Entrepreneurial marketing in small businesses: A conceptual exploration

Article (PDF Available)inInternational Small Business Journal 29(1):25-36 · February 2011with 7,969 Reads 
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
DOI: 10.1177/0266242610369743
Cite this publication
This article proposes further development of the concept of entrepreneurial marketing towards the concept of entrepreneurial marketing orientation. Drawing on the earlier research and scales in the entrepreneurial orientation, market orientation, innovation orientation and customer orientation literatures, the article proposes a conceptual model for entrepreneurial marketing that identifies the components of such a model, together with specific indications of the overlap between scales in the different areas. This model implicitly suggests that marketing in SMEs is intertwined with other activities and behaviours in the small business enterprise, and argues that in order to understand marketing in SMEs it is essential to understand its context, specifically in relation to customer engagement, innovation and entrepreneurial approaches to marketing.
International Small Business Journal
The online version of this article can be found at:
DOI: 10.1177/0266242610369743
2011 29: 25International Small Business Journal
Rosalind Jones and Jennifer Rowley
Entrepreneurial marketing in small businesses: A conceptual exploration
Published by:
can be found at:International Small Business JournalAdditional services and information for
http://isb.sagepub.com/cgi/alertsEmail Alerts:
at University of Hertfordshire on September 13, 2011isb.sagepub.comDownloaded from
mall Firms
Entrepreneurial marketing in small
businesses: A conceptual exploration
Rosalind Jones
Bangor Business School, Bangor University, UK
Jennifer Rowley
Manchester Metropolitan University, UK
This article proposes further development of the concept of entrepreneurial marketing towards
the concept of entrepreneurial marketing orientation. Drawing on the earlier research and scales
in the entrepreneurial orientation, market orientation, innovation orientation and customer
orientation literatures, the article proposes a conceptual model for entrepreneurial marketing
that identifies the components of such a model, together with specific indications of the overlap
between scales in the different areas. This model implicitly suggests that marketing in SMEs is
intertwined with other activities and behaviours in the small business enterprise, and argues that
in order to understand marketing in SMEs it is essential to understand its context, specifically in
relation to customer engagement, innovation and entrepreneurial approaches to marketing.
customer orientation, entrepreneurial marketing, entrepreneurial orientation, innovation orientation,
market orientation, SME marketing
Marketing, and more specifically, market orientation has been identified as an important contribu-
tor to business performance (Deshpande et al., 1993; Jaworski and Kohli, 1993; Narver and Slater,
1990). Conversely, several researchers have identified the absence of market orientation and skills
in SMEs which often leads to lower performance levels and higher risks of business failure
(Alpkan et al., 2007; Blankson and Stokes, 2002; Brooksbank et al., 2004; Hill and Blois, 1987;
Huang and Brown, 1999; McCartan-Quinn and Carson, 2003). Davis et al. (1985: 31) suggested
that: ‘marketing academicians have almost entirely neglected investigations at the small enterprise/
marketing interface’.
Corresponding author:
Rosalind Jones, Bangor Business School, Bangor University, Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 2DG, UK
E-mail: abs822@bangor.ac.uk
International Small Business Journal
29(1) 25–36
© The Author(s) 2011
Reprints and permission: sagepub.
DOI: 10.1177/0266242610369743
at University of Hertfordshire on September 13, 2011isb.sagepub.comDownloaded from
26 International Small Business Journal 29(1)
Fortunately, given the importance of small business to the economy, there has been a much
greater level of activity in relation to marketing in SMEs over the last 20 years (Blankson and
Omar, 2002; Blankson and Stokes, 2002; Brooksbank, 1991; Brooksbank et al., 1999, 2004;
Carson, 1990, Carson and Cromie, 1989; Carson et al., 1995; Gilmore et al., 2001; Hill, 2001;
Stokes, 1998), and this has led to a developing body of knowledge around SMEs and their mar-
keting strategies, planning and activities, as discussed later in this article. However, much of
this research has taken as its foundation the disciplinary perspectives of marketing and/or strat-
egy, and has been published in journals in these fields. It is therefore, timely to seek to energize
the debate about marketing and market orientation within the mainstream small business
A recognition of the significance of the interaction between entrepreneurship and marketing has
led to the proposal of the concept of ‘entrepreneurial marketing’ (EM). While some authors argue
that EM is important for all organizations (large and small), there is a general recognition that the
concept is particularly apposite to the small business context. In this context, EM, as a concept
makes an explicit statement about the approach to marketing adopted by SMEs, and also acknowl-
edges the need to understand marketing in SMEs within the wider conceptual base and frameworks
of small business and enterprise.
This article responds to calls for the further development and exploration of the concept of EM
(Collinson and Shaw, 2001; Kraus et al., 2006; Morris et al., 2002). The article proposes that the
EM paradigm should be advanced to include an approach to marketing that is grounded in the
knowledge bases of not only marketing, but also innovation, entrepreneurship and, customer
engagement and relationships. This philosophical standpoint is operationalized through a focus on
‘orientations’. Thus, the article seeks to integrate key facets of the market orientation (MO) scales,
with facets from customer orientation (CO), entrepreneurial orientation (EO) and innovation ori-
entation (IO). In particular, the case is argued for the inclusion of the notion of customer orientation
as a distinct component of EM, rather than being subsumed under MO. This article arrives at this
position as a result of an extrapolation of the key themes in the EM literature from the SME per-
spective, together with a review of the EO, MO, IO and CO literatures. On this basis, a new entre-
preneurial marketing orientation (EMO) model is proposed.
This article first summarizes the EM literature, with a focus on its application in relation to
marketing in SMEs. Then, the case for the inclusion of each of the orientation measurement scales
emanating from the EO, MO, IO and CO literature is argued. This culminates in a proposal for a
conceptual model of EMO as a basis for research exploration of EM in SMEs. The article con-
cludes by proposing a number of areas for research and development with a view to advancing the
concept of EM.
Entrepreneurial marketing in SMEs
SME marketing has been actively researched over the last two decades and this research has dem-
onstrated that small firms exhibit different marketing behaviours with large firms, and that form
the foundation for traditional marketing theory (Freel, 2000). Attempts to adapt and apply tradi-
tional marketing models to SMEs, based on the assumption that the basic principles of marketing
developed in large businesses are universally applicable, have been unsuccessful. Research on
small firm owner-managers found that it was not unusual for them to have negative attitudes
towards traditional marketing ideas (Cohen and Lindbore, 1972; Hogarth-Scott et al., 1996). The
market orientation of SMEs is highly dependent on the marketing knowledge of the entrepreneur
at University of Hertfordshire on September 13, 2011isb.sagepub.comDownloaded from
Jones and Rowley 27
or small business owner, who tends to be a generalist rather than have management or marketing
skills (Hogarth-Scott et al., 1996).
However, there is now an acknowledgement that although the SME’s approach to marketing
may not fit established theories, successful SMEs are able to capitalize on their unique benefits of
‘smallness’. Carson et al. (1995) proposed that SME marketing was in fact entrepreneurial mar-
keting, a distinctive style characterized by a range of factors that included an inherently informal,
simple and haphazard approach. This approach is a result of various factors including: small size;
business and marketing limitations; the influence of the entrepreneur; and, the lack of formal
organizational structures or formal systems of communication with sometimes no systems at all
when it comes to marketing. This form of marketing tends to be responsive and reactive to com-
petition and opportunistic in nature (Carson et al., 1995). It also tends to be highly dependent on
networking (Gilmore and Carson, 1999; Gilmore et al., 2001; Miller et al., 2007) and the oppor-
tunities it provides for the generation of social capital (Bowey and Easton, 2007; Cope et al.,
2007; Miller et al., 2007; Shaw, 2006). Networks facilitate the formation and generation of
customer contacts where word-of-mouth recommendation is facilitated through use of inter-
organizational network relationships and personal contact networks (Gilmore et al., 2001; Hill
and Wright, 2001).
More recently, Morris et al. (2002: 5) have defined EM as ‘the proactive identification and
exploitation of opportunities for acquiring and retaining profitable customers through innovative
approaches to risk management, resource leveraging and value creation’. Researchers also view
EM behaviour as being derived from entrepreneurial thinking, entrepreneurs being innovative,
calculated risk takers, proactive and opportunity orientated (Kirzner, 1973) while Hills and
Hultman (2006: 222) identified EM behavioural characteristics which included ‘marketing
tactics often two way with customers’ and marketing decisions based on daily contacts and
It has been proposed that marketing has much to offer the study of entrepreneurship (Hills,
1987; Murray, 1981) and, conversely, entrepreneurship can look to marketing as the key function
of the firm, which can encompass innovation and creativity (Collinson and Shaw, 2001). Indeed,
empirical evidence suggests that there exists a significant correlation between an enterprise’s mar-
keting and entrepreneurial orientations, both widely being responsible for corporate success (Miles
and Arnold, 1991). The relatively recent development of EM theory has generated a substantial
body of literature surrounding the interface between marketing and entrepreneurship. Yet research
findings on the marketing and entrepreneurship interface are fragmented, and there is as yet no
integrated analysis or comprehensive theory (Kraus, 2006). Indeed, Carson (2005) cited in Hills
and Hultman (2006: 232) put the case for a more holistic approach to the domain: ‘I think we need
a holistic interpretation of the domain, rather than focusing on an either/or scenario.’
Reviewing the orientation literature
As discussed in the previous section there is increasing interest in EM theory, and a well estab-
lished recognition of its grounding in both marketing and entrepreneurship theory and practice.
This section will argue that, on the basis of an analysis of the EM literature any consideration of
EM must embrace innovation and customer engagement and, relationships. Accordingly, in this
section, previous work MO, EO, CO and IO scales is summarized and conceptualized, where pos-
sible, with respect to SMEs. In addition, the scales that were used to inform the components in the
proposed EMO model are identified and discussed.
at University of Hertfordshire on September 13, 2011isb.sagepub.comDownloaded from
28 International Small Business Journal 29(1)
Market orientation
MO is widely recognized as having a positive effect on business performance (Deshpande, 1999;
Jaworski and Kohli, 1993; Kotler, 1984; Kotler and Anderson, 1987; Narver and Slater, 1990,
1999; Webster, 1988). Although literature has provided a variety of definitions of MO, most authors
appear to adopt one of two perspectives (Tajeddini et al., 2006; Verhees and Meulenberg, 2004),
that of Kohli and Jaworski (1990) or Narver and Slaters (1990) definition. Kohli and Jaworski
adopt a behavioural perspective, using marketing intelligence rather than a customer focus as the
central element. In contrast, the Narver and Slater scale is based on a cultural perspective, identify-
ing three behavioural components: customer orientation; competitor orientation; and inter-
functional coordination. Both models are rigorously tested for reliability in large firms research but
opinion remains divided as to which is the more suitable (Pitt et al., 1996; Tajeddini et al., 2006).
Deshpande et al. (1993) developed a MO scale, which embodied a CO focus and later, Deshpande
and Farley (1998) developed the ‘MORTN’ scale, based on elements of Narver and Slaters (1990)
scale, Kohli et al.’s (1993) ‘MARKOR’ scale and Deshpande et al.’s (1993) scale.
Owing to their robustness, reliability and validity, Narver and Slaters (1990) MO scale and
Kohli et al.’s (1993) ‘MARKOR’ Scale are used in the MO element of the proposed EM orientation
model. The MO dimensions that inform the EMO model are: market intelligence generation (Kohli
et al., 1993); responsiveness towards competitors (Kohli et al., 1993); and integration of business
processes (Narver and Slater, 1990).
Customer orientation
CO has its roots in early services marketing literature in which the importance of customer-focused
employees was a tangible sign of quality for the firm and its services (Gronroos, 1982). Since then,
the concept of CO within firms has been investigated by a number of authors and researchers;
indeed, some authors view CO as the ‘pillar of marketing’ (Deshpande et al., 1993; Jaworski and
Kohli, 1993; Slater and Narver, 1995). Narver and Slater (1990) observed that CO requires a suf-
ficient understanding to create products or services of superior value, defining CO as a culture that
accentuates the creation of customer value as the overriding organizational goal, while Cardwell
(1994) argues that a company’s very survival will depend on moving closer to the customer, fully
understanding the customers needs and wants, building a relationship and, therefore, developing
an attitude of consistent customer dedication.
Zontanos and Anderson (2004) assert that a small firm’s marketing advantage is precisely linked
to the close relationships between the entrepreneur and the customers, in contrast to larger firms
where it is much more difficult to embed entrepreneurship and a customer orientation into its orga-
nizational culture. Small firms’ generally narrow and localized customer base creates a much shorter
line of communication between the firm and its customers (Weinrauch et al., 1991), with entrepre-
neurs often knowing their customers personally. As a result of such a close interactive relationship,
benefits arise such as higher customer loyalty and higher levels of customer satisfaction (Carson,
1985; Lindman, 2004). Long-term relationships between the customer and entrepreneurs are often
cemented by the small firm’s ability to react to customer needs quickly as they are more likely to be
flexible in their ability to respond to customer inquiries (Carson et al., 1995).
CO has been identified and investigated by a number of researchers in a range of disciplines.
Some authors regard CO as central to the marketing concept and view CO and MO as interchange-
able concepts (Deshpande et al., 1993; Shapiro, 1988; Webster, 1988). Narver and Slater (1990)
regard CO as a culture that accentuates the creation of customer value as the overriding organiza-
tional goal, while others such as Jones et al. (2003) maintain MO and CO orientation as separate
at University of Hertfordshire on September 13, 2011isb.sagepub.comDownloaded from
Jones and Rowley 29
concepts and, according to Day and Wensley (1988), a balance must be found between the two
orientations. From a slightly different perspective Drucker (1954) defined CO as a philosophy and
a set of behaviours directed toward determining and understanding the needs of the target customer
and adapting the selling organization’s response in order to satisfy those needs better than the com-
petition. CO also features in the services management and marketing literature in which companies
that adopt a customer satisfaction perspective are considered more able to attain organizational
goals with greater effectiveness than their competitors (Reichheld and Sasser, 1990). Conversely,
Saura et al. (2005) identify CO as resting in both the sales literature and the MO literature. The
sales literature promotes customer centrality for service excellence and uses such measures as Saxe
and Weitz’s (1982) service orientation and customer orientation SOCO scale, which examines the
relationship between service and customer orientations. This scale is still frequently used and
adapted in the sales literature. Deshpande et al.’s (1993) MO scale is known as a customer-oriented
scale based on corporate culture and organizational innovativeness while Saura et al. (2005) devel-
oped scales that are more representative of Druckers definition. The scales of Despande et al.,
Saura et al., and Saxe and Weitz, are used in the proposed new model as they represent central ele-
ments of the CO concept from a range of perspectives and this work is proven for its reliability and
validity. CO dimensions from the scales that inform the CO aspect of the model are: responsive-
ness towards customers (Kohli et al., 1993); communication with customers (Narver and Slater,
1990); understanding and delivering customer value (Deshpande et al., 1993; Saura et al., 2005;
Saxe and Weitz, 1982).
Entrepreneurial orientation
Entrepreneurial personality traits that are identified in the body of entrepreneurship literature largely
inform the EO measurement scales and constructs. Therefore, the dimensions of risk taking, pro-
activeness and innovation are often incorporated (Covin and Slevin, 1991; Ginsberg, 1985;
Khandwalla, 1977; Lumpkin and Dess, 1996; Miles and Arnold, 1991; Morris and Paul, 1987;
Naman and Slevin, 1993). Investigation of EO relating to research in SMEs includes Salavou and
Lioukas’ (2003) investigation of market focus, technological posture and EO. Furthermore, Kreizer
et al. (2002) propose that EO research should include culture, innovation, risk taking and pro-active-
ness. Khandwalla (1973) developed the ‘ENTRESCALE’ that has sub-constructs of innovation and
pro-activeness, entrepreneurial proclivity and a propensity for risk taking. This scale has been sub-
sequently refined (Covin and Slevin, 1989; Miller and Friesen, 1978) and much citied in the EO
literature, being noted for its reliability and validity in numerous studies (Covin and Slevin, 1989;
Khandwalla, 1977; Miles and Snow, 1978). More recently Knight (1997) adapted the ‘ENTRESCALE’
scale while Matsuno et al. (2002) also developed an EO scale adapted from earlier EO research stud-
ies (Covin and Slevin, 1989; Miller, 1983; Morris and Paul, 1987). Matsuno et al.s scale considers
receptiveness to innovation, risk-taking attitude and pro-activeness towards opportunities. Knights
and Matsuno et al.’s scales reflect the consensus view of the EO literature preferring orientation
scales that are known for their reliability and validity. They inform the EMO model with the follow-
ing dimensions: research and development (Knight, 1997); speed to market (Knight, 1997); risk
taking (Matsuno et al., 2002); pro-activeness (Matsuno et al., 2002).
Innovation orientation
While the interface between marketing and entrepreneurship has generated debate, the MO litera-
ture has also identified a relationship between innovation, MO and company performance (Connor,
1999; Hurley and Hult, 1998; Jaworski et al., 2000; Slater and Narver, 1998; Verhees and
at University of Hertfordshire on September 13, 2011isb.sagepub.comDownloaded from
30 International Small Business Journal 29(1)
Meulenberg, 2004). Narver and Slater (1990) propose that the practice of continuous innovation
remains an ever-present element of all three identified components of a market orientation
(Tajeddini et al., 2006), while many entrepreneurial activities, such as the identification of new
opportunities, the application of innovative techniques, the conveyance of goods to the market-
place and the successful meeting of customer needs in the chosen market, are also elementary
aspects of marketing theory (Collinson and Shaw, 2001). They propose a more in-depth approach
to EM that takes into account the characteristics of the entrepreneur, whereby marketing and entre-
preneurship are seen to have three areas of interface: change focused; opportunistic in nature; and
innovative in their approach to management. Kuratko (1995) describes an entrepreneur as ‘an
innovator or developer who recognizes and seizes opportunities, converts those opportunities into
workable/marketable ideas, adds value through time, effort, money or skills, assumes the risks of
the competitive marketplace to implement these ideas and realizes the rewards from these efforts’.
Miles and Darroch (2004) consider EM activities to be closely coupled with creating superior
advantage by using innovation to create products, processes and strategies that better satisfy cus-
tomer needs (Covin and Miles; 1999), while Hills and Hultman (2006: 222) describe EM charac-
teristics which reflect such activities as ‘a flexible, customization approach to market’ and
‘innovation in products, services and strategies’. Hills and Hultman (2006) view innovation as a
fundamental element of EM, proposing a theoretical model of the research field of EM that incor-
porates entrepreneurship, marketing and innovation as the core elements.
There are limited IO measures to draw upon because of the strong focus on innovation as an
output (patents and so on) rather than as a firm behaviour. Hurley and Hult (1998) and Aldas-
Manzano et al. (2005) examined innovation in relation to MO, but they failed to consider innova-
tion as a culture or behavioural orientation of the organization. Siguaw et al.’s IO (2006) scale was
judged to be the most appropriate for the EMO model as they conceptualize IO using a set of inter-
firm innovative behaviours that are drawn together from pertinent strands of the innovation litera-
ture. Dimensions drawn from this scale that are incorporated into the EMO model are: overarching
knowledge infrastructure (Siguaw et al., 2006); and encouraging, stimulating and sustaining inno-
vation (Siguaw et al., 2006).
Towards the EMO model
In the previous section a number of MO, CO, IO and EO scales were identified as being central to
the understanding of these orientations. On the basis of these scales, coupled with the characteris-
tics of EM identified in the literature, we propose the EMO model in Figure 1. The model shows
four key orientations, and argues that any concept of EM that is an accurate reflection of the way
in which successful small businesses market must embrace aspects of behaviours that have tradi-
tionally been researched in the entrepreneurship, innovation, and customer engagement and rela-
tionship fields. In other words, in small businesses it is impossible and not fruitful to seek to
differentiate between marketing, innovation, entrepreneurship and customer engagement. The evi-
dence for this assertion is most powerfully evident in the overlaps between orientation scales in
these different fields. In Figure 1 such overlaps have been resolved as discussed below, in order to
offer a clear set of dimensions for EMO.
The EMO model has been created by collapsing existing scales to generate a set of dimensions,
and by identifying the key dimensions within each orientation. In engaging in this process we have
been guided by the acknowledgement that replication and adaptation of marketing scales is com-
mon, and if conducted systematically and rigorously can generate a useful basis for further empirical
research and the development of new theory (Hart and Diamantopoulos, 1993). In particular, we
have noted that the deletion and merger of items is considered acceptable where they are
at University of Hertfordshire on September 13, 2011isb.sagepub.comDownloaded from
Jones and Rowley 31
conceptually related (Hair et al., 1995; Parasuraman et al., 1985). The creation of the model involved
the following stages:
(1) The identification of key scales for MO, CO, EO and IO, as discussed above.
(2) Where necessary, the identification of dimensions from the items in these scales, typically
with the aid of comparisons between two or more scales from the same field.
(3) A comparison the dimensions identified in each of the orientations, MO, CO, IO and EO,
for any overlap in dimensions.
(4) The allocation of any dimensions that occurred in more than one scale to their ‘dominant’
(5) A review of the SME and EM literature in order to identify any potential omissions. Two
pertinent dimensions have been included in the MO aspect of the model. These are ‘proac-
tively exploiting markets’ (Hills and Hultman, 2006) and ‘networks and relationships’
(Carson and Gilmore 1999; Morris et al., 2002).
Research and development
Speed to Market
Risk taking
Responsiveness towards
Communication with
Understanding and
delivering customer value
Proactively exploiting
Market intelligence
Responsiveness towards
Integration of business
Networks and relationships
Overarching knowledge
Encouraging, stimulating
and sustaining innovation
Figure 1. The SME Entrepreneurial Marketing Orientation (EMO) Conceptualized Model.
at University of Hertfordshire on September 13, 2011isb.sagepub.comDownloaded from
32 International Small Business Journal 29(1)
By taking a more contextualized view of marketing and by defining CO through consideration of
the appropriate literature of MO, EO, IO and related literatures, this article has sought to integrate
discussion of EM activities in SMEs into the wider conceptual base and frameworks of the field of
small business and enterprise and, to propose a new model for EMO. This model needs further
testing in a range of different contexts, but has the potential to inform the development of both
practice and theory in marketing in SMEs.
The developing notion of EM has a number of themes emanating from it; central to this is the
relationship between MO and EO, and how entrepreneurs undertake marketing. In order to draw
these strands together this article has revisited the discussion of EM particularly in relation to the
SME context and the basic definitions of MO, EO, IO and CO. This revisiting, together with the
evidence of the importance of networks and word-of-mouth recommendation, and creation of value
for customers by way of innovation, suggests that CO is one of the pivotal dimensions of EM. This
stance seeks to embrace the essential nature of EM based on what entrepreneurs and SMEs do in the
marketing arena. We propose that the themes of MO, EO, IO and CO should be embraced and inte-
grated within the developing paradigm of EM, while acknowledging that these orientations operate
and interact dynamically depending on the firm’s size, market sector and stage of development.
The exploration of the concept of EM has surfaced a wide-ranging agenda for further research
on both EM and associated topics:
(1) Customer co-creation requires further investigation, including the exploration of the link
between CO and IO and the extent to which customers are involved in the development and
design of new products and services.
(2) Further research could be undertaken within SMEs to enable a deeper understanding of the
relationship between MO and CO.
(3) Further research could be undertaken in SMEs to investigate the relationship between IO
and EO, and to ascertain the extent of alignment of the concepts.
(4) Exploration is required to consider how marketing in SMEs evolves as the business grows,
and whether specific marketing competencies are increased (developing Carson’s [1990]
Levels of Activity model).
(5) Not all enterprises may benefit from a generalized EM approach. Exploration is needed to
consider whether different approaches to EM are appropriate under different market condi-
tions or in different sectors.
(6) Although the literature suggests that business performance is improved when MO
(and activities) are aligned, in order for measurable and conclusive evidence to be assured,
there is a requirement for a more sophisticated understanding of what constitutes business
performance in SMEs. For example, the female entrepreneurship literature is rich with a
range of social factors that affect the way entrepreneurs plan the development of their com-
pany, while family owned or non-entrepreneurial owner-managers may seek to limit firm
size to minimize stress levels and risk levels, and retain their advantage of keeping direct
and close contact with their customers. Hence, growth measured by financial turnover is
not the only indicator of success.
(7) Further research is proposed that examines the ways in which larger firms implement EM,
by examining the existing overlaps of the EO, MO, IO and CO orientation concepts,
through links between formal customer relationship management systems and processes,
and product and service innovation.
at University of Hertfordshire on September 13, 2011isb.sagepub.comDownloaded from
Jones and Rowley 33
(8) It would be useful to understand decision making and strategies within SMEs in relation
to non-promotional aspects of the marketing mix, that include pricing and placement
(distribution), as these have received limited attention to date.
The authors would like to thank the two anonymous reviewers for their insights and constructive comments
which contributed greatly to this papers development.
Aldas-Manzano J, Küster I and Vila N (2005) Market orientation and innovation: An inter-relationship analy-
sis. European Journal of Innovation Management 8(4): 437–452.
Alpkan L, Yilmaz C and Kaya N (2007) Marketing orientation and planning flexibility in SMEs. International
Small Business Journal 25(2): 152–172.
Blankson C and Omar OE (2002) Marketing practices of African and Caribbean small business in London.
Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal 5(2): 132–134.
Blankson C and Stokes D (2002) Marketing practices in the UK small business sector. Marketing Intelligence
and Planning 20(1): 49–61.
Bowey JL and Easton G (2007) Entrepreneurial social capital unplugged. International Small Business
Journal 25(3): 272–306.
Brooksbank R (1991) Defining the small business: A new classification of company size. Entrepreneurship
and Regional Development 3(1): 17–31.
Brooksbank R, Kirby D and Taylor D (2004) Marketing in survivor medium-sized British manufacturing
firms: 1987–1997. European Business Review 16(3): 292–306.
Brooksbank R, Kirby DA, Taylor D and Jones-Evans D (1999) Marketing in medium sized manufacturing
firms: The state of the art in Britain, 1987–1992. European Journal of Marketing 33(1/2): 103–120.
Cardwell M (1994) Customer Care Strategy for the ’90s. Cheltenham: Nelson Thorne.
Carson D (1985) The evolution of marketing in small firms. European Journal of Marketing 19(5): 7–16.
Carson D (2005) Towards a research agenda 2005. Conference discussion paper, the UK Academy of
Marketing/Entrepreneurship Interface SIG, Southampton, 5–7 January.
Carson D, Cromie S, McGowan P and Hill J (1995) Marketing and Entrepreneurship in SMEs: An Innovative
Approach. London: Prentice Hall.
Cohen WM and Lindbore RA (1972) How management is different in small companies. AMA Briefing
Collinson E and Shaw E (2001) Entrepreneurial marketing A historical perspective on development and
practice. Management Decision 39(9): 761–766.
Connor T (1999) Customer-led and market orientated: a matter of balance. Strategic Management Journal
20(12): 1157–1163.
Cope J, Jack S and Rose MB (2007) Social capital and entrepreneurship: An introduction. International Small
Business Journal 25(3): 213–219.
Covin JG and Slevin DP (1989) Strategic management of small firms in hostile and benign environments.
Strategic Management Journal 10(1): 75–87.
Covin JG and Slevin DP (1991) A conceptual model of entrepreneurship as firm behavior. Entrepreneurship:
Theory and Practice 16(1): 7–24.
Covin JG and Miles MP (1999) Corporate entrepreneurship and the pursuit of competitive advantage.
Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice 23(3): 47–63.
at University of Hertfordshire on September 13, 2011isb.sagepub.comDownloaded from
34 International Small Business Journal 29(1)
Davis CD, Hills GE and LaForge RW (1985) The marketing small enterprise paradox: A research agenda
International Small Business Journal 3(3): 31–42.
Day GS and Wensley R (1988) Assessing advantage: A framework for diagnosing competitive superiority.
Journal of Marketing 52(2): 1–20.
Deshpande R (1999) Developing a Market Orientation. Thousand Oaks CA: SAGE.
Deshpande R and Farley JU (1998) Measuring market orientation: Generalization and synthesis. Journal of
Market Focused Management 2: 213–232.
Deshpande R, Farley JU and Webster F (1993) Corporate culture, customer orientation, and innovativeness in
Japanese firms: A quadrad analysis. Journal of Marketing 57(1): 23–37.
Drucker PF (1954) The Practice of Management. New York: Harper and Row.
Freel MS (2000) Barriers to product innovation in small manufacturing firms. International Small Business
Journal 18(2): 60–80.
Gilmore A and Carson D (1999) Entrepreneurial marketing by networking. New England Journal of
Entrepreneurship 12(2): 31–38.
Gilmore A, Carson D and Grant K (2001) SME marketing in practice. Marketing Intelligence and Planning
19(1): 6–11.
Ginsberg A (1985) Measuring changes in entrepreneurial orientation following industry deregulation: The
development of a diagnostic instrument. Proceedings of the First Biennial Conference of the U.S. Affiliate
of the International Council for Small Business.
Gronroos C (1982) Strategic Management and Marketing in the Service Sector. Cambridge, MA: Marketing
Science Institute.
Hair JF, Anderson RE, Tatham RL and Black WC (1995) Multivariate Analysis with Readings, 4th edn. Upper
Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Hart S and Diamantopoulos A (1993) Marketing research activity and company performance: Evidence from
the manufacturing industry. European Journal of Marketing 27(5): 54–72.
Hill J (2001) A multi-dimensional study of the key determinants of effective SME activity: Part 1. International
Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour and Research 7(5): 171–204.
Hill J and Wright LT (2001) A qualitative research agenda for small to medium sized enterprises. Marketing
Intelligence and Planning 19(6): 432–443.
Hill SM and Blois K (1987) New small technically-based firm and industrial distributors. International Small
Business Journal 5(3): 61–65.
Hills GE (1987) Marketing and entrepreneurship research issues: Scholarly justification. In: Hills GE (ed.)
Research at the Marketing/Entrepreneurship Interface. Chicago IL: University of Illinois, 3–15.
Hills GE and Hultman CM (2006) Entrepreneurial marketing. In: Lagrosen S and Svensson G (eds) Marketing
Broadening the Horizons. Denmark: Studentlitteratur.
Hogarth-Scott S, Watson K and Wilson N (1996) Do small business have to practice marketing to survive and
grow? Marketing Intelligence and Planning 14(1): 6–18.
Huang X and Brown A (1999) An analysis and classification of problems in small business. International
Small Business Journal 18(1): 73–85.
Hurley RF and TM Hult (1998) Innovation market orientation, and organisational learning: An integration and
empirical examination. Journal of Marketing 62(3): 42–54.
Jaworski BJ and Kohli AK (1993) Market orientation: Antecedents and consequences. Journal of Marketing
57(3): 53–70.
Jaworski BJ, Kohli AK and Sahay A (2000) Market-driven versus driving markets. Journal of the Academy of
Marketing Science 28(1): 45–54.
Jones E, Busch P and Dacin P (2003) Firm market orientation and salesperson customer orientation: Interpersonal
and intrapersonal influences on customer service and retention in business-to-business buyer-seller rela-
tionships. Journal of Business Research 56(4): 323–340.
at University of Hertfordshire on September 13, 2011isb.sagepub.comDownloaded from
Jones and Rowley 35
Khandwalla PN (1977) The Design of Organizations. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
Kirzner IM (1979) Perception, Opportunity,and Profit: Studies in Entrepreneurship. Chicago, IL: University
of Chicago Press.
Kohli AK and Jaworski BJ (1990) Market orientation: The construct, research propositions, and managerial
implications. Journal of Marketing 54(4): 1–18.
Kohli AK, Jaworski BJ and Kumar A (1993) MARKOR: A measure of market orientation. Journal of
Marketing Research 30(4): 467–477.
Kotler P (1984) Marketing Essentials. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Kotler P and Anderson A (1987) Strategic Marketing for Non-profit Organizations. Englewood Cliffs, NJ:
Prentice Hall.
Knight GA (1997) Cross-cultural reliability and validity of a scale to measure firm entrepreneurial orientation.
Journal of Business Venturing 12(3): 213–225.
Kraus S, Fink M, Roessl D and Reschke C H (2006) Entrepreneurial marketing revisited towards a new
approach for the 21st century? BAM conference paper, Belfast.
Kreiser P, Marino LD and Weaver KM (2002) Assessing the psychometric properties of the entrepreneurial
scale: A multi-country analysis. Entrepreneurship, Theory and Practice 26(4): 71–94.
Kuratko D (1995) Entrepreneurship. In: International Encyclopedia of Business and Management.
International Thomson Press.
Lindman MT (2004) Formation of customer bases in SMEs. The Marketing Review 4(2): 134–156.
Lumpkin GT and Dess GG (1996) Clarifying the entrepreneurial orientation construct and linking it to perfor-
mance. Academy of Management Review 21(1): 135–172.
Matsuno K, Mentzer JT and Özsomer A (2002) The effects of entrepreneurial proclivity on business perfor-
mance. Journal of Marketing 66(3): 18–32.
McCartan-Quinn D and Carson D (2003) Issues which impact upon business markets in the small firm. Small
Business Economics 21: 201–213.
Miles MP and Arnold DR (1991) The relationship between market orientation and entrepreneurial orientation.
Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice 15(4): 49–65.
Miles MP and Darroch J (2004) Large firms, entrepreneurial marketing processes, and the cycle of competi-
tive advantage. European Journal of Marketing 40(5–6): 485–501.
Miles RE and Snow CC (1978) Organizational Strategy, Structure and Process. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Miller D (1983) The correlates of entrepreneurship in three types of firms. Management Science 29:
Miller D and Friesen PH (1978) Archetypes of strategy formulation. Management Science 24(9): 921–933.
Miller NJ, Besser T and Malshe A (2007) Strategic networking among small businesses in small US commu-
nities. International Small Business Journal 25(6): 631–665.
Morris MH and Paul GW (1987) The relationship between entrepreneurship and marketing in established
firms. Journal of Business Venturing 2(3): 247–259.
Morris MH, Schindehutte M and Laforge RW (2002) Entrepreneurial marketing: A construct for integrat-
ing emerging entrepreneurship and marketing perspectives. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice
Murray J (1981) Marketing is home for the entrepreneurial process. Industrial Marketing Management 10:
Naman JL and Slevin DP (1993) Entrepreneurship and the concept of fit: A model and empirical tests. Strategic
Management Journal 14(2):137–153.
Narver JC and Slater SF (1999) The effect of a market orientation on business profitability. In: Deshpande R
(ed.) Developing a Market Orientation. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE, 45–77.
Narver JC and Slater SF (1990) The effect of a market orientation on business profitability. Journal of
Marketing 54: 20–35.
at University of Hertfordshire on September 13, 2011isb.sagepub.comDownloaded from
36 International Small Business Journal 29(1)
Parasuraman A, Zeithaml VA and Berry L (1985) Conceptual model of service quality and its implications for
future research. Journal of Marketing 49(4): 41–50.
Pitt L, Carauna A and Berthon PR (1996) Market orientation and business performance: Some European evi-
dence. International Marketing Review 13(1): 5–18.
Reichheld FF and Sasser WE, Jr (1990) Zero defections: Quality comes to services. Harvard Business Review
68(5): 105–11.
Salavou H and Lioukas S (2003) Radical product innovations in SMEs: The dominance of entrepreneurial
innovation. Creativity and Innovation Management 12(2): 94–108.
Saura IG, Contri GB, Taulet AC and Velazquez BM (2005) Relationships amongst customer orientation,
service orientation and job satisfaction in financial services. International Journal of Service Industry
Management 16(5): 497–525.
Saxe R and Weitz BA (1982) The SOCO scale: A measure of the customer orientation of salespeople. Journal
of Marketing Research 19(3): 343–351.
Shapiro B (1988) What the hell is market orientated? Harvard Business Review November/December: 119125.
Shaw E (2006) Small firm networking: An insight into contents and motivating factors. International Small
Business Journal 24(1): 5–29.
Siguaw JA, Simpson PM and Enz CA (2006) Conceptualizing innovation orientation: A scale for study and
integration of innovation research. Journal of Product Innovation Management 23(6): 556–574.
Slater SF and Narver JC (1995) Market orientation and the learning organization. Journal of Marketing 59(3):
Slater SF and Narver JC (1998) Customer-led and market orientated: Let’s not confuse the two. Strategic
Management Journal 19(10):1001–1006.
Stokes D (1998) Small Business Management, 3rd edn. London: Letts.
Tajeddini K, Trueman M and Larsen G (2006) Examining the effects of market orientation on innovativeness.
Journal of Marketing Management 22(5/6): 529–551.
Verhees FJHM and Meulenberg TG (2004) Market orientation, innovativeness, product innovation, and
performance in small firms. Journal of Small Business Management 42(2): 134–154.
Webster FE, Jr (1988) Rediscovering the marketing concept. Business Horizons 31(May–June): 29–39.
Weinrauch JD, Man K, Robinson PA and Pharr J (1991) Dealing with limited financial resources: A marketing
challenge for small businesses. Journal of Small Business Management 29(4): 4–54.
Zontanos G and Anderson AR (2004) Relationships, marketing and small business: An exploration of links in
theory and practice. Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal 7(3): 228–236.
Rosalind Jones is a Lecturer in Marketing, at Bangor Business School, Bangor University. Her research
interests include SME marketing and entrepreneurial marketing. Her PhD was in the area of software
technology firms and other research interests include tourism, hospitality and public sector research. She
teaches SME marketing, entrepreneurial marketing, marketing strategy and management.
Jennifer Rowley is Professor of Information and Communications at Manchester Metropolitan University.
Her research interest are wide ranging and embrace information and knowledge management, e-marketing,
branding and relationship marketing.
at University of Hertfordshire on September 13, 2011isb.sagepub.comDownloaded from
  • ... After setting the hypothesis, a conceptual frame work is proposed whereas dependent variable is MSME Performance which is measured in terms of relevance, effectiveness, efficiency and financial viability (Mitchell, 2002). Independent variable includes the four dimensions of entrepreneurial marketing as customer orientation, entrepreneurial orientation, market orientation and innovation orientation (Jones & Rowley, 2011). Measurement of performance in MSME with reference to entrepreneurial marketing is first attempt in Nepal which has conducted with help of conceptual framework as figure 1. ...
    ... Seven underlined dimensions of entrepre neurial marketing are presented as proactiveness, calculated risk taking, innovativeness, an opportunity focus, resource leveraging, customer intensity and value creation (Morris, Schindehutte & LaForge, 2002). Further, Jones and Rowley (2011) conceptualized a model of SME Entrepreneurial Marketing Orientation on the basis of their study. In their model, entrepreneurial marketing paradigm is described with four broad entrepreneurial marketing dimensions as customer orientation (CO), entrepreneurial orientation (EO), innovation orientation (IO) and market orientation (MO) as shown in figure 2. ...
    ... On the basis of conceptual framework, the elements of entrepreneurial marketing and their effect on MSME performance is examined. Four entrepreneurial marketing dimensions are customer orientation, market orientation, en trepreneurial orientation and innovation orientation as presented by Jones and Rowley (2011). The assessment on 12 elements of entrepreneurial marketing as responsiveness, customer intensity, customer value creation, resource leverage, networking and relationship, marketing intelligence generation, calculated risk taking, proactiveness, willingness to change, overarching learning and knowledge, and encouraging and stimulating innovation is made. ...
    Full-text available
    Entrepreneurial marketing with proactive approach, opportunity focus, calculated risk taking, innovativeness, resource leverage, customer value creation and customer intensity is found appropriate technique to address the present un-linier global market situation due to technological advancement, intense competition and constantly changing need and preference of customers. Prime objective of study is to examine the effect of entrepreneurial marketing on Micro, Small and Medium Enterprise (MSME) performance in Nepal. Mix method of research design with quantitative and qualitative analysis is adopted. For quantitative study, data were collected from 182 owner-managers in Kaski and Syngja Districts and employed the Chi-square statistics to test the hypotheses. Qualitative data were collected from 21 experts from concern departments of government, business association executives and entrepreneurs, and used content analysis. The quantitative study shows that there is significant relationship between entrepreneurial marketing and performance of MSME in Nepal. On the basis of qualitative analysis, MSMEs are found as the best fit for country by considering the geographical situation and economic size. Five dimensional entrepreneurial marketing named customer, market, entrepreneurial, innovation and influence orientations is recommended for further research with large number of sample respondents in wider geographical areas.
  • ... Thus, it was considered reasonable to investigate role and prominence of entre-marketing in these small ventures in Pakistani context. As these small enterprises trigger out path barriers in shape of limitation of customers and capitals for trade and promotion (Jones & Rowley, 2011;Kolabi, Hosseini, Mehrabi, & Salamzadeh, 2011), therefore, entrepreneurial marketing is an appropriate option for these types of firms (Hill, 2001). Accordingly current research determines the significance and role of EM in SMEs growth and development`. ...
    ... Agreeing to (Becherer et al.), marketing should be labeled as entrepreneurial marketing in small and medium sized firms, as it embodies advanced and unconventional methods, capable to offer ways for entrepreneurs and to assure achievements in their enterprise matters regardless of their insufficient resources. Jones and Rowley (2011) and Eggers, Hansen, and Davis (2012) also argued that EM is mainly appropriate to SMEs. Beverland and Lockshin (2004) and Becherer, Haynes, and Fletcher (2006) define E-M as fruitful tool or alteration of theories in marketing to customized requirements of small enterprises. ...
    Current study is aimed at exploring relatively emerging phenomenon of entrepreneurship; particularly it unearths the interplay between founder entrepreneur and entrepreneurial marketing (EM) in SMEs. Business founders are classified as entrepreneurs and non-founding executives are classified as small business managers. Qualitative research design is adopted to conjecture the findings of present study. Primarily three case studies of Pakistani SMEs are selected to examine the underlying phenomenon of entrepreneurial marketing. Interviews and documentary analysis were used for data collection and content analysis is used to achieve the results of the study. Findings indicate that (a) entrepreneurial marketing and its importance varies considerably with respect to firm size; (b) for SMEs taken in current study, entrepreneurial marketing is found to be highly reactive to market opportunities and were informal; moreover, decision-making process were mostly carried by founder-entrepreneur. Present research adds to current stream of studies by elaborating the role of owner/founder in enhancing firm's capability to maintain EM activities. From practitioners' view, it contends that for entrepreneurs, networking is in compliance with EM for further strengthening marketing activity and marketing management competencies. Thus, marketing managers and founders should pay attention on developing the networks that are essential for the success of their entrepreneurial ventures. Current study is unique in the sense that it has highlighted new avenues in existing research by extending the nascent domain of entrepreneurial marketing. Moreover, this study developed and tested an integrative and holistic model of EM in SMEs.
  • ... The research by Coviello et al. (2006) and Jones and Rowley (2011) displays that market-oriented owners tend to be more innovative and also network marketing and interactive marketing contribute to the company's performance. ...
    ... Evidence of market orientation in the cases studied can be found, as the statements show the characteristics of the customers orientation, competition orientation and cross-functional orientation along with market purpose, components of market orientation (Coviello et al., 2006;Jones & Rowley, 2011). At Company A, the statements collected indicate that managers are concerned with previously analyzing the impact of marketing decisions on customers; the interviewed managers focused on the statements when describing the behavior of the target customers and in the report of the internal concern regarding the satisfaction and fulfillment of the customers' expectations; all of them also reported efforts to build long-term relationships with storeowners. ...
    Full-text available
    Objective: to analyze small clothing manufacturing companies and the use of contemporary marketing practices in the dimensions of interactive marketing, digital marketing and network marketing. Methodology: the study is qualitative, descriptive and has multiple cases, and it is conducted through semi-structured interviews, documentary surveys and direct observation. Main results: the small clothing manufacturing company uses interaction marketing practices, network marketing and mainly digital marketing, including some planning, performance evaluation, and intensity, varying according to the entrepreneurial orientation and market orientation. Theoretical/methodological contributions: discussion of contemporary marketing practices, in the context of small clothing manufacturing companies, and formulation of new research proposals. Relevance/originality: studies on the theme of contemporary marketing practices are concentrated in the context of large companies, thus, this study discusses practices in the Brazilian context, small business, and manufactured goods.
  • ... Intimately related to the amount of the goal as described above is the length of time allocated to reach the goal. Entrepreneurial marketing has drawn attention to time and timing as a useful tool for entrepreneurs to optimise consumer engagement and support (Jones & Rowley, 2011;Morris et al., 2002). Likewise, entrepreneurship research has also drawn attention to the importance of interaction pacing with respect to external actor engagement (Snihur et al., 2017). ...
    Full-text available
    Competitive videogames (esports) are an exciting new media format, affording experiences that are dynamic, ephemeral, immersive, social, mobile, and escapist. Instantaneous digital distribution and global reach also make this media format especially lucrative for industry stakeholders. Despite increasing attention on esports and the importance of entrepreneurship to esports, research has only begun to investigate how entrepreneurs successfully enter this new and tumultuous industry segment. The purpose of this article is to (1) assess the market dynamics at work in this sector and (2) determine some of this unique market’s most important determinants of success. Using a sample of N = 16,326 esport projects between 2009 and 2017, the analysis suggests that crowdfunding an esport project is more difficult than crowdfunding projects in other industries. Then, a logistic regression identifies several success determinants of esport projects. Overall, both stages of the investigation reinforce that a the surplus of eport projects on crowdfunding platforms reflective of significant lost opportunity costs stemming from founder-funder information asymmetries.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Research on Marketing and Entrepreneurship has been developing for years and even now. Entrepreneurial Marketing (EM), was born from the practice of companies operating in conditions of uncertainty, and emerged as a powerful alternative to overcoming the declining effectiveness associated with traditional marketing practices. In this article, the author provides a comprehensive review of Type and Frameworks, dimensions, definitions. In total, three types of research interest: first, related research related to the range of the development of the concept of EM Type models and EM Framework, second, to explore the development of EM dimensions, the third to explore the comparison of definitions, the difference between EM and traditional marketing in EM research in the last 10 years.
  • Book
    Full-text available
    Just as entrepreneurs combine things to create innovations, we integrate the most valuable entrepreneurship practices from some of the world’s leading scholars, educators, and authors. We also provide an action-oriented approach to the subject through the use of examples, case studies and survey research. By striking a balance between theory and practice, we hope our readers will benefit from both perspectives. Our comprehensive collection of concepts and applications provides the tools necessary for success in starting and growing an enterprise. We show the critical differences between scientific ideas and true business opportunities. Readers will benefit from the book’s integrated set of cases, examples, business plans, and recommended sources for more information.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Objetivo: analisar pequenas empresas de confecção de vestuários quanto à utilização de práticas contemporâneas do marketing interativo, digital e de rede.Metodologia: o estudo tem natureza qualitativa e descritiva, envolvendo multicasos, e foi conduzido por meio de entrevista semiestruturada, do levantamento documental e da observação direta.Principais resultados: a pequena empresa de confecção de vestuários utiliza práticas de marketing de interação, de rede e, principalmente, digital, inclusive, com planejamento, avaliação de desempenho e intensidade, variando em função das orientações empreendedora e para o mercado.Contribuições teóricas/metodológicas: discussão sobre práticas contemporâneas de marketing, no contexto de pequenas empresas de confecção de vestuários, e formulação de novas proposições de pesquisa.Relevância/originalidade: tendo em vista que os estudos sobre a temática de práticas contemporâneas de marketing estão concentrados, em geral, no contexto de grandes organizações, este estudo considerou relevante discutir tais práticas também em pequenas empresas, de bens manufaturados, no Brasil.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    The main objective of this study was to establish the influence of geographical expansion strategy on the growth of East African Breweries Limited in Kenya. The study adopted a descriptive research design. The target respondents were 225 comprising of 4 managers and 221 employees. Stratified sampling was used whereby the population was grouped into four strata (Sales Department, Production Department, Marketing Department and Quality Assurance Department). A census of 4 managers was done and 140 employees were selected through simple random sampling to form a sample size of 144 respondents. Questionnaires and interviews were used as data collection instruments. The study established that geographical expansion strategy had a positive and significant effect on the growth of EABL. The study concluded that EABL recruit companies that help in advertising new segment of clients via geographical growth method. The study recommends that EABL need to bear in mind home market electricity through via strengthening their role within the domestic target marketplace. The company needs to understand their enterprise’ strengths and what makes it a success within the domestic market before going for a geographical enlargement method. Keywords: Strategy, Geographical Expansion, Growth, Market Development.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    The research was conducted to ascertain, assess and diagnose street food vendors' entrepreneurial marketing characteristics and practices in BOP/subsistence marketplaces and what lessons could be leant that may be of use to improve food marketing in BOP/subsistence marketplaces. The research was conducted via a qualitative abductive research method using secondary sources of data and information provided from case studies on street food vendors' marketing practices from 12 countries: and Zimbabwe. The collected secondary data and information, was analyzed on the one side using content analysis and on the other side, using a more open approach, grounded theory. In the analysis seven entrepreneurial marketing characteristics out of the total 19 characteristics found were the same or related to a degree to street food vendors' marketing characteristics. In specific, in terms of street food vendors' entrepreneurial marketing characteristics, it was found that networks, knowledge of market demand, risk-taking, self-confidence (calculated risk-taking), low production costs (resource constrained), customer-relationships, and value creation were all an integral part of practice. It was found also that street food vendors' marketing characteristics were a 'mix' of entrepreneurial, micro, small and traditional marketing. The lessons learnt were, that for food marketing to be effective in BOP contexts, requires not simply knowing a market, but having a full understanding of the market (immersion), which for example attempts to understand not just the market, but the social ties and other aspects that may underline, for example, market demand. Immersion in such markets enables to build effective networks with, for example, social relations, word of mouth and social media. Further BOP contexts are risky and such risk can be mitigated via market immersion and networking so as to enable to take calculated risks and ensure risk is managed in appropriate ways. Costs must be kept low so as to be able to provide for low food prices, for example, in food marketing and customer relations are a vital necessity for food marketing in the BOP context. Such practices can support improved and more intensive food distribution and possibly support the reduction in malnourishment, hunger and starvation. Clearly there may be more lessons to be learnt for marketing food in BOP contexts that can contribute further to food marketing knowledge and also to marketing knowledge more in general. Thus further research is called for in this realm.
  • Article
    In recent years, academic and practitioner interest has focused on market orientation and factors that engender this orientation in organizations. However, much less attention has been devoted to developing a valid measure of market orientation. Here we define market orientation as the organizationwide generation of market intelligence pertaining to current and future needs of customers, dissemination of intelligence horizontally and vertically within the organization, and organization-wide action or responsiveness to market intelligence. The authors describe a procedure to develop a measure of the construct. Key features of the research methodology include several rounds of pretesting, a single-informant assessment, and a multi-informant (both marketing and nonmarketing executives) replication and extension. The multi-informant results indicate that the proposed 20-item market orientation scale (MARKOR) may be best represented by a factor structure that consists of one general market orientation factor, one factor for intelligence generation, one factor for dissemination and responsiveness, one marketing informant factor, and one nonmarketing informant factor. Taking into account the informant factors, the subsequent validation tests are moderately supportive of the market orientation construct. The authors discuss methodological, substantive, and application directions for future research in light of these findings.
  • Article
    This research addresses three questions: (1) Why are some organizations more market-oriented than others? (2) What effect does a market orientation have on employees and business performance? (3) Does the linkage between a market orientation and business performance depend on the environmental context? The findings from two national samples suggest that a market orientation is related to top management emphasis on the orientation, risk aversion of top managers, interdepartmental conflict and connectedness, centralization, and reward system orientation. Furthermore, the findings suggest that a market orientation is related to overall (judgmental) business performance (but not market share), employees’ organizational commitment, and esprit de corps. Finally, the linkage between a market orientation and performance appears to be robust across environmental contexts that are characterized by varying degrees of market turbulence, competitive intensity, and technological turbulence.
  • Article
    Mrs. S. M. Hill at the time of carrying out this research was a research assistant at Templeton College, Oxford, England, financed by a Leverhulme Trust Research Grant. Dr. K. J. Blois is a Fellow of Templeton College, Oxford, England. It has been established that a lack of marketing skills is a common cause of failure amongst new small technically-based firms. The activities of industrial distributors include many functions vital to successful marketing such as maintaining close customer contact. It would, therefore, appear that industrial distributors could play a role complementary to this type of small firm. However, the initial findings of this research indicate that such complementarity rarely exists.
  • Article
    This paper forms Part 2 of a monograph detailing a study that sought to examine the key determinants of SME marketing. It reports the key findings with respect to marketing competency in SMEs, explores the strong sales orientation of such firms, examines the nature and use of SME personal contact networks and considers to what extent formal marketing planning is practiced in such enterprises. New insights to these important areas of small firm research are presented. A new model of SME marketing competency is developed, depicting competencies at three levels, foundation, transitional and marketing in practice. The monograph concludes with a holistic interpretation of the data that enables the development of a new model of SME marketing.
  • Article
    The primary purpose of this article is to clarify the nature of the entrepreneurial orientation (EO) construct and to propose a contingency framework for investigating the relationship between EO and firm performance. We first explore and refine the dimensions of EO and discuss the usefulness of viewing a firm's EO as a multidimensional construct. Then, drawing on examples from the EO-related contingencies literature, we suggest alternative models (moderating effects, mediating effects, independent effects, interaction effects) for testing the EO-performance relationship.
  • Article
    This article advocates that networking is an inherent tool of marketing that is wholly compatible with entrepreneurial decision-making characteristics in relation to marketing activities in SMEs.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    This paper presents a theoretical exploration of the construct of corporate entrepreneur-ship. Of the various dimensions of firm-level entrepreneurial orientation identified in the literature, it is argued that innovation, broadly defined, is the single common theme underlying all forms of corporate entrepreneurship. However, the presence of innovation per se is insufficient to label a firm entrepreneurial. Rather, it is suggested that this label be reserved for firms that use innovation as a mechanism to redefine or rejuvenate themselves, their positions within markets and industries, or the competitive arenas in which they compete. A typology is presented of the forms in which corporate entrepreneurship is often manifested , and the robustness of this typology is assessed using criteria that have been proposed for evaluating classificational schemata. Theoretical linkages are then drawn demonstrating how each of the generic forms of corporate entrepreneurship may be a path to competitive advantage. V-'orporate entrepreneurship has long been recognized as a potentially viable means for promoting and sustaining corporate competitiveness.