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Proxemic Interactions envision interactive computer systems that exploit peoples ’ and devices ’ spatial relationships (proxemics) to provide more natural and seamless interactions with ubicomp technology. It builds upon fundamental proxemic theories about people’s understanding and use of the personal space around them. In this paper, we focus on how nuances of the proxemic theories and concepts of Proxemic Interaction can be applied to address six key challenges of ubicomp interaction design, where we consider how we can leverage information on fine grained proxemic relationships. We also discuss how previous proxemic2aware systems addressed these challenges. ACM Classification: H.5.2 [Information interfaces and
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Informing the Design of Proxemic Interactions
Nicolai Marquardt and Saul Greenberg

 !
"#$%#&'(#
Proxemic Interactions   
 ) * + % %+ 
) ,proxemics-  %   %
  .) & )# / &%
 % * ) & +
%% %   )   % )#
/ )  .   ).   ) *
) %   0* /  &
%  %% * 1 )  &
%.).%)..
  finegrained proxemic relationships# 
 % ).  *2. 
%%%))#
ACM Classification:
3## "/  %
 ,3/-'4  /4
/ % %
5)%)%#
General terms:

,
36
Keywords:
0*&$
INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND
  % )  % % %&
Proxemics  +   %  
   % )   .)
)  %  " '# ) *
) % &.  ) & 
  ##  % &% # 7
% + %%  *  
)%    .) 0 %
&$  ,&- "' ) %
* )   %   )
. ## "8!'# )      
&)+
.)   * % & % 
%"'#
/..1.%)%proxemic
interactions "9:'#  %&% ). % % )
2%1.%&%)%
% ;  ) )  % ; . % 
*  ). ) 1.% % & *% 
%)$#
/).1&1#*
) % ).    %%  1 %
)&"<'4
& %  &) 
% %&1  %  1
%%#)=
*1.%)&%%&
%    % ; %
%%;%%
)   ) #  )  &) ) )
% %  ) % ) %  
.))"##8!9'#
UBICOMP AND EMBODIED INTERACTION
 .   >1  %
&$  ,&-  ) *  
 .)  "'# / ) %  )
.) .1%%).%
& &   %  
  % = ) .%  ) 1  )%#
? %+ & %   ) % ;
) &  2. % 
)2.)&%%&%
 ; ) ))& =%# 
+  . &% %# / )
%% )) +
% % &%%%   1%  %
&@ %  .)  .% & 
&4
The most profound technologies are those that disappear.
They weave themselves into the fabric of everyday life,
until they are indistinguishable from it”"'#
  =   % . 
% ) ) A &) )  %
)B"C'#/)+
 ; )   ) %
) )   &. %
  % &1% )  ;
)+%*.)
&)#
4
>$%#?&#, -
/)0*/#
Research Report 2011100618    
% !D#
E ) *%%  )   
)+%embodied
interaction "'# )&)))%
))%&
 .) ) )=% )  
% ) ) * ) 1 %
* ) 1   ) .% "'# F*%
)& ) &%%  
&%))%+
% practices# 0 )%   on )
&%through)))1
)% "'# Contextaware computing   ) .)4
 1%  *2. )% " ' %
% .) 1.% & )  % )5
%  .) )      5 %
%%#
CHALLENGES IN DESIGNING UBICOMP SYSTEMS
/ )  . % *  )  )
%  &%% %   .)
&.)))*
# G )  % & + "<'
 % %   
%&%)%
&%"8   8 !'#
Challenge 1. Revealing interaction possibilities " '
" 8'4  " ' % ?&+ " 9'  
affordances  %& ).  &@+  
H+).)&%#%?/*%
%%)%)
% & 5) .1% &)%
 ) ) .  ) %   +
##)..))#7)
&%%&&
) )  & %  ) %
   . )  H%+    
)@2&)%)
&     )     
%% "  :'# ) % ) )4 ). 
) & %%   ) 
&  .)      )
&1%+&%)
)%I
Challenge 2. Directing actions "8< !'4 / 
% %  ).%    
))%%%%,##1&%
)-#7&&%#/&
%)%   %# 0& &
% )) )   = % )
 # G &  ) ) % ) 
).%.)))%
), .)))%&%"<'&
 @    + %  ,##  
% vs.  15  %  vs. 
%)%))-#)
&  % )     % 
  & .) )   $ 
%  )  ) ) 
%.))%,%-)%%
+%%#
Challenge 3. Establishing connections "  <'4 
   )  &#
)%&+%2))
 %  ).  ,& - ).
%)%.)
)%.)%%
 , *   %   
 )    & -# )
)  %% & )  % )
%&&.  & %
%#&,)-)
&  ) )&    , )+ 
- % )  & & ,##  & .
%-#))&.))
    %   ). )
)%&)#
Challenge 4. Providing feedback "8<  !'# 2
%&1%?/
%# 7  &   .  )
%%1&
  % %&1 & )   
)        )
  #    &
)%)+%
 ) & ) ) .) &.
%%&1%#
Challenge 5. Avoiding and correcting mistakes "8<'4
)1)))%%
      ) 1#  
&    1%   ) 
+)%
  %    1    &
).)%#
Challenge 6. Managing privacy and security " C'4 
   &  )  ) &  
.))%)1
Figure 1. Hall’s proxemic zones.
 % ) %   # ) $ 
).  )     
%)%).))
  ).)&
%) 2I
PROXEMIC THEORIES
 . ) * )$ &%  *
 )   & )  )
)# 3. . .   )  &
=   * ) %  
  ) . &    &
%#
Distances and Discrete Zones
) F%.% 3 %% proxemics  
)  % )   )
&. %% " '# 3 ) ; .) )
 %  % ;  %& ).
   % , - 
) 2 % ) % ). )  )
 %  .) ) & #
3 % ).    % 
*%%
) # /  )  ) %
  % &. #  %  6
 ) = )   % % =
4intimate,2- personal ,#2 -social
, 2!- % public ,J!-# )  %
.)) 3  ) dynamic space )= 
))
%)&" '#)*
 )  % = %%   
  &   )  )  
%)"'#
Environment: Fixed and Semi0Fixed Features
3%%.))+
  ) 2 % ) " '# Fixed features
%)&)4)
&%%).%%.%.#Semi
fixed features % )   )
 )  & % ,1  )  &-#
3%)))*%.
))*%
 %  .)
&sociofugal,-%
sociopetal ,&  )- " '#  
*  ). )      & &)
)
)# 
)) ) ) $% 3+  
   &   ,##  
"'- ) .1 ) &   )  %
 #  ) ,% =% *- )
) %%% .  )  &% 3+
distancecentric.#
Orientation
G%&)..%
.  ) ) % )   *
)#  "8' %% +  
%%
 & %%  ) 1  )%# %  )
1 ) @   %%   
4 22    1 %2
&2%1%%2&2%22
 % # G) %% 
.)+)%%%)
%"!'#/.13
%%     &  %&
*)"'#
Compensation, Balance, and Privacy
0  %@ )      )
  %  .) )# ) %
).    %    H+ 
H+)#)%&
+ %     % ).
)     $&
 )  "9'# 6 * ) intimacy
equilibrium model ":'  ) .) 
).&.%
%%*%#))&
 )   % * & ) 
%     .)) ) %
%&  A ) &.  = 
&    % 
%B"!'#6*.)%
  . )  &1   ) $&# /
  ) &  & )%  ) 
 ,)  %    )  
- ) )  another variable  & % 
 , )  *4 )
  . .) %  -# )
% % = $&   optimal
proxemic distance .)  %% * &
% identity % familiarity  ) )  %
)type of interaction"<'#0
  )%       # 
"C'  )    dynamic boundary regulation
process)y#
PROXEMIC DIMENSIONS FOR UBICOMP INTERACTION
) * ) & %&  %
%&)%%@
)  ) .) )#  = )
))%&+%
 %# F   &  ) .   )
)   2% *  *
&%#)*.
 %2% * % ;  %
)%)%&*);
) . &     =
*  &  "9:'# )  )
%&   ) &. 22
& .)    & 4  %
% 2% &@ % )   )
% # )  &. %& )
%.)6))#
Distance: %& ) & % &.
  )  , % % &@-#
  & %   .# 6
*)&,###8-%
,##= -&
%&.%%%
) %%%%
=)#
Orientation: %  & .))
%    # 6  ) %
gaze face % body   .  )
  limbs 1 # 6 %  &@
) ) $  .2%%  ,## ) 2
 %   %-# G  & 
&..&.)
  *%   ) # )  &
%&%  &) $ ,## A .%B-
%$,##)%-#
Movement: %& ) )  % %
#)%&$
))%#
Identity: $ %   ) # )
 &  * % ,## 6% D-  
%)%),##
   -    ,AB
A)B-#
Location:)%distance
)%location%&)$
).))1#)
)= )  ,)  ) # 
- %&   ) *% ,## 
-  2*% ,##  - 
 % % 2 ) 
%*)&)
.)#
ADDRESSING UBICOMP DESIGN CHALLENGES WITH
PROXEMICS
.)%).).
;.)*%.);).1.%
*)%&)%
& )  ) )#
G *    
 .) ) &  2
% .) ) ) %
.))))
*%#
Challenge 1: Revealing Interaction
Possibilities
 %% ) ) 
 offer possible actions "8' ) % seamless
transitions&1%%" :'#
)   .)   ). 
) ) ) *)  % &
 ))   , = &%
%1-.)%&
))#&
)% H+ )  &  
& ) ) .)  &  ) #
))%&%&.#
Reacting to the presence and approach of people. )
 &       )  %
)      )   
&#
K%)&&4
 %    1)H+).
H&#/)&.%
   # / " :'  ) .)
%%%))
 %   # / ":'  %1  
%*+%
) % %  ) ) % )  
.   .2 %# )  H+
 & 4 )  &
)%)%&).)%1
%%#
G)  % %    
*   &# %
ActiveBadges ; %  . & %% ; .)
&%,%)+-1%
2.)&%"8'#/*%
)%%=%
   ) +   ##
.))%1%.%H.+)
 )  %   & # )
*).)
   .) ) %     &
 "!9'#/"9'
*.)))%
)    ) )  %  
%  % )   % ) 
%.)#)%
&%)1
.%#/%
)%.%.))
 )  %   %
Figure 2. Proxemic dimensions relevant for ubicomp interaction.
.)   .)  & .% .) 
%  )  .# /   
% ) %  * &) 
% % %    
& %  @  &   
##  % )    # /  +
approach   ))% ,) %.- ) distance
from the screen % ) presence relative to other fixed
features),##))-#
From awareness to interaction. /*
*   )  %   
#G)).))
.)%&.%%
 ) )  .% % ) ) % )
&   .) .)   *
#  & & %  
).))
2&+%).
 %  &  ) 
) % % ) % % % 
%&%)"!98 8'#)%
 ) ) 2&  ) & %  
implicitly   )  .)   )
 %  , %%  ) -# )
  =% &   %  )
%5 )   % %   ) 
"!8 '#/)%"9'*)&
% ) = % % *  %@%  )
))%.)%
 %   & ) %# 
 )  ) * %  %
&larger distance
) turning towards ) % ) approaching %
%%in front#
Spatial visualizations of ubicomp environments. / )
).%.1..)&&
1%#&).&)
) ) %       %
&# G . % )    =
). )%%    %+ ,-#
% ) &      )
.)&%%).1..)%
 .)   ) % .)  &$ &
%.))#)?+Relate Gateways
"88' %  )   ) & %+
 ).) &% ) # /
)  % )   % )  &
%# /   =   ) &%
))%%
%   ) %+ # /  %
 * "9' ) % = ) 
)&%&)%
124 )%.%
))2H@+
)%%#)
&%)%%.%)
%%&)%%
&%#
Challenge 2: Directing Actions
) )  ).  &  
  &    ) 
%%).direct)
%#
Discrete distance zones for interaction.   ).
%).),
 &  -  )   
.)) )%  )
%#) %%
)  ) %    #  &
%  % ) & = 3+ %
* =  ))% ) %@ 
&%.))="!8'#
3# "8' %% )   distance
dependent semantics .) ) %   %%
 ) . %% ) 1%   &#
)   )  %  &  
,) -)%
.),##&
%-#K#"!'*%%).))
%%*=%)
%# 6    ) %  &
%   ) & %   
 .) )  % # F)
 ) = .%  1%  .)
) %+ #  D "8'  %% 
= %   .)&% .) ) .
   .)    %   #
G %  ).  )  )
.) )  = *  different
input modalities )    ) +
%  ) % "9'# )   
,-%&)%%)
.)%#
Considering attention and orientation. /%  
%))
 +   # )  )   attentive
user interfaces,/-)%%A+
 B "8!'# /    / )
  %%  .))    %
)))%%="8!'
.))    & %%   2%
  # G %   *
      "9'# )  
.)%,%=
 1  ) - )   %
&1 %  .) )  &1 .% #
+ *2.  "8'  
  %#/)
 .% ) % % .  ) 
%%%%%1).#3..))
  .% ) %  
 % 1  & &  ) % 
))#
Considering location features. &
&%%%  + %  %%
&))&@%)
)  ) # /% & )  *2
% 2. " '  *  )=
))).)
 1  "'# /  +
)*%%*%,%%&
3 " '-  & %  %   
 & # /  %  "9' )
&      + *
) .% % &   ) +
%  ) *% % 2*%   )
# /   % % )   )
))%%))%
.))%%%)%&1
&# 3.  )  %   )
%. )  %   % ) )  
%%))%.#/&)
)% ) ))&
))+%#
Motion trajectories. ?).%)
;  % $1  & ;   * 
) .    %  .)
)#  &    +
% %+   % # 6 *
K+"!'&%$1
& &   ,% ) -   .1
) .% # >   & $ 2%
.)   * %  %  
.).))#
Adapt to number of nearby devices.  +
 +%%)
&  ) & % )   # 
 % .% "89' gesturePen ) .
%  %    % .) 
%%))%#*%
) )$    &  % & 
)%2%2&%)$
) &  &  # ) 
.%   &  &  ) 
% $ )      %  
  )  %# /     
%   )  ). = ) 
%%.$)#
Challenge 3: Establishing Connections Between
Devices
%&*%).
).%)%.)
    %  . )
  )  % .) 
%% #% )
;)..%)
 *      &)
#
Connection as a consequence of close proximity. 
*%%%%
*)&.%%)&)
&.))*#
F*  . % ) ))  %   
&  ,##  L %-# M1+
&  2% M6/  %
. .1 . 2%  
.) . & %    * "8:'#
 ) & . % ) 
4)%%&
&%)%"8<'%&
   $  % )# ) 
* + *   ) .) )
  )=   ) &) )
#G*&))1)
)%)%%"8C'#)&
%.)%.))
)%))5)&%)
%&"!'#
) ) &  &   
    &# N+ group
coordination negotiation "! ' %%  
% & )  &) % &1 %
   % #   % 
)%.%
%.)&
  # G * %   .)
 &     ) ) %
  % "9'# )   )% 
)%)%%))%&
)%)&#)
))).%
.) )  %   
&))%)%+%#
) . %  .) ) %  )
  ) . )    %
% ) )) 1 % %  & ) )
)%)%)%)%#
Challenge 4: Providing Feedback
*.%).*%
 %&1 &  +    
)#
Adjusting feedback output.)&%%%
&))%
).%&1)#/%&
)%&%))
&@,1&-#
 1. ) )  % %  
%@)%%))
  %%# ) E M% "!'  *
%@ )   ) %  %%  
+ *  % % &1#
   %  "9'    
.)&&%.)%#
)).)
,%)%-#
Selecting appropriate feedback modality. 6) 
)%
 ,##  vs. %&- &%  ) *
)# 6 * .)) .
))%&
#))%)
)&%%#
Proxemic)dependent reveal of feedback.%
     %%  ) % %O
  )    ) # Lean and
Zoom  * %%  %2%%
 = )$ "!8' .)  %  )
%% &@  % .) )   )
)%   ) # ) % =
& %  & # 3 "!! ) 8'
%  %   .  )
) .) %&1    . %@% &%
).+*.)
  ,% %   %% ))
%-# ))%) .% +
%. )    )    .) 
%%# ) )    )  )
   )      % .
% 5  )      
%)*%)
)#
Challenge 5: Preventing and Correcting Mistakes
G*%)%%)$).
))))
+&)
%%#
Inverting action. G )$ .   
  1 ,% ) %  + -  &
 ) inverse/opposite # ) 
 % &   )  # 6
*  K+ & %  "!' .)
    )   %
  %# / )  %%+ . )
 % & ) @  &1 ,% )
 )  -4 )  
%%#G)*%&
*%  .#6 *   % &)
&%,%-
&.#
Explicit action to undo. D "8'   
*   % # 3   
)  .)&% .)   % 
+ # )      .%
 , *4 1
1  ) %  ) %    -# 
))),%
  &1 1  K+ - % & )
111#
G  &) ) & )$  & &% 
%)#/K%&))4
   )      )%  
       @  &1
)))#
Proxemic safeguards.   % ) 
.)  ))  ,## %  
)-%&%.)
*%#6*.)
      
.)&%%&
) .% )   %    )  
%%&,-%)#)
.) ))  %  $   *
)multiple%#6*)%
%$%*
)  and & % .%  and 1  )
 # )  %  & 
%%&)&&%
).#
Challenge 6: Managing Privacy and Security
* . . )$ )  * 
%&" C'#
Proximity)dependent authentication.   &
&%%%)%*
%)&@#%"!'%%
*2&%  ) .  
 .) )% &  # )  
%)))1,##-)
. )= )       
*),##)%
-#)tangible security"!9' ))%
* &.   1  ) #
6*&)
  ) ) security token )   
*#/))
   ) %  ) )  1#
>)1))"!:'.))
 ) )% 1.% ,&. )  %
%- &    ) %  
*)=#6)M1"8:'
& 2%  )$ ,)  M6/ 
/%- .) . .1  
 &) %  % # 2
%   ) . 
)# )       & ) %
))%&1)
)&)&)%#
Distance)dependent information disclosure. )
  % &.   % )
   )  )% &. )# )
))“distance implies distrust”"!<'%
 4 closer proximity implies trust# 6 *
>$%+%2%% % M6/ "!C'
%&.)%)%
%%)%&.)#))
)%)%#
K+ "!' & %   + 
% .))
  ) %# )  %
%  )   &1 .  )
%#
Proxemic)aware privacy mechanisms. ) )
) % distance     
))$%&)%&%)
* % )  orientation identity 
location#  + &%   =  
 )    )%# 6 *
2  ).  ) %  
*2.& % % & &  
)1)&)%%1
.#  )  ) % 
)   another person 1  ) %#
 % ) identity %  .% &
&   *%  %   .) 
   &.)  %
.)%)%
% ) ,##   .%% -#  %
location&&%%%@
%%)5))
,.)
& %    ) %- & .  
.)  ) ,.))    )  %
-#
Considering people’s expectations of personal space.
+ "C' ) %    
 )      
# ) % & %  %  )
+*#))
&)
     . )  )  
   %#     
K+ & & % "!'# )  
)%)%&).
%&)#)%
* ) ) .) %# )
% + )  &  ))
* )  % & %%  separate )
     ) . # 6
).%%&
%% .)  %%    %
&.)#
CONCLUSION
)  %% )   * 
&  %# )  .  
& %  *2. %
&  * %  %  )
%%.)%).)&%
)&#
 ). ) 1.%  )  * %
,%%%-
& %  &  . )    
.   ). *  & %%
.)%.&)
%+*#
%.*%)$
  ).  )  & %%%# )
.)%)1#)
&.#
 = )   )$   %
))#6*)%
)
%   & ,) -
%&%%,)-%
&)   ,) 8- % %&1
)   %  )  ,) !-  &
%   %  1 &  
,) - % )    %
  &   %@ .)  
& ,) 9-#  & )  &   )
)  *4  )$  %% .)
**%)1&
%    .  % ) 
&#
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"!' # K % M# 1) A/ & &
%4*&
 .)  B  Proceedings of UIST ’04
>!# 8:2 !9#
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Interaction#)>/0 #
"9' # % # >$% % # ?& A0*
/4    0* % G2.
FBProceedings of ITS ’10> #
":' # ?& # >$% # % M# =2> %
>#  A0* 4 ) . &IB
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... The question raised for public space and private space is on how the law views the two spaces, because different space will have different legal consequences. Edward T. Hall presented proxemics as a hypothesis for contemplating the relational spatial connections between people [6]. His hypothesis, by and large, portrays how individuals see, decipher, and (regularly unwittingly) utilize the micro space around them, and how this influences their association and correspondence with another close by individuals; however, he likewise referred to that culture and starting point of the nation will contrast starting with one then onto the next. ...
... The goal of systematic literature review is to seek an article to review, read by candidate study in order to follow systematic literature theory [7]. From this systematic literature review it is found factors in digital proxemics are: distance, orientation, movement, identity, location [6]; pseudonym as private sphere [8]; spatial; role; fidelity; control [9]; proxemic interaction [10]; sound as stimulation to proxemics behavior [11]; role of familiarity for feedback [12]; distance, pose, orientation [13]; location, distance, motion, orientation, custom [14]; gaze, proxemic imaging [15]; orientation, distance, motion, identity, location, proximity toolkit [16]; proxemic transition, transition speed, stepwise reconfiguration, radical shifts [17]; control proxemics, deixis proxemics, perceptual proxemics [18]; disclosure boundary, identity boundary, temporal boundary [19], avatar gaze, avatar facial expression, avatar body posture, avatar gesture, avatar space [20]; rule [21]; reinforcement learning [22]; mood [23]; facial, vocal emotion, internal noise level, physical appearance [24]; density stress [25]; child proxemics depend on peer and parents [26]; ethnic appearance [27]; face distance [28]; group behavior [29]; level of attention, content speed, user shadow contrast, scale [30]; display space, interaction space, potential interaction space, gap space, social interaction space, comfort space, activation space [31]. ...
... Therefore, content movement represents person movement in digital proxemics. Content movement is a motion consisting of change of orientation and distance that travels through cyber space over time [6]. There are two variables related in content movement that can be associated with digital proxemics [16]: ...
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The evolution of cybercrime has various types and dimensions, and sometimes it is complicated to be resolved by law enforcement agency in Indonesia. On the other hand, the public oftentimes is surprised to get their position as a victim in doing something that is common in cyber space. Discrepancy between public perspective and law perspective created tension between the public and law enforcement. Gap of understanding within cyber space concept is because sometimes the law is difficult to catch the dynamic phenomenon in cyber space that shifts in very fast way with many convergence concepts. By the convergency principle in cyber space, this paper tries to discuss from the science of communication. In digital media, communication role is very important, because in cyber space of the backbone concept is communication, and one of the concepts of digital communication is digital proxemics that will be explored with literature review method. This paper found that proxemics concept can determine the scope of personal data protection from privacy and the distribution of information.
... Il existe donc plusieurs façons de lancer un rayon à partir de la surface de la vitrine (cf. (Marquardt & Greenberg, 2012), afin que les passants interagissent avec la vitrine avec un minimum d'instructions. ...
Thesis
Durant cette dernière décennie, la quantité de données numériques n'a cessé d'augmenter. Ces données provenant de l'Internet des Objets ou de smartphones permettent aux utilisateurs de comprendre et d'analyser leur santé, leur mode de vie ou encore leur consommation énergétique, et aux différentes institutions (villes, campus, promoteurs immobiliers) de gérer le flux de population, le trafic routier ou les pertes énergétiques dans les bâtiments administrés. Le domaine de la "ville intelligente" en tire particulièrement profit. Il est donc capital de mettre à disposition des visualisations interactives de ces données pour pouvoir faire émerger des connaissances et faciliter la prise de décision. Une approche récente propose de représenter ces données proches de l'objet qui les capte ou les produit. Cependant, ce domaine est encore assez récent et il reste de nombreux défis à explorer. Un des défis majeurs identifié par Thomas et collab. (Thomas et al., 2018) est le développement et la conception de techniques d'interaction pour faciliter l'analyse de données situées. L'objectif de nos travaux de thèse est de concevoir et d'évaluer des solutions interactives tirant profit du référent physique pour interagir avec des données numériques situées en se focalisant sur une tâche interactive fondamentale en IHM : la sélection. Dans ce manuscrit nous abordons cette tâche selon une approche fonctionnelle et une approche conceptuelle.
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A sufficiently qualified virtual reality (VR) application should be an immersive environment where all natural actions and behaviors, e.g., head expressive motions, torso postures, limb gestures and body signs, should be recognized and translated to interactive operations or commands. But according to our survey on the state-of-the-art applications, there is still a large gap between the actuality and the ideal. To fill this gap, we carried out a focus group discussion through which a descriptive framework of whole-body interaction (WBI) techniques was formed. The framework provides a comprehensive illustration about the natural interaction forms derived from human bodily natural actions and behaviors. We also discussed and proposed technical principles for implementing WBI techniques. Based on these, we developed experiencing prototypes and had them evaluated. An empirical user study proved the feasibility and benefits of the WBI techniques.
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Augmented Reality (AR) embeds virtual content in physical spaces, including virtual agents that are known to exert a social presence on users. Existing design guidelines for AR rarely consider the social implications of an agent's personal space (PS) and that it can impact user behavior and arousal. We report an experiment (N=54) where participants interacted with agents in an AR art gallery scenario. When participants approached six virtual agents (i.e., two males, two females, a humanoid robot, and a pillar) to ask for directions, we found that participants respected the agents' PS and modulated interpersonal distances according to the human-like agents' perceived gender. When participants were instructed to walk through the agents, we observed heightened skin-conductance levels that indicate physiological arousal. These results are discussed in terms of proxemic theory that result in design recommendations for implementing pervasive AR experiences with virtual agents.
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Hand gestures are an essential component of our behavior and are often considered a valuable way for Ambient Assisted Living solutions. Gestural commands are particularly helpful in hectic home environments, like the kitchen, where we often have greasy hands. Yet, gestures can be challenging to learn and recall especially for non-tech savvy users. The adoption of a user-centered approach to select the gestural commands typically allows to generate postures and moves that are easier to perform and remember. Following this approach, we report on an agile and cost-effective elicitation study based on a virtual prototype that was conducted to design a set of gestural commands to operate the lighting system embedded into an extraction hood. Spontaneous gestures by 30 participants were video recorded and categorized through computer-supported structured video analysis. Our findings indicate the feasibility of the proposed approach with able-bodied users and open to the involvement of physically and cognitively challenged individuals.
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Ethical considerations relating to the use of participants’ data are well-established within User Experience (UX) practices. Similarly, there is evidence of a wide understanding of what dark UX patterns are and why these violate ethical principles set out by computing codes such as the ACM Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct. However, frameworks for practitioners to reflect on the possible unintended consequences of their work are less well represented. This paper reports on a pilot case study in which the Ethical Operating System (Ethical OS) framework was employed to bring these considerations systematically into UX work. Findings from this pilot study indicate that the use of the Ethical OS Toolkit can reveal potential unintended consequences of UX work that may not have surfaced otherwise, or that would have been recognised much later in the product’s lifecycle. The work is presented as both a means of embedding the toolkit into future practitioners’ education and its potential for supporting practitioners in their practice.
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Over a decade ago, sociologists with an interest in the dynamics of inter per­ sonal relations turned their attention toward the spatial setting of human behavior. This was an exciting movement away from the "figure" of individ­ uals and groups to the "ground" of the space in which social activities occur. As Goffman (1963, 1971) began to study the spaces separating groups and actors, new insights into various kinds of social situations were gained. Careful observers of activities in everyday life, such as Garfinkel (1964), found regularities in the ways people used space when interacting and reported that the disturbance of these regularities created difficulties for individuals. In general, new knowledge indicated a relationship between spatial be­ havior and the social order. Hence, those sociologists studying interactions could potentially collect data on the location and movements of individuals to complement the picture of social life that evolved largely from informa­ tion of a verbal nature. It was, however, psychologists such as Sommer (1969), and not sociologists, who took these observations seriously. The general sociological ambivalence toward the spatial dimension of social life has been unfortunate both for the study of spatial behavior and for sociology itself. This is a point that I refer to repeatedly in the text that follows. 'Thanks are rendered to Claude Fischer, Harold Garfinkel, Carol Silvennan, Daniel Stokols, and Ralph Turner for comments on an earlier draft. The preparation of this chapter was supported by a National Institute of Mental Health Postdoctoral Fellowship (USPHS-MH