Article

Cultural Diversity at Work: The Effects of Diversity Perspectives on Work Group Processes and Outcomes

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Abstract

This paper develops theory about the conditions under which cultural diversity enhances or detracts from work group functioning. From qualitative research in three culturally diverse organizations, we identified three different perspectives on workforce diversity: the integration-and-learning perspective, the access-and-legitimacy perspective, and the discrimination-and-fairness perspective. The perspective on diversity a work group held influenced how people expressed and managed tensions related to diversity, whether those who had been traditionally underrepresented in the organization felt respected and valued by their colleagues, and how people interpreted the meaning of their racial identity at work. These, in turn, had implications for how well the work group and its members functioned. All three perspectives on diversity had been successful in motivating managers to diversify their staffs, but only the integration-and-learning perspective provided the rationale and guidance needed to achieve sustained benefits from diversity. By identifying the conditions that intervene between the demographic composition of a work group and its functioning, our research helps to explain mixed results on the relationship between cultural diversity and work group outcomes.

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... When it comes to optimism about their futures, minority members (who are special) with established networks (and a strong sense of belonging) are especially upbeat (Friedman, Kane, & Cornfield, 1998). Different teams that adopt an integration and learning perspective incorporate uniqueness (by viewing diversity as resource) and belongingness (at the group level) both at the individual and group level (through members feeling valued and respected; Ely & Thomas, 2001). groups that focus on integrating and learning produce high-quality analyses, are better equipped to facilitate cross-organizational collaboration, and give members the opportunity to grow (Ely & Thomas, 2001). ...
... Different teams that adopt an integration and learning perspective incorporate uniqueness (by viewing diversity as resource) and belongingness (at the group level) both at the individual and group level (through members feeling valued and respected; Ely & Thomas, 2001). groups that focus on integrating and learning produce high-quality analyses, are better equipped to facilitate cross-organizational collaboration, and give members the opportunity to grow (Ely & Thomas, 2001). ...
... Employees with unique and rare capabilities who are not considered or treated as organizational insiders may exist in some organizational settings. This scenario is reflected in Ely and Thomas's (2001) qualitative study of racially diverse work groups, which takes an access-and-legitimacy perspective. Work groups that adopted this viewpoint recognized the value of diversity as a means of reaching specific markets, but minority members were not considered to be part of the organization's larger culture and were subject to isolation and race-based stereotypes (Ely & Thomas, 2001). ...
Chapter
People who can use critical and creative thinking to solve problems as a group are in high demand today and tomorrow. The way knowledge is acquired, constructed, and communicated has undergone radical change as a result of technological advancements. It's debatable whether education can produce critical and creative thinkers who can meet the demands of today's social and economic world and those of the future. Computers and smart devices, on the other hand, put students' learning at risk by undermining the authority of teachers in the classroom. This has led to the use of terms like guide, facilitator, and coach in place of the word teacher. Schools are well-known for being children's learning environments. However, it's unclear how much they actually learn or how much of it is aided by modern technology. In an era where people are constantly exposed to technology at work, school, and elsewhere, smart devices and technological tools have advanced far too quickly. Education research and pedagogical approaches that incorporate education technologies have progressed faster than the advancements in the everyday technological devices that we use. Thus, utilizing technologies in education has the potential to ensure innovation in educational activities. The goal of this research is to demonstrate that educational innovation must be handled with care. If you'd like to create innovative learning environments, you'll need to review previous studies on innovation as a pre-requisite and revise your strategies for successfully adapting technology to the field of education. To summarize, innovation is critical in reshaping and reconstructing learning environments, curricula, the teacher's role, and teacher training.
... When it comes to optimism about their futures, minority members (who are special) with established networks (and a strong sense of belonging) are especially upbeat (Friedman, Kane, & Cornfield, 1998). Different teams that adopt an integration and learning perspective incorporate uniqueness (by viewing diversity as resource) and belongingness (at the group level) both at the individual and group level (through members feeling valued and respected; Ely & Thomas, 2001). groups that focus on integrating and learning produce high-quality analyses, are better equipped to facilitate cross-organizational collaboration, and give members the opportunity to grow (Ely & Thomas, 2001). ...
... Different teams that adopt an integration and learning perspective incorporate uniqueness (by viewing diversity as resource) and belongingness (at the group level) both at the individual and group level (through members feeling valued and respected; Ely & Thomas, 2001). groups that focus on integrating and learning produce high-quality analyses, are better equipped to facilitate cross-organizational collaboration, and give members the opportunity to grow (Ely & Thomas, 2001). ...
... Employees with unique and rare capabilities who are not considered or treated as organizational insiders may exist in some organizational settings. This scenario is reflected in Ely and Thomas's (2001) qualitative study of racially diverse work groups, which takes an access-and-legitimacy perspective. Work groups that adopted this viewpoint recognized the value of diversity as a means of reaching specific markets, but minority members were not considered to be part of the organization's larger culture and were subject to isolation and race-based stereotypes (Ely & Thomas, 2001). ...
Chapter
Digital technology has had a profound and long-lasting impact on organizations. Digitalization is reshaping organizations, the workplace, and processes in the same way that movable type printing did in the 1800s, posing new problems for leaders to solve. Scholars in the social sciences have been working to unravel the complexities of this complex phenomenon, but their findings have been dispersed and fragmented across different fields, with no clear picture emerging. As a result of this gap in the literature, and in order to promote greater clarity and alignment in the academic debate, this paper examines the contributions made by studies on leadership and digitalization, identifying common themes and findings across various social science disciplines, such as management and psychology. In addition to defining key terms and concepts, it also highlights the most important theories and conclusions reached by academics. As a result, it distinguishes between categories that group papers according to the macro level of analysis (e-leadership and organization), the micro level of analysis (leadership skills in the digital age, and practices for leading virtual teams), and the macro level of analysis (ethical and social movements). Researchers found that leaders are crucial to the development of digital culture because they need to build relationships with numerous and dispersed stakeholders while also focusing on enabling collaborative processes in complex settings while also attending to pressing ethical concerns. A major contribution of this study is that it offers an extensive and systematic review of the digital transformation debate, as well as identifying important future research opportunities to advance knowledge in this field.
... Cluster 3, in blue color, consists of authors who have focused on cultural diversity and diversity inclusion programs. This cluster has a mix of conceptual and empirical studies that contributed to major themes like cultural diversity (Cox and Blake, 1991;Ely and Thomas, 2001;Richard, 2000) and diversity programs (Kalev et al., 2006). Cox and Blake (1991) identified how cultural diversity could lead to business performance and create a competitive advantage through six business performance dimensions like cost, resource acquisition, marketing, creativity, problem-solving and organizational flexibility in multicultural organizations. ...
... Richard (2000) has examined the relationship between cultural diversity, business strategy and firm performance based on the resource-based view (Barney, 1996) approach. Next, Ely and Thomas (2001) have developed three cultural diversity perspectives: discrimination-fairness, access-legitimacy and the integration-learning approach. Discrimination and fairness perspectives propose equal recruitment and promotion opportunities to a multicultural workforce, eliminating discrimination and ensuring justice and fair treatment. ...
... During the first sub-period, researchers focused on discrimination-fairness and access-legitimacy paradigms to manage demographic differences, and neither of them enhanced the inclusion and learning approach (Mannix and Neale, 2005). Therefore, Ely and Thomas (2001) have suggested integration and learning perspectives to change the organizational culture and shift the traditional methods of dealing with diversity toward a more effective and learningbased view. Next, the conceptual work of Van Knippenberg et al. (2004) has integrated socialcategorization and decision-making theory as the two contradicting perspectives of diversity and developed a categorization-elaboration model of workgroup diversity. ...
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Purpose-Diversity management has gained researchers' and practitioners' attention because of its competitive advantage and performance outcomes in an organization. Despite increasing literature, there is no common understanding of the evolution and intellectual structure of diversity management. Therefore, this study aims to identify the leading works and analyze the changes in diversity management research's knowledge structure. Design/methodology/approach-This study adopts a novel approach using bibliometric methods to analyze the 785 papers published between 1990 and 2019. Bibliometric analysis is applied to identify the seminal work using the bibliometrix package. Findings-The bibliometric network visualization findings have highlighted the most influential works, prominent authors, theoretical insights, current research trends and gaps. Several clusters are extracted from bibliometric networks, and cluster analysis has integrated the different unconnected subfields and highlighted the major theme explored in diversity management research. Originality/value-This is the first bibliometric study that explored the intellectual structure of diversity management research. This study has provided theoretical and practical contributions for academicians and human resource practitioners and suggested future research avenues.
... Organizational diversity cases explain why an organization as a whole values diversity (as opposed to representing the views of any individual or team). As such, we conceptualize them as an organization-level construct that fundamentally differs from wellknown constructs capturing the beliefs that individuals or teams within an organization may hold about diversity in relation to workgroup functioning, such as diversity attitudes and beliefs (De Meuse & Hostager, 2001;Homan et al., 2007Homan et al., , 2010van Dick et al., 2008;van Knippenberg et al., 2007), diversity mindsets (van Knippenberg, van Ginkel, & Homan, 2013), or diversity perspectives (Ely & Thomas, 2001). For instance, the three diversity perspectives ("integration-and-learning," "access-and-legitimacy," and "discrimination-and-fairness") documented by Ely and Thomas (2001) in their seminal paper capture a range of beliefs that teams within organizations may hold about the role and value of diversity in their workgroup, regardless of what their company publicly says about diversity. ...
... As such, we conceptualize them as an organization-level construct that fundamentally differs from wellknown constructs capturing the beliefs that individuals or teams within an organization may hold about diversity in relation to workgroup functioning, such as diversity attitudes and beliefs (De Meuse & Hostager, 2001;Homan et al., 2007Homan et al., , 2010van Dick et al., 2008;van Knippenberg et al., 2007), diversity mindsets (van Knippenberg, van Ginkel, & Homan, 2013), or diversity perspectives (Ely & Thomas, 2001). For instance, the three diversity perspectives ("integration-and-learning," "access-and-legitimacy," and "discrimination-and-fairness") documented by Ely and Thomas (2001) in their seminal paper capture a range of beliefs that teams within organizations may hold about the role and value of diversity in their workgroup, regardless of what their company publicly says about diversity. In contrast to this team-level construct, organizational diversity cases are publicly stated explanations for why the organization as a whole values diversity. ...
... A core theoretical contribution of this work for diversity science is to pivot the field's focus from solely investigating the veracity of the business case for diversity to interrogating its consequences-as well as those of alternative organizational diversity cases. Our findings are especially meaningful because they show how organizational communications may shape underrepresented group members and women's outlook on a given organization prior to any interaction with individuals or teams in the organization, which means even earlier than past research has documented (Ely & Thomas, 2001;Homan et al., 2007; This document is copyrighted by the American Psychological Association or one of its allied publishers. ...
Article
Many organizations offer justifications for why diversity matters, that is, organizational diversity cases. We investigated their content, prevalence, and consequences for underrepresented groups. We identified the business case, an instrumental rhetoric claiming that diversity is valuable for organizational performance, and the fairness case, a noninstrumental rhetoric justifying diversity as the right thing to do. Using an algorithmic classification, Study 1 (N = 410) found that the business case is far more prevalent than the fairness case among the Fortune 500. Extending theories of social identity threat, we next predicted that the business case (vs. fairness case, or control) undermines underrepresented groups' anticipated sense of belonging to, and thus interest in joining organizations-an effect driven by social identity threat. Study 2 (N = 151) found that LGBTQ+ professionals randomly assigned to read an organization's business (vs. fairness) case anticipated lower belonging, and in turn, less attraction to said organization. Study 3 (N = 371) conceptually replicated this experiment among female (but not male) Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) job seekers. Study 4 (N = 509) replicated these findings among STEM women, and documented the hypothesized process of social identity threat. Study 5 (N = 480) found that the business (vs. fairness and control) case similarly undermines African American students' belonging. Study 6 (N = 1,019) replicated Study 5 using a minimal manipulation, and tested these effects' generalizability to Whites. Together, these findings suggest that despite its seeming positivity, the most prevalent organizational diversity case functions as a cue of social identity threat that paradoxically undermines belonging across LGBTQ+ individuals, STEM women, and African Americans, thus hindering organizations' diversity goals. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).
... When it comes to optimism about their futures, minority members (who are special) with established networks (and a strong sense of belonging) are especially upbeat (Friedman, Kane, & Cornfield, 1998). Different teams that adopt an integration and learning perspective incorporate uniqueness (by viewing diversity as resource) and belongingness (at the group level) both at the individual and group level (through members feeling valued and respected; Ely & Thomas, 2001). groups that focus on integrating and learning produce high-quality analyses, are better equipped to facilitate cross-organizational collaboration, and give members the opportunity to grow (Ely & Thomas, 2001). ...
... Different teams that adopt an integration and learning perspective incorporate uniqueness (by viewing diversity as resource) and belongingness (at the group level) both at the individual and group level (through members feeling valued and respected; Ely & Thomas, 2001). groups that focus on integrating and learning produce high-quality analyses, are better equipped to facilitate cross-organizational collaboration, and give members the opportunity to grow (Ely & Thomas, 2001). ...
... Employees with unique and rare capabilities who are not considered or treated as organizational insiders may exist in some organizational settings. This scenario is reflected in Ely and Thomas's (2001) qualitative study of racially diverse work groups, which takes an access-and-legitimacy perspective. Work groups that adopted this viewpoint recognized the value of diversity as a means of reaching specific markets, but minority members were not considered to be part of the organization's larger culture and were subject to isolation and race-based stereotypes (Ely & Thomas, 2001). ...
... To understand the effectiveness of diversity efforts, scholars have shifted to examinations of the conditions under which such efforts succeed or struggle. Evidence suggests that diversity outcomes rely on employees' perspectives about diversity (Ely & Thomas, 2001). Meaning, in order to transition from passive into active representation (Lim, 2006), employees' ideas and attitudes need to align with and support diversity initiatives. ...
... Meaning, in order to transition from passive into active representation (Lim, 2006), employees' ideas and attitudes need to align with and support diversity initiatives. When diversity is viewed as a tool to enhance work processes via learning, an 'integration-and-learning perspective,' long-term benefits are possible (Ely & Thomas, 2001). ...
... In many countries, the number of ethnically diverse employees is growing due to skilled labor shortages, a global labor market, poverty in some developing countries, and armed conflicts in several areas around the world (Chand & Tung, 2014;ILO, 2018;OECD, 2012). If supported by managers and the organization, ethnic diversity at work can have many advantages such as increased creativity, innovation, and performance (Cooke & Saini, 2010, 2012Ely & Thomas, 2001;Olsen et al., 2021). Despite these potential advantages, many organizations consider managing employees from ethnic minority backgrounds a challenge, because they lack understanding of these employees' experiences in the workplace (Avery, McKay, & Wilson, 2008;Syed & Pio, 2010). ...
... In a diversity-friendly environment, employees believe differences among employees are respected (Kossek et al., 2006). They believe they can benefit and learn from different perspectives and ways of thinking (Ely & Thomas, 2001;Nishi, 2013). In inclusive workplace environments, employees are valued for who they are as people (Mor Barak, 2000) and believe they can learn from each other (McKay, Avery, & Morris, 2009). ...
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Prior research indicates that employees from ethnic minority backgrounds are more likely to experience depression and other mental health problems than their ethnic majority counterparts. To understand what drives these negative outcomes, we integrate research on ethnic minorities at work with the job demands-resources (JDR) model. Based on the JDR model, we consider climate for inclusion as a key job resource for ethnic minority employees that mitigates the deleterious effects of ethnic minority status on job self-efficacy, perceived job demands, and depressive symptoms. We conducted a two-wave survey study (Time 1: N = 771; Time 2: N = 299, six months apart) with employees from five medium sized not-for-profit and local government organizations in Australia. Our empirical results indicate that ethnic minorities report a higher job-self-efficacy and fewer depressive symptoms when they perceive a high climate for inclusion.
... Gender mainstreaming is a dynamic process of change which calls for flexibility in planning and implementation, with many feedback loops to handle the unforeseen results and developments that will occur during transformation. In line with Ely and Thomas (2001), who analysed different diversity strategies, it is suggested here that the so-called integration-and-learning perspective can be a beneficial way of supporting mainstreaming. According to this approach, the talents, viewpoints, and experiences of all organization members can provide valuable resources for success and sustainable performance. ...
... This perspective stresses on diversity as an important resource for organizational learning and change. Ely and Thomas (2001) found that when the integration-and-learning perspective was followed, people reported feeling valued and respected by other organization members. Additionally, the researchers emphasize that work practices and processes need to be designed so that they facilitate constructive intergroup conflict, and the exploration of diverse views. ...
Chapter
In this chapter, I will discuss gender equality with a focus on schools of management. First, to give some background, I look at the gender gap in different countries. Some country comparisons are introduced, and special attention is paid to the situation in India. Next, I present some key constructs concerning women in the context of management, as well as arguments for the importance of advancing gender equality in this context. Although it is widely accepted that gender equality in general is crucial to the sustainable development, prosperity, and wellbeing of societies, organizations, and individuals (Sen, 1985; The Sustainable Development Goals, 2015; The Global Gender Gap Report, 2020), it is still not unusual to hear that the topic is irrelevant, even insignificant. Finally, I propose a framework for how management schools can develop gender equality in their organizational activities. I hope that the discussion in this paper will encourage critical reflection of the assumptions, actions, and traditions that inhibit gender equality, not only in schools of management, but also more generally in society.
... This article argues that a proactive diversity strategy is ideal for an organization to maximize the benefits of diversity. Organizations that follow a proactive diversity strategy have a comprehensive, inclusive view of diversity (Golembiewski, 1995;Holladay et al., 2003), respect diversity, incorporate concepts of diversity and inclusion into their organizational culture (Allen & Montgomery, 2001;Cunningham & Singer, 2011), provide open communication channels to a diverse workforce that occupies various leadership roles (Doherty & Chelladurai, 1999;Ely & Thomas, 2001), and routinely adopt policies to apply diversity-related positive outcomes (Cunningham, 2004;Doherty & Chelladurai, 1999;Fink & Pastore, 1999). In general, it has been argued that the gains of diversity are more achievable when an organization adopts a proactive diversity strategy (Cunningham, 2009, 2011.1). ...
... Several scholars have suggested specific types of diversity "lenses" that explain different ways of approaching diversity in organizations. The evidence base for these conclusions range from small case studies (Ely and Thomas, 2001) and findings from focus groups (Fraser et al., 2010), to more extensive data collections (Podsiadlowski et al., 2013). In a review of diversity studies, Dwertmann et al. (2016) categorize approaches to studying diversity into the fairness perspective and the synergy perspective. ...
Article
Full-text available
Aim To explore leaders’ perceptions and experiences of facilitators and barriers for successful workplace inclusion of immigrants, unemployed youths, and people who are outside the labor market due to health issues. Methods Semi-structured individual interviews with 16 leaders who actively engaged in inclusion work, representing different occupations, were conducted. Systematic Text Condensation was used to structure the analysis. Results The participating leaders emphasized that job match, including their perception of workers’ motivation, respect for workplace policies, and the availability of appropriate accommodation at the workplace, facilitated work inclusion. An active public support system providing professional and financial support to workers and leaders was also an important facilitating factor. The leaders emphasized that their perception of workers’ lack of motivation for the job was the most important barrier in their own hiring and inclusion engagement. Successful inclusion depended on all workers acknowledging responsibility for and contributing to an inclusive work environment. Being open and willing to discuss challenges was an important part of making the inclusion work. In addition, leadership qualities, such as empathy, patience, and a non-judgmental attitude, appeared as a hallmark among these leaders who actively engaged in inclusion work. Conclusion Workplace inclusion of this population of marginalized people was facilitated by job match, mutual respect, commitment, and trust, as well as financial and practical support from the public support system. Leaders’ inclusion practices were furthermore affected by personal attitudes and perceptions of social responsibility. Even so, successful workplace inclusion was presented as a two-way street. Leaders have the main responsibility in initiating a respectful and trusting relationship, but both the worker and the leader needs to contribute to make the relationship thrive.
... Yet at the same time these researchers also identified an independent pathway whereby employees' identification with their workgroup was a significant predictor (r = 0.56) of willingness to embrace the specific safety culture of that group. This speaks to the importance of alignment of identities: within any given organisation there is never just 'one' safety culture (Edmondson, 2004; see also Ely & Thomas, 2001;Peters et al., 2012) and intergroup dynamics of a form discussed by Tajfel and Turner (1979) can lead work teams to seek either to contrast themselves from other groups in ways that depart from goals of high reliability (Andersen et al., 2015), or to align themselves in ways that support high reliability. An organisation that fails to understand these social psychological realities is unlikely to be able to get to grips with them and, as Anderson et al. (2018) contend, this is a recipe for disaster. ...
Article
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This paper explains how contemporary psychological theorising can be brought to bear on the challenges of creating and sustaining high-reliability organisations (HROs). Building on a large body of theory and evidence in the social identity tradition, we argue that social identity processes are critical to the creation of HROs. In particular, (a) the psychology of organisational members needs to be informed by a sense of shared social identity (a sense of “us-ness”) such that their actions are underpinned by collective mind in ways discussed by Weick and Roberts (1993), (b) social identities need to be aligned across the organisation, and (c) the content of social identities needs to be informed by a sense that high-reliability behaviours are central to “who we are” and “what we do”. In light of this, we argue that HROs are created by identity leadership which allows organisations to narrow the gap between “who we are” and “who want to be” through the pursuit of high-reliability goals. Critically, identity leadership serves to inspire the engaged followership necessary to achieve these goals, whilst also being sensitive to structural affordances and barriers. These insights are integrated within a Social Identity Model of HROs (SIM-HRO) which provides an integrative framework to inform theory and practice in the field.
... Basing on this, Previous Research has yielded inconsistent results about the relationship between diversity and performance. for example, some scholars have revealed the influence of social or functional diversity on team performance (Horwitz & Horwitz, 2007;Ely & Thomas, 2001;Lu, Chen, Huang, & Chien, 2015;Martins, Schilpzand, Kirkman, Ivanaj, & Ivana, 2012).While, Others have argued that higher levels of diversity have no or less positive organizational outcomes (Kochan, et al., 2003). Hence, This study focuses on specific diversity aspect which is "Cognitive diversity ". ...
... Thus, assorted variety endeavors are coordinated for the most part toward digestion/homogeneity (Brazzel, 2003;Lockwood, 2005 (Brazzel, 2003). It can appear as mix and-realizing which regards social contrasts as significant resources that company utilizes it as their competitive advantage (Ely & Thomas, 2001). An association can use a more extensive scope of information, aptitudes, and abilities from various social encounters based on Knowledge assorted variety. ...
Research
Thinking about managing the “Talent”, this research's focal point is the examination of the elite talented workforce’s perception or behavior for the framework of managing the “Talent” aligning with the positive psychological outcome. Our inspection is managing “Talent” as an augmentation of the continuous social trade between the employer-employee and from managing “Talent”, desires for future social trade are elevated by both the business and the workforce. The research framework at this point is the exchanges based on social harmony among employer-employee, which is hypothesized to be operationalized through the workforce mental agreement by their employee well-being based on high performers and potentials strategy of “Talent Management”. Our current research dynamics focused on the association between “Talent Management” with Employee well-being, which develops the new positive psychological contract between employer-employee, linking to the broader agenda of analyzing, what happens in practice when Corporate Entrepreneurship and Diversity Climate in terms of Workforce, mediates the proceeding line of comprehension, subjected to Registered Engineers of Pakistan Engineering Council (PEC, 2020), and concluded that the association between “Talent Management” and “Employee Well-being” is positively mediated by “Corporate Entrepreneurship”, which is statistically proved to be true, when evaluating the analysis on PLS-SEM software, concluding to be Partial Meditated Framework. This examination adds to the assemblage of information in regards to the performance-potential framework of the engineering society in Pakistan. In particular, it features the difficulties in the South Asia Employment disparities in a framework, which can be soothed when considering the relationship between “Talent Management” with “Employee Well-Being”, mediated by “Corporate Entrepreneurship”, which leverages the organization to open its doors for new dimensions. Keywords: Talent Management, Employee Wellbeing, Corporate Entrepreneurship, Diversity Climate, Pakistan Engineering Council, Engineers
... Thus, assorted variety endeavors are coordinated for the most part toward digestion/homogeneity (Brazzel, 2003;Lockwood, 2005 (Brazzel, 2003). It can appear as mix and-realizing which regards social contrasts as significant resources that company utilizes it as their competitive advantage (Ely & Thomas, 2001). An association can use a more extensive scope of information, aptitudes, and abilities from various social encounters based on Knowledge assorted variety. ...
Thesis
Thinking about managing the “Talent”, the focal point of this research dedicates itself towards the examination of elite talented workforce’s perception or behavior for the framework of managing the “Talent” aligning with the positive psychological outcomes. Our inspection is managing “Talent” as an augmentation of the continuous social trade between the employer-employee and from managing “Talent”, desires for future social trade are elevated by both the business and the workforce. The research framework at this point is the exchanges based on social harmony among employer-employee, which is hypothesized to be operationalized through the workforce mental agreement by their employee well-being based on high performers and potentials strategy of “Talent Management”. Our current research dynamics focused on the association between “Talent Management” with Employee Wellbeing, that develops the new positive psychological contract between employer-employee, linking to the broader agenda of analyzing, what happens in practice when Corporate Entrepreneurship and Diversity Climate in terms of Workforce mediates the proceeding line of comprehension, subjected to Registered Engineers of Pakistan Engineering Council (PEC, 2020), and concluded that the association between “Talent Management” and “Employee Well-being” is positively mediated by “Corporate Entrepreneurship”, which is statistically proved to be true, when evaluating the analysis on PLS-SEM software, concluding to be Partial Meditated Framework. This examination adds to the assemblage of information in regards to the performance-potential framework of the engineering society in Pakistan. In particular, it features the difficulties in the South Asia Employment disparities in a framework, which can be soothed when considering the relationship between “Talent Management” with “Employee Well-Being”, mediated by “Corporate Entrepreneurship”, which leverages the organization to open its doors for new dimensions. Keywords: Talent Management, Employee Wellbeing, Corporate Entrepreneurship, Diversity Climate, Pakistan Engineering Council, Engineers
... In the diversity literature, inclusion is defined as the degree to which individuals are treated as insiders and allowed and encouraged to retain uniqueness and belonging within a group (Shore et al., 2011). Inclusive environments are then described as places where individuals of all backgrounds are fairly treated, valued for who they are, and included in core decision making (Ely & Thomas, 2001;Nishii, 2013). While such inclusion practices "create greater equality" (Shore et al., 2011(Shore et al., , p. 1281) within organizations, we argue that inclusive participation in the design of a field will also help address inequality at a systemic level. ...
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Despite recognizing the importance of impact investing in combating complex societal challenges, researchers have yet to examine the capacity of the field to address systemic inequality. While impact investments are intended to benefit vulnerable stakeholders, the voices of those stakeholders are generally overlooked in the design and implementation of such investments. To resolve this oversight, we theorize how the fields’ design—through its tools, organizations, and field-level bodies—influences its capacity to address inequality by focusing on the concept of giving voice, which we define as the inclusive participation of vulnerable stakeholders in decision-making processes. We build from stakeholder engagement research to show how the design of impact investing can address inequality using three illustrative cases: social impact bonds, impact investing funds, and national advisory boards. We conclude with a discussion of how the ethical decision of giving voice to vulnerable stakeholders will determine the capacity of the field to address inequality, as well as provide implications for future research and practice.
... The business, or value-in-diversity, case provides mixed research findings, partially due to distinctions and tensions among individual, work group and organizational outcomes. Many studies examine only one or a few diversity forms, such as race or gender, providing inconsistent results, hindering generalizability (Ely and Thomas 2001). Herring (2009) found associations of gender and racial diversity with multiple outcomes related to sales and profitability. ...
Article
Companies evaluate LGBT policy adoption in an environment with competing and often contradictory societal institutions and ethical frames. This makes the adoption process more difficult to understand when compared to new practice diffusion in less contested settings, providing an opportunity to examine diffusion in an uncertain and varying institutional environment. Herein, we develop a policy adoption model that examines both competing and reinforcing forces. Utilizing a longitudinal dataset of LGBT policy adoption by 283 firms across 1980 firm-years between 2002 and 2014 as measured by the Human Rights Campaign (HRC), we find that firms respond to coercive, social constructivist, and competitive forces for and against LGBT-inclusive work policy adoption. We find that coercive forces exercised by shareholder resolutions and competitive forces driven by industry-level policy adoption lead to firm-level policy adoption. However, other forces, such as state-level anti-marriage equality constitutional amendments, are associated with LGBT-exclusive policies. We also disaggregate the overall HRC policy data into equal employment opportunity (EEO) policy, benefits, and inclusion dimensions and find similarities and differences among our hypothesized relationships.
... However, Kreitz (2008) subsumed all these points by the defining diversity as any significant difference that distinguishes one individual from another, covering a wide variety of factors that might be obvious to other individuals or hidden under the surface. (Ely, R. J., & Thomas, 2001) stated that diversity is a characteristic of a group of two or more people and typically refers to demographic differences of one sort or another among group members. ...
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The study is on the Antecedents of Perceived Organisational Politics and Psychological Withdrawal. The objectives of the study are to examine the antecedents of perceived organisational politics as well as to assess the relationship between POP and psychological withdrawal. Although many studies on the antecedents and consequences of POP have been reported, the antecedents and Psychological withdrawal mentioned herein was not examined previously by any study in the North East of Nigeria. To collect primary data questionnaires were developed and distributed. The collected data were analyzed using SEM-AMOS. The Findings from this study indicates that workforce diversity have positive impacts and significant relationship with POP while the need for power have negative influence on POP. Further findings show that employees who perceive politics in their work place, develop psychological withdrawal in terms of job anxiety and low organisational commitment. Conclusively understanding POP and it consequence will go a long way in reducing its negative effects on employee's performance. This study recommended that, to control the unfavorable consequences of POP, organizations must design effective policies to manage workforce diversities and relationship conflicts.
... Thus, assorted variety endeavors are coordinated for the most part toward digestion/homogeneity (Brazzel, 2003;Lockwood, 2005 (Brazzel, 2003). It can appear as mix and-realizing which regards social contrasts as significant resources that company utilizes it as their competitive advantage (Ely & Thomas, 2001). An association can use a more extensive scope of information, aptitudes, and abilities from various social encounters based on Knowledge assorted variety. ...
Thesis
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Thinking about managing the “Talent”, this research's focal point is the examination of the elite talented workforce’s perception or behavior for the framework of managing the “Talent” aligning with the positive psychological outcome. Our inspection is managing “Talent” as an augmentation of the continuous social trade between the employer-employee and from managing “Talent”, desires for future social trade are elevated by both the business and the workforce. The research framework at this point is the exchanges based on social harmony among employer-employee, which is hypothesized to be operationalized through the workforce mental agreement by their employee well-being based on high performers and potentials strategy of “Talent Management”. Our current research dynamics focused on the association between “Talent Management” with Employee well-being, which develops the new positive psychological contract between employer-employee, linking to the broader agenda of analyzing, what happens in practice when Corporate Entrepreneurship and Diversity Climate in terms of Workforce, mediates the proceeding line of comprehension, subjected to Registered Engineers of Pakistan Engineering Council (PEC, 2020), and concluded that the association between “Talent Management” and “Employee Well-being” is positively mediated by “Corporate Entrepreneurship”, which is statistically proved to be true, when evaluating the analysis on PLS-SEM software, concluding to be Partial Meditated Framework. This examination adds to the assemblage of information in regards to the performance-potential framework of the engineering society in Pakistan. In particular, it features the difficulties in the South Asia Employment disparities in a framework, which can be soothed when considering the relationship between “Talent Management” with “Employee Well-Being”, mediated by “Corporate Entrepreneurship”, which leverages the organization to open its doors for new dimensions. Keywords: Talent Management, Employee Wellbeing, Corporate Entrepreneurship, Diversity Climate, Pakistan Engineering Council, Engineers
... Consistent with these views, Richard, Murthi, and Ismail (2007) and Ely and Thomas (2001) have shown that as gender diversity increases, the tendency is towards social comparison and categorization, with a rise in in-group/out-group formation as well as cognitive bias. Studies such as Matsa and Miller (2013); Ahern and Dittmar (2012); and Richard et al. (2004) also find evidence to suggest that gender diversity hampers productivity and reduces efficiency. ...
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We revisit predictions about the relationship between gender diversity and firm productivity using data on 1,082 manufacturing firms from six Sub-Saharan African countries: Ghana, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia and Kenya. Recent evidence suggests that a gender-diverse workforce opens up a firm to a vast range of talent, knowledge and perspectives critical to enhancing innovation and problem solving, and thereby, increasing firm productivity. Given the importance of manufacturing for employment and structural transformation in Africa, we test the gender diversity–productivity proposition by exploring structural differences (heterogeneity) across manufacturing firms using the Industry without Smokestacks (IWOSS) classification. We find that while gender diversity promotes firm productivity at lower levels, this effect is displaced with further increases. Our results did not show that IWOSS firms do any better in promoting the diversity–productivity link. Implications of this finding and areas for future studies are also discussed.
... For example, change models (e.g., Kotter, 2012) emphasize that the first step of successful change is to establish urgency (i.e., the need for change). Although seminal work by Ely and Thomas (2001) identifies three perspectives motivating diversity in teams/organizations (i.e., integration and learning, access and legitimacy, and discrimination and fairness), little is known about how these approaches may be applied to motivate action on gender equality. Future research may explore how these perspectives should be communicated/promoted, their relative efficacy, and the role of conditional factors such as stakeholders and change agent characteristics (status, beliefs, experiences, etc.) in successfully creating urgency for progress toward gender equality (e.g., Warren et al., 2022). ...
Article
Despite the mounting research on gender inequality in the workplace, progress toward gender parity in organizational practice has stalled. We suggest that one reason for the lack of progress is that empirical research has predominately focused on the antecedents and manifestations of gender inequality in the workplace, paying inadequate attention to the solutions that could potentially improve gender equality and women’s experiences at work. Indeed, we report here that less than 5% of the relevant studies published in preeminent management, psychology, and diversity journals since the turn of the century identify practical interventions for solving gender inequality in organizations. To advance gender equality at work, we argue that a paradigm shift from problems to solutions is critical and urgent. Using ecological systems theory (EST; Bronfenbrenner, 1977) as our guiding framework, we present an integrative review of gender equality interventions spanning across the management, psychology, and feminist literature over the past two decades at the ontogenic system, interpersonal microsystem, and organizational microsystem levels of analysis. We subsequently provide an overview of domains not currently addressed in extant research (meso‐, macro‐, and chronosystems) and identify future research directions to spur progress towards workplace gender equality.
... This unprecedented degree of heterogeneity has resulted in some MNCs reshaping HRM policies and practices, while others fail to socially integrate a nationally diverse workforce (Hajro, Gibson, & Pudelko, 2017). Although prior research has examined how a shared approach to gender and racial diversity emerges among organizational collectives and potentially shapes the behavior of their members (Ely & Thomas, 2001;Nishii, 2013), more research is needed on migrant populations. How does this changing pattern of migrant diversity impact intolerance and xenophobia? ...
... This is very simplistic as there are several other sources which may lead to differences in power among subgroups. For instance, certain groups might have more power due to their specific gender identity, i.e., male, female (Ely & Thomas, 2001). Thirdly, the proportion of women in management positions is increasing (Pearsall et al., 2008), making gender one of the significant components of diversity in teams and a key factor producing faultlines within teams (Valls et al., 2021). ...
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Despite the relevance and importance of distribution of rewards for group performance, especially groups with active faultlines, existing literature exploring these relationships is scarce. This study investigates the combined effects of gender faultlines and three particular conditions used for distribution of rewards on intragroup power struggles and group performance. The study hypothesizes that the relationship between gender faultlines and group performance is mediated by intragroup power struggles. It further posits that the distribution of rewards moderates the relationships between gender faultlines and intragroup power struggles, as well as gender faultlines and performance. The hypothesized relationships received empirical support in this experimental study using data from 396 participants nested in 99 groups. Specifically, we found that the positive effect of gender faultlines on intragroup power struggles was significant under inequity and equity conditions, but non-significant under equality condition. Further, the negative relationship between gender faultlines and performance was strengthened in the presence of inequity and equity conditions. Inequity condition resulted in the highest level of power struggles and lowest level of perceived and objective performances. Equity condition led to medium levels of power struggles and perceived performance but the highest level of objective performance. With equality condition, what ensued was the lowest level of power struggles, highest level of perceived performance, and medium level of objective performance. Managerial implications along with areas for future research are discussed.
... In the context of the cultural diversity of the board, foreigners may reflect it as they might provide fresh worldviews, diverse ways of perception of things and interpreting to the group as well as "different sources of information, communication networks and linguistic resources" (Frijns et al., 2016: 12). Ely and Thomas (2001) also add that different cultural backgrounds could provide different sets of experiences and skills. Foreign directors may contribute with Tomislava Pavić Kramarić, Marko Miletić • The influence of demographic, cultural, and... Zb. rad. ...
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This study investigates the demographic, cultural and educational features of management boards of Croatian manufacturers. The analysis, conducted using static panel analysis, encompasses the period from 2015 to 2019. To the impact of different board characteristics on firm performance expressed with accounting- oriented performance measures such as return on assets (ROA) and return on equity (ROE), this study includes several explanatory variables comprising CEO tenure, age of the board members, the share of foreigners in the boardroom and finance educational background. Additionally, a few firm-specific variables included in the research are firm size, leverage, and firm age. The analysis findings reveal that board composition plays a crucial role when explaining the firm’s profitability. Furthermore, the firm’s maturity and leverage additionally prove to be significant factors affecting corporate performance.
... Where the board of directors and the chair have the same active electorate (that is in Italy and Portugal where the members of the board and the board chair are elected together by the general assembly), the propensity of the active electorate to vote for a woman as a director could reflect the same tendency to vote for a woman as board chair. In the case of different active electorates, since diverse groups provide a broader range of information, knowledge, and perspectives (Ely & Thomas, 2001), a varied gender range in the board could express non-conventional views about the leadership of the federation and, as a consequence, the chance of a choosing a chairwoman is greater. Based on these arguments, we propose the following hypothesis: ...
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This study explores the impact of board size, board gender diversity and organization age on the likelihood of having a female chair in National Sports Federations. We adopted a quantitative methodology to compare 297 federations in five countries (Italy, Portugal, Spain, Turkey, and the United Kingdom), and collected the data from the official websites of the federations. The findings show that the board size, the proportion and the total number of women on the sports board, and the federation age have no significant impact on having a woman as a board chair when we include the countries' under study in the model. When the model does not differ by country, the odds of there being a female chair are higher as the total number of female members on the board increases, which could mean that national cultures have impacted women's representation as chairs in sports boards. The study also provides evidence on the impact of the board size and the total number of female directors on the gender of the chairperson, and the results show that chairwomen tend to preside on smaller boards. This study contributes to cumulative knowledge by presenting an international comparison of women's access to the top positions of sports governing boards of federations in Europe. Also, 3 Address correspondence to María Luisa Esteban luisaes@unizar.es. 3 the study evidences the likelihood that the chairperson is a woman according to the size of the board.
... First, membership in diversity charters signals to employees that genderor race-based discrimination is not acceptable, and that the organization strives to respect and provide equal opportunities to all its employees. Diversity charters can help promote the idea that the diversity of employees' backgrounds is an important source of knowledge for problem-solving, developing new products and satisfying heterogeneous customer demands (Ely and Thomas, 2001;Gonzalez and Denisi, 2009). These signals should reduce the acceptability of gender or race as a basis for social categorization within the organization and encourage interpersonal sensitivity and fairer treatment of all employees (Maurer and Qureshi, 2019). ...
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Modern workplaces are becoming increasingly demographically diverse. However, the influence of workforce diversity on organizational outcomes is not fully understood. In this work, we study how and why workforce gender and racial diversity impacts collective turnover at the organizational level, and whether participation in and experience with diversity charters moderate this link. We particularly argue that greater workforce gender and racial diversity leads to greater collective turnover because it prompts social categorization and negative contagion in organizations. To mitigate these processes, organizations may participate in diversity charters, which are expected to provide support with managing workforce diversity and employee retention. We further argue that the influence of diversity charters follows a trajectory of maturity, so their benefits are magnified as an organization's experience with them increases. Drawing on a panel of UK universities, we find strong evidence that greater workforce racial diversity is associated with higher levels of collective turnover, but only weaker evidence for the positive link between workforce gender diversity and collective turnover. We further find that diversity charters may attenuate this link, but simply participating in them is not sufficient: instead, organizations must develop experience with charters over time.
... Due to this extreme homogeneity, organizations fail to perceive gender quotas as opportunities to simultaneously improve caste diversity by hiring new women directors from underprivileged castes. Prior research highlights that organizations that aim to be ethical need to understand the spirit behind the legal gender mandate, i.e., to promote ethical values of equality and fairness and to remedy past discrimination (Crosby et al., 2006;Ely & Thomas, 2001;McMillan-Capehart, 2003;Terjesen & Sealy, 2016). Therefore, in the context of corporate India, there is a strong need for education and sensitization on caste and community, to understand and appreciate the need for multidimensional diversity, and to overcome the existing organization of economic activity along caste and community dimensions. ...
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Prior research on the impact of mandatory quotas in one dimension of diversity, on other dimensions, shows contradictory results. We seek to resolve this puzzle by relying on theory in social psychology on homophily and recategorization processes in hiring. In the context of a law mandating a gender quota on Indian boards, we predict and find that boards respond to the law by hiring new women directors who are similar to existing directors in terms of caste and community dimensions. We find that this homophily effect is impactful to the extent that even high-status women directors cannot overcome it. At the aggregate level, these organizational-level practices result in caste and community inequalities remaining intact despite the introduction of 1309 new women directors. We contribute to research on inequality, board of directors, and affirmative action.
... So, how can organizations create a diverse workforce where all employees feel accepted? By fostering a climate for inclusion through in which the diverse perspectives, characteristics, and qualities individuals bring are considered a resource (Ely & Thomas, 2001;Nishii, 2013). One of the ways that we extend the literature on inclusion climates is by further examining what inclusive and equitable practice should result in for groups and the organization. ...
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The aim of the current chapter is threefold first, we use optimal distinctive-ness theory to discuss the constructs of identity and intersectionality as well as how they operate in the context of organizations. Second, we discuss organizational equity and inclusion in the context of equity theory and generative interactions theory, respectively. We conclude the chapter by offering a guide for practitioners from which they can take actionable steps to evaluate the degree of inclusivity within their organization by way of demographic and representational diversity. Specifically, the guide is composed of 12 questions derived from each of the three discussed theories with specific consideration of individuals, groups, the organization, and the community in which the organization exists.
Article
Purpose: The question has been asked, "Where are the women?" explicitly looking at the public relations (PR) industry, but this is a broader issue reflected in many senior management roles, especially at the corporate board level. One of the solutions suggested is "quotas". This paper explores the literature to identify the prominent arguments for and against representation regulations (quotas) concerning corporate board gender diversity and concisely presents the findings. Design/methodology/approach: The exploratory research path first focuses on a literature search using the keywords - 'gender diversity', 'board structures' and 'female traits' to identify the various issues concerning female members serving on corporate boards. This led to the investigation exploring if 'quotas' could play a role in increasing the number of female directors and, if so, what kind of impact this would have. When the authors discovered the paper by Place and Vardeman-Winter (2018), it was realised that a possible gap in the literature might have been identified. The focus then turned to the public relations and corporate communications literature, where it was discovered that the issue of gender quotas was not explored. This paper brings together the germane literature from a wide range of disciplines. To obtain a broad perspective of the arguments, the authors conducted a review of this diverse field of literature through various databases and websites, including Scopus, Web of Science, Science Direct, Google Scholar, publishers' databases such as Emerald Insight, Taylor and Francis, Macmillan, Blackwell, Wiley, Oxford University, etc. Findings: There are solid arguments both for and against quotas. However, many opposing views appear to be less sound than the positive ones, which allowed the authors to concur in favour of quotas and the broader adoption of female directors. It is only by identifying problems that solutions can be found – the issues concerning corporate board gender quotas relate to the perception of the arguments for and against quotas; the reality is often different. While there is a strong 'business case' and 'stakeholder influence' for the inclusion of women on corporate boards, some governments have put further pressure (either voluntary or mandatory) on organisations by imposing a 'quota' system. At the same time, other countries are undecided on what action, if any, to take. Originality: To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first academic paper to present the critical arguments raised in the diverse literature on corporate board gender quotas succinctly and concisely and, therefore, adds value to the literature. It is also believed to be the first paper to address the issue of quotas in the PR and corporate communications literature. Practical implication: This paper can serve as guidance to countries that have not yet implemented quotas or those looking to move from a voluntary to mandatory quotas system. In addition to that, the paper should be valuable to academics, managers, regulators, legislators and policy-makers.
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Organisations are making efforts to enhance diversity and become inclusive, yet there is little agreement on what leads an organisation to become inclusive. This article explores how organisations become inclusive through certain policies, practices, and behaviours. We conducted this study on a multinational subsidiary based in Pakistan with its parent company headquartered in Europe. Single case study methodology was used along with semi-structured interviews to gather in-depth data. Our findings suggest that inclusive organisations and inclusion can be considered relative concepts based on the context. An effort to find standardised policies, practices and behaviours to create inclusive organisations may not be possible. Organisations may be considered inclusive in the context that they operate in. The study strongly demonstrates the need to further refine the concept of inclusive organisations especially in light of societal context. The study serves as a valuable point of discussion in understanding how local operating context is balanced with international transfer of human resource (HR) practices. Our study contributes to diversity and inclusion literature through discussing behavioural and procedural elements that contribute towards building an inclusive workplace in a non-western context.
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Purpose Existing research on social inequalities in leadership seeks to explain how perceptions of marginalized followers as deficient leaders contribute to their underrepresentation. However, research must also address how current leaders restrict these followers' access to leadership opportunities. This conceptual paper offers the perspective that deficiencies in leaders' behaviors perpetuate social inequalities in leadership through an illustrative application to research on gender and leadership. Design/methodology/approach The authors situate existing research on gender and leadership within broader leadership theory to highlight the importance of inclusivity in defining destructive and constructive leadership. Findings Previous scholarship on gender inequalities in leadership has focused on perceptions of women as deficient leaders. The authors advocate that researchers reconceptualize leaders' failures to advance women in the workplace as a form of destructive leadership that harms women and organizations. Viewing leaders' discriminatory behavior as destructive compels a broader definition of constructive leadership, in which leaders' allyship against sexism, and any other form of prejudice, is not a rare behavior to glorify, but rather a defining component of constructive leadership. Practical implications This paper highlights the important role of high-status individuals in increasing diversity in leadership. The authors suggest that leader inclusivity should be used as a metric of leader effectiveness. Originality/value The authors refocus conversations on gender inequality in leadership by emphasizing leaders' power in making constructive or destructive behavioral choices. The authors’ perspective offers a novel approach to research on social inequalities in leadership that centers current leaders' roles (instead of marginalized followers' perceived deficits) in perpetuating inequalities.
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The chapter explores systems of activities and organizational devices to support internalization in Higher Education and professional contexts. The thesis is that internalization, and specifically internalization mobility, is a strategic leverage for innovation in Higher Education. Accordingly, we present three experiences of outgoing mobility carried out within the framework of the three-years project FORwARD (Training, Research and Development of “community-based” strategies to support practices of living together in multi-ethnic contexts) held by the Department of Education at the University of Siena (Italy). The last paragraph proposes a reflection on how to design a transdisciplinary and transnational curriculum in Higher Education.
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Initiatives aimed at fostering diversity in organizations have become an increasingly common means for combatting inequality among demographic groups. There is growing recognition that the success of diversity initiatives is a function of not only the relatively concrete policies they include but also less visible factors, such as the diversity cognitions held by organizational members. Diversity cognitions—and particularly beliefs regarding how to approach diversity and its effects—have received significant scholarly attention and a variety of literatures conclude they are invisible, yet powerful, drivers of diversity, inclusion, and other desirable workplace outcomes. Nevertheless, different diversity cognitions are often studied in isolation of one another, which prevents a full understanding of their nature and outcomes. We review and integrate research on different cognitions regarding how to approach diversity and its effects, with the goal of identifying synergistic opportunities for guiding future research. To this end, we focus on three diversity cognitions: diversity ideologies, diversity beliefs, and diversity climates. We review similarities and differences in how these constructs are conceptualized and studied, as well as in their nomological networks of outcomes and antecedents. We then use our review to identify gaps in current understanding and generate recommendations for guiding future work. Our recommendations focus on enhanced construct clarity, nuance with regard to dimensionality, and understanding of outcomes and antecedents. Deeper understanding of beliefs regarding how to approach diversity and its effects is likely to provide new insight into strategies for fostering workplace diversity and inclusion and thereby help combat inequality.
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Though we know racioethnic diversity can impact team functioning, much remains unclear about when and how it affects performance. Extending dyadic theory on interracial interactions, we develop and test predictions about how participation diversity (i.e., the distribution of team member temporal involvement in task functions) influences the racioethnic diversity–performance relationship. We theorize that racioethnic diversity is motivational, prompting self-enhancement goals that are best achieved via cooperation, but are impeded by anxiety that often accompanies racioethnic dissimilarity. Heightened participation diversity provides structure (by clarifying behavioral scripts) that should reduce interracial anxiety, thereby resulting in positive effects of racioethnic diversity on performance through cooperation. Such performance benefits of racioethnic diversity are lower in likelihood in less structured interracial, work-related encounters. Results from a field study and two archival datasets indicated that when there are more clearly differentiated temporal roles, greater racioethnic diversity corresponded with higher performance. Cooperation helped to account for this relationship, as greater differentiation facilitated the positive effect of racioethnic diversity on cooperation, thereby enhancing team performance. This relationship is significantly smaller or nonsignificant when participation diversity is lower. Collectively, our theory and results help to reconcile prior inconsistent effects of racioethnic diversity on team performance.
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Drawing upon an employer branding lens to help explore and inform our understanding of the marketing of workforce diversity, here we argue that diversity is understood and used in an aesthetic and commercialized way, rather than with a focus upon the inclusion of disadvantaged groups. Our analysis of the marketing and diversity practices of four small and medium‐sized law firms demonstrates a continued access‐and‐legitimacy approach to diversity: that a desire for successful employer branding still supersedes organizational commitment to equal opportunities and diversity management in practice. We argue that this commercialized approach leads to several contradictions, which in turn reproduce the market‐based perspective of diversity, relegating employees primarily to the aesthetics of race and gender and the affiliated skills and resources. In theorizing the processes by which diversity is undermined and functions solely to enhance business image and increase organizational performance, we highlight how an employer branding lens enables us to identify and understand contradictions between diversity policy and practice in a different way, by linking aesthetics with the marketing of the brand.
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The research literature on workplace inequality has given comparatively little attention to age discrimination and its social-psychological consequences. In this article, we highlight useful insights from critical gerontological, labor process, and mental health literatures and analyze the patterning of workplace age discrimination and its implications for sense of job insecurity, job-specific stress, and the overall mental health of full-time workers 40 years old and above, covered by the Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA). Our analyses, which draw on two decades and five waves of the General Social Survey (2002–2018), reveal (1) the prevalence of self-reported workplace age discrimination and growing vulnerability particularly for those 60 years and above, (2) clear social-psychological costs when it comes to job insecurity, work-specific stress, and overall self-reported mental health, and (3) dimensions of status and workplace social relations that offer a protective buffer or exacerbate age discrimination’s corrosive effects. Future research on age as an important status vulnerability within the domain of employment and the implications of unjust treatment for well-being and mental health are clearly warranted.
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This volume contributes to the construction and definition of comprehensive and sustainable internationalization and emphasizes the need for interdisciplinary, transversal and hybrid learning. The majority of contributions have emerged from the Spanish higher education context, but the topics addressed are believed to resonate worldwide with higher education institutions, professional practice and 21st century society. In the first part of the book, the chapter contributions shed light on systemic, conceptual or programme features related to internationalization and global and intercultural competence in higher education. In the second part the authors present concrete teaching experiences of internationalization and intercultural competence and highlight different questions related to interdisciplinary work, digitalization, collaborative online international learning (COIL) and project learning. By embedding COIL within and across course programmes, participants who would otherwise be unable to take part in international exchanges are included. This respect for diversity, as well as active and reflective engagement in international communication with an emphasis on students’ own experiences are fundamental elements of this pedagogical approach. The book concludes by advocating sustainable internationalization through an interdisciplinary approach to intercultural competence training which is integrated into the curriculum.
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The impact of legislation in shaping social norms has captured both scholarly and practitioner attention in the past decades. However, limited understanding exists on how social legislation can create economic value for firms and thereby strengthen the business case for such legislation. We attempt to theorize and test this phenomenon in the context of marriage equality. We first attempt to understand the role of state-wise same-sex marriage social legislation on financial performance of firms headquartered in states where the legislation is passed. Adapting the model of institutional racism to the context of heterosexism, we then develop a framework to examine the role of societal-cultural, institutional, and individual factors in shaping the effect of state-wise same-sex marriage legislation on firm performance. In a sample of publicly traded U.S. firms, we conduct a difference-in-difference analysis to test and find support for our arguments.
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Purpose Many employers express concern over consumer response to employees with criminal histories. However, consumers' responses may be less negative than employers assume. The authors examine consumers' response to organizations that hire employees with criminal histories. Design/methodology/approach The authors surveyed participants randomly assigned to one of two conditions: purchasing services from an employer that hires individuals with criminal histories or from an employer whose inclination to hire individuals with criminal histories is unknown. The authors considered four service providers, among which the length of customers' time and involvement with employees varies: a grocery store, restaurant, auto-repair shop, and hotel. Findings Participants were no more or less likely to patronize the restaurant, the repair shop, or the grocery store that hired individuals with criminal histories, and no more or less likely to alter their willingness to pay for these services. Consumers were less likely to stay at a hotel that hired employees with criminal histories, but this difference was mitigated when customers were provided with an explanation of the benefits of hiring individuals with criminal histories. Research limitations/implications This study highlights the need for further research on perceptions that limit hiring of individuals with criminal histories and other similarly marginalized populations. Practical implications This research addresses a common justification – consumer concern – for not hiring individuals with criminal histories. Social implications Increased employment improves individual outcomes, such as access to stable housing and food, as well as larger outcomes, such as public safety. Originality/value This paper highlights a population often marginalized in the hiring process. The findings challenge a common justification for not hiring individuals with criminal histories.
Article
Customer diversity, equity, and inclusion (DEI) is an increasingly important societal issue that is intimately linked to the marketing function and yet under-explored in the marketing literature. We draw on DEI literature from related domains and theories-in-use to build a multilevel conceptual framework that identifies external and internal antecedents to an organization’s customer DEI outcomes. Evolving societal norms lead to dynamic and divergent stakeholder priorities that influence customer DEI outcomes over time. Market-based assets and marketing actions play key roles in determining customer DEI outcomes. We implement a novel approach to estimating customer characteristics and test the hypothesized relationships using a dataset featuring over 1.9 million households executing 18 million transactions at 24 nonprofit performing arts organizations over seven years. The results confirm central roles for diverging, dynamic stakeholder priorities, market-based assets, and marketing actions in driving customer DEI outcomes, resulting in increased participation for people of color but not for lower-income households.
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Este artigo visa compreender como barreiras individuais, nacionais e organizacionais e suas inter-relações impactam o emprego de refugiados no mercado de trabalho brasileiro, com base na teoria da estrutura relacional da gestão da diversidade de Syed e Özbilgin (2009). Por meio de um paradigma interpretativo, abordagem qualitativa e utilizando uma pesquisa descritiva, o estudo foi realizado com oito refugiados com emprego formal na cidade de São Paulo, Brasil. As descobertas do estudo indicam a prevalência de barreiras nacionais sobre a exclusão de emprego para os refugiados, podendo potencializar fatores excludentes em níveis individual e organizacional. O governo brasileiro configurou-se como um dos principais obstáculos nacionais à integração, tendo papel particularmente importante na estrutura relacional. A pesquisa apresenta suas contribuições ao defender a condição do refugiado como inerente a uma extensão da diversidade. Ao lançar luz sobre as perspectivas dos refugiados acerca da realidade organizacional brasileira, o artigo propõe soluções que visem, por parte dos formuladores de políticas e organizações, minimizar impactos que as diferentes barreiras proporcionam à integração eficaz desses grupos nas organizações brasileiras.
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This paper examines cop culture and potential strategies for reform, following the publication of the Hotton Report at Charing Cross Police Station. This paper critically examines previous academic literature, to contribute to a highly topical matter. It also identifies strategies which have the potential to weaken an established and negative police culture, currently operating within the Metropolitan Police. Research findings within this paper, identify how cop culture remains a powerful mechanism within policing, acting as a barrier to reform. However, the findings also uncover that change is possible, through implementation of avenues involving education, increased diversity and transformational leadership.
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Purpose The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of the age diversity of the top management team (TMT) on firm performance and on the managerial ability of the TMT. Furthermore, this study investigates how the relationship between age diversity and firm performance is mediated by managerial ability and the contextual nature of the relationship. Design/methodology/approach This is an empirical study which uses regression analyses and mediation analyses to evaluate the hypotheses. Findings The authors observe a negative relationship between age diversity and firm performance and also between age diversity and managerial ability of the TMT. Further, the authors find that that the negative relationship between age diversity and firm performance is mediated by managerial ability. The authors also find that the relation between performance and age diversity is context specific – the negative relationship between age diversity and firm performance is ameliorated during times of financial crisis. Social implications In an environment where diversity is beginning to be valued, insights into the impact of different types of diversity on performance become important. Age diversity is a critical component of diversity. Therefore, insights into the impact of age diversity on performance will be of interest to managers, academics and even regulators. Originality/value To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is the first to evaluate the impact of age diversity on the market perception of firm performance of US firms using a large, comprehensive, multi-year data set. Furthermore, this is the only study to evaluate the impact of age diversity on managerial ability and show the mediating effect of managerial ability on the relationship between age diversity and firm performance.
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Discrimination constitutes a sticky phenomenon in corporations despite decades of anti-discrimination initiatives. We argue that this stickiness is related to the complex relations between various factors on the micro level in organizations, which determine and stabilize each other. Based on a systematic literature review comprising empirical studies on discrimination due to age, gender, race, and ethnicity/nationality, we find eight general mechanisms which can be further clustered into an economic, a behavioral, and a socio-structural domain. While mechanisms in the behavioral domain form the roots of discrimination, the economic and the socio-structural mechanisms stabilize each other as well as the behavioral ones. Thus, the analysis shows that the various building blocks on the micro level are entangled with each other and suggests a structured way by identifying a problem hierarchy to manage this complexity.
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Due to the increasing importance of cultural diversity in organizations with globalization, the management of cultural diversity and the effect of this management on organizational performance are the subject of the study. The survey method was used to collect the data, and the related survey was applied to the employees of the telecommunication companies in Iraq. As a result of the analysis, it has been determined that cultural diversity management increases organizational performance with a strong effect coefficient. It has been determined that all components of cultural diversity such as color blindness, justice, equal access, cultural integration and learning have a significant impact on organizational performance. In particular, it can be said that organizations with culturally different workforces have a managerial contribution to the scope of the research, considering cultural diversity while determining their strategies. In addition, it should be ensured that the improvement of organizational performance is better understood and that the factors affecting organizational performance are clearly known by the employees. As a result of an organization’s ability to effectively manage its culturally diverse workforce, it will be possible to satisfy a multicultural market and be preferred by multicultural customers. The fact that the research was carried out in a single sector can be expressed as a constraint.
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The Introduction and Use of Production Control Systems in French, Italian, and German Enterprises.
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A power perspective is used to examine the linkage between diversity and mentorship in work organizations. Sociological perspectives on power and minority group relations are used to develop and operationalize the construct of diversified mentoring relationships in organizations. The article examines behavioral and perceptual processes underlying diversified mentoring relationships and explores the relationship between diversified mentoring relationships and other work relationships. The consequences associated with diversified and homogeneous relationships are examined using a dyadic approach. The article closes by offering research propositions and discussing several implications.
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This study examines the effects of minority size on the academic position of women in higher education in Israel Findings from faculty women show that their proportional representation is negatively related to their achievement in terms of academic rank; the smaller their proportion in a scientific field the more does their hierarchical distribution resemble that of their male colleagues. It is also found that women, as a rule, participate in larger proportions in the humanities than in the natural sciences. It is suggested that sex ratios affect women's position in combination with the stereotypes attributed to the feminine diffuse status-characteristic in different contexts. In scientific fields in which women's sex status is more salient they fare less well than in disciplines in which it is neutralized.
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This article develops a set of predictions for interactions in culturally diverse workgroups. A typology of organizations and corresponding workgroups is detailed, adapted from Cox's (1991) model of monolithic, plural, and multicultural organizational types, followed by a discussion of how organization and workgroup conditions influence workgroup members to emphasize either categorization or specification in cognitive processing. Next, a series of positive and negative communicative interaction types is predicted based on type of processing. Finally, a discussion of the implications for further research and potential application is presented.
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The abstract for this document is available on CSA Illumina.To view the Abstract, click the Abstract button above the document title.
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Questionnaire data from female employees in a large federal bureaucracy are analyzed to test two theories on the effects of females' proportional representation in work groups on intra- and intergender relations. In general, the data support hypotheses drawn from Blau (1977a) and Blalock (1967) which suggest that the proportional size of a minority subgroup is negatively related to its frequency of contact with, and amount of social support received from, the majority. In addition, female proportional representation is negatively associated with the amount of encouragement for promotion women receive from their male supervisors. Contrary to Kanter's (1977a, b) theory, token women are not found to face more severe organizational pressures than nontokens. However, it is suggested that the dynamics of tokenism described by Kanter tend to partially offset the negative association between female representation and the frequency and quality of male-female interaction patterns. Female representation is found to have significant, but counterbalancing, effects on mutual social support among female workers.
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The concept of “tokenism” has been used widely to explain many of the difficulties women face as they enter traditionally male occupations. Tokenism explains women's occupational experiences and their behavioral responses to those experiences in terms of their numerical proportion, suggesting that barriers to women s full occupational equality can be lowered by the hiring of more women in organizations that are highly-skewed male. This paper suggests that the tokenism hypothesis has not been subjected to rigorous testing and that the research that does exist should lead us to question the adequacy of the concept. This paper concludes that a gender-neutral theory such as tokenism is of limited value in explaining the experiences of either men or women in a society where gender remains important. Further, the focus on tokenism may hinder women's progress to the extent that it turns our attention away from an analysis of the effects of sexism in the workplace and the society as a whole.
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In this article we test empirically Rosabeth Kanter's hypothesis that minority achievements are diminished by the underrepresntation of minority persons in majority-dominated work groups. using data on male and female achievements at two law schools with significantly different sex ratios, we find evidence that performance pressure, social isolation, and role entrapment all operate to diminish the achievements of women law students where they are only a small minority of the student body.
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The abstract for this document is available on CSA Illumina.To view the Abstract, click the Abstract button above the document title.
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The purpose of this article is to define the concept of organizational culture in terms of a dynamic model of how culture is learned, passed on, and changed. The definition highlights that culture: is always in the process of formation and change; tends to cover all aspects of human functioning; is learned around the major issues of external adaptation and internal integration; and is ultimately embodied as an interrelated, patterned set of basic assumptions that deal with ultimate issues, such as the nature of humanity, human relationships, time, space, and the nature of reality and truth itself. To decipher a given organization's culture, one must use a complex interview, observation, and joint-inquiry approach in which selected members of the group work with the outsider to uncover the unconscious assumptions that are hypothesized to be the essence of the culture.
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This paper presents a multifaceted qualitative investigation of everyday conflict in six organizational work teams. Repeated interviews and on-site observations provide data on participants' perceptions, behaviors, and their own analyses of their conflicts, resulting in a generalized conflict model. Model evaluation indicates that relationship conflict is detrimental to performance and satisfaction; process conflict is also detrimental to performance; and task conflict's effects on performance depend on specified dimensions. In particular, emotionality reduces effectiveness, resolution potential and acceptability norms increase effectiveness, and importance accentuates conflict's other effects. Groups with norms that accept task but not relationship conflict are most effective. The model and the findings help to broaden understanding of dynamics of organizational conflict and suggest ways it can either be alleviated or wisely encouraged.
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In this article, we review and evaluate recent management research on the effects of different types of diversity in group composition at various organizational levels (i.e., boards of directors, top management groups, and organizational task groups) for evidence of common patterns. We argue that diversity in the composition of organizational groups affects outcomes such as turnover and performance through its impact on affective, cognitive, communication, and symbolic processes.