of intelligence, except emotional intelligence. Moreover, the results indicated that the intelligence measures were non-significantly affected by either gender or gender–grade interaction. Overall, our results showed that most types of intelligence are related to giftedness, and that there were no gender differences among gifted students on measures of intelligence.
... So, social intelligence became an important factor in everyone's life. So, if the study can check the resemblance between human EQ or SQ, the overall calculation of EQ and SQ together i.e., ESI (Emotional Social Intelligence) will provide more reliable results and the requirement of greedy data for deep learning will also be easily fulfilled by adding the Social Intelligence factor in this research [35,36]. ...
Full-text available
This study provides a comprehensive assessment of the associations of personality and intelligence. It presents a meta-analysis (N = 162,636, k = 272) of domain, facet, and item-level correlations between personality and intelligence (general, fluid, and crystallized) for the major Big Five and HEXACO hierarchical frameworks of personality: NEO PI-R, Big Five Aspect Scales (BFAS), BFI-2, and HEXACO PI R. It provides the first meta-analysis of personality and intelligence to comprehensively examine (a) facet-level correlations for these hierarchical frameworks of personality, (b) item-level correlations, (c) domain- and facet-level predictive models. Age and sex differences in personality and intelligence, and study-level moderators, are also examined. The study was complemented by four of our own unpublished datasets (N = 26,813) which were used to assess the ability of item-level models to provide generalizable prediction. Results showed that openness (ρ = .20) and neuroticism (ρ = -.09) were the strongest Big Five correlates of intelligence and that openness correlated more with crystallized than fluid intelligence. At the facet-level, traits related to intellectual engagement and unconventionality were more strongly related to intelligence than other openness facets, and sociability and orderliness were negatively correlated with intelligence. Facets of gregariousness and excitement seeking had stronger negative correlations, and openness to aesthetics, feelings, and values had stronger positive correlations with crystallized than fluid intelligence. Facets explained more than twice the variance of domains. Overall, the results provide the most nuanced and robust evidence to date of the relationship between personality and intelligence.
Purpose This paper aims to determine whether performing an emotional intelligence (EI) intervention improves employees’ self-perceived emotional–social competencies (ESC) to achieve relational outcomes in firms based in China. Design/methodology/approach Based on a qualitative, interpretive approach through purposive sampling, this paper explored the impacts the Strengths Deployment Inventory (SDI) 2.0 intervention might have upon Chinese employees regarding ESC and relational outcomes. Data was collected from 18 semi-structured interviews with Chinese executives and individual contributors. Findings The findings suggested that ESC could be developed and improved in Chinese employees. The SDI 2.0 intervention may effectively bring about positive EI shifts and relevant attitudinal and behavioral changes related to work relationships. Practical implications The developed ESC and relational outcomes provide practitioners with insight to better understand the role training plays in organizational effectiveness, as well as to implement the SDI 2.0 program in human resource practices of Chinese organizations to develop personnel and promote high-quality work relationships. Originality/value This study gains significance by highlighting the effectiveness of the SDI 2.0 intervention in enhancing respondents’ ESC with relational outcomes from the perspectives of Chinese firms. Thus, supporting the effectiveness of EI training in the Chinese workplace and introducing the EI training literature the SDI 2.0 tool.
Full-text available
Servant leadership with its profound effect on the performance of organizations has gained much attention among researchers and practitioners. Likewise, another construct of organizational behavior, emotional intelligence, has been noted to have a significant impact on employees' job performances. This study is undertaken to explore the role of servant leadership between emotional intelligence and job performance, in the higher education sector of Quetta, Pakistan. The present study with the quantitative method in nature used the survey method to collect the data using convince sampling technique, where the data is analyzed using the smart pls software. The results of the study showed that emotional intelligence has a positive association with servant leadership and job performance. In addition, it is also proved that servant leadership mediates the relationship between emotional intelligence and job performance. Furthermore, this study contributes to the body of knowledge by exploring the role of servant leadership, emotional intelligence, and job performance. Furthermore, the study would help leaders to groom as servant leaders and learn how to deal with emotions to be more effective in work settings, and assists organizations, to train their current leaders the traits of emotional intelligence and servant leadership and hire future leaders who possess the characteristics of servant leadership and emotional intelligence.
Purpose This study aims to explore the mediating effect of organization culture (OC) in the influence of emotional intelligence on the high-performance leadership of Chinese woman leaders. Design/methodology/approach A quantitative study to analyze survey data from 290 women leaders in the Ning Xia Hui Autonomies Region private and public sectors based in Northwest China. Findings The results indicate that emotional intelligence has a positive influence on woman leadership performance in China. woman leaders with higher emotional intelligence may have higher leadership performance. Further, emotional intelligence positively influences organization culture; OC also positively influences high-performance leadership. And the study also indicates OC mediates the relationship between emotional intelligence and woman leaders’ high-performance leadership in China, which means that OC promote and reinforce the relationships between emotional intelligence and high-performance leadership in China. Therefore, organizations should pay more attention to the construction of OC to help Chinese woman leaders and organizations succeed. Practical implications This study may catalyze positive social change in leadership development and management by helping women leaders implement effective leadership performance in a complex and global workforce. And to help women leaders increase their understanding of emotional intelligence, OC and its influence has on their performance. The proposed model of this study may help Chinese leaders put emotional intelligence, OC and high-performance leadership of woman leaders into a careful and integrated consideration. Professionals could use these results as a catalyst to develop a set of management plans and career development plans to improve woman’s understanding of the relationship between leadership performance and emotional intelligence. OC is critical to help women leaders present an effective leadership performance. Hence, this study may help women leaders successfully get more opportunities for growth and promotion in the organization. Originality/value Through the first-hand verification of organization culture, this study provides an essential theoretical and background contribution to the impact of emotional intelligence of woman leaders on high-performance leadership. In addition, the study also has forward-looking thinking, that is, the second-order reflection-reflection model of OC and high-performance leadership of woman leaders, which will provide a new vision for variance-based partial least squares-structural equation modeling.
Full-text available
resumo: O objetivo deste artigo é identificar as competências socioemocionais necessárias à ação gerencial no Instituto Nacional do Seguro Social (INSS). O estudo é de natureza exploratória e abordagem qualitativa. Foi realizado com 16 gerentes de uma das filiais da instituição localizada no Nordeste brasileiro. Para alcançar o objetivo da pesquisa, foram realizadas duas sessões de entrevistas em grupo, utilizando-se a estratégia de grupo focal. Foram identificadas e descritas cinco dimensões de Competências Socioemocionais (CSE) necessárias à ação gerencial: Consciência Emocional, Autocontrole Emocional, Regulação Emocional, Consciência Social e Criatividade Emocional. A principal contribuição do estudo está na identificação de CSE no contexto gerencial do serviço público brasileiro. Uma das implicações foi a proposição de uma escala de CSE para ser validada em um estudo quantitativo para a mensuração e o desenvolvimento de CSE em contextos profissionais. Palaras-chave: competências socioemocionais; gerente; INSS; serviço público; inteligência emocional.
Full-text available
It has been proposed that the hierarchical structure of personality contains a general factor, representing the shared variance of lower-order personality traits, such as the Big Five. This general factor of personality (GFP) reflects a mix of socially desirable traits. There is a scientific debate on whether the GFP mere arises due to measurement artifact (e.g., social desirability bias), or whether it is largely substantive. In the substantive view of the GFP, the factor is proposed to be mainly social effectiveness or resilience. In the present article we focus on advancements on GFP research in two applied areas, namely occupational behavior and clinical psychology. We discuss research showing that, in the work domain, the GFP positively relates to supervisor-rated and objective job performance, and leadership. In line with the social-effectiveness account, the GFP also is associated with more interest in social jobs. In the clinical domains, low GFP scores have shown to be related to a wide range of psychopathologies and difficulties in dealing with everyday life. In conclusion, we argue that the GFP may have significant theoretical and practical implications.
Full-text available
Drawing on categorization theory and labeling theory, we argue that individuals working in or transacting with the organization tend to be perceived largely in terms of social categories (e.g., gender, job title)-though more individuated perceptions are possible if the perceiver has sufficient motivation and time. The primary functions of this categorization are to structure and simplify the social environment and to foster social control. Characteristics perceived to be prototypical of category members are often attributed to the individual such that he or she comes to be seen as exemplifying the category. The perceiver's frame of reference is a product of the organizational context, role and task demands, and certain individual characteristics. The labeling process tends to become more automatic with task experience as the perceiver develops a repertoire of expected categories. However, given the ambiguity of social stimuli and the multiplicity of potential labels, the act of labeling is often a negotiated process between the perceiver and the individual. The effects of labeling include altered interpersonal interactiolIS, formation of outgroups and ingroups, changes in social identity, and self-fulfilling prophecies that seemingly validate the labels. Tactics that may be utilized to cope with the more negative effects include embracing, distancing, passing, and repudiating, as well as more collective approaches. This perspective on labeling may help explain such diverse phenomena as stereotyping, tokenism, deifying, scapegoating, group polarization, and social identity formation.
Full-text available
Emotional intelligence (EI) is a divisive topic for many individuals interested in the subject of leadership. Whereas practitioner-oriented publications have claimed that EI is the sine qua non of leadership, academics continue to discuss EI's relevance for understanding leadership emergence, behavior, and effectiveness. Here we critically review recent empirical evidence to constructively frame what has become a contentious debate about the relevance of EI. We also identify unresolved issues and highlight future research directions that may promote our understanding of EI's role for leadership. We close with a practical discussion of possible applications of EI in leadership education, training, and development.
Full-text available
Essential to an organization's capacity for sustainable growth is the ability of its managers to learn better skills that improve performance. Millions of dollars are spent each year on development initiatives that often fail to transfer into performance gains, primarily due to insufficient support given to the learning transfer process. One initiative used by companies to develop managerial skills is the 360 feedback process. This process has been recognized by some for its value because of its inherent ability to reinforce learning and create actionable knowledge. Some companies have gone so far as to assume that the 360 feedback process will apply equally across cultures. Given that different cultures hold different values, the assumption needs to be examined. The question of cultural relevance for the 360 feedback process was examined across five countries in this study. The results provide support for the overall effectiveness of the 360 process across the combined sample. Comparisons among the five countries, however, revealed important differences. The results were examined based on Hofstede's four work-related values. The 360 feedback process was found to be most effective in cultures with low power distance and individualistic values. The implications for both practice and research are discussed.
“Quadrads” (double dyads) of interviews, each conducted with a pair of marketing executives at a Japanese vendor firm and a pair of purchasing executives at a Japanese customer firm, provided data on corporate culture, customer orientation, innovativeness, and market performance. Business performance (relative profitability, relative size, relative growth rate, and relative share of market) was correlated positively with the customer's evaluation of the supplier's customer orientation, but the supplier's own assessment of customer orientation did not correspond well to that of the customer. Japanese companies with corporate cultures stressing competitiveness (markets) and entrepreneurship (adhocracies) outperformed those dominated by internal cohesiveness (clans) or by rules (hierarchies). Successful market innovation also improved performance.
The article discusses a study that examines the effectiveness of the 360 feedback process for creating actionable knowledge equally in different cultures. The article states that just because 360 feedback is used in a variety of cultures, it cannot be assumed that it is similarly effective in each one. The article hypothesizes that culture will affect the 360 feedback process in two ways: that the process and feedback of the 360 method is based on values that are not shared equally by all cultures, and that the relationship of the variety of outcomes to cultural values may be important to the effectiveness. The article states that the study found the process to be most effective in cultures low on power distance with individualistic values.
Emotional intelligence (EI) is a divisive topic for many individuals interested in the subject of leadership. Whereas practitioner-oriented publications have claimed that EI is the sine qua non of leadership, academics continue to discuss EI's relevance for understanding leadership emergence, behavior, and effectiveness. Here we critically review recent empirical evidence to constructively frame what has become a contentious debate about the relevance of EI. We also identify unresolved issues and highlight future research directions that may promote our understanding of EI's role for leadership. We close with a practical discussion of possible applications of EI in leadership education, training, and development.
The authors used 91 sales representatives to test a process model that assessed the relationship of conscientiousness to job performance through mediating motivational (goal-setting) variables. Linear structural equation modeling showed that sales representatives high in conscientiousness are more likely to set goals and are more likely to be committed to goals, which in turn is associated with greater sales volume and higher supervisory ratings of job performance. Results also showed that conscientiousness is directly related to supervisory ratings. Consistent with previous research, results showed that ability was also related to supervisory ratings of job performance and, to a lesser extent, sales volume. Contrary to expectations, 1 other personality construct, extraversion, was not related to sales volume or to supervisory ratings of job performance. Implications and future research needs are discussed.
The changing environment facing sales organizations is characterized by the dimensions of complexity, collaboration, and accountability. Responding effectively to this dynamic environment requires a focus on specific leadership activities by senior sales leaders, field sales managers, and salespeople. A sales leadership framework is presented and used to identify and discuss specific leadership challenges and important research questions at different sales organization levels. Several new directions for sales leadership research are proposed to improve sales leadership thought and practice. © 2005 PSE National Educational Foundation. All rights reserved.