Article

Selective Antimicrobial properties of Phyllanthus acidus leaf extract against Candida albicans, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus using Stokes Disc diffusion, Well diffusion, Streak plate and a dilution method

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Abstract

The antibacterial and antifungal activities of Phyllanthus acidus was investigated against S.aureus (gram+ve), E.coli (gram-ve) and C.albicans using the Stokes disc diffusion, the Pour plate, Well diffusion and Streak plate methods. The solvent type extracts were obtained by three extractions with hexane, CH2Cl2, EtOAc and CH3CH2OH respectively. Solvents were removed in vacuo to yield viscous oils and paste which were made up to a concentration of 0.035g in 0.01L(10 mL)of the respective solvents. These were tested in varying volumes of 0.2-0.6 ml/plate. The solvents were used as control whereas ampicillin and nystatin were used as references for bacteria and fungal species respectively. The solvents had no effect on the microorganisms whereas ampicillin and nystatin inhibited microbial growth. Phyllanthus acidus showed antimicrobial inhibitory activity at 0.18mg/10mL plate of medium with activity most prominent with the ethanol extracts and negligible with the hexane. This study suggests that the ethanol extracts of Phyllanthus acidus ,can be used as herbal medicines in the control of E.coli and S.aureus following clinical trials. (Nature and Science. 2008;6(2):24-38). ISSN: 1545-0740.

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... Traditionally, the plant used as a liver tonic, blood purifier. [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18] The species have been originated in Madagascar and then get distributed to the East Indies. According to Eduardo Quisumbing, the plant was introduced into the Philippines in prehistoric time. ...
... Cicca acida L. leaf extract (0.2-0.6 ml/plate) exhibits antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. [3] The antimicrobial activity is selective and solvent dependent with ethanolic extract, the most potent and with hexane the least. In general, the order of antimicrobial activity follows the sequence: CH 3 CH 2 OH extract > EtOAc extract > CH 2 Cl 2 extract > hexane extract. ...
Article
Objectives: Cicca acida L., is reported with traditional and pharmacological uses, and a good number of pure compounds have been isolated from its different parts. But published information is sporadic and fragmentary in nature. Therefore, it is imperative to have a comprehensive account of all of its medicinal potentialities with critical analysis. In this review, the traditional reports, phytochemical and pharmacology studies associated with Cicca acida have been compiled to figure out the net possibilities for its application in modern medicine. Key findings: Careful scrutiny reveals that the plant possesses a huge range of medicinal properties, but published report analysis suggests that the plant is effectively used as antibacterial, hepatoprotective, anticonceptive and antidiabetic purposes. The published papers revealed the bioactivity of only 04 compounds. This indicates that a good number of isolated major compounds of this plant are yet to be pharmacologically investigated. Conclusion: Intensive study of Cicca acida showed that despite of its plentiful isolated molecules, the effort leading to final product stage seems to be less. Therefore, the plant and its compounds need concentrated effort towards establishment of its therapeutic potentialities.
... Such a against diseases [8]. In spite of the great advances compound is said to have antibacterial activity [1]. observed in modern medicine in recent decades, plants Medicinal herbs are a rich source of antimicrobial agents still make an important contribution to health care [9]. ...
... This makes the cell wall impermeable to antimicrobial chemical substances. The gram-positive bacteria on the other hand are more susceptible having only an outer peptidoglycan layer which is not a n effective permeability barrier [1]. Therefore, the cell walls of gram negative organisms are more complex in lay out than the gram positive ones acting as a diffusional barrier and making them less susceptible to the antimicrobial agents than are gram positive bacteria [17]. ...
Article
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Plants are a source of phytomedicines. Amongst the traditional herbs used as phytomedicines in Kisii region, southwest Kenya are Carissa spinarum, Urtica dioica, Warburgia ugandensis, Senna didymobotrya, Physalis Peruviana, Bidens pilosa, Leonotis nepetifolia and Toddalia asiatica. A study was carried out on these herbal plants in the year 2011 to 2012. The objective was to determine the antimicrobial activity of the herbs against gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and gram-negative Escherichia coli. In the study, the leaf samples of the herbs were obtained from Kisii region, washed, air-dried and milled. The samples were extracted with four solvents namely hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and ethanol. Portions of the crude extracts were screened against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli by the well diffusion method. Results obtained show that the solvents of hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and ethanol used as the control in the experiment have no effect on the Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The antibiotics minocycline, chloramphenicol and cotrimoazol with zones of inhibition measuring (mm) 30, 33 and 18 respectively and used as references, inhibit microbial growth. The crude extracts of hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and ethanol of all the eight herbs have the best activity against gram-positive bacteria strain Staphylococcus aureus with zones of inhibition ranging between 16 mm and 27 mm. The best activity against gram-negative bacteria strain Escherichia coli was observed in the dichloromethane and ethanol extracts of Leonotis nepetifolia with zones of inhibition of 19 mm and 17 mm, in that order. It was concluded that extracts of all the eight selected herbs control gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus while dichloromethane and ethanol extracts of Leonotis nepetifolia control gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli.
... This is likely due to the differences in morphological constitution between these microorganisms [27]. The observed morphologic variation influences the reaction of microbes to antimicrobial agents [28]. Gram-negative bacteria contain a very restrictive outer membrane with structural lipopolysaccharide components. ...
... This makes the cell wall impermeable to antimicrobial agents. On the other hand, Gram-positive bacteria are more susceptible having only an outer peptidoglycan layer which is not an effective permeability barrier [28]. ...
Article
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Warburgia ugandensis is a highly valued medicinal tree within East Africa which is over-exploited for its medicinal use among many communities. This species has its habitat encroached and this has led to a notable decrease in its population size to the level that warrant some conservation efforts. Information on diversity in its antimicrobial activity is also lacking. The aim of this study was to evaluate variation in antimicrobial activity of W. ugandensis leaf and stem bark extracts from different populations across the Kenyan Rift Valley. The plant materials were collected, dried at room temperature, milled into powder and sequentially extracted with dichloromethane (DCM) and methanol (MeOH). The antimicrobial activity tests against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans were carried out using disk diffusion and ninety six well microtitre plate assays. Antimicrobial activities were qualitatively and quantitatively assessed by the presence or absence of inhibition zones and minimum inhibitory concentration values. The stem bark extracts displayed the highest antimicrobial activity compared to the leaf extracts, regardless of the extracting solvents. The DCM extracts exhibited stronger antimicrobial activity compared to MeOH extracts. Staphylococcus aureus and C. albicans were sensitive to the plant extracts while E. coli was resistant. This study revealed significant differences in antimicrobial activity between extracts of W. ugandensis from different plant parts and regions (P > 0.05). The knowledge on variations in antimicrobial activity is important in developing efficient conservation and utilisation strategies for the species through identification of suitable genotypes.
... This is likely due to the differences in morphological constitution between these microorganisms [27]. The observed morphologic variation influences the reaction of microbes to antimicrobial agents [28]. Gram-negative bacteria contain a very restrictive outer membrane with structural lipopolysaccharide components. ...
... This makes the cell wall impermeable to antimicrobial agents. On the other hand, Gram-positive bacteria are more susceptible having only an outer peptidoglycan layer which is not an effective permeability barrier [28]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Warburgia ugandensis is a highly valued medicinal tree within East Africa which is over-exploited for its medicinal use among many communities. This species has its habitat encroached and this has led to a notable decrease in its population size to the level that warrant some conservation efforts. Information on diversity in its antimicrobial activity is also lacking. The aim of this study was to evaluate variation in antimicrobial activity of W. ugandensis leaf and stem bark extracts from different populations across the Kenyan Rift Valley. The plant materials were collected, dried at room temperature, milled into powder and sequentially extracted with dichloromethane (DCM) and methanol (MeOH). The antimicrobial activity tests against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans were carried out using disk diffusion and ninety six well microtitre plate assays. Antimicrobial activities were qualitatively and quantitatively assessed by the presence or absence of inhibition zones and minimum inhibitory concentration values. The stem bark extracts displayed the highest antimicrobial activity compared to the leaf extracts, regardless of the extracting solvents. The DCM extracts exhibited stronger antimicrobial activity compared to MeOH extracts. Staphylococcus aureus and C. albicans were sensitive to the plant extracts while E. coli was resistant. This study revealed significant differences in antimicrobial activity between extracts of W. ugandensis from different plant parts and regions (P > 0.05). The knowledge on variations in antimicrobial activity is important in developing efficient conservation and utilisation strategies for the species through identification of suitable genotypes.
... This is likely due to the differences in morphological constitution between these microorganisms [27]. The observed morphologic variation influences the reaction of microbes to antimicrobial agents [28]. Gram-negative bacteria contain a very restrictive outer membrane with structural lipopolysaccharide components. ...
... This makes the cell wall impermeable to antimicrobial agents. On the other hand, Gram-positive bacteria are more susceptible having only an outer peptidoglycan layer which is not an effective permeability barrier [28]. ...
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... A filter-paper disc (5 mm), impregnated with the extracts, was placed on the surface of the agar media and incubated for 24 h at 37°C. The zone of inhibition around the discs was measured and quantified 10 . ...
... The plates were allowed to soak the extracts and incubated at 37°C for 24 h. Zone of inhibition was measured 10 . ...
Article
The antimicrobial activity of the extracts of the Calotropis procera, Datura metel, Cuscuta reflexa, Pongamia pinnata and Nerium oleander has been studied against the pathogenic bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aureuginosa, Klebsiella pneumoiniae, Paenibacillus and Bacilus subtilis. Significant antibacterial activity was observed with extract of ethanol, methanol and chloroform. The ethanol extract of D. metel showed maximum antibacterial activity against the all tested bacteria except the P. aureuginosa. Aqueous extract showed no measurable antibacterial activity. Inhibition was seen as concentration dependent phenomenon. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavanoids, glycosides, steroids, tannins, phenol and saponin.
... A filter-paper disc (5 mm), impregnated with the extracts, was placed on the surface of the agar media and incubated for 24 h at 37°C. The zone of inhibition around the discs was measured and quantified 10 . ...
... The plates were allowed to soak the extracts and incubated at 37°C for 24 h. Zone of inhibition was measured 10 . ...
Article
Full-text available
The antimicrobial activity of the extracts of the Calotropis procera, Datura metel, Cuscuta reflexa, Pongamia pinnata and Nerium oleander has been studied against the pathogenic bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aureuginosa, Klebsiella pneumoiniae, Paenibacillus and Bacilus subtilis. Significant antibacterial activity was observed with extract of ethanol, methanol and chloroform. The ethanol extract of D. metel showed maximum antibacterial activity against the all tested bacteria except the P. aureuginosa. Aqueous extract showed no measurable antibacterial activity. Inhibition was seen as concentration dependent phenomenon. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavanoids, glycosides, steroids, tannins, phenol and saponin.
... The extraction of each selected herb of interest material was done using standard procedures as described by [5], [6], [13], [14], [15]. The herb materials of each sample were collected and cleaned, dried at room temperature, crushed into powder and stored in an air tight glass container. ...
Article
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The herbs Carissa spinarum, Physalis minima and Toddalia asiatica have traditionally been used in healing diabetes, malaria and pneumonia by the communities around the Kisii region, Kenya. However in the available literature, there is scanty information on effectiveness of different plant parts of the herbs in healing the ailments. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential antimicrobial and antifungal activity of methanolic extract of whole plant Physalis minima, leaf and root of Carissa spinarum and Toddalia asiatica against gram positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), gram negative bacteria Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) and fungus Candida albicans (ATCC14053). Antibiotic disc methicillin, cotrimoxazole, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, ampicillin, nalidixic and nitrofurantoin were used in the study. In each herb, plant part was extracted by soaking in methanol/dichloromethane in ratio 1:1 for a week, filtered, concentrated by rotary vapor and cooled. The same process was repeated three times for all samples. The study was conducted by agar well diffusion method. Methanolic root extract of Toddalia asiatica showed highest antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), root extract of Carissa spinarum had highest antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) while root extract of Toddalia asiatica showed highest antifungal activity. It was concluded that root extract of Toddalia asiatica showed highest antibacterial activity 16.7mm against Staphylococcus aureus(ATCC 25923), root extract of Carissa spinarum had highest antibacterial activity 10 mm against Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) while root extract of Toddalia asiatica had highest antifungal activity 18 mm against Candida albicans.
... Resistogram analysis. Heavy metal resistance study for microbial isolates was performed using agar well diffusion method (Jagessar et al., 2008) with increasing concentrations of Cr and Cd ranging from 50 to 300. Nutrient agar (Oxide: CMOO 3 ) and nutrient broth media (Oxide: CM1) were used for bacterial culture. ...
Article
Present study was designed to evaluate the nutritional values of red skin potatoes collected from Gujranwala and Lahore regions of Pakistan. Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) of Gujranwala and Lahore were found to contain moisture contents of 5.00 and 5.15%, respectively. Fat was 0.19% in S. tuberosum of Gujranwala whereas Lahore potatoes were found to contain fat 0.2%. Fibre content of S. tuberosum of Gujranwala was 16.47% while S. tuberosum of Lahore had 13.45% fibre. Protein contents of S. tuberosum of Gujranwala were 12.89% whereas for S. tuberosum of Lahore were 13.11%. The water extract showed significant free radical scavenging activities in DPPH radical scavenging antioxidant assay and antioxidant activity was increased in a dose dependent manner. These results suggest that potato (S. tuberosum) is not only a cheap source of very important nutritents but also has antioxidant activities which are helpful to maintain different physiological functions of body.
... The plates were incubated at room temperature for 48 h, and the inhibition zones were measured. Antimicrobial agents were recognised by the formation of inhibition zones, which kill or inhibit the growth of microorganisms (Jagessar et al., 2008). Three replicates were used for each microorganism tested. ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to validate the antimicrobial activity (both antibacterial and antifungal) of in vivo and in vitro ethanolic anthocyanin extracts of Clitoria ternatea L. (vivid blue flower butterfly-pea) and Dioscorea alata L. (purple yam) against selected bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli) and fungi (Fusarium sp., Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma sp.). Design/methodology/approach The freeze-dried samples (0.2 g) from in vivo vivid blue flowers of C. ternatea L. were extracted using 10 mL ethanol (produced ethanolic red extraction) and 10 mL distilled water (produced aqueous blue extraction) separately. Two-month-old in vitro callus samples (0.2 g) were only extracted using 10 mL ethanol. The anthocyanin extractions were separated with the addition (several times) of ethyl acetate and distilled water (1:2:3) to remove stilbenoids, chlorophyll, less polar flavonoids and other non-polar compounds. Furthermore, the antimicrobial properties were determined using agar diffusion technique. Three bacteria (B. subtilis, S. aureus and E. coli) and fungi (F. sp., A. niger and T. sp.) were streaked on bacteria agar and dextrose agar, respectively, using “hockey stick”. Then, the sterile paper discs (6 mm diameter) were pipetted with 20 µL of 1,010 CFU/mL chloramphenicol (as control for antibacterial) and carbendazim (as control for antifungal) in vivo and in vitro extracts. The plates were incubated at room temperature for 48 h, and the inhibition zones were measured. Findings Based on the results, both in vivo and in vitro ethanolic extracts from vivid blue flowers of C. ternatea L. showed the best antibacterial activity against the same bacteria (B. subtilis), 11 and 10 mm inhibition zones, respectively. However, different antifungal activity was detected in in vitro ethanolic callus extract (12 mm), which was against T. sp., contrary to in vivo ethanolic extract (10 mm), which was against F. sp.; antibacterial activity of D. alata L. was seen against the same bacteria (E. coli) with the highest inhibition zone for in vivo extract (8.8 mm), followed by in vitro extract (7.8 mm). Research limitations/implications Anthocyanins are responsible for the water soluble and vacuolar, pink, red, purple and blue pigments present in coloured plant pigments. These pigments (pink, red, purple and blue) are of important agronomic value in many crops and ornamental plants. However, anthocyanins are not stable and are easy to degrade and fade whenever exposed to light. Social implications Plant extracts containing bioactive agents with antimicrobial properties have been found to be useful in treating bacterial and fungal infections, as well as showed multiple antibiotic resistance. Originality/value Both in vivo and in vitro extracts from vivid blue flower petals (C. ternatea L.) and purple yam (D. alata L.) have important applications as natural antimicrobial (antibacterial and antifungal) agents in the coating industry, instead of natural pharmaceutical products.
... The varied antimicrobial activities could be linked to the enhanced defense mechanisms acquired by these microorganisms besides the differences in the strains of pathogens under investigation [27]. The difference in sensitivities of C. albicans and S. aureus to the plant extracts could be associated with the diversity in diffusibility of phytochemicals through the culture media as well as the morphological constitution of these microorganisms; which could further influence their reaction to the plant extracts [28,29]. This study revealed statistically significant differences in the interaction effects among samples, solvent types, sites and plant parts on antimicrobial activities of W. ugandensis. ...
Article
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Warburgia ugandensis Sprague is one of the most valuable medicinal plants in Eastern, Central and Southern Africa. The roots, leaves, stem barks and heartwoods of this plant species are commonly used in traditional and modern herbal medicine to treat several diseases. Though widely used in phytomedicine, there is no published data on the interaction effects of sites, samples, plant parts and solvent types on either antibacterial or antifungal activities of the Kenyan populations of W. ugandensis. The extracts of this plant species exhibited antimicrobial potential against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) and Candida albicans (ATCC 90028). This was statistically confirmed by the test of normality for dependent variables with mean antibacterial and antifungal effects of 3.169±0.27 and 1.761±0.21mg/ml, respectively regardless of the interaction effects of samples, plant parts, sites and solvent types. This study demonstrated that sites (origin) of plant materials, types of solvents used for extraction, plant parts analyzed and their interactions had statistically significant effects on antimicrobial activities of W. ugandensis (p ≤ 0.05). From the results of this research work, there is need for effective conservation strategies for this useful medicinal plant species in Kenya. KEYWORDS: Warburgia ugandensis; phytomedicine; interactions; conservation; Kenya
... Psidium guajava L. leaf extracts have also been demonstrated to have anti-microbial (Metwally et al., 2010), and antioxidant (Chen and Yen, 2007) properties. Phyllanthus acidus has high phenolic content (Taylor, 2003) and leaf extracts possessed strong antibacterial activity (Jagessar et al., 2008). This study was conducted to investigate the protective effects of dietary supplementation of PGPA and their potential for enhanced immune response and disease resistance of Nile tilapia against S. agalactiae infection. ...
... Heavy metal resistance study for microbial isolates was performed using agar well diffusion method (Jagessar et al., 2008) with increasing concentrations of Cr and Cd ranging from 50 to 300. Nutrient agar (Oxide: CMOO 3 ) and nutrient broth media (Oxide: CM1) were used for bacterial culture. ...
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In the present study Enterococcus luteus, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus have been used for biosorption of cadmium and chromium from aqueous solution of various concentrations. Bacteria were isolated from waste soil and identified through various morphological features, biochemical tests, and staining procedure. Biosorption capacity (both dead and live biomass) was observed through broth technique and absorbance values were measured using atomic absorbance spectrophotometer. Different parameters were optimised for metal biosorption, including incubation periods (24, 48, 72 and 96 h) and pH (4, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10) at 37 °C. Agar well and agar disc diffusion methods were used for resistogram and antibiogram analysis. Through agar well diffusion method, S. aureus showed complete resistance against all concentrations of chromium and cadmium (50 to 300 µg/mL). E. luteus showed resistance on 50 µg/mL and 100 µg/mL of both metals while E. coli exhibited resistance against all cadmium concentrations (50 to 300 µg/mL) while sensitivity was observed in case of chromium (12.0 ± 0.0 mm to 24.0 ± 0.0 mm). Through broth method, E. luteus showed good cadmium absorbance capacity at acidic pH 4 and 6, E. coli at pH 4, 6 and 7 and S. aureus at pH 6, 7 and 8. In case of chromium, S. aureus showed maximum absorbance at pH 6; E. coli at pH 7 and 8 and E. luteus showed minimum absorbance for chromium at pH 6 and 8. All bacterial isolates showed maximum biosorption of both metals after 24 h of incubation. Results suggested that pH 6 and incubation period 24 h could be better for biosorption of cadmium and chromium removal. Dead biomass of E. coli and S. aureus was more efficient for cadmium removal while both dead and live biomass (E. luteus, E. coli and S. aureus) have potential for chromium removal. These microbes could be used as potential source of heavy metal biosorbent, biosorbent
... Discs were also made for the positive controls (0.1% Hydrogen peroxide). These plates are kept at room temperature (28±2°C) for 24 hours to allow maximum diffusion of the test materials to the surrounding media (Jagessar et al., 2008). The plates are then inverted and incubated at 28±2°C for 7 days for optimum growth of the organisms. ...
Article
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em>Mangifera indica is an important commercial fruit of India and primary food source for the mango leafhopper, Amritodus brevistylus further leading to the development of its associated fungus, Aspergillus niger . The present study was done to assess the antifungal and insecticidal activity of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles using peel extracts of Raphanus sativus (Brassicaceae). Raphanus sativus peel extract is effective in extracellular reduction of Ag ions and capping the synthesized nanoparticles avoiding further agglomeration. The synthesized AgNPs are characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray analysis. Biologically synthesized AgNPs exhibited significant toxicity (LC50 − 7.61 ppm/48h) over mango leafhopper, Amritodus brevistylus . Silver nanoparticles synthesized using Raphanus sativus is also effective against the fungal pathogen, Aspergillus niger (developed on the infestations of mango leafhopper, Amritodus brevistylus ) showing very strong inhibitory zone (80 mm).
... Heavy metal resistance study for microbial isolates was performed using agar well diffusion method (Jagessar et al., 2008) with increasing concentrations of Cr and Cd ranging from 50 to 300. Nutrient agar (Oxide: CMOO 3 ) and nutrient broth media (Oxide: CM1) were used for bacterial culture. ...
Article
Full-text available
In the present study Enterococcus luteus, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus have been used for biosorption of cadmium and chromium from aqueous solution of various concentrations. Bacteria were isolated from waste soil and identified through various morphological features, biochemical tests,and staining procedure. Biosorption capacity (both dead and live biomass) was observed through broth technique and absorbance values were measured using atomic absorbance spectrophotometer. Different parameters were optimised for metal biosorption, including incubation periods (24, 48, 72 and 96 h) and pH (4, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10) at 37 °C. Agar well and agar disc diffusion methods were used for resistogram and antibiogram analysis. Through agar well diffusion method, S. aureus showed complete resistance against all concentrations of chromium and cadmium (50 to 300 μg/mL). E. luteus showed resistance on 50 μg/mL and 100 μg/mL of both metals while E. coli exhibited resistance against all cadmium concentrations (50 to 300 μg/mL) while sensitivity was observed in case of chromium (12.0 ± 0.0 mm to 24.0 ± 0.0 mm).Through broth method, E. luteus showed good cadmium absorbance capacity at acidic pH 4 and 6, E. coli at pH 4, 6 and 7 and S. aureus at pH 6, 7 and 8. In case of chromium, S. aureus showed maximum absorbance at pH 6; E. coli at pH 7 and 8 and E. luteus showed minimum absorbance for chromium at pH 6 and 8. All bacterial isolates showed maximum biosorption of both metals after 24 h of incubation. Results suggested that pH 6 and incubation period 24 h could be better for biosorption of cadmium and chromium removal. Dead biomass of E. coli and S. aureus was more efficient for cadmium removal while both dead and live biomass (E. luteus, E. coli and S. aureus) have potential for chromium removal. These microbes could be used as potential source of heavy metal biosorbent, biosorbent.
... 1,2 Primitive people learned by trial and error to distinguish useful plants with beneficial effects from those that were toxic or non-active and also which combinations or processing methods had to be used to gain consistent and optimal results. 3 In spite of the great advances observed in modern medicine in recent decades, plants still make an important contribution to health care. 4 In comparison with modern medicine, herbal medicines cost less, are more often used to treat chronic diseases and the occurrence of undesirable side effects seems to be less frequent. ...
... Inkubasi pada suhu 37 °C selama 24 jam untuk bakteri dan suhu 30 °C selama 5 hari untuk jamur. Pengamatan dan pengukuran dilakukan pada zona bening sebagai indikasi adanya aktivitas antimikroba (Jagessar et al., 2008). ...
... includes both annual and perennial types that exhibit arborescent, floating, climbing, aquatic and phyllocladous growth forms in nature. Phyllanthus acidus L. (Family: Phyllanthaceae) commonly known as Arinellikal [22]. The reported medicinal benefits of Phyllanthus sp. ...
Article
The green synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) derived from plants imparts ecological and economic benefits to AgNPs. In addition, AgNPS have possible therapeutic roles in cytoprotection and anti-inflammation. The present work utilizes the aqueous extract of Phyllanthus acidus fruits for the production of AgNPs from aqueous silver nitrate solution. The synthesized AgNPs were characterized by UV-visible spectrophotometer, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy analysis. The characterized AgNPs showed potent anti-inflammatory activity by scavenging nitric oxide and superoxide anions. In addition, blunting of the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β) assayed both by ELISA and Western blot, using H2O2 − induced inflammation in rat peritoneal macrophages. Furthermore, short-term exposure to P. acidus-mediated green-synthesized AgNPs did not affect the viability of peritoneal macrophages, as assessed by MTT assay. Our findings indicate that P. acidus-mediated green-synthesized AgNPs could be used to treat inflammatory diseases.
... The antimicrobial properties of the leaf part of P. acidus on Candida albicans, E. coli and S. aureus was investigated. The hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and ethanol extract of the leaf showed a positive antimicrobial activity and the highest inhibition was possessed by the ethanol extract 23 . The methanol extract of the leaf part of P. acidus showed an inhibition zone when tested on Micrococcus luteus but there was no inhibition zone when tested on S. aureus, B. subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, S. typhi, Aspergillus niger and Penicilium notatum 24 The methanol extract of the fruit part of A. bilimbi showed a negative antimicrobial activity when tested on E. coli, P. aeruginosa and S. aureus and also a negative antifungal activity on A. niger and C. albicans at 102.4 mg/ml 35 . ...
Article
Full-text available
Fruits have many important biological effects such as antioxidant, antitumor, antimutagenic and antimicrobial properties 1. This advantage also applies to the Malaysian fruits including underutilized fruits. Underutilized fruits are fruits that are rarely eaten, unknown and unfamiliar because some of the species only exist at a certain region 2. Antibiotic resistance can be minimized by using new compounds that are not based on the existing synthetic antimicrobial agents 3. Thus, natural antimicrobials seem to be the most promising answer to many of the increasing concerns regarding antibiotic resistance and could yield better results than antimicrobials from the combinatorial chemistry and other synthetic procedures 4. This review paper emphasizes the antimicrobial characteristics possessed by three underutilized fruits namely Phyllanthus acidus (P. acidus), Averrhoa bilimbi (A. bilimbi) and Passiflora edulis (P. edulis) so that they can be used as natural antibiotic drugs and natural preservatives in processed foods. These three fruits are commonly known as " cermai " , " belimbing buluh " and " markisa " respectively in Malaysia.
... C. apetalum seed oil is utilized ordinarily to treat ailment and infection. Xanthonoids and apetalinones were separated from the roots and stem barks of Calophyllum apetalum separated from known mixes like calozeyloxanthone and zeyloxanthonone [11] . Coumarins were rich in this spiecies. ...
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Background/Objective: synthesis of silver nanoparticles by the extract of Calophyllum apetalum and their characterization to find out size and morphology of the particles. Methodology: The characterization was done by X-Ray diffractive (XRD), UV-Visible spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). X-Ray diffraction (XRD) was used to find out the particle size and SEM image was used to determine its morphology. Findings: 94nm silver nanoparticles were synthesized. Improvements/ Application: As antibacterial agents.
... Beside the dilution procedure, the disc diffusion method is also frequently use with high test concentrations from 1 to 100 mg to evaluate antibacterial and antifungal activity of plant extracts, it is only a qualitative technique since the MIC and MBC are not determined (Kelmanson et al., 2000;Samy and Ignacimuthu, 2000;Islam et al., 2008;David et al., 2009, Jamuna Bai et al., 2011Chitemerere et al., 2011;Muhamed Muback et al., 2011;Neeraj and Madivi, 2011;Debajit et al., 2012;Israr et al., 2012;Sakunpak and Panichayupakaranant, 2012;Sharmeen et al., 2012;Tabasum et al., 2013;Gupta et al., 2013). To avoid this inconvenience, both techniques are used at the same time (Jagessar et al., 2008;Oskay et al., 2009;Chitemeterere and Mukanganyama, 2011;Kondo et al., 2010;Shinkafi and Dauda, 2013;Raghavendra and Mahadevan, 2011;Dugler and Dugler, 2012;Sadeghi-Nejad and Azish, 2013) Antibacterial and and antifungal activities of plant extracts or other compounds is largely influenced by the susceptibility testing method used (Vanden Berghe and Vlietinck, 1991). ...
Article
Results from the in vitro evaluation of the antibacterial and antifungal activities of six plant extracts indicated that the aqueous and the methanol extracts of Acalypha wilkesiana leaves and Ageratum conyzoides leaves exhibited good and efficient antifungal activity against Candida albicans with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 31.25 μg/ml and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of 62.5 μg/ml) while the methanol extract from Pentaclethra macrophylla inhibited the yeast growth with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) values of 62.5 and 125 μg/ml respectively. The aqueous extracts from Acalypha wilkesiana, Ageratum conyzoides, Buccholzia tholoniana seeds, Gulboutia demeusei root and the aqueous and methanol extracts from Pentaclecthra macrophylla stem bark showed good antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxytoca, Proteus mirabilis, Salmonella thyphimurium, Stahylococcus aureus and Shigella flexneri with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 62.5 μg/ml and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of 125 μg/ml according to the case. These results partly support and justify the traditional use of these plant extracts for treating infections in traditional medicine.
... bulbifera. An antimicrobial agent is any compound that kills or inhibits the growth of microorganisms such as bacteria, thus is called antibacterial agent [47] . Continuous and increasing need to discover new antimicrobial compounds with diverse chemical structures and novel mechanisms of action against new and re-emerging infectious diseases has long been eminent. ...
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The antibacterial activities and bioactive constituents of ethanolic and aqueous extract of parts of the tuber against ten (10) clinical pathogens were determined, using agar well diffusion and standard techniques respectively. The proximate profile of this tuber included moisture content, ash, crude protein, fat, fibre and carbohydrate with varying percentages. The tuber was recorded to contain higher amount of saponin with the average of 24 mg/g, followed by cardiac glycosides with 13.13 mg/g, terpenoid with 8.48 mg/g, flavonoids followed with 5.36 mg/g and tannin with 4.21 mg/g was the least among the bioactive ingredients. Except for Proteus vulgaris, Serratia liquefaciens, Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus cereus and Citrobacter freundii, other test isolates were susceptible to the effect of the ethanolic extract of the peel of D. bulbifera at 500 µg/ml. High inhibition zones (between 17 and 22 mm) were recorded against 80% of the test organisms at 1000 µg/ml, except for 15 mm zone recorded against Bacillus cereus. The MIC and MBC of extract of D. bulbifera ranged in respect to the parts from 125 µg/ml to 500 µg/ml; and 250 µg/ml to 1000 µg/ml for peels and bulbils respectively. Antibacterial activity of the ethanolic and aqueous extracts of the bulbils of D. bulbifera was however, not profound in this present study compared to that of the peel. This study therefore, affirmed that D. bulbifera is a novel source of bioactive compounds which do not only enhance the antibacterial properties, but also ascertain its health promoting qualities.
... Star gooseberry Phyllanthus acidus belongs to the family Phyllanthaceae and is reported to have high phenolic content (Taylor 2003). P. acidus leaf extracts have shown potent antimicrobial activity ( Jagessar et al., 2008). The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of aqueous extracts of the plant on immuno-hematological parameters, and disease resistance of Nile tilapia against S. agalactiae was investigated. ...
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A study was conducted to investigate the efficacy of aqueous extract of plants supplemented diets consisting of leaf-extracts of Psidium guajava (PGLE), Phyllanthus acidus (PALE), and the mixture of PGLE and PALE at the rates of 5 and 10 g kg-1 of the feed of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Following 12 weeks of feeding, the fish were challenged with Streptococcus agalactiae for 15 days. Immuno-hematological parameters were measured before and after the challenge. The results showed significantly enhanced innate immune parameters after administration of the plant extracts. Respiratory burst activity, phagocytic assay, and serum lysozyme content were 2 to 3 times higher than the control treatment; PGLE-10 showed the highest values. While fish fed PGLE-10 had the highest post-challenge WBC, RBC, Hb, and Hct values compared to the control. The dietary supplementation of plant extracts had a higher survival percentage compared to the control. The positive immuno-hematological impacts of plant extracts can be effectively used as an alternative prophylactic and antimicrobial agents in Nile tilapia culture.
... Medicinal plants are rich source of antimicrobial agents 17 . An antimicrobial is a compound that kills or inhibits the growth of microbes such as bacterial, fungal, viral etc such a compound is said to have antibacterial activity 15 . Medicinal plants are rich in a wide variety of secondary metabolites such as tannins, alkaloids and flavonoids which have antimicrobial properties 22 . ...
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The antimicrobial activities and diameter of inhibition of aqueous, ethanolic and methanolic extracts of Neem Leaves (NL) and Turmeric Rhizome (TR) were evaluated against four strains of bacteria isolates from Clarias gariepinus using agar well diffusion method. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and phytochemical screenings of NL and TR were determined using standard methods. The NL and TR of aqueous, ethanolic and methanolic extracts had inhibition zones of 20±0.02 mm 10±0.01 mm, 25±0.02 mm 20±0.01 mm and 19±0.02 mm 20±0.02 mm diameter respectively against Bacillus subtilis; 25±0.03 mm 25±0.01 mm, 22±0.02 mm 25±0.03 mm and 25±0.03 mm 23±0.01 mm against Staphylococcus aureus; 25±0.03 mm 25±0.02 mm, 15±0.01 mm 25±0.02 mm and 15±0.03 mm 20±0.01 mm against Streptococcus iniae; 26±0.02 mm 25±0.01 mm, 17±0.01 mm 15±0.02 mm and 10±0.02 mm 10±0.02 mm diameter against Aeromonas hydrophila; 04±0.01 mm 0.3±0.02 mm, 05±0.02 mm 0.5±0.02 mm and 08±0.02 mm 02±0.03 mm diameter against Aspergillus niger. The MIC of NL and TR of these extracts on the bacteria tested were 1000µg/ml. The phytochemical screening of these plants indicated the presence of saponins, tannins, flavonoids and polysterols. The plants may be used as promising source of pharmaceutical agents against fish pathogens in the organic aquaculture. Keywords: Antibacterial; Phytochemical; Neem leaves; Turmeric; Fish pathogens
... A study conducted to assess antimicrobial properties of P. acidus leaf extracts against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans revealed that ethanolic extracts (0.18 mg/10 mL) exhibited inhibitory activity against all three micro-organisms (Jagessar and Mars, 2008). Methanolic extracts of the fruit exhibited inhibitory activity against Bacillus cereus (Foyzun et al., 2016). ...
Article
Phyllanthus acidus L. (jimbilin), a species within the Phyllanthaceae family has origins in Madagascar. The tree is now established as a native of the South American countries of Colombia and Brazil with wide distribution within tropical and sub-tropical countries. The fruit which is tart in taste has a greenish yellow exterior and a white to cream colored fleshy interior covering a pit of seeds. Studies have revealed that plant extracts exhibit medicinal properties. This paper reviews the nutritional and medicinal properties of the plant and its commercial applications.
... Psidium guajava L. leaf extracts have also been demonstrated to have anti-microbial (Metwally et al., 2010), and antioxidant (Chen and Yen, 2007) properties. Phyllanthus acidus has high phenolic content (Taylor, 2003) and leaf extracts possessed strong antibacterial activity (Jagessar et al., 2008). This study was conducted to investigate the protective effects of dietary supplementation of PGPA and their potential for enhanced immune response and disease resistance of Nile tilapia against S. agalactiae infection. ...
Research
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Here we have standardized the stocking density of Platy fish and find out the reproductive performance.
... Psidium guajava L. leaf extracts have also been demonstrated to have anti-microbial (Metwally et al., 2010), and antioxidant (Chen and Yen, 2007) properties. Phyllanthus acidus has high phenolic content (Taylor, 2003) and leaf extracts possessed strong antibacterial activity (Jagessar et al., 2008). This study was conducted to investigate the protective effects of dietary supplementation of PGPA and their potential for enhanced immune response and disease resistance of Nile tilapia against S. agalactiae infection. ...
Conference Paper
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Two experiments were conducted for standardizing feeding ration and frequency of goldfish Carassius auratus using commercial shrimp feed. In both the experiment duration was 60 days and the stocking density of gold fish is one number per four litres of water. In first experiment of standardization of feeding ration five treatments were given i.e. T1 (2%Body weight), T2 (4%Body weight), T3 (6%Body weight), T4 (8%Body weight) and T5 (10%Body weight) with four replicates each. The initial size of gold fish fry was in the range of (Average Weight-1.25±0.014 g to1.33±0.014 g and Average Length- 2.60±0.012 cm to 2.81±0.017cm). There is significant increase in gain in weight and length in treatment T4 (2.80cm and 1.57 g) as compare to other treatments T1 (2.12cm and 1.22 g), T2 (2.16cm and 1.27 g), T3 (2.41cm and 1.43 g) and T5 (2.52cm and 1.45 g) was observed at the completion of experimental period. In second experiment standardization of feeding frequency was done by giving five treatments i.e. T1 (2times per day), T2 (3times per day), T3 (4times per day), T4 (5 times per day) and T5 (6 times per day) with four replicates each. The initial size of gold fish fry was in the range of (Average Weight-1.24±0.011 g to 1.41±0.011 g and Average Length- 2.51±0.013 g to 2.66±0.021 g). There is significant increase in gain in weight and length in treatment T4 (1.74 cm and 1.70 g) as compare to other treatments T1 (1.66 cm and 1.50 g), T2 (1.67cm and 1.51 g), T4 (1.74cm and 1.70 g) and T5 (1.70 cm and 1.68 g). Survival percentage in both experiment is 100% at feeding ration (8%) and feeding frequency (4 times a day). It is concluded that rearing goldfish using commercial shrimp feed @ 8% feeding rate and 4 times per day feeding frequency is giving optimum gain in length, weight and survival during sixty days rearing period.
... Psidium guajava L. leaf extracts have also been demonstrated to have anti-microbial (Metwally et al., 2010), and antioxidant (Chen and Yen, 2007) properties. Phyllanthus acidus has high phenolic content (Taylor, 2003) and leaf extracts possessed strong antibacterial activity (Jagessar et al., 2008). This study was conducted to investigate the protective effects of dietary supplementation of PGPA and their potential for enhanced immune response and disease resistance of Nile tilapia against S. agalactiae infection. ...
Article
Full-text available
Two experiments were conducted for standardizing feeding ration and frequency of goldfish Carassius auratus using commercial shrimp feed. In both the experiment duration was 60 days and the stocking density of gold fish is one number per four litres of water. In first experiment of standardization of feeding ration five treatments were given i.e. T1 (2%Body weight), T2 (4%Body weight), T3 (6%Body weight), T4 (8%Body weight) and T5 (10%Body weight) with four replicates each. The initial size of gold fish fry was in the range of (Average Weight-1.25±0.014 g to1.33±0.014 g and Average Length- 2.60±0.012 cm to 2.81±0.017cm). There is significant increase in gain in weight and length in treatment T4 (2.80cm and 1.57 g) as compare to other treatments T1 (2.12cm and 1.22 g), T2 (2.16cm and 1.27 g), T3 (2.41cm and 1.43 g) and T5 (2.52cm and 1.45 g) was observed at the completion of experimental period. In second experiment standardization of feeding frequency was done by giving five treatments i.e. T1 (2times per day), T2 (3times per day), T3 (4times per day), T4 (5 times per day) and T5 (6 times per day) with four replicates each. The initial size of gold fish fry was in the range of (Average Weight-1.24±0.011 g to 1.41±0.011 g and Average Length- 2.51±0.013 g to 2.66±0.021 g). There is significant increase in gain in weight and length in treatment T4 (1.74 cm and 1.70 g) as compare to other treatments T1 (1.66 cm and 1.50 g), T2 (1.67cm and 1.51 g), T4 (1.74cm and 1.70 g) and T5 (1.70 cm and 1.68 g). Survival percentage in both experiment is 100% at feeding ration (8%) and feeding frequency (4 times a day). It is concluded that rearing goldfish using commercial shrimp feed @ 8% feeding rate and 4 times per day feeding frequency is giving optimum gain in length, weight and survival during sixty days rearing period.
... The bark of P. acidus is mixed and heated with coconut oil, then spread on the skin to relieve itching in Indonesia [9]. Jagessar et al. [10] reported some antibacterial and 166 Qian-Yu Lim, Siow-Ping Tan, Hui-Yin Tan, Antibacterial and Antiplasmodial Properties Wee-Kent Liew,Yee-Ling Lau and of Chemical Compounds Isolated from Bark Mohd Azlan Nafiah of Phyllanthus acidus (L.) Skeels antiplasmodial properties of the extracts of P. acidus in 2008. However, there is no reported antiplasmodial work on isolated chemical constituents of P. acidus. ...
Article
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Phyllanthus acidus (L.) Skeels (Phyllanthaceae family) is a plant that is widely distributed in Asian countries, which is traditionally used as a medicinal plant to treat various ailments. Inspired by the uses of the plant, the aim of this study was to extract and isolate bioactive compounds from P. acidus as potential antimicrobials. The isolation and identification of phyllanthol (1) and meso-hydrobenzoin (2) from the dichloromethane bark extract of P. acidus are presented. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analyses. To the best of our knowledge, compound 1 is a known compound and compound 2 is the first report presented on the isolation and structural elucidation as a natural compound. The bark extract and the isolated compounds were evaluated for antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus by disc diffusion assay, minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), and half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50). Compounds 1 and 2 showed significant activities against Escherichia coli (IC50 value = 0.42 and 0.47 μg/mL, respectively), Enterococcus faecium (IC50 value = 0.86 and 0.43 μg/mL, respectively), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (IC50 value = 0.45 and 0.44 μg/mL, respectively), and Staphylococcus aureus (IC50 value = 12.87 and 0.44 μg/mL, respectively). These compounds also showed significant antiplasmodial activities towards the 3D7 strain with IC50 value of 0.218 μM for compound 1 and 0.228 μM for compound 2, in vitro. All the isolated compounds were not active against MRC-5 cells with an IC50 value of more than 60 μg/mL. From the results obtained, P. acidus has been proven as a source of molecules with therapeutic potentials.
... During isolation, contamination of species with other microorganism such as fungi and bacteria normally occur. Therefore, streak plate method was repeated multiple times to ensure the purity of the species (Jagessar et al., 2008). ...
Article
High nutrient loading in aquatic environment has become the main causative of harmful algae blooms (HABs) in water resources particularly pond, lake and river. HABs are mostly dominated by microalgae derived from the group of blue-green algae which are capable of releasing harmful toxins. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the inhibitory effects of thiourea derivatives on the growth of such blue-green algae. Thiourea derivatives have been proven to exhibit antifungal and antibacterial effects. However, there is still limited study had been conducted on the effect of thiourea derivatives toward blue-green algae species in recent years. In this research, a species of blue-green algae from Kenyir Lake, Terengganu, Malaysia was successfully isolated using morphological characters and molecularly identified as Synechoccus elongatus. Four new thiourea derivative compounds were also successfully synthesised. The compounds were designed with variation on different R-substitution group and characterised using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) to confirm their molecular structure. Those compounds were characterised as 1-Benzyl-3-(3,5-dimethoxy-benzoyl)-thiourea (C1), 1-(3-Chloro-benzyl)-3-(3,5-dimethoxy-benzoyl)-thiourea (C2), 1-(3,5-Dimethoxy-benzoyl)-3-(3-methyl-benzyl)-thiourea (C3) and 1-(3,5-Dimethoxy-benzoyl)-3-(3-trifluoromethyl-benzyl)-thiourea (C4). For the inhibition assessment, S. elongatus were treated with C1–C4 for 5 day at concentration of 2, 5, 10 and 20 μg/ml, respectively. C3 compound showed the highest inhibition percentage with 98% of inhibition after 5 days treatment. By using Bradford method, protein extraction of S. elongatus was conducted at the highest inhibition percentage. Protein concentration of treated species was observed with 3.28 μg/ml as compared to protein concentration of control with 6.48 μg/ml. This result indicated the reduction of protein content after the treatment. Protein band pattern was identified intensed after the treatment SDS PAGE was carried out. The thiourea derivatives compound proved to have successfully inhibited the growth of blue-green algae. Hence, further study should be carried out to ensure the compound can be practically utilized in the pond and in natural environment.
... They then entered into the concentration variations that have been made. Incubated for 24 hours at 37 o C [7]. To see the zone of inhibition formed from the test using a caliper [8]. ...
Article
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Pertumbuhan bakteri jerawat dapat diatasi dengan menggunakan senyawa antibakteri, tanaman yang berpotensi untuk dikembangkan sebagai antibakteri jerawat adalah Citrus x microcarpa Bunge (jeruk kunci). Berdasarkan kajian literatur, genus Citrus mengandung steroid, flavonoid, terpenoid, tanin, dan saponin dengan bioaktivitas sebagai antioksidan dan antibakteri. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kandungan metabolit sekunder dan aktivitas antibakteri ekstrak limbah buah jeruk kunci terhadap Propionibacterium acnes. Pada penelitian ini ekstraksi menggunakan metode maserasi dengan pelarut etanol. Pengujian fitokimia dilakukan secara kualitatif dan uji antibakteri menggunakan metode difusi cakram. Hasil pengujian fitokimia mengandung senyawa metabolit sekunder, seperti flavonoid, tanin, terpenoid, dan steroid. Berdasarkan data pengujian antibakteri ekstrak limbah buah jeruk kunci didapatkan bahwa kekuatan antibakteri ekstrak terhadap P. acnes tergolong kuat. Hal tersebut dapat disimpulkan bahwa ekstrak limbah buah jeruk kunci berpotensi untuk dikembangkan menjadi agen antibakteri.
... Pengujian aktivitas antimikroba pada sampel ekstrak daging siput laut gonggong ini dilakukan menggunakan metode difusi sumur (modifikasi Ali et al. 2006dan Jagessar et al. 2008, untuk tujuan penapisan awal aktivitas peptida antimikroba melalui uji sifat antimikroba. Media BHI (pH 7) sebanyak 25 mL untuk tiap cawan disterilisasi, dan ditunggu sampai dingin hingga suhu 37ºC, kemudian ditumbuhkan koloni tunggal dari bakteri E. coli ATCC 25922 dan S. aureus ATCC 25923 selama semalaman pada suhu 37ºC. ...
Article
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Siput laut gonggong asal Bintan merupakan salah satu gastropoda laut yang belum dimanfaatkan secara optimal. Siput ini merupakan makanan laut khas Bintan dan harganya sangat mahal. Secara empiris, siput ini dipercaya dapat meningkatkan stamina dan vitalitas. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk melakukan penapisan senyawa bioaktif pada siput laut gonggong asal Bintan yaitu aktivitas antioksidan dan aktivitas antimikroba. Aktivitas antioksidan dianalisis menggunakan metode DPPH dan aktivitas antimikroba dianalisis menggunakan metode difusi sumur. Aktivitas antioksidan ekstrak gonggong bercangkang tipis dengan IC50 1.433,08±0,01 ppm lebih tinggi daripada gonggong bercangkang tebal dengan IC50= 2.051,55±0,10 ppm. Aktivitas antimikroba pada ekstrak gonggong lebih baik pada bakteri Gram positif daripada bakteri Gram negatif. Ekstrak gonggong rebus bercangkang tebal memiliki aktivitas antimikroba yang paling tinggi dengan nilai rata-rata diameter daya hambat (DDH) yaitu 25,53±0,12 mm.
... Sebuah tanaman asli India yang secara tradisional digunakan untuk menyembuhkan beberapa penyakit inflamasi 8 Menurut penelitian Jagessar (2008) daun ceremai (Phyllanthus acidus (L.) Skeels) mempunyai daya antimikroba seperti antibakteri dan antijamur. 9 Agen antibakteri mengurangi kolonisasi dan infeksi bakteri luka, untuk meningkatkan proses penyembuhan. Agen antibakteri memperpendek periode peradangan, untuk mempersingkat waktu penyembuhan. ...
Article
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Luka merupakan terjadinya gangguan pada struktur normal tubuh. Tubuh akan merespon melalui proses penyembuhan luka. Kerusakan dan regenerasi jaringan memerlukan peran kolagen. Ketika proses penyembuhan jaringan kolagen disintesis dan didepositkan oleh fibroblas. Daun ceremai bermanfaat untuk penyembuhan luka karena mengandung senyawa aktif Terpenoid, Saponin dan flavonoid. Tujuan penelitian untuk menetapkan potensi ekstrak daun ceremai (Phyllanthus acidus (L.) Skeels) sebagai obat herbal terhadap penyembuhan luka tikus Wistar (Rattus norvegicus). Sepuluh ekor tikus jantan dengan berat 200-300 gram dan usia 8-12 minggu dibagi ke dalam 2 kelompok, kelompok perlakuan dan kelompok kontrol. Luka pada gingiva bagian labial tikus dibuat sepanjang 5 mm dan kedalaman mencapai tulang alveolar. Ekstrak daun ceremai 100% diberikan pada kelompok perlakuan topikal 2 kali sehari selama 7 hari. Akuades diberikan pada kelompok kontrol. Pengamatan histologis (pewarnaan hematoksilin eosin) menunjukkan hasil rerata jumlah fibroblas pada kelompok kontrol 20,4±1,3 dan kelompok perlakuan 31,0±3,3. Uji T tidak berpasangan menunjukkan nilai signifikansi yakni 0,001 (p0,05) menunjukkan bahwa terdapat perbedaan bermakna jumlah fibroblas pada penyembuhan luka antara ekstrak daun ceremai dibanding kontrol. Ekstrak daun ceremai konsentrasi 100% mempunyai efek terhadap jumlah fibroblas pada luka gingiva tikus Wistar.
... The plant is abundantly found in Asian countries and their leaves are used to treat psoriasis (Burkill andHanif, 2002), cough, asthma, bronchitis, soles (Caius, 1986), rheumatism, skin disorders (Morton and Miami 1987) (Sousa et al., 2007), diabetics (Banik et al., 2010) and for hepatoprotection (Lee et al., 2006). In traditional medicine, the leaves, bark and the root of the tree are used to treat fever (Hadi and Bremner, 2001;Jain and Singhai, 2011), as antimicrobial (Jagessar et al., 2008) and nephroprotective (Vidya et al., 2013) agents. However, no reports exist related to synthesis of AgNPs from different parts of P. acidus. ...
Article
The study aims to investigate the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by Phyllanthus acidus extract (leaf and twig) as reducing and capping agents and evaluation of their bionanocatalytic activities for the first time. The synthesized AgNPs were characterized by UV-Visible spectrophotometry, Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). The antioxidant ability of plant extract and AgNPs was analyzed using DPPH ∗ , NO ∗ and OH ∗ scavenging assays. SEM and DLS analysis confirmed the morphology of the nanoparticles to be spherical and the average size to be 48.36 and 164.30 nm. The most efficient scavenger was LAgNPs with EC 50 of 58.83 ± 1.65 μg/ml in DPPH ∗ and TAgNPs in NO ∗ (EC 50 60.75 ± 1.59 μg/ml) and OH ∗ (EC 50 43.07 ± 1.62 μg/ml) scavenging assays. Further, they have enhanced the enzyme activity of α-amylase, cellulase, and xylanase over 2–6 folds. The results suggest that the Phytofabricated AgNPs from P. acidus can be exploited for industrial and biomedical applications.
... Medicinal plants have been used from ancient to the present time for the remedy of disease of human being. Galanthamine is an anticholinesterase alkaloid isolated from snowdrop approved for the treatment of AD [32]. P. acidus (from the family Euphorbiaceae) plant is also one of the important plants having various medicinal properties such as antioxidants and anti-inflammatory effects. ...
Article
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Background Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder clinically characterized by loss of memory and cognition. Cholinergic deficit and oxidative stress have been implicated in the pathogenesis of AD. Therefore, inhibition of acetylcholinesterase and oxidation are the two promising strategies in the development of drug for AD. Phyllanthus acidus, belonging to the family Euphorbiaceae, is a tree and has been used in traditional medicine to treat several pain, inflammatory and oxidative stress related disorders such as rheumatism, bronchitis, asthma, respiratory disorder, also important to promote intellect and enhance memory, thus supporting its possible anti-Alzheimer’s properties. In this study, P. acidus was evaluated for its cholinesterase inhibitory and antioxidant activities. Methods In this study, we evaluated the antioxidant potential and neuroprotective activity of P. acidus by assessing total phenol content (FCR assay), total flavonoid content, total antioxidant capacity, Fe3+ reducing power capacity, DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity, lipid peroxidation inhibition activity & metal chelating activity. In addition acetylcholinestrase (AChE) and butyrylcholinestrase (BChE) inhibitory activities were performed using Ellman’s method. Results Total phenolic content and total flavonoid content of the extract were 116.98 mg of gallic acid equivalent and 168.24 mg of quercetin equivalent per gm of dried extract. The methanolic extract of P. acidus (MEPA) showed considerable total antioxidant activity and reducing capacity. In DPPH scavenging assay and hydroxyl radical scavenging assay, the MEPA showed 84.33 % and 77.21 % scavenging having IC50 of 15.62 and 59.74 μg/ml respectively. In lipid peroxidation inhibition activity MEPA showed moderate inhibition of peroxidation at all concentrations with IC50 value of 471.63 μg/ml and exhibited metal chelating activity with IC50 value 308.67 μg/ml. The MEPA exhibited inhibition of rat brain acetylcholinesterase and human blood butyrylcholinesterase in a dose dependent manner and the IC50 value was found to be 1009.87 μg/ml and 449.51 μg/ml respectively. Conclusion These results of the present study reveal that MEPA has considerable amount of antioxidant activity as well as anti-acetylcholinesterase and anti-butyrylcholinesterase activity which suggest its effectiveness against Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders.
... Cakram mangandung Nistatin dan kertas cakram kosong, masingmasing digunakan sebagai kontrol positif dan negatif. 21 Hasil uji Duncan menunjukan bahwa konsentrasi yang berbeda adalah konsentrasi 0%, 12,5%, 25%, 50%, 75%, 100%. ...
Article
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Abstrak Kunyit (Curcuma longa linn) merupakan bahan herbal mengandung senyawa aktif Curcuminoid yang terdiri atas Curcumin, Bisdementhoxycurcumin dan Dementhoxycurcumin yang mempunyai sifat anti jamur. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menganalisis daya hambat ekstrak kunyit terhadap pertumbuhan Candida albicans, in vitro. Uji daya hambat pada penelitian ini menggunakan metode difusi agar (Kirby-Bauer) dengan nistatin 100µg sebagai kontrol positif dan kertas cakram kosong sebagai kontrol negatif. Data dianalisis dengan menggunakan ANOVA satu arah (One Way Analysis of Varians) dengan taraf kepercayaan 5%, kemudian dilanjutkan dengan uji Duncan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa ekstrak kunyit dengan pelarut etanol 96% pada konsentrasi 12,5%, 25%, 50%, 75% dan 100% dapat menghambat pertumbuhan C.albicans. Diameter zona hambat terbesar terlihat pada konsentrasi ekstrak kunyit 100% yaitu 10,3 mm, dan diameter terkecil terlihat pada konsentrasi 12,5% yaitu 6,6 mm. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian dapat disimpulkan bahwa ekstrak kunyit dapat menghambat pertumbuhan C.albicans, dengan demikian berpotensi untuk digunakan sebgai bahan herbal anti-C.albicans. Namun potensi in vivo herbal ini perlu ditetapkan melalui studi lanjut pada hewan coba. Abstract Turmeric (Curcuma longa linn) is a herbal ingredient containing active compound Curcuminoids that consist of Curcumin, Bisdementhoxycurcumin and Dementhoxycurcumin. All ingredients act as antifungal properties. The purpose of this study was to determine the inhibition ability of turmeric extracted with 96% ethanol on the growth of Candida albicans. In this study, inhibition tests was performed by using agar diffusion method), while nystatin (100 μg) and blank paper discs were used as a positive and negative control, respectively. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA (One Way Analysis of Variance) with confidence level of 5%, followed by the Duncan test. The results showed that the extracted turmeric has the potency to inhibit the growth of C. albicans at either concentration used (12.5%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%). Our data showed that the higher the concentration used, the largest diameter zone was found. In conclusion, this study shows that the extract of turmeric has the potency to inhibit the growth of C. albicans at various concentrations tested.
... [9,10] The juice from the leaves is used to heal boils and ulcers and to treat ringworm infection and fever. [11] C. indicum is rich in a variety of phytochemicals, including ORIGINAL ARTICLE quisqualic acid, [12,13] myristic acid, arachidonic acid, [14] flavonoids glycoside, [15] alkaloids, pelargonidin 3-glucoside, rutin, [16] tannins, palmitic acid, diphenylpropanoids, stearic acid, kaempferol, 1, 2, 4-oxadiazolidin-3, oleic acid, 5-dione derivative, methylursolate, α-xylofuranosyluracil, triterpenoids, arjunolic acid, dihydrocucurbitacin and 25-o-acetyl-23-24dihydrocucurbitacin, and linoleic acid. These constituents function various pharmacological activities such as antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory. ...
Article
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Aim: Study with the medicinal plant is growing to be familiar with the value in a healthy life. A traditional medicinal plant Combretum indicum leaf was selected to investigate its antioxidant and antimicrobial potential. Materials and Methods: The leaf extract was prepared with methanol solvent. Antioxidant potentiality was assessed by free radical scavenging assay with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) using ascorbic acid (AA) as standard and reducing power capacity was examined by the development of Perl's Prussian method with AA as standard. Antimicrobial activity was investigated by the method of disc diffusion with standard antibiotic Kanamycin. Results: The antioxidant activity in DPPH radical scavenging assay showed that the plant extract exhibits a dose-dependent scavenging of DPPH with IC 50 48.87 µg/ml while in standard AA showed an IC 50 value of 21.14 µg/ml. In reducing power capacity assay, the extract was put on view moderate action in a dose-dependent way. In antimicrobial assessment, it was observed that the extract was active against a number of the Gram-positive microorganisms and Gram-negative microorganisms exercised in the study. Kanamycin was engaged as standard, which demonstrated very high action compared to the extract. Conclusion: The observed therapeutic potentiality encourages further in-depth investigation to understand and explain possible mechanisms of action of C. indicum extract as well as to consider this plant as a potential source of alternative medicines.
... Larger the inhibition zone diameter, greater is the antimicrobial activities. Bacteria or fungal strains sensitive to the antimicrobial are inhibited at a distance from the disc whereas resistant strains grow up to the edge of the disc [14]. ...
Chapter
In this study, a new green method of preparing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using fresh leaf extract of different types of onion has been proposed. The effects of stabilizing agent on the green synthesized AgNPs has been investigated, as well as the antimicrobial activity using Disk diffusion method. AgNPs demonstrated antimicrobial activity against Salmonella spp.
... The potential of the extract of P. acidus as an antimicrobial against a large spectrum of bacterial and fungal has been reported in several works (Table 4). The aqueous leaf extract of P. acidus was displayed potential antimicrobial activities towards Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans by using disc diffusion method with zone of inhibition of 22, 21 and 20 mm, respectively, in comparison with standard reference (Ampicillin for E. coli and S. aureus; nystatin for C. albicans) (Jagessar et al., 2008). Moderate antimicrobial activity was also reported on leaf extract against S. aureus, E. coli, C. albicans, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa with the mean zone of inhibition of 23, 15, 11 and 10 mm, respectively (Jagessar and Hope, 2016). ...
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... Bacterial isolates were used in this study for antibacterial activity. The well diffusion plate method (Jagessar R C, et al., 2008) was used for antimicrobial activity. Anti bacterial activity presented drug susceptibility against bacterial isolate. ...
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... Larger the inhibition zone diameter, greater is the antimicrobial activities. Bacteria or fungal strains sensitive to the antimicrobial are inhibited at a distance from the disc whereas resistant strains grow up to the edge of the disc [14]. ...
Chapter
During the past few years, metal nanoparticles received attention due to their interesting optical and electrical properties. Among them, silver nanoparticles (AgNP) showed various specific properties. In this paper, we’ve synthesised silver nanoparticles and tested their antimicrobial activity. As a precursor for silver, we used silver salt-AgNO3. As a stabilizer and also a reducing agent, we used gallic acid monohydrate, because it is known that in strong alkaline solutions, this acid is capable of reducing silver ammonium complex, thus generating stable AgNPs. The characterization was done with UV/VIS spectrophotometer by assessment of absorption maximum λmax in certain interval of time. In order to determine the inhibitory effects of silver nanoparticles, the test diffusion antibiogram method was used. Based on the obtained results, we concluded that nanoparticles synthesized in this way, show excellent antimicrobial activity and can be used as antimicrobial agent.
... Pengujian aktivitas antimikroba dilakukan dengan mengacu pada metode modifikasi Ali et al. (2006) dan Modifikasi Jagessar et al. (2008). Hasil ekstraksi daging gonggong yang sudah diketahui kadar proteinnya kemudian digunakan untuk analisis aktivitas antimikroba. ...
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