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The$First$Five$Computer$Science$Principles$
Pilots:$Summary$and$ Comparisons$
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AP#Computer#Science#Principles:#Seven#Big#Ideas#(Fall#2010)#
$
I. Computing$is$a$creative$human$activity(that$engenders$innovation$a n d$p r o m o te s$e x p lo rat io n .$$
II. Abstraction$reduces$information$and$detail$to$focus$on$concepts$relevant$to$understan din g$
and$solving$problems.$$
III. Data$and$information$facilitate$the$creation$of$knowledge.$$
IV. Algorithms$are$tools$for$developing$and$expressing$solutions$to$computational$problems.$
V. Programming(is$a$creative$p ro cess$that$produces$computational$artifacts.$$
VI. Digital$devices,$systems,$and$the$networks$that$interconnect$them$enable$and$foster$
computational$approaches$to$solving$problems.$$$
VII. Computing$enables$innovation$in$other$fields$including$science,$social$science,$humanities,$
arts,$medicine,$engineering,$and$business.$
AP#Computer#Science#Principles:#9.;(
/+<3-$&$.+*&5(2=.*>.*?(:%&'$.'1#(@A&55(BCDCE$
1. Analyzing$the$effects$of$computation$$
2. Creating$computational$artifacts$
3. Using$abstractions$and$models$$
4. Analyzing$problems$and$artifacts$$
5. Communicating$processes$and$results$$
6. Working$effectively$in$teams$$
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School
Instructor
Title
Hours
Size
MSCD
Paul
“Living in a Computing World”
55
20
UCB
Garcia/Harvey
“The Beauty & Joy of Computing”
98
80
UCSD
Simon
“Fluency with Information Technology”
50
580
UNCC
Barnes
“The Beauty & Joy of Computing”
40
22
UW
Snyder
“Computer Science Principles”
50
22
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In addition, the results of a
Mann-Whitney test
indicated that statistically
significant differences
were found between the final grades of non-underrepresented students (median=3.30)
and underrepresented students (median=3.00). Non-underrepresented students had an
average grade of a “B+” compared to underrepresented students who had an average
grade of “B.” However, the effect size was below the accepted standards for even a
“small” effect size indicating a significant difference but not a substantial difference
between the final grades of non-underrepresented and underrepresented students.
Lastly, there were no significant differences between the final median grade for males
and females; this indicates that, based on final grades as a measure, females learned as
well in the course as males. [6]
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Categories and Subject Descriptors: K.3.2 [Computers and Education]: Computer and
Information Science Education – Computer science education, Curriculum
General Terms: Experimentation, Human Factors, Design, Management, Measurement
Keywords: Computer science education, pedagogy, CS Principles
... For example, although pilot projects have tested how CS Principles could support different teaching learning approaches and portfolio-based assessments for the AP examination [3], research remains limited on whether students who have taken CS Principles continue to pursue computing by taking additional CS courses, or if they pursue computing in other venues after course completion. In addition, we have limited understanding how different populations undertake and perform in CS Principles, despite its primary goal to broaden participation and diversity in computing [35,3]. ...
... Pilot implementations of CS Principles courses [35,3], taught at both high school and collegiate levels appear to have positively impacted females and underrepresented students [3], but these pilots differed in structure, breadth, and focus [35]. One possible reason for this is that the CS Principles content, represented by the framework's list of topics and objectives and its broad assertions of desired outcomes, resulted in multiple interpretations by instructors to achieve the learning outcomes [35]. ...
... Pilot implementations of CS Principles courses [35,3], taught at both high school and collegiate levels appear to have positively impacted females and underrepresented students [3], but these pilots differed in structure, breadth, and focus [35]. One possible reason for this is that the CS Principles content, represented by the framework's list of topics and objectives and its broad assertions of desired outcomes, resulted in multiple interpretations by instructors to achieve the learning outcomes [35]. ...
Conference Paper
The Computer Science (CS) Principles framework seeks to broaden student participation and diversity in the field by focusing on the creative and social aspects of computing. As the pilot effort undergoes its early execution phases, this research contributes to the theoretical and practical application of CS Principles. We investigated the impact of CS Principles on student motivation and learning outcomes and sought to determine if the pedagogy created any lasting change on student perceptions of CS as a field of practice. We report a case study of how CS Principles created an effective framework for introducing undergraduate students to the fundamentals of computer science. We discuss how Self-Determination Theory instantiates Self-Directed Learning, Constructionist, and Connectivist learning theories, which can be used to inform the pedagogical framework. Quantitative and qualitative measures were used to assess the impact of CS Principles on student motivation and learning outcomes, followed by an additional surveying of students one year after the completion of the course. Results indicate that CS Principles facilitated positive programming experiences for students, helped increase learning interest and improve attitudes of CS as a field of study, positively changed perceptions of CS as a creative practice, and also encouraged students to continue learning CS after the course had finished. In particular, many non-majority students in the course self-reported to having positive changes and attitudes about CS explicitly because of the course. These finding suggest that CS Principles is a step in the right direction for creating more engaging and compelling curricula to diverse groups of students, especially those with minimal experience and exposure in the field. We discuss opportunities for future work using the selected theoretical framework for CS Principles.
... We were inspired by UC Berkeley's introductory course "The Beauty and Joy of Computing," d which was one of a series of pilot courses that aimed to teach CS's big ideas and the most important computational thinking practices. 20 However, we also felt the focus on computational thinking maybe is only part of a bigger picture, which is how we set out to build a curriculum that emphasized the diversity of thinking styles. Importantly, we also wanted to follow our university's leitmotiv "Technik für Menschen" (Technology contributed articles asks them to analyze one given context through multiple lenses with the aim to reveal the benefits of applying different ways of thinking at the same time. ...
Article
Full-text available
An innovative, entry-level informatics course enables students to ponder CS problems in different ways, from different perspectives. Find the full text at ACM for dowload: https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=3342113.3329674
... In computer science, revisiting the introductory sequence in computing to include a focus on big ideas and applications of value to society has been showing success in increasing and diversifying participation and excitement [4,23]. There has also been research showing that women have better retention in the major if they have opportunities to work in small groups or pairs, and that pairs produce better results in any case [28]. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We describe our experience developing and running a Computer Science Living-Learning Community (LLC) for first-year women at Rutgers University, now in its third year. Each year, around 20 first-year undergraduate women who intend to major in computer science (CS) apply and are selected to participate. LLC participants live in a common residence hall and are provided with an educational, mentoring, and community-building program that supports their progress as students and CS majors. Participants take a "house course," Great Ideas and Insights in Computer Science, as a group, and also take a course on Knowledge and Power: Issues in Women's Leadership. Program activities include study sessions and industry interactions, as well as opportunities to participate in K-12 outreach programs, hackathons, and computing research. To evaluate the program, participants and a similar comparison group are surveyed at the beginning and end of the academic year and a focus group is conducted with program participants. Program participants find the program valuable and would recommend it to others, but both program participants and the comparison group report some lack of confidence in their potential success as computer scientists.
... Course A curriculum and featured the same block images from these materials in the questions and answer choices. The 3rd-8th cohort used Snap! in their workshop coding activities [15], and activities were inspired by the Beauty and Joy of Computing curriculum [23]. Assessment questions for these teachers featured Snap! code images in their question and answer choices. ...
Conference Paper
The computer science education community has made great strides in promoting diversity and inclusion in computing fields and bringing K-12 CS learning opportunities to broader groups of learners. However, one area that has not been investigated fully is how assessments can influence a learner's confidence and attitudes towards CS. Stereotype threat and test modality have been shown to affect the performance of CS test takers. This experience report examines how novice CS learners respond to a CS assessment by investigating an increasingly important group of novice CS learners: K-8 classroom teachers. We conducted focus groups with elementary and middle school teachers as part of a week-long CS professional development workshop. The focus groups were held after teachers completed pre- and post-assessments. The assessment instrument featured multiple-choice and short-answer questions with block-based programming snippets. Many teachers reported a positive disposition towards learning CS after completing the pre-assessment, which they attributed to having a growth mindset. Themes related to their confidence involved the difficulty and format of the assessment, with comments about difficulty reducing after the post-assessment. When asked about their thoughts on the assessment from the perspective of their students, they provided suggestions with particular attention to its format. These findings provide insight for CS assessment design and implementation, as well as support further research on the impact of assessments on CS learners.
... In Snap!, blocks represent program structures that can be grabbed and snapped together to create a program. Snap! is used in several introductory programming courses, most notably The Beauty and Joy of Computing curriculum [18]. We chose Snap! for this study because it offers the benefit of shifting the dialogue focus toward program structure and away from syntactical errors. ...
Conference Paper
Pair programming is a collaboration paradigm that has been increasingly adopted in computer science education. Research has established that pair programming can hold benefits for students' learning and attitudes, but comparatively little is known about the ways in which the collaborative process benefits students' CS learning. This paper examines the collaboration process, comparing important outcomes with how students' dialogue and problem-solving approaches unfolded. The results show that the collaboration is more effective when both partners make substantive dialogue contributions, express uncertainty, and resolve it. In particular, driver dialogue expressivity is associated with improved outcomes. The findings provide insight into the ways in which pair programming dialogue benefits student learning during CS problem solving.
... Teachers are free to use whatever computing technologies they want as long as the learning objectives are met. The framework is an emerging one that has evolved in an iterative process beginning with a few dozen college and high school pilot offerings in 2010-12 [3,11,45]. Some of the pilot instructors required their students to learn just one computing technology; others required several and/or made some optional. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper reports on an investigative, qualitative case study of the teaching practices of two public high school Computer Science teachers as they teach courses that are fully or partially aligned with the CS Principles framework. One teaches at an urban, high minority STEM school, the other at a middle class suburban school. Ethnographic methods were used to collect data via classroom observations and teacher interviews. Within-case and across-case analyses are presented which characterize the teachers' practices regarding pedagogy, curricula, creative activities, problem-solving activities, and management of social interactions. The findings provide detailed insights regarding the challenges these teachers face and the strategies they use, which may be useful to teachers in a variety of settings at both the high school and college/university levels.
Chapter
This chapter will anchor the discussion on designing a blended learning environment in The University of Hong Kong through the lens of instructional design support offered by the Technology-Enriched Learning Initiative. This case study focuses on three pioneering Engineering courses from three various projects, which adopted blended learning in their course delivery, and we will unpack how the design of the courses facilitates computational thinking skills. We will look at the entanglement of different layers of intricacies involved using an instructional design model called ADDIE. In particular, we will zoom into the design and implementation phases of the Engineering courses. These courses include a Common Core course Everyday Computing and the Internet (CCST 9003), an elective engineering course Advanced Programming and Application Development (ELEC 3542), and a general engineering course Calculus and Ordinary Differential Equations (MATH 1851). These courses are offered to different types of learners, from novice to advanced engineering students. Finally, we will offer recommendations on: (1) how to develop quality blended learning courses; and (2) how to design both online and face-to-face courses that facilitate computational thinking using a four-element framework identified in the literature.
Conference Paper
This paper describes the design and initial implementation of a new CS0 course for CS majors at Ohio University and an associated computer science placement exam. It was our expectation that this course would help improve overall retention and academic performance of CS majors. The new CS0 course was intended for new students with little or no programming experience. Hence, we designed CS0 by selecting some of the best components of other CS0 efforts from the literature, namely, introductory programming in Python, computational thinking, and motivational material aimed at instilling ownership of the major. In order to direct students into CS0 or CS1 appropriately, a placement exam was given to students during orientation. The placement process resulted in a mixed cohort consisting of students with no programming experience as well as other students with programming experience who did not pass the placement exam. Longitudinal analysis of student grades in CS0 and CS1 showed that these were two distinct populations with very different needs. A statistically significant difference was found in the CS1 grades for CS0 students from these populations. Surprisingly, CS0 students without prior programming experience got significantly higher grades in CS1 than CS0 students who had programmed before. We share lessons learned from our experience, including a revised placement process to address these separate populations.
Conference Paper
Computing and computation are increasingly pervading our lives, careers, and societies - a change driving interest in computing education at the secondary level. But what should define a "general education" computing course at this level? That is, what would you want every person to know, assuming they never take another computing course? We identify possible outcomes for such a course through the experience of designing and implementing a general education university course utilizing best-practice pedagogies. Though we nominally taught programming, the design of the course led students to report gaining core, transferable skills and the confidence to employ them in their future. We discuss how various aspects of the course likely contributed to these gains. Finally, we encourage the community to embrace the challenge of teaching general education computing in contrast to and in conjunction with existing curricula designed primarily to interest students in the field.
Article
A teaching method, called Peer Instruction (PI), has been developed to help computing instructors in designing assessments more directly targeting understanding. The PI method has been used in several science and mathematics courses and its core involves students attempting to explain to each other how they understand core physics concepts through a series of deceptively simple-looking problems. The emphasis is on deriving the right answer once the students use the appropriate core concepts in their attempts to articulate their understanding of the problem and their solution to it instead of getting it through a mechanical process. This approach has been shown to improve learning significantly in comparison with the standard lecture format in a variety of studies. These learning effects, along with PI's documented use across a variety of disciplines need to allow computing educators to foster the desired level of understanding.
AP CS: Principles Course, Evaluation Report for Year 2
  • Kathleen Haynie
  • Vonda Johnson
Kathleen Haynie and Vonda Johnson, "AP CS: Principles Course, Evaluation Report for Year 2", July 12, 2011.
Executing – How it works 19
  • Fetch
Fetch/Executing – How it works 19. Work on Own Programs (lab)