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WindVOiCe, a Self-Reporting Survey: Adverse Health Effects, Industrial Wind Turbines, and the Need for Vigilance Monitoring

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Abstract

Industrial wind turbines have been operating in many parts of the globe. Anecdotal reports of perceived adverse health effects relating to industrial wind turbines have been published in the media and on the Internet. Based on these reports, indications were that some residents perceived they were experiencing adverse health effects. The purpose of the WindVOiCe health survey was to provide vigilance monitoring for those wishing to report their perceived adverse health effects. This article discusses the results of a self reporting health survey regarding perceived adverse health effects associated with industrial wind turbines.

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... As the analysis of the pressure waves produced by the 15 wind farm installations revealed low A-weighted sound pressure levels, i.e. only small amplitude of the pressure waves within the classic audible range of frequencies, some quickly dismissed these claims, downplaying the fact that signi cant sound pressure levels where con- 20 versely very evident in the infra-sound [1][2][3]. ...
... If we accept the fact that there may be some analogy in 15 between the hearing of guinea pig and humans, as proved by electrical recording from the guinea pig ear through cochlear micro phonic sensors, the outer hair cells of the ear respond to infra-sound stimuli at moderate levels below the audibility curve and outer hair cell responses to 20 infra-sound are maximal when ambient sound levels are low [33]. The most part of the papers reviewed in the present literature survey of the e ects of wind farm noise are from the medical sector. ...
... The algorithm presented in Figure 5 has been applied for noise cancellation. 20 In the simulation, the readings from the microbarometer represent the noise arriving at the measuring point when no cancellation is applied, i.e. T(z)n(z). ...
Article
The infra-sound spectra recorded inside homes located even several kilometers far from wind turbine in stations is characterized by large pressure fluctuation in the low frequency range. There is a significant body of literature suggesting inaudible sounds at low frequency are sensed by humans and effect the wellbeing through different mechanisms. These mechanisms include amplitude modulation of heard sounds, stimulating subconscious pathways, causing endolymphatic hydrops, and possibly potentiating noise-induced hearing loss. We suggest the study of infra-sound active cancellation and mitigation to address the low frequency noise issues. Loudspeakers generate pressure wave components of same amplitude and frequency but opposite phase of the recorded infra sound. They also produce pressure wave components within the audible range reducing the perception of the infra-sound to minimize the sensing of the residual infra sound.
... The studies were conducted in Sweden (SWE-00 and SWE-05), The Netherlands (NL-07), Australia (Morris 2012), New Zealand ( ), Canada ( Krogh et al. 2011) and the USA (Nissenbaum, Aramini & Hanning 2012). As there were several publications and reanalyses of data in the Swedish and Dutch studies, an evidence map has been provided in Table 6, page 44. ...
... Two other studies used author-formulated questions and did not mask the intent of the study, but found similar results. One Canadian study ( Krogh et al. 2011) found that the majority of people reported that their quality of life had altered since living near a wind turbine, irrespective of their residential distance from a turbine (all lived within 2400 metres of a turbine). An American study undertaken in Maine (Nissenbaum, Aramini & Hanning 2012) reported a 74% difference in the number of residents wishing to move from the vicinity of a turbine (less than 1.4 km) when compared with residents living further away (over 3 km). ...
... Thus, overall, 4 articles were included in this review from submissions, 3 of which were individual studies ( Krogh et al., 2011;Morris 2012;Nissenbaum, Aramini & Hanning 2012), while 1 provided additional data to the study by found in the black literature search (van den ). ...
Book
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This independent review of the literature was commissioned by the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) to determine whether there is an association between exposure to wind farms and human health effects and, if so, whether this association is causal or might be explained by chance, bias or confounding. Direct evidence of any health effects was obtained through a systematic literature review of all the available evidence on exposure to the physical emissions produced by wind turbines. The emissions investigated were: noise, shadow flicker and the electromagnetic radiation (EMR) produced by wind turbines. A background literature review was also undertaken to establish whether there is basic biological evidence, or evidence from research into other circumstances of human exposure to the physical emissions that wind turbines produce, that makes it plausible that wind turbines cause adverse health effects.
... A major concern of residents in the vicinity of wind turbines is threats to the value of their home and/or property [11,12]. Local homeowners are concerned that that real estate values in wind turbine communities are diminished because of a wide range of ancillary impacts including visual and acoustical disturbances, and especially in the case of Ontario, turbine-related health effects [13][14][15][16]. Yet, results from empirical research have thus far been mixed [17,18] or are based on aggregate data that may not apply to the impacts seen in more localized neighbourhoods and individual homes closest to turbines [11,19]. ...
... Other reports have been sponsored by county citizen [35] or economic development groups [38]. In Ontario, self-reporting surveys that tend to be supported by concerned citizen groups find that turbines affect property value negatively [13,41]-though it is a relatively minor theme of these papers focused on health and equity issues. In terms of real estate papers directly relevant to the Ontario context, Lansink's [42] case studies looked at 12 home sales near two specific developments in Melanchthon Township and our own study area Clear Creek, Ontario and found that the sales were at losses between 23% and 59% and an average loss of about 36% based on the authors assessments of the value at which they should have sold. ...
... While it is difficult to tease out whether turbines do or do not cause real estate value loss for individuals our results do share similarities with select existing work based on localized valuation in the Ontario context. The reports in the province and elsewhere that suggest turbines are affecting among other things, rural property values of particular homes [13,42,41] is entirely consonant with the aggregate level findings that suggest on average turbines do not lower property values [12,26,28,29,]. Though some of the better hedonic studies do provide distance measures as fine as ½ mile, negative impacts may simply be happening in certain communities [11] or at different scales. ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper focuses on public concerns about real estate value loss in communities in the vicinity of wind turbines. There are some conflicting results in recent academic and non-academic literatures on the issue of property values in general—yet little has been studied about how residents near turbines view the value of their own properties. Using both face-to-face interviews (n = 26) and community survey results (n = 152) from two adjacent communities, this exploratory mixed-method study contextualizes perceived property value loss. Interview results suggest a potential connection between perceived property value loss and actual property value loss, whereby assumed property degradation from turbines seem to lower both asking and selling prices. This idea is reinforced by regression results which suggest that felt property value loss is predicted by health concerns, visual annoyances and community-based variables. Overall, the findings point to the need for greater attention to micro-level local, and interconnected impacts of wind energy development.
... The noises from WTs are described as swishing, whistling, whooshing, resounding, and pulsating/throbbing, in an audible repeatable tone (Pedersenpublished book to describe the association of these symptoms with WTN exposure (Pierpont 2009). In the popular literature, sleep disturbance has been among the most common symptoms and complaints reported by residents living close to wind farms (Krogh et al. 2011;Pierpont 2009). Even without WTs, sleep disturbance is relatively common in the general population. ...
... As an example, a large Canadian study that provided the most-comprehensive assessment of the association between exposure to WTN and sleep found no sleep-noise association for noise levels under 46 dB(A) (Michaud et al. 2015). A few other cross-sectional studies with reasonable sample sizes found only weak dose-response relationships between noise and self-reported sleep (at levels between 40-45 dB (A)) or found that annoyance ratings were more strongly associated with self-reported sleep disturbance than was noise (Bakker et al. 2012On the other hand, those studies that used " distance to nearest WT " as an exposure measure almost all agreed that self-reported sleep disturbances were more frequent in subjects living closer to WTs than in subjects living further away (Krogh et al. 2011;Kuwano et al. 2013;Nissenbaum et al. 2012;Paller 2014;Shepherd et al. 2011). Based on the current published literature, it is not possible to conclude that sleep disturbances reported by residents close to WTs are attributable to WTN, or whether other factors also play a role. ...
... As an example, a large Canadian study that provided the most-comprehensive assessment of the association between exposure to WT noise and sleep to date, found no sleep-noise association for a noise level under 46 dB(A) (Michaud et al. 2015). On the other hand, those studies that used " distance to nearest WT " as an exposure measure, almost all agreed that self-reported sleep disturbances were more frequent in subjects living closer to WTs than in subjects living further away (Krogh et al. 2011;Kuwano et al. 2013;Nissenbaum et al. 2012;Paller 2014;Shepherd et al. 2011a). ...
... Krogh et al. 2011 [49]. 102 subjects with health problems. ...
... However, disturbed sleep (p,0.08) showed only a borderline significance in relation to the distance from the wind turbines [49]. Whereas most studies collected only subjective information about sleep disturbance, some studies attempted to also collect objective longitudinal sleep data over several nights. ...
... Selfreported symptoms like tinnitus, hearing problems, headache, stress and anxiety were not shown to be significantly related to the actual distance from the wind turbines, although one study did approach statistical significance for the symptom of tinnitus in relation to the distance from the wind turbines (p,0.08) [45,49]. Symptoms of self-reported vertigo (p,0.001) were also increased for residents living closer to wind turbines in this study [45]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Wind turbine noise exposure and suspected health-related effects thereof have attracted substantial attention. Various symptoms such as sleep-related problems, headache, tinnitus and vertigo have been described by subjects suspected of having been exposed to wind turbine noise. This review was conducted systematically with the purpose of identifying any reported associations between wind turbine noise exposure and suspected health-related effects. A search of the scientific literature concerning the health-related effects of wind turbine noise was conducted on PubMed, Web of Science, Google Scholar and various other Internet sources. All studies investigating suspected health-related outcomes associated with wind turbine noise exposure were included. Wind turbines emit noise, including low-frequency noise, which decreases incrementally with increases in distance from the wind turbines. Likewise, evidence of a dose-response relationship between wind turbine noise linked to noise annoyance, sleep disturbance and possibly even psychological distress was present in the literature. Currently, there is no further existing statistically-significant evidence indicating any association between wind turbine noise exposure and tinnitus, hearing loss, vertigo or headache. Selection bias and information bias of differing magnitudes were found to be present in all current studies investigating wind turbine noise exposure and adverse health effects. Only articles published in English, German or Scandinavian languages were reviewed. Exposure to wind turbines does seem to increase the risk of annoyance and self-reported sleep disturbance in a dose-response relationship. There appears, though, to be a tolerable level of around LAeq of 35 dB. Of the many other claimed health effects of wind turbine noise exposure reported in the literature, however, no conclusive evidence could be found. Future studies should focus on investigations aimed at objectively demonstrating whether or not measureable health-related outcomes can be proven to fluctuate depending on exposure to wind turbines.
... Two articles (Nissenbaum et al., 2011;Pedersen et al., 2009) were excluded because more complete versions of their reports were included in the review. Thus eight studies (Bakker et al., 2012;Krogh et al., 2011;Magari et al., 2014;Nissenbaum et al., 2012;Pawlaczyk-Łuszczyńska et al., 2014;Persson Waye, 2004, 2007;Shepherd et al., 2011) with a total of 2433 participants were included in the review. The key details of the studies are shown in Tables 1, 2a and 2b. ...
... In all the studies, annoyance from exposure to WTG noise implied being rather annoyed, very annoyed or extremely annoyed. Sleep disturbance (defined in the studies as interruption of normal sleep patterns) was assessed from the general questionnaire administered in seven studies (Bakker et al., 2012;Krogh et al., 2011;Magari et al., 2014;Pawlaczyk-Łuszczyńska et al., 2014;Persson Waye, 2004, 2007;Shepherd et al., 2011), and measured by Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) in the eighth (Nissenbaum et al., 2012) this same study assessed daytime sleepiness using the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). Quality of life was measured in three studies by general health questionnaire (GHQ) (Bakker et al., 2012;Pawlaczyk-Łuszczyńska et al., 2014), short form 36 (SF-36v2) (Nissenbaum et al., 2012), and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) (Shepherd et al., 2011). ...
... Two studies used unspecified masked questionnaires that addressed health and general well-being Persson Waye, 2004, 2007); these questionnaires were described as validated. One study (Krogh et al., 2011) did not use a validated questionnaire to assess quality of life and another (Magari et al., 2014) did not report quality of life as an outcome. ...
... The issue of health impacts from turbines is gaining traction in Ontario ( Hill and Knott, 2010;Krogh et al, 2011), yet the literature is silent on the effects of such debates on turbine support/opposition ( Baxter et al, 2013). While there is no comprehensive peerreviewed academic review, grey literature reports claim that any connection between health and turbines is weak or that the main mechanism is psychosocial ( Colby et al, 2009;King, 2010). ...
... One of the most unusual findings in our study is the central role played by health, mainly in Clear Creek. Though health is certainly raised as an issue in recent academic writing about the Ontario situation ( Hill and Knott, 2010;Krogh et al, 2011;McMurtry, 2011) our study shows it can be a pivotal predictor of opposition. While some of those interviewed in Clear Creek spoke of dismayingly turbine-attributed health effects, others tended to dismiss or mock such claims. ...
Article
The literature concerning local opposition to wind turbine developments has relatively few case studies exploring the felt impacts of people living with turbines in their daily lives. Aitken even suggests that such residents are subtly or overtly cast as deviants in the current literature. Our mixed-methods, grounded-theory case study of two communities in Ontario, Canada provides insights about such residents though twenty-six face-to-face in-depth interviews, 152 questionnaires, and basic spatial analysis involving locals who have been living with operating turbines for several years. Despite being neighbours the communities differ on several measures including the spatial clustering of turbines. Opposition is significantly predicted by: health, siting process, economic benefits, and visual aesthetic variables. Though a majority supports the turbines we focus on the interplay of that majority with those experiencing negative impacts, particularly related to health. We highlight an asymmetry of impacts at the local level on those who oppose turbines, which is supported by rhetorical conflict at multiple scales. The findings point to the need for greater attention to mitigating impacts, including conflict, by understanding how siting policies interact with social processes at the local level. Keywords: wind turbine, impacts, conflict, health, mitigation, technocratic siting.
... At increasing distance from wind turbines, these affects were decreased. 28 In the present study, it has been found that with increasing distance, (e.g. office staff) the mean score of GHQ decreased. Nissenbaum et al. 29 declared that increased distance from wind turbines can discount adverse effects and this relationship is consistent with the physics of sound, its absorption by the atmosphere and terrain. ...
... This study has shown that the impact of sound exposure of 83 dBA on general health and its significant subscales is several times greater than the effects of 66 dBA and 60 dBA (Table 2). Many studies have been performed to examine the effect of wind turbine noise on health indicators such as depression, anxiety and insomnia, and physical symptoms 28,35 but the mechanisms of this effect have not yet been agreed. Several hypothetical mechanisms have been proposed to account for the effect of wind turbine noise on the health, especially anxiety, including the effect of infrasonic exposure, visual impact, noise sensitivity, noise annoyance, attitude to sound sources, personality, and other individual characteristics. ...
Article
ABSTRACT The low-frequency noise generated by wind turbines is known as one of the risk factors for health. The aim of this study was to study the noise effect of wind turbine on the general health of staff at Manjil wind farm. For this purpose, workers were divided into three groups: maintenance, security and office staff. Equivalent sound levels were measured for each group. Individual’s health data was assessed using the 28-item General Health Questionnaire. Pearson correlation, ANOVA and multiple regression tests were used for data analysis in the R software. Statistical analysis results showed that the noise exposure is significantly correlated to all sub-scales of general health, except for depression. The low-frequency noise from wind turbines can cause harmful effects on the health of workers that are too close to the wind turbine and receive very intense noise. Keywords: Noise, Wind turbine, General health
... Complaints are not uncommon from individuals exposed to wind turbine sound 22,24 . Wind turbines sited in proximity to humans has resulted in complaints and reports of adverse health effects including annoyance and/or sleep disturbance and/or stress related health impacts and/or reduced quality of life 25,26,27,28,29,30,31,32,33,34 . ...
... In response to the lack of vigilance monitoring in Ontario, volunteers established WindVOiCe in March 2009. WindVOiCe is a self reporting health survey which follows the principles of Health Canada's Canada Vigilance Programs for reporting adverse events for prescription and nonprescription products, vaccines and other 30 . ...
Article
Annoyance is often discounted as a health concern. Wind turbine noise is perceived to be more annoying than other equally loud sources of sound. The Ontario government commissioned a report which concludes a non-trivial percentage those exposed to wind turbine sound will be highly annoyed which can be expected to contribute to stress related health impacts. Our research in Ontario, Canada documents some individuals living in the environs of wind turbines report experiencing physiological and psychological symptoms, reduced quality of life, degraded living conditions, and adverse social and economic impacts. Some families have abandoned their homes or negotiated financial agreements with wind energy developers. An Ontario Environmental Review Tribunal considered a wide body of evidence including expert testimony and found wind turbines can harm humans if placed too close to residents. Evidence including peer reviewed literature, case reports, freedom of information documents and expert testimony are presented which support the conclusion that annoyance can represent a serious degradation of health.
... In the United States a 2012 board of health resolution made a formal request for "…temporary emergency financial relocation assistance from the State of Wisconsin for those Brown County families that are suffering adverse health effects and undue hardships caused by the irresponsible placement of industrial wind turbines around their homes and property 5 ." Some individuals living in the environs of wind turbines report experiencing adverse health effects including annoyance and/or sleep disturbance and/or stress related health impacts and/or reduced quality of life 6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14 . In some cases the adverse effects have been severe enough that families have elected to abandon their homes. ...
... In response to the lack of vigilance monitoring in Ontario, volunteers established WindVOiCe in March 2009. WindVOiCe is a self reporting health survey which follows the principles of Health Canada's Canada Vigilance Programs for reporting adverse events for prescription and nonprescription products, vaccines and other 11 . ...
Article
In Ontario Canada wind turbines are being sited close to humans. Wind turbine noise is perceived to be more annoying than other equally loud sources of sound. This annoyance can contribute to stress related health impacts. An Ontario government commissioned report concludes a nontrivial percentage of exposed persons will be impacted. Our research documents some Ontarians living in the environs of wind turbines report experiencing physiological and psychological symptoms, reduced quality of life, degraded living conditions, and adverse social economic impacts including a loss of social justice. In some cases the effects resulted in families abandoning their homes. Others have negotiated financial agreements with wind energy developers. An Ontario Environmental Tribunal considered a wide body of evidence including expert witness testimony and found that wind turbines can harm humans if placed too close to residents. Peer reviewed literature, case reports, freedom of information documents and expert testimony will be presented which support the conclusion that noise perception via the indirect pathway can result in serious negative effects.
... Over the past two decades, anecdotal reports and some studies have linked WTN exposure with a wide range of physiological and psychological health issues, including heart palpitations / tachycardia, nausea, dizziness, stress, anxiety / panic attacks, depression, annoyance, headaches, sleep disturbance, extreme fatigue, tinnitus, hearing problems, nerve abnormalities, pericardial thickening and epilepsy [1,2,3,4]. The effects of wind turbine noise (WTN) have long been a popular subject of mainstream media coverage in the UK, and the characteristic amplitude modulation (AM) in the sound has generated particular concerns, following its identification as a possible factor in complaints previously attributed to low frequency noise [5,6]. ...
... The conclusions of most reviews of the research on the effects of WTN on health, including those carried out on behalf of Government agencies, confirm that annoyance is caused by WTN, and that AM appears to increase annoyance [2,[13][14][15][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31]. The association of WTN with sleep disturbance appears to be considerably more complex; self-assessment of sleep quality in some cases does seem to be affected by WTN exposure. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
WSP | Parsons Brinckerhoff led a research project on behalf of the UK Government, reviewing the human exposure-response to amplitude-modulated (AM) wind turbine noise (WTN). The review included identifying the potential effects on health, and recommendation of a scheme for use in development planning to control the potential impact of AM WTN on communities situated near to wind farms. This paper focuses on the findings of the review, including effects on community annoyance and health, with reference to the results of recent field studies. The control scheme for AM is described, and emerging measures for mitigation are discussed. Also examined is the range of non-acoustic factors that influence responses to WTN, and potential future approaches to addressing these complex issues are considered.
... The issue of health impacts from turbines is gaining traction in Ontario (Hill and Knott, 2010;Krogh et al, 2011), yet the literature is silent on the effects of such debates on turbine support/opposition (Baxter et al, 2013). While there is no comprehensive peerreviewed academic review, grey literature reports claim that any connection between health and turbines is weak or that the main mechanism is psychosocial (Colby et al, 2009;King, 2010). ...
... One of the most unusual findings in our study is the central role played by health, mainly in Clear Creek. Though health is certainly raised as an issue in recent academic writing about the Ontario situation (Hill and Knott, 2010;Krogh et al, 2011;McMurtry, 2011) our study shows it can be a pivotal predictor of opposition. While some of those interviewed in Clear Creek spoke of dismayingly turbine-attributed health effects, others tended to dismiss or mock such claims. ...
Article
Full-text available
The literature concerning local opposition to wind turbine developments has relatively few case studies exploring the felt impacts of people living with turbines in their daily lives. Aitken even suggests that such residents are subtly or overtly cast as deviants in the current literature. Our mixed-methods, grounded-theory case study of two communities in Ontario, Canada provides insights about such residents though twenty-six face-to-face in-depth interviews, 152 questionnaires, and basic spatial analysis involving locals who have been living with operating turbines for several years. Despite being neighbours the communities differ on several measures including the spatial clustering of turbines. Opposition is significantly predicted by: health, sitting process, economic benefits, and visual aesthetic variables. Though a majority supports the turbines we focus on the interplay of that majority with those experiencing negative impacts, particularly related to health. We highlight an asymmetry of impacts at the local level on those who oppose turbines, which is supported by rhetorical conflict at multiple scales. The findings point to the need for greater attention to mitigating impacts, including conflict, by understanding how sitting policies interact with social processes at the local level.
... The study was limited by small sample size (23 participants and 110 person-night observations) and relatively low wind speeds and wind turbine performance during the observation period (Lane, 2013). The WindVOiCe self-reported survey reported what the authors described as a " moderately significant " association (p-value = 0.0778, which is greater than conventional statistical significance where p = 0.05) between sleep disturbance and distance to wind turbines (Krogh et al., 2011). The Panel found no sleep studies or experiments that measured the effect of wind turbine noise on sleep physiology using standard methods such as brain wave measurements (electroencephalography or EEG). ...
... Such omissions may lead to observed differences that are not related to wind turbine noise. The WindVOiCe self-reported survey did not find that quality of life was significantly altered for people living closer to wind turbines (Krogh et al., 2011). ...
... If the symptoms described in second-order criteria (b and c) are present, no further symptoms or complaints are required for the probable diagnosis. Based on the authors' experience, 10 ...
... 24 There are widespread reports of sleep disturbance in environs of IWT. 6,10,18 The WHO states 'Uninterrupted sleep is a prerequisite for good physiological and mental functioning. . .' 25 Physiological monitoring employed in sleep studies of persons exposed to IWT are proposed to demonstrate measurable changes. ...
Article
Full-text available
In an effort to address climate change, governments have pursued policies that seek to reduce greenhouse gases. Alternative energy, including wind power, has been proposed by some as the preferred approach. Few would debate the need to reduce air pollution, but the means of achieving this reduction is important not only for efficiency but also for health protection. The topic of adverse health effects in the environs of industrial wind turbines (AHE/IWT) has proven to be controversial and can present physicians with challenges regarding the management of an exposure to IWT. Rural physicians in particular must be aware of the possibility of people presenting to their practices with a variety of sometimes confusing complaints. An earlier version of the diagnostic criteria for AHE/IWT was published in August 2011. A revised case definition and a model for a study to establish a confirmed diagnosis is proposed.
... Ironically, the same technology is said to actually improve human health by replacing 'dirtier' technologies like coal (Markandya and Wilkinson, 2007) and avoiding disease outbreaks, malnutrition, and food insecurity associated with global climate change (Confalonieri et al., 2007;Jankowska et al., 2012;McMichael et al., 2006;WHO, 2002). Within the province and elsewhere, recent reports indicate that turbines are being linked to negative human health effects on those living 'too close' (Deignan et al., 2013;Krogh et al., 2011;McMurtry, 2011;Nissenbaum et al., 2012). In order to further investigate these potential linkages, Health Canada and the University of Waterloo are both now conducting epidemiological studies. ...
... We expand on these frameworks to describe determinants that are much more social and policy-oriented in nature e issues that go beyond the concepts of noise, aesthetic sensitivity, and annoyance. This ties together the developing stream of research focused on annoyance and health impacts (CMOH, 2010;Pedersen and Halmstad, 2003;Pedersen et al., 2007) together with that which centres on issues of facility siting and justice (Krogh et al., 2011;Wolsink, 2007Wolsink, , 2006. ...
... Previous studies using distance as proxy found higher percentage of respondents living close to wind turbines reporting altered health (e.g. headaches, migraines, hearing problems and tinnitus) than those living further away from wind turbines, but differences were not significant except for unnatural fatigue (Krogh et al., 2011). However this study can be affected by sampling bias. ...
... Wind turbines were at first welcomed by the public as being a source of energy that is both renewable and carbon emission-free. The need to generate electrical power on a large scale was the main driver in establishing the industrial wind turbines (IWTs) [4]. ...
... Of the approximately 80 articles initially identified in the search, only 20 met the screening criteria (14 observational and six controlled human exposure studies), and these were reviewed in detail to determine the relative quality and validity of reported findings. Other documents included several reviews and commentaries 4,5,7,[43][44][45][46][47][48][49][50][51] ; case reports, case studies, and surveys 23,[52][53][54] ; and documents published in media other than peerreviewed journals. One study published as part of a conference proceedings did not meet the peer-reviewed journal eligibility criterion but was included because it seemed to be the first epidemiological study on this topic and an impetus for subsequent studies. ...
... Of the approximately 80 articles initially identified in the search, only 20 met the screening criteria (14 observational and six controlled human exposure studies), and these were reviewed in detail to determine the relative quality and validity of reported findings. Other documents included several reviews and commentaries 4,5,7,[43][44][45][46][47][48][49][50][51] ; case reports, case studies, and surveys 23,[52][53][54] ; and documents published in media other than peerreviewed journals. One study published as part of a conference proceedings did not meet the peer-reviewed journal eligibility criterion but was included because it seemed to be the first epidemiological study on this topic and an impetus for subsequent studies. ...
Article
Objective: This review examines the literature related to health effects of wind turbines. Methods: We reviewed literature related to sound measurements near turbines, epidemiological and experimental studies, and factors associated with annoyance. Results: (1) Infrasound sound near wind turbines does not exceed audibility thresholds. (2) Epidemiological studies have shown associations between living near wind turbines and annoyance. (3) Infrasound and low-frequency sound do not present unique health risks. (4) Annoyance seems more strongly related to individual characteristics than noise from turbines. Discussion: Further areas of inquiry include enhanced noise characterization, analysis of predicted noise values contrasted with measured levels postinstallation, longitudinal assessments of health pre- and postinstallation, experimental studies in which subjects are "blinded" to the presence or absence of infrasound, and enhanced measurement techniques to evaluate annoyance.
... Based on these results, It can be concluded that age strengthen the effect of noise exposure on general health. Krogh et al. study (2011) reported that people living near wind turbines had various health complaints [33], as well as Nissenbaum and his coworkers said that wind turbine noise at different distance had an different severity of adverse effect on the health. Many studies have been done to investigate the impact of noise generated by wind turbine on the health, but there is no clear understanding of the mechanisms of this effect. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The wind turbine's sound seems to have a proportional effect on health of people living near to wind farms. This study aimed to investigate the effect of noise emitted from wind turbines on general health, sleep and annoyance among workers of manjil wind farm, Iran. Materials and methods: A total number of 53 workers took part in this study. Based on the type of job, they were categorized into three groups of maintenance, security and office staff. The persons' exposure at each job-related group was measured by eight-hour equivalent sound level (LAeq, 8 h). A Noise annoyance scale, Epworth sleepiness scale and 28-item general health questionnaire was used for gathering data from workers. The data were analyzed through Multivariate Analysis of variance (MANOVA) test, Pillai's Trace test, Paired comparisons analysis and Multivariate regression test were used in the R software. Results and discussion: The results showed that, response variables (annoyance, sleep disturbance and health) were significantly different between job groups. The results also indicated that sleep disturbance as well as noise exposure had a significant effect on general health. Noise annoyance and distance from wind turbines could significantly explain about 44.5 and 34.2 % of the variance in sleep disturbance and worker's general health, respectively. General health was significantly different in different age groups while age had no significant impact on sleep disturbance. The results were reverse for distance because it had no significant impact on health, but sleep disturbance was significantly affected. Conclusions: We came to this conclusion that wind turbines noise can directly impact on annoyance, sleep and health. This type of energy generation can have potential health risks for wind farm workers. However, further research is needed to confirm the results of this study.
... Currently, the health and amenity impacts of wind turbines are only beginning to be elucidated, and is caught somewhere between the first and second stages described above. Case studies (e.g., Harry, 2007;Pierpont, 2009;Krogh et al, 2011) and correlational studies (e.g., Pedersen & Persson-Waye, 2007;Thorne, 2007;Van den Berg et al., 2008) have already emerged in relation to the health effects of wind turbine noise, indicating that wind turbine noise, like traffic or aviation noise, has the potential to impact health and well-being. We can expect that, over the next decade, intensive research will be undertaken enabling more certain decisions to be made regarding wind turbine noise and health, and the mechanisms which mediate the relationships between the two. ...
Article
Full-text available
On a decibel-for-decibel basis, wind turbine noise is commonly judged as significantly more problematic than most other community noise sources. As a relatively new source of community noise, however, methodological issues remain as to how wind farm noise should be measured, and how data should be collected to afford valid health assessments of turbine noise. Maintaining public health while ensuring that wind farm developments are not unnecessarily blocked has created a tension between the communities asked to host wind farms and those developers wishing to build them. Between them stand local and state regulatory authorities whom are increasingly required to judge the risks and benefits of wind farms based on scant data, or technical arguments that go far beyond their expertise. Issues with measurement include, but are not limited to, terrain effects, seasonal and meteorological effects, the validity of averaging, single microphone vs. array recordings, coherent addition of periodic noise sources, level measurements vs. dynamic measurements, selection of frequency weightings, and the effects of thermal stratification on wind shear. Individual responses to wind farm noise is barely related to currently used acoustical indices, and can instead be deconstructed from a set of interacting factors, including noise sensitivity, attachment to place, age, and procedural fairness. A further issue centres on how 'health' should be defined, and the best outcome measures to use when judging the impacts of turbine noise. This paper identifies current and advanced wind turbine noise prediction, measurement and assessment issues and uses examples of individual experiences of turbine noise to emphasise the importance of "getting it right".
... In comparison to the scientific literature that exists for other sources of environmental noise, there are few peerreviewed field studies that have investigated the community response to modern wind turbines (Kuwano et al., 2014;Krogh et al., 2011;Mroczek et al., 2012;Nissenbaum et al., 2012;Pawlaczyk-Łuszczy nska et al., 2014;Persson Waye, 2004, 2007;Pedersen et al., 2009;Shepherd et al., 2011;Tachibana et al., 2012). The studies that have been conducted to date differ in terms of their design and evaluated endpoints. ...
Article
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The possibility that wind turbinenoise (WTN) affects human health remains controversial. The current analysis presents results related to WTN annoyance reported by randomly selected participants (606 males, 632 females), aged 18–79, living between 0.25 and 11.22 km from wind turbines. WTN levels reached 46 dB, and for each 5 dB increase in WTN levels, the odds of reporting to be either very or extremely (i.e., highly) annoyed increased by 2.60 [95% confidence interval: (1.92, 3.58), p < 0.0001]. Multiple regression models had R2&apos;s up to 58%, with approximately 9% attributed to WTN level. Variables associated with WTN annoyance included, but were not limited to, other wind turbine-related annoyances, personal benefit, noise sensitivity, physical safety concerns, property ownership, and province. Annoyance was related to several reported measures of health and well-being, although these associations were statistically weak (R2 < 9%), independent of WTN levels, and not retained in multiple regression models. The role of community tolerance level as a complement and/or an alternative to multiple regression in predicting the prevalence of WTN annoyance is also provided. The analysis suggests that communities are between 11 and 26 dB less tolerant of WTN than of other transportation noise sources.
... Bu olumsuz durumlara örnek olarak rüzgâr türbinlerinin mekanik bileşenlerinin birbirine teması sonucu ortaya çıkan mekanik gürültü ve pervanelerin dönmesiyle meydana gelen aerodinamik gürültü sorunları günümüzde tartışılan bir konudur [73]. Rüzgâr türbinleri yakınında yaşayan kişiler tarafından uyku bozukluklarına neden oldukları bildirilmiştir [74][75][76][77]. Rüzgâr türbinleri civarında yaşayan diğer kişilerin ise gürültü şikâyetlerinin olmadığı da belirtilmiştir [78]. ...
Book
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Bu kitap, iç çevre kalitesi (ses, ışık, ısıl konfor ve iç hava kalitesi) bileşenlerinin, uyku kalitesi ve ertesi gün sağlık ve zihinsel performansı üzerine günümüze kadar yapılan araştırmaların derlemesini ve değerlendirmesini içeren özgün çalışmalardan oluşmaktadır. Çalışmaların amacı, iç çevre parametrelerinin etkileri üzerine okuyucuya veyaşam alanı tasarımcılarına günümüz itibariyle bir çerçeve çizmek, ilgili araştırma alanlarını akademisyenlere tanıtmaktır. Kitap şu bölümlerden oluşmaktadır: Bölüm 1: İÇ HAVA KALİTESİNİN UYKU KALİTESİNE VE ERTESİ GÜN SAĞLIK VE PERFORMANSINA ETKİSİ - Macit Toksoy, Berrin Tuğrul, Sait Cemil Sofuoğlu Bölüm 2: AKUSTİK KONFOR VE UYKU - Çağrı Şahin, Sait Cemil Sofuoğlu, Macit Toksoy Bölüm 3: IŞIK VE UYKU - Begüm Can-Terzi, Sait Cemil Sofuoğlu, Macit Toksoy Bölüm 4: ISIL KONFOR VE UYKU KALİTESİ - Sezgi Koçak Soylu, İbrahim Atmaca Bölüm 5: UYKU ORTAMINDA İÇ ÇEVRE KALİTESİNİN HAD ANALİZİ İLE İNCELENMESİ ÜZERİNE BİR DERLEME - Nur Çobanoğlu, Ziya Haktan Karadeniz Bölüm 6: KALİTELİ BİR UYKU İÇİN HAVALANDIRMANIN ÖNEMİ ve TASARIMI - Nur Çobanoğlu, Ziya Haktan Karadeniz, Sait Cemil Sofuoğlu, Macit Toksoy
... In comparison to the scientific literature that exists for other sources of environmental noise, there are few original peer-reviewed field studies that have investigated the community response to modern wind turbines. The studies that have been conducted to date differ substantially in terms of their design and evaluated endpoints (Krogh et al., 2011;Mroczek et al., 2012;Mroczek et al., 2015;Nissenbaum et al., 2012;Pawlaczyk-Łuszczy nska et al., 2014;Pedersen andPersson Waye, 2004, 2007;Pedersen et al., 2009;Shepherd et al., 2011;Tachibana et al., 2012;Tachibana et al., 2014;Kuwano et al., 2014). Common features among these studies include reliance upon self-reported endpoints, modeled WTN exposure and/or proximity to wind turbines as the explanatory variable for the observed community response. ...
Article
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Health Canada, in collaboration with Statistics Canada, and other external experts, conducted the Community Noise and Health Study to better understand the impacts of wind turbinenoise (WTN) on health and well-being. A cross-sectional epidemiological study was carried out between May and September 2013 in southwestern Ontario and Prince Edward Island on 1238 randomly selected participants (606 males, 632 females) aged 18–79 years, living between 0.25 and 11.22 km from operational wind turbines. Calculated outdoor WTN levels at the dwelling reached 46 dBA. Response rate was 78.9% and did not significantly differ across sample strata. Self-reported health effects (e.g., migraines, tinnitus, dizziness, etc.), sleep disturbance, sleep disorders, quality of life, and perceived stress were not related to WTN levels. Visual and auditory perception of wind turbines as reported by respondents increased significantly with increasing WTN levels as did high annoyance toward several wind turbine features, including the following: noise, blinking lights, shadow flicker, visual impacts, and vibrations. Concern for physical safety and closing bedroom windows to reduce WTN during sleep also increased with increasing WTN levels. Other sample characteristics are discussed in relation to WTN levels. Beyond annoyance, results do not support an association between exposure to WTN up to 46 dBA and the evaluated health-related endpoints.
... This findings are consistent with WHO's conclusion that significant sleep disturbance from environmental noise begins to occur at noise levels greater than 45 dB(A) (Fritschi et al., 2011). On the other hand, those studies that used "distance to nearest WT" as an exposure measure, almost all agreed that self-reported sleep disturbances were more frequent in subjects living closer to WTs than in subjects living further away (Krogh et al., 2011;Kuwano et al., 2013;Nissenbaum et al., 2012;Paller, 2014;Shepherd et al., 2011a). ...
Article
Canada's wind energy capacity has grown from approximately 137MW (MW) in 2000 to over 9700MW in 2014, and this progressive development has made Canada the fifth-largest market in the world for the installation of new wind turbines (WTs). Although wind energy is now one of the fastest growing sources of power in Canada and many other countries, the growth in both number and size of WTs has raised questions regarding potential health impacts on individuals who live close to such turbines. This study is the first published research using a prospective cohort design, with noise and sleep measurements obtained before and after installation of WTs to investigate effect of such turbines on self-reported sleep disturbances of nearby residents. Subjective assessment of sleep disturbance was conducted in Ontario, Canada through standard sleep and sleepiness scales, including the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), and Epworth daytime Sleepiness Scale (ESS). Both audible and infra-sound noises were also measured inside the bedroom. Descriptive and comparison analyses were performed to investigate the effect of WT exposure on sleep data. Results of the analysis show that participants reported poorer sleep quality if they had a negative attitude to WTs, if they had concerns related to property devaluation, and if they could see turbines from their properties. This study provides evidence for the role of individual differences and psychological factors in reports of sleep disturbance by people living in the vicinity of WTs.
... Some of the citations in this paper encourage the need for additional WT Open Access Library Journal studies [9] including proposals for what should be studied. Suggestions include: ...
Article
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Krogh, C. M. , Dumbrille, A. , McMurtry, R. Y. , James, R. , Rand, R. W. , Nissenbaum, M. A. , Aramini, J. J. and Ambrose, S. E. (2018). Health Canada’s Wind Turbine Noise and Health Study—A Review Exploring Research Challenges, Methods, Limitations and Uncertainties of Some of the Findings. Open Access Library Journal, 5, e5046. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/oalib.1105046. Journal link: http://www.oalib.com/articles/5301313#.XBr6_PSno9M Title: Health Canada’s Wind Turbine Noise and Health Study - a review exploring research challenges, methods, limitations and uncertainties of some of the findings Carmen M Krogh, BScPharm (Retired) Corresponding Author Email: carmen.krogh@gmail.com Affiliations: Not for profit: The Society for Wind Vigilance, Member of the Board of Directors, Canada Not for profit: Magentica Research Group, Member of the Board of Directors, Canada Anne Dumbrille, PhD Affiliations: Not for profit: CCSAGE Naturally Green (County Coalition for Safe and Appropriate Green Energy, Chair, Picton, Ontario, Canada Robert Y McMurtry, CM, MD, FRCS, FACS Affiliations: Professor Emeritus Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Western University, London, Ontario, Canada Former Dean Medicine and Dentistry, Western University, London, Ontario, Canada Visiting Specialist, Prince Edward County Family Health Team, Picton, Ontario, Canada Richard James, BME, ASA Affiliations: Acoustical Society of America (ASA) Institute of Noise Control Engineering (INCE) through 2007 Not for profit: The Society for Wind Vigilance, Member of the Board of Directors, Canada Robert W Rand, ASA, INCE Affiliations: Institute of Noise Control Engineering (INCE) Acoustical Society of America (ASA) Michael A Nissenbaum, MD, FRCPC Affiliations: RADIMED Canada McGill University, Montreal, Canada Not for profit: The Society for Wind Vigilance, Member of the Board of Directors, Canada Jeffery J Aramini, MSc, DVM, PhD Fergus, Ontario, Canada Affiliations: None declared Stephen E. Ambrose, ASA, INCE Bd.Cert. Emeritus Affiliations: Institute of Noise Control Engineering (INCE) Acoustical Society of America (ASA) Acoustics, Environmental Sound and Industrial Noise SE Ambrose '& Associates, Windham, Maine Acknowledgements. The authors declare they have no actual or potential competing financial interests, received no funding and volunteered their time during the research and writing of this paper. Authors Krogh, Nissenbaum and James are volunteers and members of the Board of Directors of the Society for Wind Vigilance, a self funded, Federally Incorporated Not-For-Profit organization. Author Krogh is a volunteer on the Board of Directors for the Magentica Research Group, a self-funded Federally Incorporated Not-For-Profit organization. Author Dumbrille is a volunteer, Chair and member of the Board of Directors of a Federally Incorporated Not-For-Profit organization. In all cases, Board members volunteer their time and do not receive any financial remuneration for their services. Health Canada is acknowledged for considering the public concern for potential health impacts and conducting its wind turbine noise and health study. This article is dedicated to the families and wind energy occupational workers from around the world who are reporting adverse health effects associated with the presence of industrial scale wind turbines in proximity to their living and work environments. In addition, we thank the peer reviewers who volunteered their time, professional expertise and provided insightful and helpful comments during the review process. Abstract Background: Risk of harm associated with wind turbines is debated globally. Some people living or working in proximity to wind turbines report adverse health effects such as sleep disturbance, noise annoyance, and diminished quality of life. Due to public concern, Health Canada announced its wind turbine noise and health study which included subjective and objective measurements. Findings were published between 2014 and 2016. In 2018, Health Canada published clarifications regarding the design and interpretation of study conclusions. Methods: Methods and subjective/objective findings were reviewed. Peer reviewed publications, conference presentations, judicial proceedings, government documents, and other sources were evaluated and considered in context with advanced methods for investigating reports of adverse health effects. Objectives: To review and explore some of the research challenges, methods, strengths and limitations of findings and conclusions. To participate in scientific dialogue and contribute towards an understanding of reported health risks associated with wind turbine noise. Results: Wind turbine human health research is challenged by numerous variables. Knowledge gaps and individual human and wind turbine variables are identified. Strengths and advisories of limitations are considered and acknowledged. Health Canada’s advisories that its study design does not permit any conclusions about causality and results may not be generalized beyond the sample taken in Canada are supported. Enhanced methods for investigating health outcomes are proposed including establishing referral resources within medical facilities for physicians. It is proposed staffing of the resource center include multidisciplinary teams of physicians, epidemiologists, acousticians and other specialists to investigate suspected wind turbine adverse health effects. Discussion: A review and appraisal of some of the research challenges associated with wind turbine human health research are presented. Given the identified methods, research/knowledge gaps, and limitations and cautionary advisories, Health Canada’s results should be carefully considered when predicting or protecting from health risks of wind turbine noise. Key Words: wind turbines, research challenges, research gaps, risk of harm, adverse health effects
... We outline the highlights of this work here to illustrate the important inroads available to us but also where we see emerging gaps that need redressing. For example, through survey and/or interview-based approaches, some studies seek to understand how finance/economics , health (Crichton, Dodd, Schmid, Gamble, & Petrie, 2014;Krogh, Gillis, Kouwen, & Aramini, 2011;Rubin, Burns, & Wessely, 2014), politics and planning (Gross, 2007;Lange & Hehl-Lange, 2005;McLaren, 2007) and aesthetics and landscape concerns (Ladenburg, 2009;Molnarova et al., 2012;Pasqualetti, 2000Pasqualetti, , 2011 impact social acceptance. While important in their own right, we wonder what might be the interplay of such factors in conditioning policy success or community resistance. ...
Article
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Transitioning to renewable energy has become a global phenomenon. Attempts to explain development patterns are often fragmented, focusing on specific rationale for (un)successful deployment or the perspective of specific stakeholders. We recognize the importance for holistic insights for successful and effective environmental policy-making and planning in the context of renewable energy development. Using wind energy as an example, this paper provides methodological toolkits for utilizing content analysis (CA) to gain more holistic insights on renewable energy deployment and policy outcomes. Building on existing literature, past and ongoing research, three variations of CA are presented for understanding stakeholder conflicts surrounding wind energy development as well as public perceptions and responses to the technology across space and over time. Although newspapers are used as an example, these methodological protocols could be applied to diverse forms of data such as interviews, policy documents, reports, public meetings and letters of appeal.
... There are many economic and eco-friendly advantages associated with wind turbines given the long-term sustainability of this clean energy source. However, adverse health effects have also been reported by residents who live near wind turbines (Thorne, 2011), with sleep disturbance one of the most prominent and commonly reported concerns (Basner et al., 2014;Crichton et al., 2014;Janssen et al., 2011;Krogh et al., 2011;Muzet, 2007;World Health Organization, 2011). However, other residents living at similar distances to wind turbines report no sleep disturbance or ill health effects (Thorne, 2011), thus the prevalence, severity, and impacts of potential sleep disturbance effects remain unclear. ...
Article
Little is known about the potential impacts of wind turbine noise (WTN) on sleep. Previous research is limited to cross‐sectional studies reporting anecdotal impacts on sleep using inconsistent sleep metrics. This meta‐analysis sought to comprehensively review studies evaluating the impact of WTN using widely accepted and validated objective and subjective sleep assessments. Search terms included: “wind farm noise”, “wind turbine noise”, “wind turbine sound”, “wind turbine noise exposure” AND “sleep”. Only original articles published in English published after the year 2000 and reporting sleep outcomes in the presence of WTN using polysomnography, actigraphy or psychometrically validated sleep questionnaires were included. Uniform outcomes of the retrieved studies were meta‐analysed to examine WTN effects on objective and subjective sleep outcomes. Nine studies were eligible for review and five studies were meta‐analysed. Meta‐analyses (Hedges’ g; 95% confidence interval [CI]) revealed no significant differences in objective sleep onset latency (0.03, 95% CI −0.34 to 0.41), total sleep time (−0.05, 95% CI −0.77 to 0.67), sleep efficiency (−0.25, 95% CI −0.71 to 0.22) or wake after sleep onset (1.25, 95% CI −2.00 to 4.50) in the presence versus absence of WTN (all p > .05). Subjective sleep estimates were not meta‐analysed because measurement outcomes were not sufficiently uniform for comparisons between studies. This systematic review and meta‐analysis suggests that WTN does not significantly impact key indicators of objective sleep. Cautious interpretation remains warranted given variable measurement methodologies, WTN interventions, limited sample sizes, and cross‐sectional study designs, where cause‐and‐effect relationships are uncertain. Well‐controlled experimental studies using ecologically valid WTN, objective and psychometrically validated sleep assessments are needed to provide conclusive evidence regarding WTN impacts on sleep.
... Prior to the enactment of the Green Energy Act, several industrial wind turbine (IWT) projects were already operating in proximity to family homes [3] [4]. ...
Article
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How to cite this paper: Krogh, C.M., Wilson, E.J. and Harrington, M.E. (2019).Wind Turbine Incident/Complaint Reports in Ontario, Canada: A Review—Why Are They Important? Open Access Library Journal, 6: e5200. https://doi.org/10.4236/oalib.1105200 Abstract Background: The introduction of industrial wind turbines into quiet rural environments in Ontario, Canada has resulted in complaints about environmental noise and adverse health effects. Ontario has a process whereby residents can report noise to government. Official government records of Incident Reports/Complaints submitted by residents living near operating wind turbine installations were obtained through a Freedom of Information request. This article presents an evaluation of this process while commenting on the significance of Incident Reports/Complaints. Methods: Government records of Incident Reports/Complaints were analysed. Peer reviewed publications, conference presentations, judicial proceedings, government resources, and other sources were evaluated and considered in context with the topic under discussion. Objectives: The purpose of this article is to present the role and significance of Incident Reports/Complaints and discuss the value of these when assessing outcomes related to the introduction of wind turbines into a quiet rural environment. Results: Government records document 4,574 Incident Reports/Complaints received by Ontario’s hotline (2006–2016). There was no ministry response to over 50% of more than 3,000 submitted formal complaints (2006–2014). Another 30 % were noted as “deferred” response. Only 1% of the reports received a priority response. Provincial Officers noted in summary reports that people were reporting health effects such as: headache, sleep deprivation, annoyance, and ringing or pressure sensation in the head and ears. Health effects were reported many times including those occurring among children. Discussion: In the case of wind power installations, Incident Reports/Complaints are an important source of information for evaluating outcomes of introducing a new noise source into a quiet rural environment and are a form of public health surveillance. These reports can highlight risks to a healthy community living environment, act as an early warning system, and aid in evaluation of government policy initiatives. They may also be used before legal tribunals in public or private actions. Keywords Industrial Wind Turbines, Windmills, Incident Reports and Complaints, Public Health Surveillance Subject Areas Public Health
... Peerreviewed health studies have involved residents living 1.4 km, 12 2 km 13 and 2.5 km 14 from a wind turbine, and a community-based survey reported health effects in residents living up to 5 km away. 15 Based on this evidence and a desire to be inclusive and thorough, the 5-km buffer was selected. ...
Article
Introduction: This paper briefly describes the use of Canada Post Unaddressed Admail and a geographic information system (GIS) for survey distribution to a specific target population in a large, sparsely populated geographic area, and the effectiveness of this approach. Methods: Surveys were sent as Unaddressed Admail via Canada Post to a target population of people living within 5 km of a wind turbine in southwestern Ontario. Results: The overall response rate from 8 wind farms (in 8 counties) was 8.1%. Conclusion: This approach has the potential to save time and money, but low response rates are common, distribution is not precise and there is potential for selection bias. Despite these flaws, Unaddressed Admail is worth consideration for delivery of information, study-recruitment materials and surveys to rural, remote and specific target populations.
... For years, most epidemiological evidence concerning the impact of the modern wind turbine noise on people's health and well-being has been coming mainly from three cross-sectional studies carried out in Sweden and the Netherlands between 2000 and 2007 [1][2][3]5]. Later, cross-sectional studies on human responses to wind turbine noise have been conducted also in other countries, including New Zealand [29], USA [30,31], China [32], Canada [11][12][13]33] and Poland [15][16][17][18]. A questionnaire was applied as the main research tool in almost all of them, excluding the recent Community Noise and Health Study (CNHS) in Canada which assessed responses to the wind turbine noise using both self-reported and objective measures (e.g., measures of blood pressure and heart rate) [13]. ...
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the perception and annoyance of noise from wind turbines in populated areas of Poland. A questionnaire inquiry was carried out among 517 subjects, aged 18–88, living within 204–1726 m from the nearest wind turbine. For areas where respondents lived, A-weighted sound pressure levels (SPLs) were calculated as the sum of the contributions from the wind power plants in the specific area. It has been shown that the wind turbine noise at the calculated A-weighted SPL of 33–50 dB was perceived as annoying or highly annoying by 46% and 28% of respondents, respectively. Moreover, 34% and 18% of them said that they were annoyed or highly annoyed indoors, respectively. The perception of high annoyance was associated with the A-weighted sound pressure level or the distance from the nearest wind turbine, general attitude to wind farms, noise sensitivity and terrain shape (annoyance outdoors) or road-traffic intensity (annoyance indoors). About 48–66% of variance in noise annoyance rating might be explained by the aforesaid factors. It was estimated that at the distance of 1000 m the wind turbine noise might be perceived as highly annoying outdoors by 43% and 2% of people with negative and positive attitude towards wind turbines, respectively. There was no significant association between noise level (or distance) and various health and well-being aspects. However, all variables measuring health and well-being aspects, including stress symptoms, were positively associated with annoyance related to wind turbine noise.
... Previous studies using distance as proxy found higher percentage of respondents living close to wind turbines reporting altered health (e.g. headaches, migraines, hearing problems and tinnitus) than those living further away from wind turbines, but differences were not significant except for unnatural fatigue (Krogh et al., 2011). However this study can be affected by sampling bias. ...
Conference Paper
Introduction: Wind energy is the fastest-growing source of electricity in the world. Neighboring communities may perceive this as an increasing environmental health risk. Suggested causes of potential health impacts are: audible sound, low-frequency sound, shadow flicker and electromagnetic radiation. This is the first study to hypothesize that other environmental exposures occurring in the same settings as wind turbines may be responsible of the reported symptoms. Methods: We assessed wind turbine exposures in 454 residences as the distance to the closest wind turbine (Dw) and number of wind turbines <1000 m (Nw). Information on symptoms (e.g. headaches, difficulty concentrating, dizziness), demographics and personal reactions to other exposures was obtained by questionnaires. We identified confounders and used adjusted logistic regression models to estimate associations. Results: When controlling only for socio-demographic characteristics, log10Dw was associated with “unnatural fatigue” (ORadj=0.38, 95%CI=0.15-1.00) and “difficulty concentrating” (ORadj=0.26, 95%CI=0.08-0.83) and Nw was associated with “unnatural fatigue” (ORadj=1.35, 95%CI=1.07-1.70) and “headache” (ORadj=1.26, 95%CI=1.00-1.58). Further examinations revealed that these associations were confounded by personal reactions to noise from sources different from wind turbines (e.g. traffic) and agricultural odor. When including these in the model, the relation between proximity and symptoms was not significant (p>0.05) and the parameter estimates were attenuated toward zero. Conclusions: We demonstrated that wind turbines-health associations can be confounded by personal reactions to other environmental exposures. After controlling for these, we did not observe a significant relationship between residential proximity to wind turbines and health symptoms. Isolated associations between wind turbines and health symptoms reported in the literature may be due to confounding bias.
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In recent years, the demand for electric power in Vietnam has increased at annual growth rates of 10% to 12%, and the challenge is to promote renewable energy sector. One of these sustainable energy sources is to harness energy from the wind through wind turbines (WTs). In fact, more wind power plants in Vietnam are continuously to be built due to the rapidly growing demand of country's industrialization and modernization process. However, a significant hindrance preventing the widespread use of WTs in Vietnam is the noise they produce, which significantly contributes to the annoyance experienced by residents living near wind farms. The prediction of noise impacts for new wind farms is one of the many aspects of the environmental impact assessment process in Vietnam as well as in the world. In addition, the determination of the 45 dBA noise contour-line is very important because it is the basis for determining the scope of the project impact according to the IFC/WB performance standards and the number of households to be relocated from the project site. The article’s main focus is therefore on the estimation and simulation of the acoustical noise produced by 18 WTs during the operation phase of Nexif Energy Ben Tre wind power plant and the background noise levels at the project site have been performed by using a combination of specific study methods such as environmental modeling (iNoise Pro modeling software), mapping and geographic information systems. The obtained results show the importance of using modeling method in quantifying the noise levels generated from 18 wind turbines of the Nexif Energy Ben Tre wind power plant met IFC standard and Vietnamese regulation on noise during day-time, but did not meet IFC standard on noise during night-time. The level of background noise measured during night-time in the project area also did not meet IFC standard. Therefore, the overall cumulative noise level exceeds the IFC standard for residential area (45 dBA only). In addition, the appropriate solutions to reduce noise levels from WTs are also proposed.
Thesis
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This thesis addresses a major gap in the wind turbine and risk assessment literatures. It explains local support for wind energy in some areas in spite of vocal opposition in others. Findings from Port Burwell and Clear Creek, Ontario indicate that social and contextual forces may help explain much of the difference in opinion between the two communities. The case study was focused through 21 in-depth interviews. The interviews were analyzed verbatim using NVIVO 9 software. The findings were found to be consistent with Kasperson’s theory of the Social Amplification of Risk and seem to explain why Port Burwell is an area of high support for wind turbines while other places, like Clear Creek to an extent are not nearly as supportive. Ultimately the thesis calls for a policy change and rededication to promote effective green energy policy in Ontario.
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The question of whether wind turbines cause a range of adverse health effects has emerged as a key issue in social controversies over wind farms and become a topic of debate in the scientific literature. We review the literature from the perspective of Science and Technology Studies (STS) to examine the experimental evidence and argumentative reasoning constituting three main explanations for how wind turbines impact health: 1) Exposure to infrasound directly causes adverse physiological effects, 2) Exposure to audible noise is associated with annoyance and sleep disturbance, and 3) Psychogenic factors act as mediators to adverse effects. In addition to technical and pragmatic arguments, the debate consists of value-based arguments about the desirability of wind energy, how precautionary development should be, what counts as a valid health issue in public policy, and what counts as valid evidence in health research. Thus, it encompasses the conflicting social commitments and environmental priorities of the wider wind energy debate and the politics of evidence in the health sciences. It suggests the controversy is unlikely to be settled by science but that an STS perspective can provide insights to foster governance that more effectively addresses the complexity of health issues in wind energy transitions.
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Introduction: As the global number of wind turbines has increased steadily in recent years, as has the number of studies about putative health effects in residential settings, it is the review purpose to give an overview of the characteristics and methodologies of the scientific literature around the topic in order to identify research gaps and to derive implications for research and practice. Additionally, study findings from higher-quality observational studies as well as results that seem to be of interest for the scientific and political debate are presented. Methods: The scoping review was conducted following systematic review methods. Comprehensive literature searches were carried out in several databases, and with extensive hand searches. All review steps were carried out in parallel by two reviewers or by one reviewer and in duplicate checked by another reviewer. The following important methodological criteria were investigated: Reporting, ethical aspects, generalization, selection bias, information bias, confounder bias. Findings from observational studies without a selection bias, information bias, and confounder bias are presented. Results: 84 articles, that varied significantly in methods and outcomes assessed, met the inclusion criteria. Multiple cross-sectional studies reported that wind turbine noise is associated with noise annoyance, which is moderated by several variables such as noise sensitivity, attitude towards wind turbines, or economic benefit. Wind turbine noise is not associated with stress effects and biophysiological variables of sleep. Results on the impact of wind turbine noise on sleep disburbance, quality of life, and mental health problems differed among cross-sectional studies. There were few studies that addressed the potential impact of turbine noise on clinically apparent health outcomes. There were also few studies on visual risk factors or infrasound exposure. No literature was identified regarding low-frequency noise, electromagnetic radiation, and ice throw. Conclusions: There is an extensive and diverse body of evidence around health impacts of wind turbines in residential settings, that increased sharply since 2010, showing particularly noise consequences concerning increased noise annoyance with its complex pathways; no relationship between wind turbine noise and stress effects and biophysiological variables of sleep; and heterogeneous findings concerning sleep disturbance, quality of life, as well as mental health problems. Research gaps concern the complex pathways of annoyance, the examination of clinically apparent health outcomes in comparison with non-exposed residents, an objective investigation of visual wind turbine features, the interaction between all wind turbine exposures, and epidemiological observational studies on field low-frequency and infrasound from wind turbines. Future research needs thorough high-quality and prospective study designs.
Article
This study provides a portrait of the state of impact assessment (IA) research for four types of low carbon power production (wind, solar, small-scale hydro and small modular nuclear reactors). The emphasis is on IA research that has relevance to the Canadian policy setting. The method involved a systematized scan of the academic literature (peer reviewed publications, conference proceedings and book chapters) and reports and studies produced by government and other organizations. The literature was categorized according to a framework adapted from transition theory. The results indicate that the literature addressing wind power is comprehensive, but there is a relative scarcity of research (in both quantity and breadth) on the impacts of solar, small-scale hydro, and small modular reactors (SMRs). In each of these three energy areas there is a lack of available work addressing the social, political and cultural impacts accompanied by more specialized gaps in the biophysical research. Drawing on a transition theory typology, the majority of the literature can be characterized as reflexive , with less than 20% of research exploring primarily operational, tactical, or strategic themes. But there are many sources where the research contains overlapping categories. The research for SMR impacts is distinct from the other three alternative power sources; this literature is largely strategic. Priorities for further analysis in the short-term include applying lessons from the international literature to the Canadian context and developing a better understanding of the specific impacts of alternative energy sources on Indigenous communities. In the longer term, there is a need for more research in the field, with a particular emphasis on understanding the operational and strategic qualities of low carbon power production.
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In response to growing public concern about the potential health effects of wind turbine noise, the Government of Canada, through the Minister of Health (the Sponsor), asked the Council of Canadian Academies (the Council) to conduct an assessment of the question: Is there evidence to support a causal association between
Research
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A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree in Master of Arts at Western University (Canada).
Article
With the increasing concerns regarding fossil fuels and nuclear energy, greater attention is being placed on alternate renewable energy technologies (RETs) such as wind, solar, and bioenergy. However, implementation of modern RETs has become controversial, as adverse health effects are a major concern. Although local case studies have suggested a relationship between wind turbines and health, there is a gap in the scientific knowledge. Epidemiological studies with adequate data collection tools and analyses are needed, particularly in the Canadian context. We reviewed surveys used in relevant environmental health literature, created a data collection tool for use in populations exposed to wind turbines, and piloted the survey content and distribution method. Our pilot response rate was 25.5% (45/200). The mean age of survey respondents was 57.6 years (SD: 12.76) with 57% of the respondents being female; respondents were not significantly different than the target population with respect to age or sex. The survey and methods presented here can be used in future studies to assess the health impacts of renewable energy technologies.
Technical Report
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In response to growing concerns about the impact of excessive AM on residents, WSP | Parsons Brinckerhoff was commissioned by the Department of Energy and Climate Change to undertake a review of research into the effects of and response to AM and, if considered necessary, to recommend a control method suitable for use as part of the planning regime. The aims of the study are to review the evidence on the effects of AM in relation to wind turbines, the robustness of relevant research into AM, and to recommend how excessive AM might be controlled through the use of a planning condition, taking into account the current policy context of wind turbine noise. The work included working closely with the Institute of Acoustics’ AM Working Group, who have proposed a robust metric and methodology for quantifying and assessing the level of AM in a sample of wind turbine noise data. The study has involved the collation and critical review of relevant literature on the subject of AM, which included published papers on dose response studies, case studies, existing planning conditions, and current planning guidance. Key points from the reviewed evidence have been extracted and summarised upon which to draw the reports’ conclusions. The review has concluded that there is sufficient robust evidence that excessive AM leads to increased annoyance from wind turbine noise, and that it should be controlled using suitable planning conditions. Key elements required to formulate such a condition have been recommended.
Article
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ABSTRACT The low-frequency noise generated by wind turbines is known as one of the risk factors for health. The aim of this study was to study the noise effect of wind turbine on the general health of staff at Manjil wind farm. For this purpose, workers were divided into three groups: maintenance, security and office staff. Equivalent sound levels were measured for each group. Individual’s health data was assessed using the 28-item General Health Questionnaire. Pearson correlation, ANOVA and multiple regression tests were used for data analysis in the R software. Statistical analysis results showed that the noise exposure is significantly correlated to all sub-scales of general health, except for depression. The low-frequency noise from wind turbines can cause harmful effects on the health of workers that are too close to the wind turbine and receive very intense noise. Keywords: Noise, Wind turbine, General health
Chapter
This chapter focuses on why some people are adversely affected by wind farm noise and others are not, as well as the sort of symptoms that may be experienced by affected people and how these symptoms manifest as a function of exposure time. There are many well-documented cases of adverse health effects resulting from both short- and long-term exposure to wind turbine noise. These symptoms include nausea, dizziness, pressure (or fullness) in the ears and recurring sleep disturbance; in most cases medical professionals are unable to otherwise explain them. Recurring sleep disruption impairs cognition and performance, glucose metabolism and immune function, which can lead to other physical symptoms. Some researchers have suggested that wind turbine noise, particularly infrasound, can be perceived through physiological mechanisms other than hearing. Pro-wind-farm advocates attribute reported adverse health effects to mass hysteria and use pseudo-scientific terms such as 'mass psychogenic illness' or 'psychogenic nocebo phenomenon'.
Article
The association of wind turbine noise (WTN) with sleep and physical/mental health has not been fully investigated. To investigate the relationship of WTN with the prevalence of self-reported symptoms of sleep and health problems, a socioacoustic survey of 1079 adult residents was conducted throughout Japan (2010-2012): 747 in 34 areas surrounding wind turbine plants and 332 in 16 control areas. During face-to-face interviews, the respondents were not informed of the purpose of the survey. Questions on symptoms such as sleeplessness and physical/mental complaints were asked without specifying reasons. Insomnia was defined as having one or any combination of the following that occurs three or more times a week and bothers a respondent: Difficulty initiating sleep, difficulty maintaining sleep, premature morning awakening, and feeling of light overnight sleep. Poor health was defined as having high scores for health complaints, as determined using the Total Health Index, exceeding the criteria proposed by the authors of the index. The noise descriptor for WTN was LAeq,n outdoor, estimated from the results of actual measurement at some locations in each site. Multiple logistic analysis was applied to the LAeq,n and insomnia or poor health. The odds ratio (OR) of insomnia was significantly higher when the noise exposure level exceeded 40 dB, whereas the self-reported sensitivity to noise and visual annoyance with wind turbines were also independently associated with insomnia. OR of poor health was not significant for noise exposure, but significant for noise sensitivity and visual annoyance. The above two moderators appear to indicate the features of respondents who are sensitive to stimuli or changes in their homeostasis.
Article
Study Objectives Wind turbine noise exposure could potentially interfere with the initiation of sleep. However, effects on objectively assessed sleep latency are largely unknown. This study sought to assess the impact of wind turbine noise on polysomnographically-measured and sleep diary-determined sleep latency compared to control background noise alone in healthy good sleepers without habitual prior wind turbine noise exposure. Methods Twenty-three wind turbine noise naïve urban residents (mean±standard deviation age: 21.7±2.1 years, range 18-29, 13 females) attended the sleep laboratory for two polysomnography studies, one week apart. Participants were blind to noise conditions and only informed that they may or may not hear noise during each night. During the sleep onset period, participants were exposed to counterbalanced nights of wind turbine noise at 33 dB(A), the upper end of expected indoor values; or background noise alone as the control condition (23 dB(A)). Results Linear mixed model analysis revealed no differences in log10 normalized objective or subjective sleep latency between the wind turbine noise versus control nights (median [interquartile range] objective 16.5 [11.0 to 18.5] versus 16.5 [10.5 to 29.0] minutes, p = 0.401; subjective 20.0 [15.0 to 25.0] versus 15.0 [10.0 to 30.0] minutes, p = 0.907). Conclusions Although undetected small effects cannot be ruled out, these results do not support that wind turbine noise extends sleep latency in young urban dwelling individuals without prior wind turbine noise exposure.
Article
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The Canadian Environmental Assessment Act (CEAA) requires certain projects with federal government triggers to undergo an environmental assessment before receiving federal government approval. On request under CEAA, Health Canada provides advice on the health effects of noise to responsible authorities for wind turbine projects. The advice that Health Canada provides on the health effects of noise is generally based only on well-accepted scientific evidence for a link between noise exposure and health. For quiet rural areas, in which annoyance reactions towards intruding noise may be augmented, this paper proposes noise mitigation if predicted wind turbine noise levels exceed 45 dBA at noise sensitive receptors. In this proposal, a cautious approach is adopted by using predicted noise levels that are evaluated at the wind speed that produces the highest wind turbine noise, and background noise is evaluated in calm winds. This accounts for sheltering by obstructions. Wind speed gradient effects related to stable atmospheric conditions are also accounted for with this approach. The proposal is based on predicted project-noise related changes in long-term high annoyance, rattle and sleep disturbance. Noise mitigation for wind turbine construction noise is proposed based on potential for expectation of complaints.
Article
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Since 1996, when Tararua Wind Power Limited commenced the construction of 48 wind turbines, the number of existing wind turbines on the Ruahine and Tararua ranges has risen dramatically, to 158 in 2006, with more to come from unimplemented, approved resource consents. The companies behind the applications have won plaudits for the development of sustainable energy generation. However, the effects of wind energy can be controversial. In particular, it is reported in other countries that those who live near the wind turbines may suffer from undesirable visual and noise effects, and the national benefits and local costs may not be in balance. Assessing the precise impact of future wind farm development is important, since the number of proposed wind farms is likely to grow in the coming years. The objective of this study was to investigate the noise and visual effects on local residents from the existing wind turbines in the Manawatu and Tararua region. A total of 1100 urban and rural residents, the majority living within a 3km radius of the wind farms in the Tararua and Manawatu districts were administered a self-reporting survey. The survey asked residents to assess the visual and noise effects of the closest wind farm. This paper presents preliminary results from this study. It demonstrates that 45 percent of respondents living within 2km heard noise from the turbines, and 80 percent thought that the turbines were visually intrusive.
Article
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Household cleaning and pesticide products may contribute to breast cancer because many contain endocrine disrupting chemicals or mammary gland carcinogens. This population-based case-control study investigated whether use of household cleaners and pesticides increases breast cancer risk. Participants were 787 Cape Cod, Massachusetts, women diagnosed with breast cancer between 1988 and 1995 and 721 controls. Telephone interviews asked about product use, beliefs about breast cancer etiology, and established and suspected breast cancer risk factors. To evaluate potential recall bias, we stratified product-use odds ratios by beliefs about whether chemicals and pollutants contribute to breast cancer; we compared these results with odds ratios for family history (which are less subject to recall bias) stratified by beliefs about heredity. Breast cancer risk increased two-fold in the highest compared with lowest quartile of self-reported combined cleaning product use (Adjusted OR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.4, 3.3) and combined air freshener use (Adjusted OR = 1.9, 95% CI: 1.2, 3.0). Little association was observed with pesticide use. In stratified analyses, cleaning products odds ratios were more elevated among participants who believed pollutants contribute "a lot" to breast cancer and moved towards the null among the other participants. In comparison, the odds ratio for breast cancer and family history was markedly higher among women who believed that heredity contributes "a lot" (OR = 2.6, 95% CI: 1.9, 3.6) and not elevated among others (OR = 0.7, 95% CI: 0.5, 1.1). Results of this study suggest that cleaning product use contributes to increased breast cancer risk. However, results also highlight the difficulty of distinguishing in retrospective self-report studies between valid associations and the influence of recall bias. Recall bias may influence higher odds ratios for product use among participants who believed that chemicals and pollutants contribute to breast cancer. Alternatively, the influence of experience on beliefs is another explanation, illustrated by the protective odds ratio for family history among women who do not believe heredity contributes "a lot." Because exposure to chemicals from household cleaning products is a biologically plausible cause of breast cancer and avoidable, associations reported here should be further examined prospectively.
Article
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Low frequency noise, the frequency range from about 10 Hz to 200 Hz, has been recognised as a special environmental noise problem, particularly to sensitive people in their homes. Conventional methods of assessing annoyance, typically based on A-weighted equivalent level, are inadequate for low frequency noise and lead to incorrect decisions by regulatory authorities. There have been a large number of laboratory measurements of annoyance by low frequency noise, each with different spectra and levels, making comparisons difficult, but the main conclusions are that annoyance of low frequencies increases rapidly with level. Additionally the A-weighted level underestimates the effects of low frequency noises. There is a possibility of learned aversion to low frequency noise, leading to annoyance and stress which may receive unsympathetic treatment from regulatory authorities. In particular, problems of the Hum often remain unresolved. An approximate estimate is that about 2.5% of the population may have a low frequency threshold which is at least 12 dB more sensitive than the average threshold, corresponding to nearly 1,000,000 persons in the 50-59 year old age group in the EU-15 countries. This is the group which generates many complaints. Low frequency noise specific criteria have been introduced in some countries, but do not deal adequately with fluctuations. Validation of the criteria has been for a limited range of noises and subjects.
Article
Introduction The Psychology of Social Justice Relative Deprivation Is Justice Important To Peoples Feelings And Attitudes? Distributive Justice Procedural Justice Retributive Justice Behaviorial Reactions To Justice And Injustice Psychological Versus Behavioral Responses to Injustice Behavioral Reactions to Injustice Why Do People Care About Justice? The Nature of the Justice Motive When Does Justice Matter? Social Structural Influences Culture
Article
Height and weight are two of the most commonly used anthropometric measurements in clinical practice and research. Self-reported height and weight measurement is a simple, efficient, inexpensive, and non-invasive method of collecting data from large numbers of people. This integrative review of the published research examined the accuracy of self-reported height and weight measurements in women. Twenty-six studies examined the accuracy of self-reported height in 39,244 women. Twenty-one of the studies found that women overestimate height. Thirty-four studies reviewed the accuracy of self-reported weight in 57,172 women, and all 34 studies reported that women underestimated weight. Although mean variations between self-reported and measured values were small, a significant percentage of women in study groups had very large errors. Inaccurate measurements of both height and weight can cause significant inaccuracies in calculation of body mass index, which is used as a guide for identifying persons at risk for disease. These findings indicate that direct measurement of height and weight should be performed whenever possible for optimal measurements in clinical practice and clinically oriented research. (C) 2003 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.
Article
The core of the book is a scientific report presenting original, primary research on symptomatic people living near large industrial wind turbines (1.5-3 MW) erected since 2004. These are the findings: 1) Wind turbines cause Wind Turbine Syndrome. We know this because people have symptoms when they are close to turbines and the symptoms go away when they are away from turbines. The study families themselves figured out that they had to move away from turbines to be rid of their symptoms, and nine out of ten have moved. Some sold and some abandoned their homes. 2) People do not abandon their homes out of "annoyance." Reported symptoms, such as sleep deprivation, dizziness, and nausea, cannot be dismissed as "annoyances." 3) The symptom cluster is consistent from person to person, hence the term "syndrome." 4) The symptoms are sleep disturbance and deprivation, headache, tinnitus (ringing in ears), ear pressure, dizziness, vertigo (spinning dizziness), nausea, visual blurring, tachycardia (fast heart rate), irritability, problems with concentration and memory, and panic episodes associated with sensations of movement or quivering inside the body that arise while awake or asleep. 5) Children are affected as well as adults, especially older adults.
Article
This paper presents an alternative to the predominant equity theory for studying the concept of fairness in social relationships. According to the equity theory, or merit principle, fairness in social relationships occurs when rewards, punishments, and resources are allocated in proportion to one's input or contributions. The basic problems of this theory are that it employs a unidimensional concept of fairness and that it emphasizes only the fairness of distribution, ignoring the fairness of procedure. In contrast, the alternative to this theory is based on two justice rules, the distributional and the procedural. Distribution rules follow certain criteria: the individual's contributions, his needs, and the equality theory. These criteria are considered relative to the individual's role within the particular setting or social system. A justice judgment sequence estimates the individual's deservingness based on each rule. Final judgments evolve from a rule-combination equation. Preceding the final distribution of reward, a cognitive map of the allocative process is constructed. Fairness is judged in terms of the procedure's consistency, prevention of personal bias, and its representativeness of important subgroups. Opportunities to apply this concept of fairness exist in field studies of censorship, participatory decision making, equal opportunity, and representativeness of social institutions. (KC)
Article
Height and weight are two of the most commonly used anthropometric measurements in clinical practice and research. Self-reported height and weight measurement is a simple, efficient, inexpensive, and non-invasive method of collecting data from large numbers of people. This integrative review of the published research examined the accuracy of self-reported height and weight measurements in women. Twenty-six studies examined the accuracy of self-reported height in 39,244 women. Twenty-one of the studies found that women overestimate height. Thirty-four studies reviewed the accuracy of self-reported weight in 57,172 women, and all 34 studies reported that women underestimated weight. Although mean variations between self-reported and measured values were small, a significant percentage of women in study groups had very large errors. Inaccurate measurements of both height and weight can cause significant inaccuracies in calculation of body mass index, which is used as a guide for identifying persons at risk for disease. These findings indicate that direct measurement of height and weight should be performed whenever possible for optimal measurements in clinical practice and clinically oriented research.
Article
Environmental noise from energy industry facilities in Alberta, Canada, is regulated by the province's Energy Resources Conservation Board (ERCB) (until 2008 known as the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board [EUB]) as set out in Directive 038: Noise Control. The 2007 edition of the directive, which comprises a comprehensive policy and guide, adopts A-weighted energy equivalent sound levels (L A eq), with sound pressure level criteria, as the primary measurement system for a receptor location. With the receptor being some distance from the energy industry noise source, the high and medium frequency components can dissipate or be absorbed by air and ground conditions, leaving mostly low frequency noise (LFN). Consequently, A-weighted measurements do not reflect the full annoyance potential of the remaining industrial noise. Complaints related to LFN are often described by the affected party as a deep, heavy sound, like "humming," sometimes with an accompanying vibration. In some cases, the direction of the source of the LFN will be unknown to the receptor. However, it is the complainant that is most able to detect the presence of the LFN, signifying a particular sensitivity of the individual to the sound while others in the same family may not be able to detect the sound at all. To make a proper determination for the presence of LFN, the data must be collected during a time when environmental conditions are representative of when the sound is annoying. Residents who are impacted by LFN may suffer from sleep disturbances, headaches, and in some cases chronic fatigue. This paper examines the work undertaken by the ERCB to understand the issue, the various metrics tested to easily identify LFN, and finally the approach that would be incorporated into the new 2007 edition of Directive 038: Noise Control to address the problem.
Article
As wind turbines get larger, worries have emerged that the turbine noise would move down in frequency and that the low-frequency noise would cause annoyance for the neighbors. The noise emission from 48 wind turbines with nominal electric power up to 3.6 MW is analyzed and discussed. The relative amount of low-frequency noise is higher for large turbines (2.3-3.6 MW) than for small turbines (≤ 2 MW), and the difference is statistically significant. The difference can also be expressed as a downward shift of the spectrum of approximately one-third of an octave. A further shift of similar size is suggested for future turbines in the 10-MW range. Due to the air absorption, the higher low-frequency content becomes even more pronounced, when sound pressure levels in relevant neighbor distances are considered. Even when A-weighted levels are considered, a substantial part of the noise is at low frequencies, and for several of the investigated large turbines, the one-third-octave band with the highest level is at or below 250 Hz. It is thus beyond any doubt that the low-frequency part of the spectrum plays an important role in the noise at the neighbors.
Article
Self-report is the most commonly used method for collecting information regarding asthma medication possession and adherence in clinical practice. To determine the agreement between self-report and pharmacy claims data for asthma medication possession. This is a retrospective study that examined pharmacy claims data 12 months before and after participants completed a structured asthma survey. This study was performed in a sample of health care workers and dependents >17 years old in a large, self-insured Midwestern United States health care center. The main outcome measure was agreement (kappa calculation) between self-report and pharmacy claims data of asthma medication possession. Self-report of asthma medication use agreed moderately with pharmacy claims data for short-acting albuterol (κ=0.47 ± 0.03), salmeterol (κ=0.79 ± 0.04), and montelukast (κ=0.69 ± 0.03) but only slightly for inhaled corticosteroids (κ=0.18 ± 0.03) and prednisone (κ=0.10 ± 0.03) (n=1050 respondents). Both under self-reporting and over self-reporting were common with inhaled corticosteroids (14.4% and 23.1%, respectively) and varied significantly by specific drug type. Self-report moderately agrees with asthma medication possession for most adult asthma patients, though the agreement differs considerably between and within asthma medication classes.
Article
Infrasonic sounds are generated internally in the body (by respiration, heartbeat, coughing, etc) and by external sources, such as air conditioning systems, inside vehicles, some industrial processes and, now becoming increasingly prevalent, wind turbines. It is widely assumed that infrasound presented at an amplitude below what is audible has no influence on the ear. In this review, we consider possible ways that low frequency sounds, at levels that may or may not be heard, could influence the function of the ear. The inner ear has elaborate mechanisms to attenuate low frequency sound components before they are transmitted to the brain. The auditory portion of the ear, the cochlea, has two types of sensory cells, inner hair cells (IHC) and outer hair cells (OHC), of which the IHC are coupled to the afferent fibers that transmit "hearing" to the brain. The sensory stereocilia ("hairs") on the IHC are "fluid coupled" to mechanical stimuli, so their responses depend on stimulus velocity and their sensitivity decreases as sound frequency is lowered. In contrast, the OHC are directly coupled to mechanical stimuli, so their input remains greater than for IHC at low frequencies. At very low frequencies the OHC are stimulated by sounds at levels below those that are heard. Although the hair cells in other sensory structures such as the saccule may be tuned to infrasonic frequencies, auditory stimulus coupling to these structures is inefficient so that they are unlikely to be influenced by airborne infrasound. Structures that are involved in endolymph volume regulation are also known to be influenced by infrasound, but their sensitivity is also thought to be low. There are, however, abnormal states in which the ear becomes hypersensitive to infrasound. In most cases, the inner ear's responses to infrasound can be considered normal, but they could be associated with unfamiliar sensations or subtle changes in physiology. This raises the possibility that exposure to the infrasound component of wind turbine noise could influence the physiology of the ear.
Article
The increasing number and size of wind farms call for more data on human response to wind turbine noise, so that a generalized dose-response relationship can be modeled and possible adverse health effects avoided. This paper reports the results of a 2007 field study in The Netherlands with 725 respondents. A dose-response relationship between calculated A-weighted sound pressure levels and reported perception and annoyance was found. Wind turbine noise was more annoying than transportation noise or industrial noise at comparable levels, possibly due to specific sound properties such as a "swishing" quality, temporal variability, and lack of nighttime abatement. High turbine visibility enhances negative response, and having wind turbines visible from the dwelling significantly increased the risk of annoyance. Annoyance was strongly correlated with a negative attitude toward the visual impact of wind turbines on the landscape. The study further demonstrates that people who benefit economically from wind turbines have a significantly decreased risk of annoyance, despite exposure to similar sound levels. Response to wind turbine noise was similar to that found in Sweden so the dose-response relationship should be generalizable.
Article
Self-reported height and weight data are commonly reported within eating disorders research. The aims of this study are to demonstrate the accuracy of self-reported height and weight and to determine whether that accuracy is associated with levels of eating psychopathology among a group of young nonclinical women. One hundred and four women were asked to report their own height and weight. They then completed the Eating Disorders Examination-Questionnaire. Finally, they were weighed and their height was measured in a standardized manner. Accuracy scores for height and weight were calculated by subtracting their actual weight and height from their self-reports. Overall, the women overestimated their heights and underestimated their weights, leading to significant errors in body mass index where self-report is used. Those women with high eating concerns were likely to overestimate their weight, whereas those with high weight concerns were more likely to underestimate it. These data show that self-reports of height and weight are inaccurate in a way that skews any research that depends on them. The errors are influenced by eating psychopathology. These findings highlight the importance of obtaining objective height and weight data, particularly when comparing those data with those of patients with eating disorders.
Article
The tactics used by the tobacco industry to resist government regulation of its products include conducting public relations campaigns, buying scientific and other expertise to create controversy about established facts, funding political parties, hiring lobbyists to influence policy, using front groups and allied industries to oppose tobacco control measures, pre-empting strong legislation by pressing for the adoption of voluntary codes or weaker laws, and corrupting public officials. Formerly secret internal tobacco industry documents provide evidence of a 50-year conspiracy to "resist smoking restrictions, restore smoker confidence and preserve product liability defence". The documents reveal industry-wide collusion on legal, political and socially important issues to the tobacco industry and clearly demonstrate that the industry is not disposed to act ethically or responsibly. Societal action is therefore required to ensure that the public health takes precedence over corporate profits. Recommendations for reducing the political influence of the tobacco industry include the following. Every tobacco company in every market should publicly disclose what it knew about the addictiveness and harm caused by tobacco, when it obtained this information, and what it did about it. The industry should be required to guarantee internationally recognized basic consumer rights to its customers. Trade associations and other industry groupings established to deceive the public should be disbanded. These recommendations should be incorporated into WHO's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.
An Act to enact the Green Energy Act, 2009 and to build a green economy, to repeal the Energy Conservation Leadership Act, 2006 and the Energy Efficiency Act and to amend other statutes, Minister of Energy and Infrastructure
Bill 150. (2009). An Act to enact the Green Energy Act, 2009 and to build a green economy, to repeal the Energy Conservation Leadership Act, 2006 and the Energy Efficiency Act and to amend other statutes, Minister of Energy and Infrastructure. Retrieved from http://www.ontla.on.ca/web/bills/bills_detail. do?locale=en&BillID=2145&isCurrent=&BillStagePrintId=4 205&btnSubmit=go
Part I: Wind tower neighbor bought out for health reasons
  • C Braithwaite
Braithwaite, C. (2009a, December 22). Part I: Wind tower neighbor bought out for health reasons. The Chronicle. Retrieved from http://www.bartonchronicle.com/index.php/wind-power-general/ wind-tower-neighbor-bought-out-for-health-reasons.html
wind-power-general/low-frequency-soundstray-voltage-are-suspects-in-ill-effects-of-wind-turbines .html The Canadian Press
  • C Braithwaite
Braithwaite, C. (2009b, December 22). Part II: Low-frequency sound, stray voltage, are suspects in ill effects of wind turbines. The Chronicle. Retrieved from http://www.bartonchronicle. com/index.php/wind-power-general/low-frequency-soundstray-voltage-are-suspects-in-ill-effects-of-wind-turbines .html The Canadian Press. (2011, January). Wind farm appeal could set precedent: Lawyer. Retrieved from http://ipolitics.ca/2011/01/10/ wind-farm-appeal-could-set-precedent-lawyer/
Scientists conclude that there is no evidence that wind turbines have an adverse impact on human health
Canadian Wind Energy Association. (2008, October 6). Scientists conclude that there is no evidence that wind turbines have an adverse impact on human health. Retrieved from http://www .canwea.ca/media/release/release_e.php?newsId=37
Addressing concerns with wind turbines and human health
Canadian Wind Energy Association. (2009a, April). Addressing concerns with wind turbines and human health. Retrieved from http://www.canwea.ca/pdf/CanWEA%20-%20Addressing%20 concerns%20with%20wind%20turbines%20and%20human%20 health.pdf
CanWEA EBR Posting 010-6516. Proposed Ministry of the Environment regulations to implement the Green Energy and Green Economy Act. 2009)-CanWEA's Supplemental Submission Dated
Canadian Wind Energy Association. (2009b). CanWEA EBR Posting 010-6516. Proposed Ministry of the Environment regulations to implement the Green Energy and Green Economy Act. 2009)-CanWEA's Supplemental Submission Dated July 24, 2009, EBR Comment ID 123788. Signed Robert Hornung President.
Report: The potential health impact of wind turbines
Chief Medical Officer of Health. (2010, May). Report: The potential health impact of wind turbines. Retrieved from http:// www.health.gov.on.ca/en/public/publications/ministry_reports/ wind_turbine/wind_turbine.pdf
Sound and health wind energy workshop
  • W D Colby
Colby, W. D. (2010, March 4). Sound and health wind energy workshop. Halifax, Nova Scotia: Canada: Nova Scotia Department of Energy.
Wind turbine sound and health effects: An expert panel review 2009. Prepared for American Wind Energy Association and Canadian Wind Energy Association
  • W D Colby
  • R Dobie
  • G Leventhall
  • D M Lipscomb
  • R J Mccunney
  • M T Seilo
  • B Søndergaard
Colby, W. D., Dobie, R., Leventhall, G., Lipscomb, D. M., McCunney, R. J., Seilo, M. T., & Søndergaard, B. (2009). Wind turbine sound and health effects: An expert panel review 2009. Prepared for American Wind Energy Association and Canadian Wind Energy Association. Retrieved from http://www.canwea .ca/pdf/talkwind/Wind_Turbine_Sound_and_Health_Effects.pdf The Council of Ontario Universities. (2010, February). Press release. Retrieved from http://www.newswire.ca/en/releases/archive/ February2010/16/c2268.html
An Act to enact the Green Energy Act
  • P Gallant
Gallant, P. (2011, March 3). Time to deep-six the Green Energy Act. Financial Post. Retrieved from http://opinion.financialpost. com/2011/03/03/parker-gallant-time-to-deep-six-the-greenenergy-act/ Green Energy and Economy Act. (2009). An Act to enact the Green Energy Act, 2009 and to build a green economy, to repeal the Energy Conservation Leadership Act, 2006 and the Energy Efficiency Act and to amend other statutes.
Legislative assembly, first session, 39th parliament première session, official report
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