Article

The Residents’ Benefits and Concerns Before and After a New Rail Stop: Do Residents Get What They Expect?

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Abstract

Transit-oriented developments are touted as providing a variety of social benefits, but personal benefits to residents are underresearched. The authors surveyed 51 residents before and after a new light rail stop was constructed in their revitalizing Salt Lake City neighborhood. Residents anticipated and then later experienced increased housing and neighborhood economic values, enhanced sense of community, and improved neighborhood reputation. Residents experienced greater than anticipated pedestrian and child safety after rail service started. Compared with resident perceptions of walkable neighborhoods elsewhere, the Salt Lake residents perceived their neighborhood to be denser, and offering less land-use diversity and more crime safety problems. Perceived walkability increased, with residents reporting greater land-use diversity and neighborhood satisfaction after rail stop completion. However, residents said more stores, parks and trails, and trees would improve walkability. These results show the personal benefits residents desire to make transit-oriented living a satisfying residential alternative.

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... Understanding how near-transit residents feel about transit-induced neighborhood change remains largely understudied despite growing concerns over displacement and gentrification. Available research suggests residents generally have a positive assessment of the improved walkability and accessibility associated with transit-oriented development (TOD) but often harbor concerns over pedestrian safety and parking related to increased traffic and new commercial development (Brown and Werner, 2011;Fan and Guthrie, 2012;Jackson and Buckman, 2020;Nilsson et al., 2020). Recent studies of community mobilizations counter this relatively positive assessment of TOD neighborhood impacts and have qualitatively linked transit investments with displacement and gentrification processes, particularly for low-income communities of color (Lung-Amam et al., 2019;Sandoval, 2018;Sarmiento and Sims, 2015). ...
... Compared to the abundance of studies that have examined the impact of TOD on development intensity, property values, eviction, and demographic shifts (Baker and Lee, 2019;Bardaka et al., 2018;Delmelle et al., 2020;Dong, 2017;Padeiro et al., 2019), few surveys provide insight into the perceptions of TOD-proximate residents of transitinduced neighborhood change. Brown and Werner (2011) found that a new light rail station in Salt Lake City was associated with greater neighborhood satisfaction linked to increased walkability and accessibility and greater diversity of nearby establishments, but they also found heightened resident concerns over parking and noise (Brown and Werner, 2011). Fan and Guthrie (2012) studied resident perceptions of transit-induced neighborhood change in four transit corridors in the Twin Cities area of Minnesota and generally found positive perceptions of neighborhood change, particularly for immigrants, African-Americans, new residents, frequent transit riders, and carless households (Fan and Guthrie, 2012). ...
... Compared to the abundance of studies that have examined the impact of TOD on development intensity, property values, eviction, and demographic shifts (Baker and Lee, 2019;Bardaka et al., 2018;Delmelle et al., 2020;Dong, 2017;Padeiro et al., 2019), few surveys provide insight into the perceptions of TOD-proximate residents of transitinduced neighborhood change. Brown and Werner (2011) found that a new light rail station in Salt Lake City was associated with greater neighborhood satisfaction linked to increased walkability and accessibility and greater diversity of nearby establishments, but they also found heightened resident concerns over parking and noise (Brown and Werner, 2011). Fan and Guthrie (2012) studied resident perceptions of transit-induced neighborhood change in four transit corridors in the Twin Cities area of Minnesota and generally found positive perceptions of neighborhood change, particularly for immigrants, African-Americans, new residents, frequent transit riders, and carless households (Fan and Guthrie, 2012). ...
Article
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Understanding how nearby residents feel about transit-induced neighborhood change remains understudied despite growing concerns over displacement and gentrification. This study analyzed 329 surveys of resident perceptions of neighborhood change and associated development near an existing commuter rail station and a planned streetcar route in Santa Ana, California, a largely low-income, Latinx community. We found residents were on average satisfied with neighborhood access to transport and amenities, and that higher neighborhood satisfaction was associated with a more positive assessment of development and neighborhood change. Living near the streetcar route was associated with more negative assessments of change, reflecting residents of these areas had heightened concerns about housing costs, displacement, and parking. Results provide planners with insights regarding support for and concerns about transit-induced neighborhood changes that can help foster more equitable and responsive development processes and outcomes.
... We focus on rarely studied correlates of transit use involving the broader economic, social, and physical changes perceived to be associated with the new transportation infrastructure, assessed as both Time-1 pre-construction expectations and then Time-2 perceived post-construction conditions for the same sample. Prior research on a different light rail stop in the same city as the current study has shown that residents of a neighborhood receiving a new light rail stop anticipated the light rail would bring mostly economic changes to the neighborhood (Brown and Werner 2011), which may be especially valued by residents (de Graaff et al. 2007). Other research suggests that new rail stops can also communicate hopeful messages about a community and its trajectory, which may predispose residents toward trying the new service (Alexander and Hamilton 2015), but this suggestion has not been tested systematically on a large sample. ...
... Nine items measured typical barriers to walking more in the neighborhood, such as lack of time and interest, a scale used in past research (Brown and Werner 2011), derived from earlier studies of barriers (Brownson et al. 2001). Ten items assessed resident perceptions of physical or social changes that would encourage more walking, such as more stores or crosswalks. ...
... Ten items assessed resident perceptions of physical or social changes that would encourage more walking, such as more stores or crosswalks. This scale was also used in past research (Brown and Werner 2011), and derived from earlier studies of walking encouragement (Addy et al. 2004;Owen et al. 2004) Both sets were rated 0 for no and 1 for yes and all items were included in the same analysis. ...
Article
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Although complete street policies are proliferating, little is known about how nearby residents perceive and act on their new active transportation opportunities. We survey the same neighborhood residents before and after they receive a new complete street renovation with five new light rail stops. We compare Time-1 expectations to use rail with Time-2 evidence of rail use, based on both self-reported and objective GPS/accelerometer measures of ridership. We examine neighborhood perceptions of four groups, created by combining Time-1 expectations to ride with Time-2 ridership: No expect/no ride, no expect/ride, expect/no ride, and expect/ride. The strongest differences were between the no expect/no ride and expect/ride groups. The riders had more positive expectations for light rail’s impact on the neighborhood than non-riders; these broad expectations were more powerfully associated with rail ridership than individual barriers to use, such as time constraints or weather. More positive perceptions of the route to rail stops (pleasantness, traffic safety, and crime safety) were also held by riders. Some of the more positive perceptions helped distinguish between the expect/ride group and the expect/no ride group. These results underscore that increasing positive neighborhood perceptions might help convert expected riders into actual riders.
... A meta-analysis [14] confirms that vehicle-miles traveled, walking, and transit use are strongly related to the D variable (i.e., Density, Diversity, Design, Destination accessibility, and Distance to transit). However, research regarding citizens' perception of TOD impacts after its implementation is rather limited, and even fewer studies deal with residents' awareness of TOD benefits before its actual development and implementation [15,16]. Although there are numerous studies that evaluate existing public transport systems [17][18][19], only a few of them investigate the ways in which residents assess impending changes in their neighborhood before the operation of transit systems under construction, or their likelihood of using these future public transport infrastructures [20,21]. ...
... Studies conducted in the pre-construction phase of urban rail and TOD projects have uncovered that citizen engagement with public transport is significantly affected by their perceptions of TOD usefulness and their view of the local government's capacity to promote sustainable mobility policies [16]. Furthermore, according to a before and after survey concerning the impacts of a new light rail stop [15], residents anticipated and later observed regeneration and social benefits in their neighborhood, such as better walkability, a greater sense of community, increased land and housing values, and an enhanced neighborhood image. However, in the same case, residents complained about parking problems and environmental noise pollution after the beginning of the rail stop operation. ...
... On the contrary, statistically significant higher expectations regarding local economic development are expressed by citizens in the area closer to the city center (25th Martiou), which has been hit the hardest by the negative effects of the recent economic crisis. Our results are generally consistent with the findings of previous studies that reveal the optimistic expectations of urban residents about TOD impacts in their neighborhoods [15,22,26,29]. In addition, our study also demonstrates that positive perceptions may vary depending on the area characteristics and the locally specific livability and mobility problems faced by citizens. ...
Article
Transit-oriented development (TOD) is an integrated urban and transport planning approach that aims to mitigate urban sprawl and car use, enhance neighborhood livability, increase public transport use, and promote sustainable mobility. Although TOD is widely accepted by academics, planners, and policymakers, the question of how citizens acknowledge its expected benefits remains open. This paper explores citizen satisfaction and perceptions of their neighborhood and investigates their awareness of TOD’s potential for sustainable revitalization and regeneration of metro areas in Thessaloniki, a compact Mediterranean city that is introducing a new urban rail system. Our research is based on a questionnaire survey, conducted within the catchment areas of two future metro stations, which present different spatial and socio-economic characteristics. For the data analysis, we use inferential statistics analysis and ordinal logistics regression to investigate the variations in citizens’ perceptions. Findings reveal that even if there is a statistical difference between people’s perceptions regarding the main spatial features of their neighborhoods, respondents in both areas express similar major concerns about public space, walkability issues, transit quality, and the positive effects that the metro could offer regarding urban revitalization and development. Furthermore, age, income, and personal travel behaviors appear to be significantly related to the level of satisfaction with public transport and the willingness to increase transit use because of the metro. We argue that citizens’ pre-construction surveys can support local policy makers in tailing and optimizing a TOD project implementation based on the community’s needs and priorities. Such surveys operate as knowledge production platforms to strengthen policy efficiency and reinforce the feelings of trust between citizens and local policy makers. https://www.mdpi.com/1668866
... A second study by Brown and Werner in Salt Lake City, Utah showed that residents experienced a decrease in the perception of crime, decreased levels of obesity, increased neighborhood satisfaction, fewer car trips, and "stronger place attachment" after the introduction of light rail transit. 40 Residents also felt that the new light rail stop improved pedestrian and child safety as well as increased neighborhood interaction. ...
... The age variable results were substantially different in the Improvement 3 model from what was found previously. While the Improvement 2 work model found that persons 35-54 years old were less likely than those over 54 years to choose transit, the Improvement 3 model found the opposite, with [35][36][37][38][39][40][41][42][43][44][45][46][47][48][49][50][51][52][53][54] year-olds more likely to choose transit than those over 54 years. In addition, the Improvement 3 model found that [18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34] year-olds were also more likely to take transit than those older than 54. ...
Technical Report
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This report provides the findings from the third phase of a three-part study about the influences of neighborhood crimes on travel mode choice. While previous phases found evidence that high levels of neighborhood crime discourage people from choosing to walk, bicycle and ride transit, consistent with the authors’ hypothesis, they also produced counterintuitive findings suggesting that in some cases, high crime neighborhoods encourage transit ridership at the expense of driving—the opposite of what common sense would suggest. Phase 3 tested possible explanations for these counterintuitive findings with a series of methodological improvements. These improvements were: • Improvement 1: Used the Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) system‘s 2008 Station Profile Survey travel data set to replace the Bay Area Travel Survey (BATS) 2000 data used in previous phases. • Improvement 2: Separated drop-off and drive-alone modes in logit models. • Improvement 3: Variables at the corridor level replaced previous variables at the transportation analysis zone (TAZ) level. • Improvement 4: Average parcel size (APS) variable replaced the intersection density measure of urban design. • Improvement 5: Used nested logit modeling techniques. These yielded strong evidence supporting the hypothesis that high-crime neighborhoods encourage driving, and they generated none of the counterintuitive findings from previous phases.
... Cross-sectional studies found that transit-related walking alone is responsible for higher levels of walking among transit users compared to those who do not use transit (Saelens et al., 2014;Brown et al., 2015) and that LRT ridership is associated with greater bouts of moderate physical activity (Brown and Werner, 2007;MacDonald et al., 2010). Longitudinally, increased LRT ridership was related to increased bouts of moderate physical activity (Brown and Werner, 2011;Spears et al., 2016). Even station area residents who do not use transit can benefit from the mix of nearby land uses and walk to local stores and other daily destinations near the station. ...
... Even station area residents who do not use transit can benefit from the mix of nearby land uses and walk to local stores and other daily destinations near the station. Station area residents had higher neighborhood satisfaction after a light rail station was opened; they experienced greater perception of safety while walking, and felt that their children were safer (Brown and Werner, 2011). Finally, studies showed that retail, office, and residential rents, as well as housing prices are higher in more walkable places (Cortright, 2009;Leinberger and Alfonzo, 2007;Pivo and Fisher, 2011;Huang et al., 2015), suggesting that light rail's contribution to making a place more walkable can result in increased economic activity and property tax revenue. ...
Article
Areas around Light Rail Transit (LRT) stations offer ideal conditions for Transit-Oriented Development (TOD). Relatively dense, mixed-use neighborhoods can have positive impacts on mobility, health, and perceptions of neighborhood safety among nearby residents, primarily through walking activity for both transit and other purposes. To examine how station areas may attract new activity, this study analyzed changes in walking around station areas among people living close to an LRT station before and after the opening of a new transit system.
... 5 Various authors have called for increased research in this area, noting the benefits of a greater understanding of transit development's impact on gentrification (Hess, 2016) and of resident opinions on gentrification in general (Sullivan, 2007). Brown and Werner (2011) answered this call in Salt Lake City, where they surveyed residents within half a mile of a proposed light rail station before and after construction. They found that residents' perceptions of the neighborhood post rail station construction are generally favorable, with residents noting increases in neighborhood economic value, neighborhood reputation, a higher sense of community, lower crime, and higher pedestrian safety. ...
... This paper responds to calls to examine positive and negative perceptions of light rail development and gentrification at the neighborhood scale (Brown and Werner, 2011). Overall, this study demonstrates that those who lived in the area at the time of the study had positive views of Evans Station on the neighborhood. ...
Article
The growing and continued popularity of light rail transit systems in major United States metropolitan areas is leading to growing research on land use impacts, value generation, and contributions to gentrification. While various studies explore the fiscal and environmental influences of light rail transit development in the Denver Metropolitan Area, only recently have scholars turned their attention to gentrification and social influences. This paper analyzes how one station shapes residents' sense of place, providing more nuanced understandings of the role light rail and transit-oriented development affects perceptions of neighborhood character and place attachment. We argue that gentrification can be measured and understood not only quantitatively, but also by how people feel light rail influences their attachment to place. Residents within half a mile of the Evans Light Rail Station were randomly and anonymously surveyed with a series of demographic questions and asked to provide their experiences, observations, and opinions. With 166 household responses, we examine residents' perceptions of Evans Station and sense of place to investigate relationships between factors such as race, age, income, education, length of residency, and walking distance from the light rail station. Analysis of their responses creates a more nuanced understanding of the ways that light rail contributes to positive, neutral, and negative emotions associated with gentrification ranging from appreciation of increased accessibility, younger residents, increased property values, and new commercial development to complaints about increased density, higher rents, traffic, noise, and loss of community.
... This study defines TOD as any dense, mixeduse, and walkable area around a transit station, and TAD as any low-density, single-use, and cardependent station area. The most frequently studied factors for classifying a TOD from other types of station area are residential and employment density (Renne and Ewing, 2013;Kamruzzaman et al., 2015;Laaly, 2014;Pollack et al., 2014;Jeihani et al., 2013;Canepa, 2007;Cervero and Kockelman, 1997;Cervero and Gorham, 1995), land use diversity (Renne and Ewing, 2013;Kamruzzaman et al., 2015;Vale, 2015;Jeihani et al., 2013;Cervero and Kockelman, 1997;Cervero and Gorham, 1995), and walkability or street connectivity (Renne and Ewing, 2013;Vale, 2015;Pollack et al., 2014;Laaly, 2014;Ngo, 2012;Kamruzzaman et al., 2014;Brown and Werner, 2011;Werner, Brown and Gallimore, 2010). Recent studies trying to classify TOD and TAD deal with all three factors in the analysis (Renne and Ewing, 2013;Kamruzzaman et al., 2015;Jeihani et al., 2013). ...
Research
Full-text available
Transit-oriented development (TOD) has gained popularity worldwide as a sustainable form of urbanism; it concentrates development near a transit station so as to reduce auto-dependency and increase ridership. Existing travel behavior studies in the context of TOD, however, are limited in terms of small sample size, inconsistent TOD classification methods, and failure to control for residential self-selection. Thus, this study has three research questions. First, how can we distinguish between Transit-oriented development (TOD) and Transit-adjacent development (TAD)? Second, how do travel behaviors vary between TODs and TADs? Third, how does transportation affordability vary between TODs and TADs? This study utilizes cluster analysis to classify station area types and propensity score matching to control residential self-selection. From cluster analysis with built-environment factors—density, diversity, and walkability—in a half-mile buffer, this study classifies existing station areas as TOD, TAD or Hybrid types. After controlling for residential self-selection, it shows that a TOD motivates its residents to walk more and take transit more while using personal vehicles less. The significant difference between TOD and TAD in both VMT and the number of auto trips demonstrates that TODs make the personal vehicle trips shorter and fewer. Travel behavior in the Hybrid type demonstrates the possibility of gradual and practical change. Finally, the percentage of household income spent on transportation is lower in TOD households than TAD households. This shows that a TOD household is likely to save enough money on vehicle ownership and use that, while it likely spends more on transit, the final result is a significantly lower financial burden from transportation.
... On the other hand, unsuccessful TOD cases can be found even within a highly transit oriented society like Hong Kong (Loo et al., 2010). Therefore, the success of TODs is mixed in the literature and varies between contexts.Cervero and Day, 2008; Olaru et al., 2011), enhanced physical activity levels due to walking and cycling (Brown and Werner, 2007), better return on property investment (Billings, 2011), and a higher level of neighborhood satisfaction of residents (Mitrany, 2005; Lund, 2006; Lovejoy et al., 2010; Brown and Werner, 2011; Kamruzzaman et al., 2014b). In contrast, TODs are also associated with a number of undesirable features of a neighborhood e.g. higher level of crime (Bowes and Ihlanfeldt., 2001; Billings et al., 2011); deterioration of livability values due to increased density (Lin and Gau, 2006); and negative effects on real estate prices (Atkinson-Palombo, 2010). ...
Article
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The purpose of this research is to empirically test the prevailing view that transit oriented development enhances the use of more sustainable modes of transport using Brisbane, Australia as a case. Transit oriented development has been adopted as a new policy tool to reduce car-based travel worldwide. Despite being a billion dollar investment, the impacts of transit oriented development on promoting sustainable travel behavior is not conclusive. The research uses a case-control approach to empirically investigate this relationship based on travel behavior data collected from 88 individuals living in two contrasting neighborhoods in Brisbane: Kelvin Grove Urban Village - a transit oriented development, and Annerley - a traditional suburb (non-transit oriented development). A comparative investigation of travel behavior was subsequently conducted using distance travelled by modes and purposes between the neighborhoods. Results show that the availability of opportunity and services located within the transit oriented development reduces the car use by 5% and increases the use of active transport by 4%. The findings in this research support the implementation of TOD policies in Brisbane.
... All rights reserved. gridiron networks, and frequent intersections for multi-modal transportation systems [5][6][7]. Furthermore, in addition to residential buildings, TODs tend to allocate sufficient neighborhood services including coffee shops, retails, and commercials land uses, parks, and plazas [8,9]. Representing TODs' ultimate goal that epitomizes their key characteristic trait, perhaps mixed-use plans stand out from single-use zoning [7,10,11]. ...
Article
While scholars have copiously explored different aspects of Transit-Oriented Developments (TODs) over the last decades, the literature falls short on examining their noise implications. This study examines the planning, transportation, and environmental implications of noise in the Dallas-Fort Worth metropolitan area by performing geostatistical analysis for various mapping. These maps include a broad range of TODs’ characteristics and noise implications. Using ArcGIS tools applications into technological platforms, the data comprises sound samples through the grid sampling method. The findings confirm that TODs are 11.5 dB(A) noisier compared to non-TODs (although causes for the uncertainty aspects including the microphone position, using a type 2 SPL meter, or many unexplained variables, etc. might exist). This is mainly caused by mixed-land use, neighborhood services, and density features of TODs. These findings apply to the study areas. The study findings call for collaboration among urban planners, transportation planners, environmental planners, and noise controlling engineers to delve deeper into various planning, policy, and acoustic solutions.
... Plusieurs écrits scientifiques indiquent aussi que l'utilisation du transport collectif peut favoriser le transport actif (Litman, 2013a;Villanueva et collab., 2012;Brown et Werner, 2011;Lachapelle et collab., 2011;Lachapelle et Noland, 2012;Lachapelle et Frank, 2009;Morabia et Costanza, 2010;Rissel et collab., 2010). Par exemple, une récente revue systématique de la littérature conclut que chez les usagers du transport en commun, on observe en général de 8 à 33 minutes de marche attribuable à l'utilisation de ce mode de transport quotidiennement. ...
Technical Report
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L’Institut national de santé publique du Québec (INSPQ) se réjouit de l’initiative du ministère des Transports, de la Mobilité durable et de l’Électrification des transports (MTMDET) d’adopter, d’ici avril 2018, une Politique de mobilité durable qui intègre les principes du développement durable dans les systèmes de transport et qui accorde une place importante à la santé, à la sécurité et au bien-être de la population. L’Institut est convaincu que les choix effectués au moment de la planification des initiatives en transport et en aménagement du territoire peuvent avoir des effets importants sur la santé, la sécurité et la mobilité de la population, une perspective qui trouve écho dans la récente Politique gouvernementale de prévention en santé (PGPS) du ministère de la Santé et des Services sociaux.
... TODs can be defined as compact neighborhoods located along with transit hubs for various purposes, land use types, population densities, and street connectivity with walkable options that invite residents, employees, and visitors to commute with public transportation rather than driving personal vehicles. Thus, land use, population diversity (Kamruzzaman et al. 2014;Vale 2015), and neighborhood connectivity (Werner et al. 2010;Brown and Carol 2011;Renne and Ewing 2013) represent the essential features in TODs. ...
Article
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Scholarly debates on the unique features of transit-oriented developments (TODs) have surged over the last decade. Studies have examined their amenities and disamenities; however, lacking is exploring the relationship between TOD sound levels and buildings. Understanding this relationship has implications for communities and the urban form from environmental pollution aspects. This study explores the implications of sound on TOD buildings in the Dallas-Fort Worth metropolitan area by comparing them with non-TODs, specifically the relationship between buildings and street characteristics, and sound, as well as the potential effects of this relationship on TOD residents. Data include sound pressure levels through TOD buildings and streets compared with non-TOD buildings and streets. Using a two-level hierarchical linear model (HLM) help examine such characteristics at both micro and macro levels. The findings show that buildings located within TODs are exposed to higher sound levels with 1.4 dB(A) difference. The study provides insights into the relationship between sound, environmental pollution, building science, and transportation-featured elements of the built environment.
... Therefore, residential and employment density (Cervero and Gorham 1995;Kamruzzaman et al. 2014;Pollack et al. 2014;Renne and Ewing 2013), land use diversity (Cervero and Gorham 1995;Kamruzzaman et al. 2014;Renne and Ewing 2013;Vale 2015), and walkability or street connectivity (B. Brown and Werner 2011;Renne and Ewing 2013;Vale 2015;Werner, Brown and Gallimore 2010) have become the most frequently utilized factors for classifying station types. ...
Article
Emerging research suggests that planners and policy makers should explore the expanded role Transit-Oriented Development (TOD) plays in promoting innovation and economic growth. TOD station characteristics including accessibility, walkability, density, and mixed uses may create environments beneficial for creative and knowledge industries. However, the evidence linking place to productivity, as measured by firm sales volume is lacking. Using cluster analysis and Propensity Score Matching for national-level data, this research tests these relationships. Findings indicate that firms located in dense, mixed use, and walkable TODs with higher levels of activity experience increased sales. Hence, TOD and knowledge-based economic development strategies should be planned in tandem to maximize outcomes.
... The most frequently studied factors for distinguishing a TOD from other types of station areas have been residential and employment density (10,(14)(15)(16)(17)(18)(19)(20), land use diversity (10,14,17,(19)(20)(21), and street connectivity (14)(15)(16)(21)(22)(23)(24)(25). Recent studies deal with all three factors in the analysis (10,14,17). ...
Article
Full-text available
Transit-oriented development (TOD) has gained popularity worldwide as a sustainable form of urbanism by concentrating developments near a transit station to minimize auto-dependency and maximize ridership. Existing behavior studies in the context of TOD, however, are limited in terms of small sample size, lack of consistency in TOD classification, and failure to control for residential self-selection. This study examines various travel outcomes – VMT, auto trips, transit trips, and walk trips – in different types of station areas in eight U.S. metropolitan areas using cluster analysis and propensity score matching. From cluster analysis with three built environment factors – activity density, land use diversity, and street network design (i.e. D variables), this study classifies existing 549 station areas as TOD, TAD (transit-adjacent development), and Hybrid types. After controlling for residential self-selection, the result shows that a TOD motivates its residents to walk more and take transit more while driving less. The significant difference between TOD and TAD in both VMT and the number of automobile trips means that TOD makes the personal vehicle trips shorter (39% deduction) and fewer (35% deduction). Travel behavior in the Hybrid type is also examined for the potential outcome of gradual and practical changes.
... In the literature, the most frequently studied factors for distinguishing a TOD from other types of station areas have been residential and/or employment density, land use diversity, street network design or connectivity, and transit accessibility ( Brown & Werner 2011;Canepa 2007;Cervero & Gorham 1995;Cervero & Kockelman 1997;Jeihani et al. 2013;Kamruzzaman, Baker, Washington, & Turrell 2014;Kamruzzaman, Shatu, Hine, & Turrell 2015;Laaly 2014;Ngo 2012;Pollack, Gartsman, Boston, Benedict, & Wood 2014;Renne & Ewing 2013;Vale 2015;Werner, Brown, & Gallimore 2010;Zamir, Nasri, Baghaei, Mahapatra, & Zhang 2014). These variables are a part of socalled "D" variables that characterize influences of the built environment on travel-density, diversity, design, destination accessibility, and distance to transit ( Ewing & Cervero 2001). ...
Article
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Transit-oriented development (TOD) has gained popularity worldwide as a sustainable form of urbanism by concentrating developments near a transit station so as to minimize auto-dependency and maximize ridership. Existing TOD studies, however, have limits in terms of small sample size and aggregate-level analysis. This study examines various travel outcomes – VMT, auto trips, transit trips, and walk trips – in rail-based station areas in eight U.S. metropolitan areas in order to understand the role of neighborhood built environment characteristics. Two-stage hurdle models handle excess zero values in trip count variables and multi-level models deal with three-level data structure – household within station areas within regions. The final models show that automobile use is associated with land-use diversity and street network design of a station area; transit use is strongly related to transit availability and land-use diversity; and walking is related to transit availability, land-use diversity, and street network design. The weakest influence among station-area environment factors is density. In sum, a TOD, a station area having a dense, mixed-use, walkable, and transit-friendly environment, motivates residents to walk more and take transit more while driving less.
Article
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For decades, accessibility – i.e. the ease of reaching destinations – has been an important concept in transport planning, resulting in many studies trying to measure it and put it into practice. Also walkability, a mode-specific type of accessibility referring to how easy it is to walk (to destinations) received increased attention in the last two decades. In recent years, a new focus has been on how people perceive their accessibility as this may be a stronger predictor of travel behaviour than objective elements of accessibility (such as built environment characteristics). Perceived walkability, i.e. how walk-friendly people experience a certain area, however, has only been explored by a limited number of studies. In this review paper, we give an overview of existing studies analysing perceived walkability, which mostly have focused on its effects on walking frequency/duration, physical activity and various aspects of mental well-being. Based on this literature review, a conceptual model is created, emphasising the determinants and effects of perceived walkability and how it is related to objective walkability. We end this paper by providing avenues for further research, including the introduction of a Short Perceived Walkability Scale (SPWS) and recommendations for data collection and analysis. Doing so can create new insights into perceived walkability and links with related elements, and therefore can contribute to stimulating walking trips and improving the experience of these trips.
Article
In this article, we examine the effects of rail transit investments on residents' stated mobility intentions and perceptions of neighborhood changes using a survey analysis in Charlotte, North Carolina. We ask residents in neighborhoods along a new light rail line about their reasons for residing in their current neighborhood, thoughts about moving and the light rail's effect on their neighborhood. To control for city-wide housing market pressures, responses from one station-adjacent neighborhood are compared to responses from residents in a similar neighborhood elsewhere in the city while controlling for individual characteristics. Using a mixed-methods research approach, we find that while residents attribute some changes in their property values and rents to the light rail, it is only one of many factors affecting their neighborhood. Light rail also does not appear to affect residents' stated propensity to move out of these neighborhoods. Survey respondents' view of the light rail's effect on their neighborhood is also positive, on average. We find that the stated likelihood of moving is not related to the distance to the station nor to how frequently a resident uses the light rail. This article contributes to debates on transit-induced displacement and gentrification and provides context to neighborhood-scale quantitative analyses from residents' perspective.
Article
Since the 1980s, significant investments have been made in urban rail transit across the United States, particularly using light rail technology. Most of these light rail systems have been built in Sunbelt cities which no longer had legacy rail systems. As a result, they were constructed using a building blocks approach, being funded corridor by corridor. Most research, however, on urban rail performance has taken place at the system-wide level, leaving a significant gap at the level of the transit corridor. This research examined nineteen urban rail corridors in Denver, Salt Lake City, and Portland. A performance score was constructed for each corridor based upon ridership per mile, ridership growth, capital costs, and the cost of ongoing operations. These scores were then compared with the geographic profile of each corridor studied. Corridors in each city ranked high and low, with no city emerging as a clear frontrunner. More centrally-located corridors in each city registered the highest performance scores, while longer corridors in more peripheral locations had lower performance scores. Headways, population density, job density, walkability, and percentage renter occupied housing units were found to have a statistically significant relationship with high corridor performance, largely in line with previous studies, though median income, bus connections, and park and ride spaces were not found to increase performance in this study.
Article
Introduction Light rail transit (LRT) has become a popular intervention for addressing the social and economic complexities associated with urban growth. LRT development can exert influence on neighborhood characteristics, such as property values, employment opportunities, and service access. Many of these changes can impact the health of nearby residents by influencing their exposure to the social determinants of health (SDOH). This study maps the literature on LRT development through an SDOH lens and comments on gaps and implications for neighborhood health and transit planning. Methods The Arksey and O'Malley scoping review methodology was used to examine existing literature on neighborhood-level impacts of LRT development related to the SDOH. Peer-reviewed articles were included if they focused on an LRT project in an urban center in Canada or the United States, reported on a neighborhood-level impact related to the SDOH, and were published in English between 2004 and 2019. Standardized information was extracted from each included article and thematic analysis was applied to generate impact themes. Results A search of three databases yielded 767 non-duplicate records and 29 studies were included in the review. Six impact themes were identified: property values, neighborhood demography, economy, development, transit, and neighborhood perceptions. LRT development was associated with residential property value increases, high-density residential development, new business openings, and increases in neighborhood household income. Articles had limited recognition of the role of LRT development in creating health disparities. Conclusions This review demonstrates that transit development can influence the living conditions and resource availability of surrounding areas. Since many of the impacts identified in this study can further social stratification or have differential effects by socioeconomic status, LRT development can be conceptualized as a driver of health inequities. In order to design more effective and equitable transit policy, future research should position transit development as an SDOH.
Article
Recent decades have seen a global resurgence in tram network development around the world. Despite a primary basis in transport, tram network development is increasingly framed as a spatial planning mechanism that is prioritised for its potential place-based outcomes. However, there has been limited academic research to investigate impacts of tram network development on community perception of place quality. This study contributes to the literature by presenting the results of 601 completed questionnaires investigating variation in perception of place quality between legacy and modernised tram streetscapes in Melbourne, Australia. Evidence demonstrates that modernised tram streetscapes were perceived to contain an enhanced physical design compared to their legacy counterparts. Additionally, modernised tram streetscapes were rated as higher quality locations overall that were more likely to facilitate a wide range of place-based activities and amenities. Overall findings provide evidence that tram modernisation can be framed as an opportunity for place quality enhancements, and appear to contradict some of the political complications that have played a role in stalling tram streetscape modernisation projects in Melbourne.
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Rail transit impacts on adjacent neighborhoods are contested. Through the lens of New Urbanism and sustainable urban development, this article offers a critical analysis of different perceptions of neighborhood changes occurring after the opening of a new light rail line in Charlotte, North Carolina. We conducted 15 interviews with representatives in planning, transportation, and real estate; 11 focus groups with 75 residents living close to a light rail station; and a content analysis of 86 local news articles. Although the various stakeholders do not represent homogeneous groups, light rail investments and associated neighborhood changes are typically viewed positively by planners, developers, and local media but have received mixed responses from residents. We tie this into a broader discussion about putting New Urbanism into practice. Besides furthering academic discussions, this article can inform local planning and policy in areas of transportation, housing, and economic development.
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Residential dissonance refers to the mismatch in land-use patterns between individuals’ preferred residential neighbourhood type and the type of neighbourhood in which they currently reside. Current knowledge regarding the impact of residential dissonance is limited to short-term travel behaviours in urban vs. suburban, and rural vs. urban areas. Although the prevailing view is that dissonants adjust their orientation and lifestyle around their surrounding land use over time, empirical evidence is lacking to support this proposition. This research identifies both short-term mode choice behaviour and medium-term mode shift behaviour of dissonants in transit oriented development (TODs) vs. non-TOD areas in Brisbane, Australia. Natural groupings of neighbourhood profiles (e.g. residential density, land use diversity, intersection density, cul-de-sac density, and public transport accessibility levels) of 3957 individuals were identified as living either in a TOD (510 individuals) or non-TOD (3447 individuals) areas in Brisbane using the TwoStep cluster analysis technique. Levels of dissonance were measured based on a factor analysis of 16 items representing the travel attitudes/preferences of individuals. Two multinomial logistic (MNL) regression models were estimated to understand mode choice behaviour of (1) TOD dissonants, and (2) non-TOD dissonants in 2009, controlling for socio-demographics and environmental characteristics. Two additional MNL regression models were estimated to investigate mode shift behaviour of (3) TOD dissonants, and (4) non-TOD dissonants between 2009 and 2011, also controlling for socio-demographic, changes in socio-demographic, and built environmental factors. The findings suggest that travel preference is relatively more influential in transport mode choice decisions compared with built environment features. Little behavioural evidence was found to support the adjustment of a dissonant orientation toward a particular land use feature and mode accessibility they represent (e.g. a modal shift to greater use of the car for non-TOD dissonants). TOD policies should focus on reducing the level of dissonance in TODs in order to enhance transit ridership.
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This study examines the early effects of seven scattered-site public housing developments on the receiving neighborhoods in Yonkers, New York, where opposition to court-ordered desegregation was particularly hostile over the last decade. Because people keep their neighborhoods strong by investing in them—financially, to be sure, but in other ways as well—we use a unique, two-part analysis to examine effects of public housing on neighborhood expectations, sense of community, and homeowner plans to move, as well as effects on sale prices of nearby homes over a twelve-year period. Happily, reports by homeowners showed no signs of neighborhood withdrawal or “flight.” Moreover, while effects on particular “panic sales” are certainly possible, none of the controversial sites show generalized effects on home prices.
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Transit-oriented development (TOD) represents an integrated approach to transportation and land use planning. An often unspoken but key component to TOD theory is pedestrian access between the transit stop and the immediately surrounding area. Understanding the opportunities for pedestrian movement should be a key component in understanding and evaluating TOD projects. The TOD-pedestrian link is addressed by using 12 geographic information system (GIS) based walkability measures, within two geographic scales, and across 11 TOD sites in Portland, Oregon, to visualize and quantify the pedestrian environments at each site. The main addition to the larger research on TOD and pedestrian access is the classification of the street network into pedestrian-friendly and pedestrian-hostile categories. Subsequent analysis based on this refined street data is conducted to identify the quantity of different street types, densities of good intersections and dead ends, and the catchment areas pedestrians are likely able to reach. The presence and location of pedestrian-hostile streets have a significant, negative influence on the pedestrian environment surrounding transit stops, often cutting off more-pedestrian-friendly environments from the transit stops. The three primary sections include a comparative TOD ranking, a detailed explanation (visual, quantitative, and textual) of the relationships between individual walkability measures and overall TOD rankings, and a presentation of possible refinements for future GIS-based walkability analysis.
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Concepts deriving from criminology, housing policy, and environmental psychology are integrated to test two ways that housing conditions could relate to crime in a declining first-ring suburb of Salt Lake City. For existing housing, we use a model to test whether housing incivilities, such as litter and unkempt lawns, are associated with later crime. For new housing, we test whether a new subdivision on a former brownfield creates spillover reductions in nearby crime and incivilities. Police-reported crime rates were highest for residences near the brownfield and lowest for those farther away. After the subdivision was constructed, this linear decline disappeared, reflecting less crime adjacent to the new subdivision, but also more crime farther away. A multilevel analysis shows that incivilities, particularly litter and unkempt lawns on the block, predict unexpected increases in crime. Both brownfield redevelopment and reductions in incivilities may be important ways to improve declining suburban areas. Journal Article
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This study evaluated a neighborhood environment survey and compared the physical activity and weight status of the residents in 2 neighborhoods. On 2 occasions, 107 adults from neighborhoods with differing "walkability" were selected to complete a survey on their neighborhood environment. Physical activity was assessed by self-report and by accelerometer; height and weight were assessed by self-report. Neighborhood environment characteristics had moderate to high test-retest reliabilities. Residents of high-walkability neighborhoods reported higher residential density, land use mix, street connectivity, aesthetics, and safety. They had more than 70 more minutes of physical activity and had lower obesity prevalence (adjusted for individual demographics) than did residents of low-walkability neighborhoods. The reliability and validity of self-reported neighborhood environment subscales were supported. Neighborhood environment was associated with physical activity and overweight prevalence.
Chapter
During the last 50 years, the United States has increasingly relied on the automobile for local travel. Public transit has been ignored while enormous resources were poured into highway development. With a steady rise in the standard of living, more and more households have been able to afford automobiles. These events have resulted in sprawling land-use patterns outside of older cities and low-density “suburbanlike” environments in newer cities (see Baldassare, 1981). The automobile-oriented metropolitan form is now a permanent part of the landscape. However, more recent circumstances, including the energy crisis (Foley, 1976), have required urban areas to explore alternative modes of transporting people. In this context, serious questions have been raised about the fiscal and social costs of building and operating mass transit systems within the new urban form. These issues are partially addressed by the Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) impact study, which was conducted in the San Francisco metropolitan region.
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The connection between transportation and land use lies at the center of efforts in the United States to combat sprawl through smart growth strategies. Proponents of smart growth commonly make several specific propositions about the relationships between transportation and land use: (1) building more highways will contribute to more sprawl, (2) building more highways will lead to more driving, (3) investing in light rail transit systems will increase densities, and (4) adopting new urbanism design strategies will reduce automobile use. This article explores how well the available evidence supports these four propositions and provides an overview of the theory, research efforts, and current debates associated with each of these propositions. This overview shows that the four propositions have not yet been fully resolved: researchers have made more progress on some of these propositions than others, but even in the best cases, our ability to predict the impact of smart growth policies remains limited.
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The promise of transit-oriented development (TOD) for increasing transit ridership, enhancing economic development, and establishing a sense of place at transportation nodes has been well documented in the literature. However, the majority of research addresses TOD in greenfield sites located primarily in suburban places in growing regions. The policies that are widely believed to be supportive of TOD are examined, the gap in knowledge about TOD in established city neighborhoods is addressed, and the challenges of TOD in different urban settings are compared. Findings reveal that (a) the literature appears to be consistent and confident in outlining the public policies that encourage TOD; (b) researchers tend to focus on TODs in suburban and greenfield areas of fast-growing regions in the western and southern United States; (c) TODs in older cities are not well publicized and are largely ignored by the literature; and (d) researchers who study inner-city TOD usually focus on the lack of it, or any type of development, in economically depressed areas. The conclusion of several researchers that a strong local economy is key to successful TOD offers a clue as to why recently built TOD is largely absent from many older, slow-growth cities like Buffalo, New York, and St. Louis, Missouri. It also offers some insight into why the TOD trend is strongest in high-growth metropolitan areas like San Diego, California, and why it seems to skip struggling neighborhoods within them, like South Central Los Angeles, California. Although pre-1950s TOD is common in older cities, that ubiquity appears to reduce the publicity and attention given to more recent TOD in those places.
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Focusing development around transit facilities has become a significant way to improve accessibility, support community and regional goals of enhancing the quality of life, and support the financial success of transit investment. The experiences of a new generation of transit systems highlight the powerful role that transit investments play in channeling urban development. Benefits attributable to transit-oriented development (TOD) initiatives include improved air quality, preservation of open space, pedestrian-friendly environments, increased ridership and revenue, reduction of urban sprawl, and reorientation of urban development patterns around both rail and bus transit facilities. Today, many transit systems and communities across the country are participating in TOD programs. TOD participants range from small local and intercity bus systems with community-related services to large local and intercity rail systems with numerous projects. Increasingly, transit agencies are looking at programs and analyzing real-estate competitiveness to solicit developer interest. This report defines TOD and joint development and offers insight into the various aspects of implementing TOD, including political and institutional factors; planning and land-use strategies, benefits, and impacts; fiscal considerations and partnerships; and design challenges and considerations. The report focuses on TOD and joint development and practice; the level of collaboration between various partners (e.g., the development community, financial partners, planning and land-use agencies, and government entities); the impacts of TOD and joint development on land values; the potential benefits of TOD; and successful design principles and characteristics. This report will be helpful to transit agencies, the development community, and local decision makers considering TOD.
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The discourse of urban policy targeted to revitalization of inner cities is increasingly marked by advocacy of 'social mix' or 'tenure mix' at the neighbourhood scale. After reviewing the various urban policy contexts concerned, and the findings of pertinent scholarly research, this paper addresses a particularly slippery area of social mix discourse-that concerning the gentrification of inner city neighbourhoods. Existing literature leaves unanswered questions about the actual experiences of social diversity in such contexts. Findings based on research in Montréal are then presented, based on 49 qualitative interviews with one particular category of 'gentrifiers'- purchasers of condominiums developed between 1995 and 1998 as small-scale infill development, with the assistance of municipal programs designed to help 'repopulate' the city. With respect to their viewpoints on social class diversity and social and affordable housing (actual and potential) in their neighbourhood, interviewees fell broadly within one of four sub-groups: the 'ignorant/ indifferents', the 'Nimbies', the 'tolerants' and the 'egalitarians'. Findings are compared with expectations based on previous research, and we reflect briefly on their implications in the current context where there are signs of revival of social and affordable housing initiatives after a long hiatus. Copyright © 2004 by the Institute of Urban Studies All rights of reproduction in any form reserved.
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The Smart Growth vision has a strong intellectual and emotional appeal, compared to more sprawl. However, though some places follow Smart Growth policies, they are outnumbered by those where such policies are commonly discussed but rarely practiced effectively. Why is this the case? Successful implementation requires adopting policies that give up long-established traditions, including local home rule and low-density living patterns. These intermediate steps are unappealing to most Americans. This article analyzes where Smart Growth advocates among urban planners, government officials, environmentalists, and real estate developers should focus their attention if they hope to move from vision to reality.
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The current surge of interest in reassessing the physical form of the American suburb is heightening awareness of the physical and social impacts of local street design. Yet 150 yr of ideology are so thoroughly embedded in the making of suburban streets that challenges to traditional street layouts and design usually meet with outright rejection. How did the design process and built environment become so dependent on certain regulations and criteria? The historical evolution of suburban residential street standards is traced here through a review of professional and technical publications, as well as historical precedents. Urban designers, planners and engineers should work together to develop street designs that are more responsive to the diverse users of streets and to varied social and geographic settings. -Authors
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Land around urban rail transit stations can be valuable because it is so accessible. Joint development of transit stations and nearby office buildings occurs because both the public and private sectors recognize its financial rewards. This article examines how transit investments and joint development in particular affect five indicators of office market conditions: average rents; vacancy rates; absorption rates; densities; and shares of new and total office and commercial construction near the stations. Data are examined for five rail stations in the Washington, D.C. and Atlanta areas over the 1978-89 period. Average office rents near stations rose with systemwide ridership; joint development projects added more than three dollars per gross square foot to annual office rents. Office vacancy rates were lower, average building densities higher, and shares of regional growth larger in station areas with joint development projects. Where regional market conditions are favorable, rail transit appears capable of positive impacts on station area office markets. Combining transit investments with private real estate projects appears to strengthen these effects. The findings suggest that the rationale behind value recapture and other benefit-sharing programs is economically sound for conditions similar to those of the case study areas.
Article
Problem: Transit-oriented development has been shown to be socially desirable for a variety of reasons, but little is known about the benefits it provides to individual residents.Purpose: We used a natural experiment to better understand the value of convenient transit access to individuals.Methods: We queried 51 residents of a revitalizing, mixed-use, Salt Lake City neighborhood near the TRAX light rail line about their behaviors and attitudes, classifying them into three groups: nonriders; new riders, who reported recent rail rides only after the stop opened; and continuing riders, who reported recent rail rides both before and after the new stop opened. Participants wore accelerometers and completed surveys during two different time periods, one before and one after a new light rail stop opened in their neighborhood.Results and conclusions: Adjusted for income and employment, obesity was much higher among nonriders (65%) than new riders (26%) and continuing riders (15%). All other significant differences show the same pattern, with new riders' averages lying between the extremes of nonriders and continuing riders. Continuing riders had, on average, the largest number of moderate physical activity bouts, and reported the highest place attachment, the greatest neighborhood satisfaction, the most favorable attitudes toward transit-oriented development, took the fewest car rides, and had the least pro-suburban attitudes. New riders reported fewer car rides after the rail service started. The other group-by-time univariate interactions and the multivariate time main effect were insignificant.Takeaway for practice: Development with convenient transit access may provide benefits to individuals as well as improving societal sustainability. Planners may want to promote the personal benefits associated with living in transit-oriented development and rail use, including high levels of neighborhood satisfaction and place attachment among riders. Walkable designs, density bonuses, and signage or other methods of orienting transit riders to destinations within walking distance of stops may enable obese residents or others who are especially sensitive to walking distances to use rail.Research support: This work was supported by the University of Utah's Institute of Public and International Affairs, the University Research Committee, and the National Science Foundation grant ATM 0215768. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the view of the National Science Foundation.
Article
Assessed the market potential of transit villages using visual simulation techniques. The hypothesis was tested that people will accept higher densities in return for more amenities in a transit village setting. Photoslide images were created to simulate a walk through 4 neighborhoods with different density and amenity mixes. Based on the survey responses of over 170 residents of the Bay Area in San Francisco, California, the lowest density neighborhood was the most preferred. However, far more Ss liked the simulated transit village designed at 36 dwellings per acre with nicer amenities than liked the village designed at 24 dwellings per acre but with fewer community services. The use of tightly-controlled simulations allowed the authors to test and confirm the hypothesis that people are willing to trade off higher densities for more neighborhood amenities, up to a limit. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The primary purpose of the study was to address the claim that people are more likely to walk to a transit stop if they live on a “walkable” block. An additional purpose was to evaluate the Irvine Minnesota Inventory (IMI) as an environmental audit tool. The IMI was used to measure walkability features of 19 blocks in a revitalizing neighborhood. We hypothesized that residents who walked to a light rail TRAX stop (n = 22) would live on blocks with higher walkability ratings compared to residents who did not walk to TRAX (nonriders, n = 15), or who walked only after a closer TRAX stop was built (new users, n = 11). A MANCOVA indicated the IMI scales differentiated the blocks; the strongest differences were obtained in subscales that measured the block's diversity, safety from crime and density (marginally significant). Participants' perceptions of their complete walk to the transit stop were consistent with the home block IMI scores, with the continuing riders having more positive views than the other two groups. The results show the ability of the IMI to distinguish among blocks in walkability, and support further use of this audit tool in environmental analyses and active living research. We end with a discussion of conceptual and methodological issues in the use of audit tools and provide recommendations for using these measures for local, immediate interests, as well as for building a broader science of environmental measurement.
Article
Accelerometer output feedback might enable assessment of recall biases for moderate bouts by obese and nonobese individuals; accelerometry might also help residents recall destinations for moderate-intensity walking bouts. Adult residents' 1-week accelerometer-measured physical activity and obesity status were measured before and after a new rail stop opened (n = 51 Time 1; n = 47 Time 2). Participants recalled the week's walking bouts, described them as brisk (moderate) or not, and reported a rail stop destination or not. At the end of the week, we provided accelerometry output to residents as a prompt. Recall of activity intensity was accurate for about 60% of bouts. Nonobese participants had more moderate bouts and more "stealth exercise" --moderate bouts recalled as not brisk--than did obese individuals. Obese participants had more overestimates--recalling light bouts as brisk walks--than did nonobese individuals. Compared with unprompted recall, accelerometry-prompted recalls allowed residents to describe where significantly more moderate bouts of activity occurred. Coupling accelerometry feedback with self-report improves research by measuring the duration, intensity, and destination of walking bouts. Recall errors and different patterns of errors by obese and nonobese individuals underscore the importance of validation by accelerometry.
Article
In this paper I examine pedestrian – motor-vehicle conflicts in US cities as competing forms of rationality based in particular values, techniques, and material forms. The kernel of dispute is the transportation engineer’s focus on ‘traffic flow’ in allowing motor vehicles to move as efficiently as possible versus the pedestrian advocate’s desire for ‘place’ as the intimate context of urban life. I consider the City of Oakland’s Pedestrian Master Plan as a challenge to the mandate for traffic flow operationalized by the Transportation Research Board’s Highway Capacity Manual . These values and techniques shape intersections, pedestrian crossings, street corners, and other taken-for-granted material forms in the urban built environment. Within the constraints of shared right-of-way, these competing rationalities are negotiated through spatial and temporal strategies that, historically, have resulted in the hierarchical ordering of the automobile over pedestrians in the US city. However, a growing emphasis on walking, bicycling, and public-transit-riding is reshaping the predominant values, techniques, and material forms to facilitate street design for multiple transportation modes.
Article
Understanding how environmental attributes can influence particular physical activity behaviors is a public health research priority. Walking is the most common physical activity behavior of adults; environmental innovations may be able to influence rates of participation. Review of studies on relationships of objectively assessed and perceived environmental attributes with walking. Associations with environmental attributes were examined separately for exercise and recreational walking, walking to get to and from places, and total walking. Eighteen studies were identified. Aesthetic attributes, convenience of facilities for walking (sidewalks, trails); accessibility of destinations (stores, park, beach); and perceptions about traffic and busy roads were found to be associated with walking for particular purposes. Attributes associated with walking for exercise were different from those associated with walking to get to and from places. While few studies have examined specific environment-walking relationships, early evidence is promising. Key elements of the research agenda are developing reliable and valid measures of environmental attributes and walking behaviors, determining whether environment-behavior relationships are causal, and developing theoretical models that account for environmental influences and their interactions with other determinants.
Article
Physical attributes of local environments may influence walking. We used a modified version of the Neighbourhood Environment Walkability Scale to compare residents' perceptions of the attributes of two neighbourhoods that differed on measures derived from Geographic Information System databases. Residents of the high-walkable neighbourhood rated relevant attributes of residential density, land-use mix (access and diversity) and street connectivity, consistently higher than did residents of the low-walkable neighbourhood. Traffic safety and safety from crime attributes did not differ. Perceived neighbourhood environment characteristics had moderate to high test-retest reliabilities. Neighbourhood environment attribute ratings may be used in population surveys and other studies.
Article
The natural intervention of a new light-rail stop in a neighborhood is examined for relationships with ridership and moderate-activity bouts. At Time 1, surveys and 1-week accelerometer readings assess transit use and moderate- activity bouts. One year later (Time 2), after the opening of a new light-rail stop, measures were repeated. During the summers of 2005 and 2006, 51 residents participated from a low-income, mixed ethnicity neighborhood in Salt Lake City, Utah. A new light-rail stop was built and opened in the middle of the surveyed neighborhood. Physical activity was measured as a bout of 8 or more minutes of moderate activity (3.0 metabolic units [METS]), according to accelerometer counts, controlling for hours worn. Prompted recalls allowed moderate-activity bouts to be labeled as walks to transit or not. Analyses in 2006-2007 show that the percentage of rail riders increased significantly, from 50% to 68.75%, after the stop opened. In cross-sectional analyses at Times 1 and 2, self-reported rides on light rail were significantly related to more moderate-activity bouts, controlling for gender, household size, and home ownership. Longitudinally, with the same control variables and adding Time 1 moderate activity, light-rail rides at Time 2 predicted increased Time 2 moderate activity. A new rail stop was associated with increased ridership. Walks to light rail were associated, both cross-sectionally and longitudinally, with moderate-activity bouts.
Article
To describe physical activity levels of children (6-11 yr), adolescents (12-19 yr), and adults (20+ yr), using objective data obtained with accelerometers from a representative sample of the U.S. population. These results were obtained from the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES), a cross-sectional study of a complex, multistage probability sample of the civilian, noninstitutionalized U.S. population in the United States. Data are described from 6329 participants who provided at least 1 d of accelerometer data and from 4867 participants who provided four or more days of accelerometer data. Males are more physically active than females. Physical activity declines dramatically across age groups between childhood and adolescence and continues to decline with age. For example, 42% of children ages 6-11 yr obtain the recommended 60 min x d(-1) of physical activity, whereas only 8% of adolescents achieve this goal. Among adults, adherence to the recommendation to obtain 30 min x d(-1) of physical activity is less than 5%. Objective and subjective measures of physical activity give qualitatively similar results regarding gender and age patterns of activity. However, adherence to physical activity recommendations according to accelerometer-measured activity is substantially lower than according to self-report. Great care must be taken when interpreting self-reported physical activity in clinical practice, public health program design and evaluation, and epidemiological research.
Article
Efforts to promote physical activity through environmental changes in low-income, urban, and minority areas should be informed by an understanding of the value that residents place on different neighborhood features and characteristics. Neighborhood rebuilding preferences among 442 New Orleans residents after the damage from Hurricane Katrina were assessed by a random-digit-dialed telephone survey conducted between April 25, 2006 and May 2, 2006. The survey instrument assessed the importance (on a 5-point Likert-type scale on which 1=not at all important and 5=extremely important) for 24 neighborhood features and characteristics. Ratings of neighborhood features were compared by race and income. Overall, residents rated most highly the features that reflected low levels of neighborhood crime and disorder. There was moderate support for features that promote physical activity, specifically sidewalks and crosswalks, neighborhood grocery stores, and parks or playgrounds. Blacks rated more highly than whites 13 neighborhood features such as good schools, lack of noise, a park or playground, affordable housing, health clinics, and the absence of liquor stores. The low-income group rated the following features as being more important than the high-income group: affordable housing, a bus or streetcar line, and the presence of a corner store. New Orleans residents' top neighborhood priority is reducing crime and disorder, but all groups otherwise support neighborhood features that promote physical activity.
Article
This paper analyzes the transportation and land-use preference and actual neighborhood choices of a sample of 1,455 residents of metro Atlanta. We develop a stated-preference scale on which desires for neighborhood type are gauged, from preferences for low-density, auto-oriented environments to desires for compact, walkable, and transit-oriented neighborhoods. This scale is then related to desires for change in one’s own neighborhood characteristics after a hypothetical move. If all neighborhood preferences were equally likely to be satisfied, then neighborhood preferences would not be correlated with a desire for change. By contrast, in the current study, stronger preferences for a more walkable environment are associated with greater desire for change in one’s neighborhood characteristics. This suggests an undersupply of compact, walkable, and transit-friendly neighborhood types relative to current demand. Copyright Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007
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