Article

Performance evaluation of DSDV, OLSR and DYMO using 802.11 and 802.lip MAC-protocols

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

In this paper, we simulate the three routing protocols Destination Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV), Optimized Link state Routing (OLSR), DYnamic MANET On Demand (DYMO) in NS-2 to evaluate and compare their performance using two Mac-layer protocols 802.11 and 802.lip. Comprehensive stimulation work is done for each routing protocol and the performance metrics Throughput, End to End Delay (E2ED), Normalized Routing load (NRL) is analyze in the scenarios of varying the mobilities and scalabilities. After extensive simulations, we observe that DSDV outperforms with 802.1 lp while DYMO gives best performance with 802.11.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Researches indicate that a Mobile Ad hoc NETwork (MANET) has several characteristics: (1) dynamic topologies; (2) bandwidth-constrained links; (3) energy constrained operation; and (4) limited physical security. Therefore the routing protocols for wired networks cannot be directly used for wireless networks [14,17,18]. The characteristics (1), (2) and (3) are similar to WVSNs, which is the driving force to design a protocol to apply to this case. ...
... The following sections briefly introduce three well known protocols applied to MANET: Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR), Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV), and Destination Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV). The delay, throughput, control overhead and packet delivery ratio are the four common measures used for the comparison of the performance of the above protocols [18]. ...
... All nodes that participate in forwarding this reply to the source node create a forward route to the destination. This route created from each node from source to destination as a hop-by-hop state and not the entire route as in source routing [18]. ...
Article
Full-text available
One of the important applications in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) is video surveillance that includes the tasks of video data processing and transmission. Processing and transmission of image and video data in WSNs has attracted a lot of attention in recent years. This is known as Wireless Visual Sensor Networks (WVSNs). WVSNs are distributed intelligent systems for collecting image or video data with unique performance, complexity, and quality of service challenges. WVSNs consist of a large number of battery-powered and resource constrained camera nodes. End-to-end delay is a very important Quality of Service (QoS) metric for video surveillance application in WVSNs. How to meet the stringent delay QoS in resource constrained WVSNs is a challenging issue that requires novel distributed and collaborative routing strategies. This paper proposes a Near-Optimal Distributed QoS Constrained (NODQC) routing algorithm to achieve an end-to-end route with lower delay and higher throughput. A Lagrangian Relaxation (LR)-based routing metric that considers the "system perspective" and "user perspective" is proposed to determine the near-optimal routing paths that satisfy end-to-end delay constraints with high system throughput. The empirical results show that the NODQC routing algorithm outperforms others in terms of higher system throughput with lower average end-to-end delay and delay jitter. In this paper, for the first time, the algorithm shows how to meet the delay QoS and at the same time how to achieve higher system throughput in stringently resource constrained WVSNs.
... Many other researchers have simulated related MANET proactive protocols for DSDV and OLSR such as performance evaluation for DSDV and OLSR. The researchers considered the throughput, end to end delay (E2ED) and normalized routing load (NRL) [10]. Some researchers evaluated and compared the Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR), Normalized Routing Overhead (NRO) and average E2ED for DSDV and OLSR [11]. ...
... In [17], we simulate the three routing protocols; DSDV, OLSR, DYMO in NS-2 to evaluate and compare their performance using two Mac-layer protocols 802.11 and 802.11p. Comprehensive stimulation work is done for each routing protocol. ...
Article
In this paper, we propose a new Quality Link Metric (QLM), ``Inverse Expected Transmission Count (InvETX)'' in Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR) protocol. Then we compare performance of three existing QLMs which are based on loss probability measurements; Expected Transmission Count (ETX), Minimum Delay (MD), Minimum Loss (ML) in Static Wireless Multi-hop Networks (SWMhNs). A novel contribution of this paper is enhancement in conventional OLSR to achieve high efficiency in terms of optimized routing load and routing latency. For this purpose, first we present a mathematical framework, and then to validate this frame work, we select three performance parameters to simulate default and enhanced versions of OLSR. Three chosen performance parameters are; throughput, Normalized Routing Load and End-to-End Delay. From simulation results, we conclude that adjusting the frequencies of topological information exchange results in high efficiency.
... The works in [9][10][11][12][13], study the most widely experimented and frequently used protocols for our study; three from reactive or on-demand class: AODV, DSR, DYMO, and three from proactive or table-driven class DSDV, FSR, OLSR. . ...
... In [4] [5], communication time between nodes is found when the nodes are moving in same and opposite direction with same or different speeds. In this study, we improve the work of678910 and calculate the probability of link establishment between nodes when they are moving in same and opposite direction with same or different speeds. The study of DYMO is done in comparison with other routing protocols [6]. ...
Article
In this paper, a framework is presented for node distribution with respect to density, network connectivity and communication time. According to modeled framework we evaluate and compare the performance of three routing protocols; Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV), Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) and Fisheye State Routing (FSR) in MANETs and VANETs using two Mac-layer protocols; 802.11 and 802.11p. We have further modified these protocols by changing their routing information exchange intervals; MOD AODV, MOD DSR and MOD FSR. A comprehensive simulation work is performed in NS-2 for the comparison of these routing protocols for varying mobilities and scalabilities of nodes. To evaluate their efficiency; throughput, End-to-End Delay (E2ED) and Normalized Routing Load (NRL) of these protocols are taken into account as performance parameters. After extensive simulations, we observe that AODV outperforms both with MANETs and VANETs.
Chapter
The VANET (Vehicular Ad hoc Network) is a collection of mobile nodes forming a temporary network on variable topology, operating without base station and without centralized administration. Communication is possible between vehicles within each other's radio range as well as with fixed components on road side infrastructure. The characteristics of VANET network that distinguishes it from other ad hoc networks, such as high mobility and communication with the infrastructure to support security or comfort applications, have prompted researchers to develop models and mobility specific protocols. The main goal of this chapter is firstly to compare the performance of three Ad hoc routing protocols: OLSR, AODV and DSDV, and secondly to examine the impact of varying mobility, density and pause time on the functionality of these protocols. The results of this chapter demonstrate that AODV have better performance in terms of Throughput and Packets Delivery Rate (PDR), whereas OLSR have best performance in terms of Packet Delivery Time (Delay).
Chapter
Wireless sensor networks offer many advantages in different application areas with its ease of deployment, low-cost, low-power capabilities. With the increased interest to the wireless sensor networks, the research community have started to carry out network simulations to better analyze the network’s behavior and performance since they provide significant reduction in cost and simulate the different types of sceneries in tolerable time intervals. This chapter introduces the network simulators, i.e., NS-2, OMNET++, J-Sim, OPNET and TOSSIM, respectively with some of the major network programming languages, e.g., nesC and Mate.
Article
Full-text available
This document describes the Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR) protocol for mobile ad hoc networks. The protocol is an optimization of the classical link state algorithm tailored to the requirements of a mobile wireless LAN. The key concept used in the protocol is that of multipoint relays (MPRs). MPRs are selected nodes which forward broadcast messages during the flooding process. This technique substantially reduces the message overhead as compared to a classical flooding mechanism, where every node retransmits each message when it receives the first copy of the message. In OLSR, link state information is generated only by nodes elected as MPRs. Thus, a second optimization is achieved by minimizing the number of control messages flooded in the network. As a third optimization, an MPR node may chose to report only links between itself and its MPR selectors. Hence, as contrary to the classic link state algorithm, partial link state information is distributed in the network. This information is then used for route calculation. OLSR provides optimal routes (in terms of number of hops). The protocol is particularly suitable for large and dense networks as the technique of MPRs works well in this context.
Article
Full-text available
An ad hoc network is a collection of wireless mobile nodes dynamically forming a temporary network without the use of any existing network infrastructure or centralized administration. A nu mber of routing protocols like Dynamic Source Routing (DSR), Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing (AODV) and Destination-Sequenced Distance-Vector (DSDV) have been implemented. In this project, an attempt has been made to compare the performance of two prominent on-demand reactive routing protocols for mobile ad hoc networks: DSR and AODV, along with the traditional proactive DSDV protocol. A simulation model with MAC and physical layer models is used to study interlayer interactions and their performance implications. The On-demand protocols, AODV and DSR perform better than the table-driven DSDV protocol. Although DSR and AODV share similar on-demand behavior, the differences in the protocol mechanics can lead to significant performance differentials. A variety of workload and scenarios, as characterized by mobility, load and size of the ad hoc network were simulated. The performance differentials are analyzed using varying network load, mobility, and network size. These simulations are carried out based on the Rice Monarch Project that has made substantial extensions to the ns -2 network simulator to run ad hoc simulations.
Article
Full-text available
A Vehicular Ad Hoc Network (VANET) is an in-stance of MANETs that establishes wireless connections between cars. In VANETs, routing protocols and other techniques must be adapted to vehicular-specific capabilities and requirements. As many previous works have shown, routing performance is greatly dependent to the availability and stability of wireless links, which makes it a crucial parameter that should not be neglected in order to obtain accurate performance measurements in VANETs. Although routing protocols have already been analyzed and compared in the past, simulations and comparisons have almost always been done considering random motions. But could we assess that those results hold if performed using realistic urban vehicular motion patterns ? In this paper, we evaluate AODV and OLSR performance in realistic urban scenarios. We study those protocols under varying metrics such as node mobility and vehicle density, and with varying traffic rates. We show that clustering effects created by cars aggregating at intersections have remarkable impacts on evaluation and performance metrics. Our objective is to provide a qualitative assessment of the applicability of the protocols in different vehicular scenarios.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Vehicular Ad hoc Network (VANET) is a challenging network environment in which communication between vehicles in highly fading environments, like an urban scenario, is unpredictable and difficult. In order to analyze the performance of protocols and applications, network simulators like NS-2 use deterministic two ray ground radio propagation model. This model, however, poorly reflects the channel characteristics of real world conditions. In this paper, probabilistic Nakagami radio propagation model is used to represent channel fading characteristics of urban scenarios. The performance analysis of two routing protocols, AODV and OLSR using Nakagami propagation model under high obstacle urban environment is presented. It is observed that both routing protocols fail to provide acceptable packet delivery ratio. Overall, OLSR, with short interval of control messages, performed better than AODV in urban environments.
Article
Full-text available
Simulation studies have been the predominant method of evaluating ad hoc routing algorithms. Despite their wide use and merits, simulations are generally time consuming. Furthermore, several prominent ad hoc simulations report inconsistent and unrepeatable results. We, therefore, argue that simulation-based evaluation of ad hoc routing protocols should be complemented with mathematical verification and comparison. In this paper, we propose a performance evaluation framework that can be used to model two key performance metrics of an ad hoc routing algorithm, namely, routing overhead and route optimality. We also evaluate derivatives of the two metrics, namely, total energy consumption and route discovery latency. Using the proposed framework, we evaluate the performance of four prominent ad hoc routing algorithms: DSDV, DSR, AODV-LL, and Gossiping. We show that the modeled metrics not only allow unbiased performance comparison but also provide interesting insight about the impact of different parameters on the behavior of these protocols.
Article
Full-text available
An ad-hoc network is the cooperative engagement of a collection of Mobile Hosts without the required intervention of any centralized Access Point. In this paper we present an innovative design for the operation of such ad-hoc networks. The basic idea of the design is to operate each Mobile Host as a specialized router, which periodically advertises its view of the interconnection topology with other Mobile Hosts within the network. This amounts to a new sort of routing protocol. We have investigated modifications to the basic BellmanFord routing mechanisms, as specified by the Routing Information Protocol, making it suitable for a dynamic and self-starting network mechanism as is required by users wishing to utilize ad-hoc networks. Our modifications address some of the previous objections to the use of Bellman-Ford, related to the poor looping properties of such algorithms in the face of broken links and the resulting time dependent nature of the interconnection topology describing th...
Article
Full-text available
The Dynamic Source Routing protocol (DSR) is a simple and efficient routing protocol designed specifically for use in multi-hop wireless ad hoc networks of mobile nodes. DSR allows the network to be completely self-organizing and self-configuring, without the need for any existing network infrastructure or administration. The protocol is composed of the two mechanisms of Route Discovery and Route Maintenance, which work together to allow nodes to discover and maintain source routes to arbitrary destinations in the ad hoc network. The use of source routing allows packet routing to be trivially loop-free, avoids the need for up-to-date routing information in the intermediate nodes through which packets are forwarded, and allows nodes forwarding or overhearing packets to cache the routing information in them for their own future use. All aspects of the protocol operate entirely on-demand, allowing the routing packet overhead of DSR to scale automatically to only that needed to react to changes in the routes currently in use.
Article
In a Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET), mobile nodes move around arbitrarily, nodes may join and leave at any time, and the resulting topology is constantly changing. Routing in a MANET is challenging because of the dynamic topology and the lack of an existing fixed infrastructure. The Dynamic MANET On-demand (DYMO) protocol builds on previous proposed routing protocols for MANETs. This thesis present a design and implementation of DYMO for Linux and an experimental practical evaluation of DYMO with respect to quantitative performance metrics. The thesis contains a survey of implementation challenges that stem from the lack of system-service support for on-demand MANET routing protocols and a survey of implementation solutions addressing these challenges. The actual implementation consists of a user space routing daemon and a Linux kernel module, based on the netfilter framework. In the practical evaluation, the measured metrics are route discovery latency, TCP and UDP throughput, and end-to-end latency. Many of the experiments have been conducted in both an emulated and a real setup.
Article
Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) are an extreme case of mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs). High speed and frequent network topology changes are the main characteristics of vehicular networks. These characteristics lead to special issues and challenges in the network design, especially at the medium access control (MAC) layer. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive evaluation of mobility impact on the IEEE 802.11p MAC performance. The study evaluates basic performance metrics such as packet delivery ratio, throughput, and delay. An unfairness problem due to the relative speed is identified for both broadcast and unicast scenarios. We propose two dynamic contention window mechanisms to alleviate network performance degradation due to high mobility. The first scheme provides dynamic level of service priority via adaptation to the number of neighboring nodes, while the second scheme provides service priority based on node relative speed. Extensive simulation results demonstrate a significant impact of mobility on the IEEE 802.11p MAC performance, the unfairness problem in the vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communications, and the effectiveness of the proposed MAC schemes.
Conference Paper
Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) are an extreme case of mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs). High speed and frequent network topology changes are the main characteristics of vehicular networks. These characteristics lead to special issues and challenges in the network design, such as in medium access control (MAC). Due to the high speed and frequent network partitions, it is difficult to design a MAC scheme in VANETs that satisfies quality-of-service (QoS) requirements in all network scenarios. In this paper, we provide an evaluation of the mobility impact on the IEEE 802.11p MAC performance. In this evaluation, we identify a new unfairness problem in the vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communications. To achieve better performance, we propose two dynamic contention window mechanisms to alleviate network performance degradation due to high mobility. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed MAC schemes.
Conference Paper
Energy consumption is a major issue in designing protocols for ad hoc wireless networks due to battery constrains. This paper identifies the inefficient elements of expanding ring search protocol and proposes the new blocking expanding ring search approach which demonstrates substantial energy savings without an increase in route discovery latency
Conference Paper
In VANETs and MANETs, the topology of the network changes very often, therefore implementation of efficient routing protocols is very important problem. In MANETs, the Random Waypoint (RW) model is used as a simulation model for generating node mobility pattern. On the other hand, in VANETs, the mobility patterns of nodes is restricted along the roads, and is affected by the movement of neighbour nodes. In this paper, we present a simulation system for VANET called CAVENET (Cellular Automaton based VEhicular NETwork). In CAVENET, the mobility patterns of nodes are generated by an 1-dimensional cellular automata. We improved CAVENET and implemented some routing protocols. We investigated the performance of the implemented routing protocols by CAVENET. The simulation results have shown that DYMO different from OLSR tries to use more hops to keep the communication between nodes and has not a buffer as in case of AODV. Thus, the route maintenance mechanism of DYMO is better than OLSR and AODV for VANETs.
Article
In wireless LANs (WLANs), the medium access control (MAC) protocol is the main element that determines the efficiency in sharing the limited communication bandwidth of the wireless channel. In this paper we focus on the efficiency of the IEEE 802.11 standard for WLANs. Specifically, we analytically derive the average size of the contention window that maximizes the throughput, hereafter theoretical throughput limit, and we show that: 1) depending on the network configuration, the standard can operate very far from the theoretical throughput limit; and 2) an appropriate tuning of the backoff algorithm can drive the IEEE 802.11 protocol close to the theoretical throughput limit. Hence we propose a distributed algorithm that enables each station to tune its backoff algorithm at run-time. The performances of the IEEE 802.11 protocol, enhanced with our algorithm, are extensively investigated by simulation. Specifically, we investigate the sensitiveness of our algorithm to some network configuration parameters (number of active stations, presence of hidden terminals). Our results indicate that the capacity of the enhanced protocol is very close to the theoretical upper bound in all the configurations analyzed
Article
In this paper, we present a detailed framework consisting of modeling of routing overhead generated by three widely used proactive routing protocols; Destination-Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV), Fish-eye State Routing (FSR) and Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR). The questions like, how these protocols differ from each other on the basis of implementing different routing strategies, how neighbor estimation errors affect broadcast of route requests, how reduction of broadcast overhead achieves bandwidth, how to cope with the problem of mobility and density, etc, are attempted to respond. In all of the above mentioned situations, routing overhead and delay generated by the chosen protocols can exactly be calculated from our modeled equations. Finally, we analyze the performance of selected routing protocols using our proposed framework in NS-2 by considering different performance parameters; Route REQuest (RREQ) packet generation, End-to-End Delay (E2ED) and Normalized Routing Load (NRL) with respect to varying rates of mobility and density of nodes in the underlying wireless network.
Article
In this paper, we have modeled the routing over- head generated by three reactive routing protocols; Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV), Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) and DYnamic MANET On-deman (DYMO). Routing performed by reactive protocols consists of two phases; route discovery and route maintenance. Total cost paid by a protocol for efficient routing is sum of the cost paid in the form of energy consumed and time spent. These protocols majorly focus on the optimization performed by expanding ring search algorithm to control the flooding generated by the mechanism of blind flooding. So, we have modeled the energy consumed and time spent per packet both for route discovery and route maintenance. The proposed framework is evaluated in NS-2 to compare performance of the chosen routing protocols.
Conference Paper
Coupling Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs) with wired networks such as the Internet via access points creates a difficult mix of highly mobile nodes and a static infrastructure. In order to evaluate the performance of typical ad hoc routing protocols-in particular, we used Dynamic MANET On Demand (DYMO)-in such VANET scenarios, we combined microsimulation of road traffic and event-driven network simulation. Thus, we were able to analyze protocols of the Internet protocol suite in VANET scenarios with highly accurate mobility models. Varying parameters of DYMO for a multitude of traffic and communication scenarios helped point out approaches for improving the overall performance and revealed problems with the deployment. It could be shown that in realistic scenarios, even for medium densities of active nodes and low network load, overload behavior leads to a drastic decrease of the perceived network quality. Cross-layer optimization of transport and routing protocols therefore seems highly advisable.
Article
In this paper, we present a novel routing protocol for wireless ad hoc networks -- Fisheye State Routing (FSR). FSR introduces the notion of multi-level fisheye scope to reduce routing update overhead in large networks. Nodes exchange link state entries with their neighbors with a frequency which depends on distance to destination. From link state entries, nodes construct the topology map of the entire network and compute optimal routes. Simulation experiments show that FSR is simple, efficient and scalable routing solution in a mobile, ad hoc environment. 1 Introduction As the wireless and embedded computing technologies continue to advance, increasing numbers of small size and high performance computing and communication devices will be capable of tetherless communications and ad hoc wireless networking. An ad hoc wireless network is a selforganizing and self-configuring network with the capability of rapid deployment in response to application needs. An important characteristic wh...
Mobility impact in IEEE 802
  • W Alasmary
  • Zhuang
Alasmary, W. and Zhuang, w., Mobility impact in IEEE 802.11 p infrastructureless vehicular networks, Ad Hoc Networks, 2010.
IETF RFC-3626, Optimized Link State Routing Protocol OLSR, The Internet Society http
  • T Clausen
  • P Jacquet
T. Clausen and P. Jacquet, IETF RFC-3626, Optimized Link State Routing Protocol OLSR, The Internet Society http://www. ietf. orglrfc/rfc3626. txt, 2003.
IETF Draft dymo-05, Dynamic MANET On-demand (DYMO) Routing
  • I Chakeres
  • C E Perkins