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Training methods of military dog handlers and their effects on the team's performances

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Abstract

While only a few studies have analysed training methods used on working dogs, a recent survey in 303 Belgian military handlers revealed the use of harsh training methods on military working dogs (MWD). The present work aims at analysing the training methods used on Belgian MWD and the behaviour of handlers to objectify the performances of the dog handlers teams (DH teams) and the welfare of the animals.A standardized evaluation, including obedience and protection work exercises, was conducted on DH teams (n=33). Every evaluation was done twice to assess the reliability of the observation methods. The behaviours of MWD and handlers were recorded on videotape and subsequently analysed. Results showed that handlers rewarded or punished their dogs intermittently. Stroking and patting the dogs were the most frequently used rewards. Pulling on the leash and hanging dogs by their collars were the most commonly used aversive stimuli.The team's performance was influenced by the training method and by the dog's concentration: (1) low-performance dogs received more aversive stimuli than high-performance dogs; (2) dog's distraction influenced the performance: distracted dogs performed less well.Handlers punished more and rewarded less at the second evaluation than at the first one. This suggests that handlers modified their usual behaviour at the first evaluation in view to present themselves in a positive light. During the second evaluation the dogs reacted to this higher frequency of aversive stimuli as they exhibited a lower posture after aversive stimuli. The authors cannot prove that the welfare of these dogs had been hampered, but there is an indication that it was under threat.Low team performances suggest that DH teams should train more regularly and undertake the usefulness of setting a new training system that would rely on: the use of more positive training methods, an increased training frequency, the elaboration of a course on training principles, and an improvement of dog handler relationship.

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... DNA was available for a total of 28 MWD that were previously characterized for obedience and protection [37,39] (Table 5). Of these, 25 were the same dogs used in the aggression and fearfulness studies [6,38]. ...
... MWD were previously assessed for obedience and protection performance [37,39]. The standardized evaluation used included eight obedience exercises (heelwork, sit, down, stand, positions at a distance, recall, down and stay with handler out of sight, jump) and five protection exercises (defense of handler, attack, attack with gunshots, attack with threatening behavior, and stopped-attack). ...
... The standardized evaluation used included eight obedience exercises (heelwork, sit, down, stand, positions at a distance, recall, down and stay with handler out of sight, jump) and five protection exercises (defense of handler, attack, attack with gunshots, attack with threatening behavior, and stopped-attack). Team performance was calculated according to a scoring method used by the Belgian army [39]. Handler behavior included number of appetitive stimuli (positive reinforcement) and aversive stimuli (negative reinforcement and positive punishment) [37,39]. ...
... sitting) upon successful detection of the target objective (or analogue). Of course, withholding the reward (a form of negative punishment) in the face of a weak response is also often employed [114,115], not least to avoid inadvertently training the dog to offer false positives (sitting in the absence of the odour). Alexander et al. (2011) conducted a survey of 177 experienced dog trainers who reported that positive reinforcement was the most effective reward system and these findings have been replicated elsewhere [115][116][117]. ...
... Of course, withholding the reward (a form of negative punishment) in the face of a weak response is also often employed [114,115], not least to avoid inadvertently training the dog to offer false positives (sitting in the absence of the odour). Alexander et al. (2011) conducted a survey of 177 experienced dog trainers who reported that positive reinforcement was the most effective reward system and these findings have been replicated elsewhere [115][116][117]. Drivers for canine searching are most often food and attention (i.e. ...
... The most important factor determining the effectiveness of detection dogs is the interaction between the handler and dog [5,115,136]. Beyond physiology, other variables associated with improved detection results include dog maturation, trainer experience, and amount of training provided [73]. ...
Article
Detection dogs serve a plethora of roles within modern society, and are relied upon to identify threats such as explosives and narcotics. Despite their importance, research and training regarding detection dogs has involved ambiguity. This is partially due to the fact that the assessment of effectiveness regarding detection dogs continues to be entrenched within a traditional, non-scientific understanding. Furthermore, the capabilities of detection dogs are also based on their olfactory physiology and training methodologies, both of which are hampered by knowledge gaps. Additionally, the future of detection dogs is strongly influenced by welfare and social implications. Most importantly however, is the emergence of progressively inexpensive and efficacious analytical methodologies including gas chromatography related techniques, “e-noses” and capillary electrophoresis. These analytical methodologies provide both an alternative and assistor for the detection dog industry, however the interrelationship between these two detection paradigms requires clarification. These factors, when considering their relative contributions, illustrate a need to address research gaps, formalise the detection dog industry and research process, as well as take into consideration analytical methodologies and their influence on the future status of detection dogs. This review offers an integrated assessment of the factors involved in order to determine the current and future status of detection dogs.
... Nota-se um crescente aumento no interesse científico em entender diversos aspectos da interação entre ser humano e cão, incluindo também estudos sobre os cães de trabalho militar (Haverbeke et al., 2010a,b). Esses cães são treinados para exercer diversas tarefas, como, por exemplo, a identificação de indivíduos, busca ativa por narcóticos, explosivos, substâncias químicas em geral, dentre outras (Burghardt Jr, 2003;Haverbeke et al., 2008a). ...
... Alguns estudos prévios tiveram como objetivo a avaliação de diversos fatores relacionados ao bem-estar de cães de trabalho militar, incluindo a qualidade da interação humano animal (Lefebvre et al., 2007), os efeitos benéficos do contato social com coespecíficos (Gfrerer et al., 2018) alimentar (Gaines et al., 2008;Lefebvre et al., 2009). Foram investigados também os efeitos de diferentes tipos de estressores ambientais sobre as respostas comportamentais e fisiológicas de cães de trabalho militar, como, por exemplo, o efeito de objetos novos e ruídos abruptos (Haverbeke et al., 2008a), perturbação por instalação de equipamentos em seus boxes (Lefebvre et al., 2010) e condições ambientais extremas (Baker e Miller, 2013;Diverio et al., 2016). ...
... Nesse sentido, destacamos também a importância dos métodos de treinamento como um ponto crítico para o bem-estar e desempenho dos cães em serviço. Apesar de os métodos de treinamento exercerem influência sobre o comportamento, desempenho e bem-estar dos cães de abrigo (Haverbeke et al., 2008a), sua avaliação requer acompanhamento das sessões de treinamento, o que também dificilmente um período maior, podendo, assim, fazer com que o avaliador possa acompanhar de perto a rotina dos animais junto dos responsáveis pelo canil. ...
Article
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Com o presente estudo objetivou-se propor um protocolo para a avaliação do bem-estar de cães utilizados em atividades policiais, a partir de uma adaptação do protocolo Shelter Quality (SQ, Barnard et al., 2014), visando fornecer uma ferramenta para mensuração da qualidade de vida destes animais. Participaram do estudo 11 cães pertencentes ao canil do Pelotão de Policiamento com Cães da 4ª Cia PM Independente de Policiamento Especializado, Juiz de Fora, MG. O estudo foi dividido em: a) adaptação do protocolo SQ para avaliação do bem-estar dos cães; b) descrição da rotina de trabalho dos cães. Os indicadores de bem-estar presentes no protocolo SQ foram Organizados em três níveis de registro: medidas tomadas para o canil (tipo de alojamento, frequência de exercício, taxas de mortalidade e morbidade, manejo alimentar), medidas nos boxes (espaço disponível, tipo de cama, presença de superfície pontiaguda, fornecimento de água, conforto térmico e nível de latidos) e medidas obtidas nos animais, considerando cada indivíduo como uma unidade amostral (condição corporal, limpeza dos animais, condição do tegumento, claudicação, problemas respiratórios, evidência de dor, diarreia, comportamento anormal, reação ao ser humano e estados emocionais). Por tratar-se de uma pesquisa metodológica e descritiva, os dados foram analisados de modo predominantemente qualitativo. De acordo com os resultados, o protocolo SQ foi aplicável e ofereceu informações relevantes sobre o bem-estar dos cães. No entanto, o mesmo foi considerado incompleto, sendo necessária a inclusão de indicadores adicionais para que contemplasse um maior número de pontos críticos do bem-estar de cães de trabalho; são eles: manejo sanitário, transporte dos cães, higiene dos boxes, disponibilidade de enriquecimento ambiental, local de permanência dos cães durante a limpeza e manutenção dos boxes e socialização dos cães. Quanto à rotina dos cães, a carga horária de policiamento variou de 2 h a 10 h de trabalho semanal/animal, variando de 0 a 4 saídas semanais para policiamento, além de 0 a 160 minutos semanais de recreação fora dos boxes. Embora tenha sido elaborado para avaliação do bem-estar de cães de abrigo, o protocolo SQ foi exequível e prático para a avaliação de cães de trabalho militar. Foi necessário, porém, realizar algumas adaptações para sua melhor adequação às condições de canis militares.
... Traditionally, working dog training has relied on the use of punitive methods, shown to be associated with poorer operational performance and compromised welfare. 38,39 Accordingly, modern working dog training has largely shifted away from the use of aversives. 24 The use of compulsion-based training may be a function of the dog's role, such as protection dogs trained for bite-work that are resistant to releasing their grip. ...
... 37 Different types of working dogs vary in their baseline levels of arousal as a result of selection for specific temperament profiles suitable for different working roles. 45 For example, MWDs and detection dogs are typically selected for higher energy levels and strong motivational drives to enable working over long periods of time and in harsh conditions with infrequent reinforcement, 38,46,47 whereas assistance and guide dogs tend to exhibit much calmer and docile temperaments more compatible with assimilation into anthropocentric environments. 20,45,48,49 The relationship between arousal and performance is expressed as a bell-shaped curve, known as the Yerkes-Dodson law, where performance improves as arousal increases up to a certain point and then declines when arousal becomes too high. ...
Article
Individual differences in behavior lead to wide variability in working dog suitability, and are the primary reason for rejection or early release. Behavioral suitability of a working dog is shaped by interactions with its environment during early development and specialized training. Understanding how aspects of development and training affect a working dog's performance is critical for practitioners to effectively evaluate and treat behavioral concerns in working dogs. This article provides an overview of critical aspects of puppy development that influence future behavior, and reviews important features of training that influence a dog's ability to learn and perform its designated task.
... Authors of both studies concluded that early detection and treatment of LS stenosis was an important factor in the likelihood of return to full active duty. Haverbeke et al. (2008) reported that reluctance to perform working tasks could be a sign of pain in working dogs but initially misinterpreted as "laziness," causing dog handlers to respond with more aversive training techniques (Haverbeke et al., 2008). An improved understanding of possible relationships between concerns involving behavior and LS stenosis in military working dogs could therefore be helpful for improving early detection, so that appropriate treatments could be implemented before further injuries occur. ...
... Authors of both studies concluded that early detection and treatment of LS stenosis was an important factor in the likelihood of return to full active duty. Haverbeke et al. (2008) reported that reluctance to perform working tasks could be a sign of pain in working dogs but initially misinterpreted as "laziness," causing dog handlers to respond with more aversive training techniques (Haverbeke et al., 2008). An improved understanding of possible relationships between concerns involving behavior and LS stenosis in military working dogs could therefore be helpful for improving early detection, so that appropriate treatments could be implemented before further injuries occur. ...
Article
Behavioral and spinal problems have been reported to be important causes of early retirement in military working dogs, however studies on possible relationships between these two problems are currently lacking. The aim of this retrospective, observational, cross-sectional study was to test associations between reported behavioral problems and computed tomographic (CT) diagnoses of lumbosacral (LS) stenosis in a sample of military working dogs. Data archives at a tertiary referral military working dog hospital were searched for dogs that had LS CT scans acquired during the period of June 2013- July 2014, and available medical records. For each included dog, an observer unaware of CT findings reviewed medical records and recorded dog signalment data. A second observer reviewed medical records and assigned a score of 0 (absent) or 1 (present) for each of 11 behavioral problem categories. A third observer unaware of medical record findings reviewed CT scans and assigned a score of 0 (absent) or 1 (present) for LS stenosis at each of 4 vertebral locations (L4-5, L5-6, L6-7, L7-S1). A statistician selected and performed tests of association. A total of 55 dogs met inclusion criteria. Of these, 21 dogs (38.2%) had recorded behavioral complaints/problems involving behavior in at least 1 of the 10 categories and 44 (80.0%) had CT diagnoses of LS stenosis in at least one vertebral location. The number of behavioral problems were significantly associated with number of vertebral locations with LS stenosis (ordinal logistic fit, p=0.011) and positively correlated (rho = 0.37, p = 0.006). Problems involving behavioral concerns were more likely to be exhibited if dogs had multi-level stenosis (≥3 vertebral levels, Kappa = 0.06, p>0.05; Bowker's test statistics 26.26, P<0.05). The most common behavior problems in dogs with multi-level stenosis were "unwilling or reluctant to jump up onto objects/into vehicles" (3/8, 38%), "sudden onset of aggressive behaviors" (2/8, 25%), "self-mutilation in the lower back region, tail, or hind legs "(2/8, 25%), "increase in anxiety" (2/8, 25%), "sudden decrease in appetite" (2/8, 25%), "unwilling or reluctant to sit" (2/8, 25%), and "handler-reported unusual behaviors" (2/8, 25%). Findings from this preliminary study supported inclusion of multi-level LS stenosis in the differential diagnosis list for military working dogs presenting with a recent onset of behavioral problems.
... Furthermore, previous empirical studies have focused on the effects of training methods on dog welfare within the training context. Behavioral and physiological indicators of welfare, such as the frequency of stress-related behaviors and the concentration of salivary cortisol, have been collected in and around the training situation (e.g., [9,12]; see also [3]). However, the welfare impact of training methods beyond the training scenario has not yet been examined. ...
... Presently, the scientific literature on the efficacy of the different methodologies is scarce and inconsistent [3]. Whereas some studies suggest a higher efficacy of reward methods [5,12,[51][52][53], one points in the opposite direction [31] and three show no differences between methods [9,54,55]. This limits the extent of evidence-based recommendations. ...
Article
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Dog training methods range broadly from those using mostly positive punishment and negative reinforcement (aversive-based) to those using primarily positive reinforcement (reward-based). Although aversive-based training has been strongly criticized for negatively affecting dog welfare, there is no comprehensive research focusing on companion dogs and mainstream techniques, and most studies rely on owner-reported assessment of training methods and dog behavior. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of aversive- and reward-based training methods on companion dog welfare within and outside the training context. Ninety-two companion dogs were recruited from three reward-based schools (Group Reward, n = 42), and from four aversive-based schools, two using low proportions of aversive-based methods (Group Mixed, n = 22) and two using high proportions of aversive-based methods (Group Aversive, n = 28). For evaluating welfare during training, dogs were video recorded for three sessions and six saliva samples were collected, three at home (baseline levels) and three after training (post-training levels). Video recordings were used to examine the frequency of stress-related behaviors (e.g., lip lick, yawn) and the overall behavioral state of the dog (e.g., tense, relaxed), and saliva samples were analyzed for cortisol concentration. For evaluating welfare outside the training context, dogs participated in a cognitive bias task. Results showed that dogs from Group Aversive displayed more stress-related behaviors, were more frequently in tense and low behavioral states and panted more during training, and exhibited higher post-training increases in cortisol levels than dogs from Group Reward. Additionally, dogs from Group Aversive were more ‘pessimistic’ in the cognitive bias task than dogs from Group Reward. Dogs from Group Mixed displayed more stress-related behaviors, were more frequently in tense states and panted more during training than dogs from Group Reward. Finally, although Groups Mixed and Aversive did not differ in their performance in the cognitive bias task nor in cortisol levels, the former displayed more stress-related behaviors and was more frequently in tense and low behavioral states. These findings indicate that aversive-based training methods, especially if used in high proportions, compromise the welfare of companion dogs both within and outside the training context.
... Furthermore, previous empirical studies have focused on the effects of training methods on dog welfare within the training context. Behavioral and physiological indicators of welfare, such as the frequency of stress-related behaviors and the concentration of salivary cortisol, have been collected in and around the training situation (e.g., [9,12]; see also [3]). However, the welfare impact of training methods beyond the training scenario has not yet been examined. ...
... Presently, the scientific literature on the efficacy of the different methodologies is scarce and inconsistent [3]. Whereas some studies suggest a higher efficacy of reward methods [5,12,[51][52][53], one points in the opposite direction [31] and three show no differences between methods [9,54,55]. This limits the extent of evidence-based recommendations. ...
Article
Full-text available
Dogs play an important role in our society as companions and work partners, and proper training of these dogs is pivotal. For companion dogs, training helps preventing or managing dog behavioral problems—the most frequently cited reason for relinquishing and euthanasia, and it promotes successful dog-human relationships and thus maximizes benefits humans derive from bonding with dogs. For working dogs, training is crucial for them to successfully accomplish their jobs. Dog training methods range widely from those using predominantly aversive stimuli (aversive methods), to those combining aversive and rewarding stimuli (mixed methods) and those focusing on the use of rewards (reward methods). The use of aversive stimuli in training is highly controversial and several veterinary and animal protection organizations have recommended a ban on pinch collars, e-collars and other techniques that induce fear or pain in dogs, on the grounds that such methods compromise dog welfare. At the same time, training methods based on the use of rewards are claimed to be more humane and equally or more effective than aversive or mixed methods. This important discussion, however, has not always been based in solid scientific evidence. Although there is growing scientific evidence that training with aversive stimuli has a negative impact on dog welfare, the scientific literature on the efficacy and efficiency of the different methodologies is scarce and inconsistent. Hence, the goal of the current study is to investigate the efficacy and efficiency of different dog training methods. To that end, we will apply different dog training methods in a population of working dogs and evaluate the outcome after a period of training. The use of working dogs will allow for a rigorous experimental design and control, with randomization of treatments. Military (n = 10) and police (n = 20) dogs will be pseudo-randomly allocated to two groups. One group will be trained to perform a set of tasks (food refusal, interrupted recall, dumbbell retrieval and placing items in a basket) using reward methods and the other group will be trained for the same tasks using mixed methods. Later, the dogs will perform a standardized test where they will be required to perform the trained behaviors. The reliability of the behaviors and the time taken to learn them will be assessed in order to evaluate the efficacy and efficiency, respectively, of the different training methods. This study will be performed in collaboration with the Portuguese Army and with the Portuguese Public Security Police (PSP) and integrated with their dog training programs.
... Furthermore, it is possible that elephants managed under different training styles may vary in their cognitive abilities or performance on tasks. Recent research with domestic dogs has suggested that positivereinforcement-only training leads to increased cognitive performance on novel tasks (Haverbeke, Laporte, Depiereux, Giffroy, & Diederich, 2008;Rooney & Cowan, 2011). Also, a recent replication of elephant numerical ability suggests that there may be a difference between protected-contact and free-contact trained animals. ...
... can lead to better performance on a cognitive task (Haverbeke et al., 2008). The relationship between training history and cognitive performance in elephants warrants further investigation. ...
Article
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The current study tested six Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) on a means-end behavioral task of pulling a support to retrieve a distant object; a systematic replication of the Irie-Sugimoto et al. (2008) study. The paradigm was somewhat modified from the original research to accommodate a protected contact setting, reduce the total number of trials, and one condition was excluded. Each elephant was tested on three conditions of increasing difficulty. Specifically, subjects were asked to select from a choice of two trays where one intact tray was baited with a highly-valued produce item and the other was A) empty; B) baited adjacent to the tray; and C) baited on the far side of a break in the tray. Results indicated that the elephants met or exceeded the criteria established for conditions A and B, but performed at chance levels on condition C. These data are contrasted with those of the original study where one elephant met criteria for all three conditions. We discuss potentially relevant variables affecting performance including differences in visual access to the trays, motivation levels, and training style.
... Enriched environments in scent detection dogs could therefore potentially reduce the number of errors during scent identification. In dogs, there are clear links between poor welfare and performance, as frustrated, apathetic, or fearful dogs have more difficulty in learning and decreased attention (Arnott et al., 2014;Haverbeke, Laporte, Depiereux, Giffroy, & Diederich, 2008;Rooney, Gaines, & Hiby, 2009). These findings were collected with working dogs from several sources-stock-herding dogs and military dogs, indicating a general effect in dogs, which can be expected to apply to scent detection dogs too. ...
Article
Scent detection dogs are used in a variety of contexts; however, very few dogs successfully complete their training, and many others are withdrawn from service prematurely due to both detection accuracy issues in the field and wider behavioral issues. This article aims to review our understanding of the factors affecting variation in scent detection dogs' learning of the tasks and performance in the field. For this we deconstructed the scent detection task into its key behavioral elements and examined the literature relating to the factors affecting variation in the dogs' success all across their development. We first consider factors that affect individuality and individual performance, in general, such as temperament, arousal, the handler-dog relationship, training regimes, and the housing and management of scent detections dogs. We then focus on tasks specific to scent detection dogs and critically appraise relevant literature relating to the learning and performance of these tasks by dogs. This includes prenatal and early life exposure and later environment, training regime, and the human-dog relationship, as well as performance limiting factors such as the need to pant in hot environments during work.
... This interaction is characterized by humans training the dogs to act in a desirable fashion, most often as companions. Specialized training can be implemented to produce working dogs, such as Search and Rescue (SAR) dogs, Military Working Dogs (MWD), seeing-eye dogs or therapeutic dogs [1]. ...
... Canines have been controlled using both invasive and non-invasive stimuli. As non-invasive stimuli, voices and gestures have been used to give instructions for search-and-rescue or military canines [1]. Recently, vibration and sounds [2][3] [4], and lights [5] [6] have been used as non-invasive stimuli. ...
Article
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Engineering to produce stimuli that trigger an organisms habits allows us to control it non-invasively. Because canines already have the habit to follow a light spot, light is a good stimulus for controlling their motion. We employed green laser beams to successfully control canine motion indoors. We developed a suit equipped with laser beam devices that face front, left, and right. The canine wore the suit and followed a light spot on the ground. Its trajectory was controlled remotely by switching the lights on the suit. However, this laser beam spot was too weak and small to be visible in grassy fields outdoors. Here, we propose a spotlight device that irradiates a bright and large spot (70 mm in diameter) for outdoor environments. The proposed spotlight device consists of a high brightness LED and a convex lens. To evaluate its performance, we conducted indoor and outdoor experiments using three canines. In the indoor experiments, the success rates of controlling the canine’s motions were 100%, 83.3%, and 93.3% for each three canines, respectively. In outdoor experiments, these rates were 100%, 57.1%, and 62.5%, respectively. Hence, the proposed spotlight devices are effective for controlling a canine even in outdoor environments.
... An example of a positive training technique is the delivery of a reward that is contingent on an animal producing the appropriate behaviour. Delivery of a reward should increase the likelihood an animal will repeat that behaviour in the future (e.g., Hiby, Rooney and Bradshaw 2004;Haverbeke, Laporte, Depiereux, Giffroy and Diederich 2008;); a technique used in behavioural science where the occurrence of behaviour is measured in relation to the delivery of reinforcement, usually food, according to a schedule of reinforcement. In addition, rewarding desired behaviour is reported to strengthen the human-animal bond (Deldalle and Gaunet 2014;Payne, Bennett and McGreevy 2015), decrease animal stress during training (Deldalle and Gaunet 2014) and mitigate the development of problematic behaviour which can result in relinquishment by the owner if it persists (Blackwell, Twells, Seawright and Casey 2008). ...
Article
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The effective and quick assessment of food preference is important when attempting to identify foods that might function as effective reinforcers in dogs. In the current experiment a food preference assessment was conducted where more highly preferred foods were expected to be associated with faster approaches in a subsequent runway task. Eight dogs were tested in a paired preference assessment offering combinations of two of six types of raw food, including the dog’s staple diet, to identify a rank order of preference for the foods. A different raw food was offered as the staple in two preference tests. The results showed that the staple foods were not preferred as highly as the other foods and that each dog displayed unique and stable preferences for the different foods. In the runway task the dogs were required to walk five metres to obtain a small amount of their most preferred, least preferred or staple foods and latency of approach to the foods was recorded. The approach latencies were faster for their most preferred food compared to their least preferred and the staple foods. The use of a runway to assess reinforcer effectiveness combined an effortful behaviour to obtain food while also requiring the dogs to make a choice, thus precluding the need for more complicated and time-consuming methods of preference assessment. The application of this method for fast and effective identification of preferred reinforcers is currently being investigating further to inform pet owners of simple methods to increase their training successes. Owners of raw food fed dogs are advised to conduct a preference assessment to identify their dogs most preferred food for use as a reinforcer during training.
... In addition to providing companionship to humans, dogs (Canis familiaris) offer support through a variety of working roles that include hunting (Lupo, 2017), search and rescue (Greatbatch et al., 2015), security (Camp, 2001), military (Haverbeke et al., 2008), recovery (Diverio et al., 2016), and epilepsy detection (Browne et al., 2006). Relatively recently, dogs have been used in animal-assisted therapy (AAT), a therapeutic approach with origins in helping people overcome emotional or psychological challenges (Levinson, 1962). ...
Article
Therapy animals are an important and growing support for students on university campuses; however, the stress experienced by dogs working in such programs has rarely been assessed. We assessed stress for 754 students, 40 handlers, and 40 dog participants in a canine therapy stress-reduction program hosted on a university campus. There was an overall significant decrease in handler and student stress and an increase in canine stress when observations of stress measured at home were compared to end-of-session stress. No change in canine stress was found when start-of-session stress was compared with end-of-session stress. For handlers whose initial self-reported stress was elevated, a correspondingly higher level of canine stress was identified at the end of the session. This finding suggests an emotional contagion or spillover model of stress whereby handlers—not student clients—negatively contribute to the affective experience of working therapy dogs.
... Poor performance in dog trainings and reduced learning ability have been suggested to be linked to high stress levels (Hiby, 2005;Rooney et al., 2005). Further, problems such as frequent bite accidents (Haverbeke et al., 2005;Lefebvre et al., 2007), fearful behaviour (Lefebvre et al., 2007), and low performance during obedience exercises (Haverbeke et al., 2008) in kennelled Belgian military dogs affected the efficiency of dog-handler teams, the security of staff, and the dogs' welfare. Similar behavioural problems have been observed among shelter and laboratory dogs that lived in an impoverished environment (Van der Borg et al., 1991;Wells and Hepper, 2000). ...
Article
Domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) are social animals and, therefore, social interactions with conspecifics are crucial for their welfare. However, in kennelled dogs, the ability to interact with conspecifics may be limited. Swiss military dogs, for instance, are kept individually without direct contact to conspecifics. Here we asked whether short-term exposure to conspecifics may be beneficial for dogs kept in isolation. The treatment lasted for eight weeks and consisted of one session weekly of three hours of social exposure. During social exposure, focal dogs were allowed direct contact with conspecifics but were supervised by the experimenter who intervened when necessary to prevent dogs from attacking one another. Immediately before and after the treatment phase, the dogs' reactions towards unfamiliar objects (including a dog model) and an unfamiliar male dog (stimulus dog) were assessed both in experimental dogs (with social exposure, n = 29) and control dogs (without social exposure, n = 27). We predicted a positive effect of the social exposure, i.e. less offensive and defensive behaviours shown towards both the unfamiliar dog model and stimulus dog. In accordance with our predictions, experimental dogs showed a greater decrease in offensive and defensive behaviours compared to control dogs. Although none of these dogs had been socialised conventionally like family dogs are, we found a clear positive effect of social exposure in adult dogs on their social behaviour. Thus, working dogs, which are otherwise kept singly, may benefit from temporary social exposure in terms of both their working ability and their wellbeing.
... Medical Mutts selected dogs from shelters to be trained by professional trainers as service dogs. Selection criteria included temperament traits compatible for service dog training 40 and physical aptitudes. Dogs are trained for obedience for certification for public access in addition to scent discrimination. ...
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Although different studies have shown that diseases such as breast or lung cancer are associated with specific bodily odours, no study has yet tested the possibility that epileptic seizures may be reflected in an olfactory profile, probably because there is a large variety of seizure types. The question is whether a “seizure-odour”, that would be transversal to individuals and types of seizures, exists. This would be a pre requisite for potential anticipation, either by electronic systems (e.g., e-noses) or trained dogs. The aim of the present study therefore was to test whether trained dogs, as demonstrated for cancer or diabetes, may discriminate a general epileptic seizure odor (different from body odours of the same person in other contexts and common to different persons). The results were very clear: all dogs discriminated the seizure odour. The sensitivity and specificity obtained were amongst the highest shown up to now for discrimination of diseases. This constitutes a first proof that, despite the variety of seizures and individual odours, seizures are associated with olfactory characteristics. These results open a large field of research on the odour signature of seizures. Further studies will aim to look at potential applications in terms of anticipation of seizures.
... Although dogs show tameness and strong attachment to humans in contrast to their wild ancestors, unwanted behaviours (e.g., excessive aggression, separation anxiety) still occur that affect the welfare of dogs, owners and the public (Rooney and Bradshaw 2014;Casey et al. 2014;Roth et al. 2016). Numerous studies have been performed with the aim of identifying non-genetic risk factors for the occurrence of unwanted behaviours, such as living conditions and demographic factors (Haverbeke et al. 2008;Blackwell et al. 2008;Rooney and Cowan 2011;McGreevy et al. 2013;Deldalle and Gaunet 2014;Tiira and Lohi 2015;Serpell and Duffy 2016), but few studies have considered the role of genetic factors in the management of problem behaviours. A better understanding of the genetic basis of dog behaviour may also inform breeding programmes for working dogs, e.g., guide dogs (Goddard and Beilharz 1982). ...
Article
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A favourable genetic structure and diversity of behavioural features highlights the potential of dogs for studying the genetic architecture of behaviour traits. However, behaviours are complex traits, which have been shown to be influenced by numerous genetic and non-genetic factors, complicating their analysis. In this study, the genetic contribution to behaviour variation in German Shepherd dogs (GSDs) was analysed using genomic approaches. GSDs were phenotyped for behaviour traits using the established Canine Behavioural Assessment and Research Questionnaire (C-BARQ). Genome-wide association study (GWAS) and regional heritability mapping (RHM) approaches were employed to identify associations between behaviour traits and genetic variants, while accounting for relevant non-genetic factors. By combining these complementary methods we endeavoured to increase the power to detect loci with small effects. Several behavioural traits exhibited moderate heritabilities, with the highest identified for Human-directed playfulness, a trait characterised by positive interactions with humans. We identified several genomic regions associated with one or more of the analysed behaviour traits. Some candidate genes located in these regions were previously linked to behavioural disorders in humans, suggesting a new context for their influence on behaviour characteristics. Overall, the results support dogs as a valuable resource to dissect the genetic architecture of behaviour traits and also highlight the value of focusing on a single breed in order to control for background genetic effects and thus avoid limitations of between-breed analyses.
... Due to the nature of the tasks performed, the animals should be distinguished by an excellent sense of smell, self-control, courage, lack of fear of gunfire, willingness to cooperate with people, and a predisposition for tracking. Breeds with these traits include the Belgian Shepherd, Dutch Shepherd, German Shepherd, and Beauceron (Haverbeke et al. 2008;Bekasiewicz 2016). ...
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Abstract. The aim of the study was to characterize the basic training systems for the main types of working dogs used in Poland. The training system for each group aims to improve on the innate traits that identify the animal with the function it is to perform. A well-rained dog is focused on its handler, in whom it has complete confidence, developed through consistency and mutual respect while working together. Irrespective of the type of training conducted and the breed or working type, it is important to observe the principles of safety and welfare, and above all, to be patient and consistent in conducting exercises. Key words: dogs, training systems, types of working dogs.
... To address this issue, various studies have attempted to identify risk factors for unwanted behaviours by analysing the association between demographic factors (sex, neuter status, shape, litter size and weaning age) and management factors (training methods, housing and human contact) with dog behaviour (Blackwell et al., 2008;Casey et al., 2014;Deldalle and Gaunet, 2014;Haverbeke et al., 2008;McGreevy et al., 2013;Rooney and Cowan, 2011;Serpell and Duffy, 2016;Tiira and Lohi, 2015). Most of these studies concentrated either on single factors or multiple factors, but just one specific component of behaviour (e.g. ...
Article
As companion animals, a dog's lifestyle is mainly determined by its owner. Discrepancies between the dog's preferences and the owner's lifestyle might lead to the occurrence of unwanted behaviours that affect both the owner-dog relationship and the dog's welfare. The aim of this study was to identify behavioural traits that are characteristic of German Shepherd dogs (GSDs), and to analyse the relation between behavioural traits and demographic and management factors. Dog owners from the UK and Sweden were asked to complete two surveys, the established C-BARQ behavioural survey and a lifestyle survey developed for the study. A principal component analysis was applied to determine behavioural components for GSDs. Fifteen components were found to sufficiently explain the variance in the responses to C-BARQ, with the components Stranger-directed aggression and Dog-directed aggression explaining the greatest proportion of the variance in the data (12% and 10%, respectively). Linear models were then applied to assess the relationship between behaviour components and lifestyle factors using backward elimination to identify the model that best predicted the behaviour component. The cohort (UK or Sweden) and the age of the dog were associated with the highest number of behaviour components. This study showed that various demographic and management factors were associated with the expression of behavioural traits in GSDs. Results from this analyses may help to understand the interaction between the expression of external factors and dog behavioural traits and thus, improve the well-being of dogs and owners by reducing problem behaviours.
... Spending time with his handler, participating in regular exercises, and using positive training techniques are important elements in having a balanced dog (Lefebvre, Diederich, Delcourt, & Giffroy, 2007;Haverbeke, Laporte, Depiereux, Giffroy, & Diederich, 2008). Concerning the last element, according to Haverbeke et al. (2008, p. 111), "purely positive training can be defined as a training method where aversive stimuli either in the form of positive punishment or negative reinforcement, are not used." ...
Article
Max, a six-year-old German Shepherd, was the first military working dog of the Romanian Army who was buried with military honors. Max died in 2015, and the funeral procession was held in his memory, at the “Animals’ Heaven” Cemetery for animal companions. In presenting his case, we have used as sources of information articles, materials that we carefully selected from the Romanian media and from the Internet (most of them with reference on Max’s final year of life), as well as an interview conducted with Max’s handler regarding the handler–military working dog relationship and the emotion management in the context of Max’s death. Further, the current status and the future of military working dogs in Romania were discussed.
... As a result of training the dogs, it can be presumed that Handler 1 was also strongly bonded with the dogs, and they with her. This bond and frequent contact have previously been correlated with higher team performance [9,36]. As proposed by Horn et al. [20], familiarity may not be as influential as a strong dog-handler relationship on the dog's performance or learning ability. ...
Article
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Dog-handler relationships can directly impact team success. Changing a dog’s handler may therefore compromise detection performance. However, there are currently few studies which support this. This research explored the performance and behavioural impact of changing a dog’s handler. Nine dogs trained at scent detection were accuracy tested with a familiar and unfamiliar handler. Both handlers were female with similar dog handling experience. The dogs were tested along brick lines containing target, non-target, and control samples. Testing was separated into four sessions, with each session having 36 samples. The dogs’ accuracy scores were then calculated and testing footage behaviour coded. The dogs had significantly higher sensitivity (p = 0.045) and negative predictive value (NPV) (p = 0.041) scores when handled by the familiar handler. With the unfamiliar handler the dogs performed more stress-related behaviours, and were distracted for a higher proportion of time (p = 0.012). Time spent distracted was negatively correlated to detection performance (correlation = −0.923, p < 0.001). With the unfamiliar handler the dogs’ performance did not improve throughout testing (p = 0.553). This research demonstrates how these dogs’ detection performances were impacted by changing handlers. Future research is required to determine if professional dog-handler teams are impacted similarly.
... Moreover, several authors report a better efficacy associated with less stress when using nonaversive training: better humandog team's performance (Haverbeke et al., 2008), more attentiveness toward owner (Deldalle and Gaunet, 2014), and lower number of potentially undesirable behaviors (Blackwell et al., 2008). A recent review concluded that positive punishment and negative reinforcement should be avoided on dogs as much as possible (Ziv, 2017). ...
Article
Training with electronic collars/e-collars (e-stim, shock) is controversial, and regulations concerning electric collars vary from absence to bans across European countries. The main goal of this study was to characterize the everyday use of e-collars by dog owners, in France where there are currently no regulations on their use. A sample (n = 1,251) of dog owners were recruited using an online questionnaire. Data were collected using Google Forms. Factors associated with the use of e-collars were determined using a Chi-squared test. Twenty-six percent (n = 330) of the owners enrolled in this survey did use such devices; 11.9% (n = 149) of the owners reported the use of bark-activated collars, 4.5% (n = 56) reported the use of electronic boundary fence collars, and 14.2% (n = 178) reported the use of remote-controlled collars. E-collar use was found to be significantly associated with 3 factors: dogs weighing over 40 kg, non-neutered status, and dogs used for hunting or security activities. In addition, the data collected showed that e-collars were mainly used on young dogs (<2 years). The vast majority of e-collar users (71.8%) used the collar without professional advice, and 75% of e-collar users tried 2 or fewer other solutions before using the collar. Seven percent of the dogs on which the collar was used presented with physical wounds (n = 23). The efficacy reported was lower than that in many previous studies where conditions of use as specified were designed to be ideal as part of the experimental design (qualified trainer, perfect timing). All collar types were not equal: bark-activated collars appeared to be the least efficient and the most injurious type, whereas remote-controlled collars were mainly used for owner's convenience. In conclusion, this survey highlights a high ratio of e-collar use in a country without regulations. It also shows that real-life conditions are far from the idealized conditions in which experimental studies were undertaken, thereby putting dog welfare at higher risk than what is presented in scientific literature. In addition, this study reveals differences between collar types in terms of efficacy and effects on welfare. These factors should be taken into account to determine a precise regulation. Furthermore, this study shows the urgency to regulate this tool in Europe because dangers of use, which were already known, are proven to be aggravated in real-life situations.
... A number of benefits of training using positive reinforcement ("target behavior is increased subsequent to the presentation of a (presumably subjectively pleasant) stimulus", Blackwell et al., 2008) compared to techniques such as positive punishment (presentation of an aversive stimulus leading to a reduction in the target behaviour) or negative reinforcement (removal of an aversive stimulus leading to an increase in the target behaviour, Blackwell et al., 2008) have been suggested. These include (a) improved welfare as indicated by fewer behavioural indicators of stress (Schilder and van der Borg, 2004;Perlman et al., 2012;Deldalle and Gaunet, 2014), (b) improved husbandry and handling, with a reduction of intra-and interspecific aggression such as that towards keepers (Desmond and Laule, 1994), (c) fewer behavioural problems including aggression, fear and stereotypies (Hiby et al., 2004;Blackwell et al., 2008;Herron et al., 2009;Perlman et al., 2012), (d) use as an enrichment technique in captive situations (Desmond and Laule, 1994;Manteuffel et al., 2009), (e) better obedience (Hiby et al., 2004;Haverbeke et al., 2008), and (f) improved quality, efficiency and reduced cost of data collection for scientific studies (Desmond and Laule, 1994;Perlman et al., 2012). However, positive reinforcement training can only be effective if subjects 'like', and are motivated to obtain (i.e. ...
Article
Reinforcer effectiveness refers to the reinforcer's ability to control the subject's target behaviour and is therefore critical to training success. Yet animals’ preferences, and the effectiveness of different rewards to function as reinforcers, are often assumed without scientific investigation. Here we explored the influence of reward quality, quantity and changes in reward value on motivation in domestic dogs. Subjects were trained to traverse a runway for a food reward. In Study 1, the quantity of food was varied (1 vs 5 pieces of dry food), while in Study 2, food quality was varied (1 piece of sausage vs 1 piece of dry food). Dogs were tested in two conditions (counterbalanced). In the unshifted condition, they received the low value reward in all of ten trials; in the shifted condition, reward value was altered (high value: trials 1–4 and 9–10; low value: trials 5–8). While preliminary preference tests had confirmed the relative value of the presumed high and low value rewards for both quantity and quality, dogs’ responses in the runway task differed between the quality and quantity studies. Dogs ran significantly faster for the higher quality food compared to the lower quality food, confirming greater reinforcer effectiveness of the preferred food type. In contrast, there was no significant effect of food quantity on running speed at any stage. Higher quality rewards therefore appear to entail greater incentive motivation in dogs than a greater quantity of a lower value reward, with reward-specific habituation needing to be considered.
... Stress-related behaviors can generalize to other elements of the training context, including the trainer or the training facilities, and remain mid-to long-term (Schilder and Van der Borg, 2004;DEFRA AW1402, 2013DEFRA AW1402a, 2013 More evidence of the risks linked to e-collar use comes from the scientific literature evaluating aversive methods in general. Indeed, punitive training methods induce higher risks of aggression (Beerda et al., 1998;Herron et al., 2009), fear, anxiety (Arhant et al., 2010) and undesirable behaviors (Blackwell et al., 2008) being shown, while decreasing the quality of the dogowner relationship (Hiby et al., 2004), dog welfare and dog-human team performance (Haverbeke et al., 2008) compared to non-aversive techniques. Negative emotional responses as a consequence of aversive techniques can lead to behavioral inhibition and can be detrimental for learning and performance of dogs, undermining the general purpose of training. ...
Article
In recent years, the affirmation of a greater ethical sense and research generating a better knowledge of the mechanisms of animal learning, evidence of the existence of an animal mind), and studies on the dog-human attachment bond have led to changes in the dog-human relationship. These changes have caused a notable improvement in dog training techniques. Increased emphasis on dog welfare, overall, led to questioning of many training techniques and tools that used aversive means. Recent research on the use of aversive training devices has been performed and, on this basis it has been possible to create guidelines to inform the public about utility and the possible detriments related to the use of these devices as a tool in dog training. The European Society of Clinical Animal Ethology (ESVCE) has released a public position statement based on the current scientific information available on e-collars, punitive training techniques and canine welfare. This paper elaborates and discusses the arguments “pro and contra the use of e-collars and aversive training methods” leading to the statement in more detail. As a conclusion, ESVCE strongly opposes the use of e-collars in dog training, and urges all European countries to take an interest in and position on this welfare matter.
... Currently the mechanisms responsible for such associations are unknown. However, other research has demonstrated that owner personality traits, such as 'neuroticism', 'conscientiousness' and 'openness' are related to how owners interact with their dogs [14,15], and that owners'/handlers' interaction style is linked to the animal's working ability and likelihood of displaying undesirable behaviors [16][17][18][19][20][21]. The use of positive punishment and/or confrontational or aversive methods of behavioral control, in particular, have been shown to be associated with behavior problems, such as aggression, anxiety and excitability [22][23][24][25][26][27], increased behavioral and physiological signs of stress [28,29], reduced ability to learn [20,26] and reduced willingness to interact with strangers [15,20]. ...
Article
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Behavioral problems are a major source of poor welfare and premature mortality in companion dogs. Previous studies have demonstrated associations between owners’ personality and psychological status and the prevalence and/or severity of their dogs’ behavior problems. However, the mechanisms responsible for these associations are currently unknown. Other studies have detected links between the tendency of dogs to display behavior problems and their owners’ use of aversive or confrontational training methods. This raises the possibility that the effects of owner personality and psychological status on dog behavior are mediated via their influence on the owner’s choice of training methods. We investigated this hypothesis in a self-selected, convenience sample of 1564 current dog owners using an online battery of questionnaires designed to measure, respectively, owner personality, depression, emotion regulation, use of aversive/confrontational training methods, and owner-reported dog behavior. Multivariate linear and logistic regression analyses identified modest, positive associations between owners’ use of aversive/confrontational training methods and the prevalence/severity of the following dog behavior problems: owner-directed aggression, stranger-directed aggression, separation problems, chasing, persistent barking, and house-soiling (urination and defecation when left alone). The regression models also detected modest associations between owners’ low scores on four of the ‘Big Five’ personality dimensions (Agreeableness, Emotional Stability, Extraversion & Conscientiousness) and their dogs’ tendency to display higher rates of owner-directed aggression, stranger-directed fear, and/or urination when left alone. The study found only weak evidence to support the hypothesis that these relationships between owner personality and dog behavior were mediated via the owners’ use of punitive training methods, but it did detect a more than five-fold increase in the use of aversive/confrontational training techniques among men with moderate depression. Further research is needed to clarify the causal relationship between owner personality and psychological status and the behavioral problems of companion dogs.
... Companion or working animals, like humans, undergo « education » and training, whose success and impact on the affective state may depend not only on the training strategy but also on welfare conditions (e.g. Haverbeke et al., 2008). Clarifying how training and work may both interfere with and depend on the welfare state is an issue that observation of domestic animals in these spontaneous contexts may help clarifying. ...
Article
Research in cognitive psychology has repeatedly shown how much cognition and emotions are mutually related to one another. Psychological disorders are associated with cognitive (attention, memory and judgment) biases and chronic pain may affect attention, learning or memory. Laboratory studies have provided useful insights about the processes involved but observations about spontaneous animal models, living in different stress/welfare conditions may help understand further how cognition and welfare are interrelated in the « real world ». Domestic horses constitute such a model as they live in a variety of conditions that impact differently their welfare state. In the present review, we try and provide an overview of the scientific literature on cognition and welfare of domestic horses and their interrelationship. We address how emotions and welfare may affect cognitive processes in horses and impact the way they perceive their environment (including work). We propose new methods for assessing the relationship between welfare and cognition and open up the discussion on the evolution of the brain and the part domestication may have played.
... This bond and frequent contact have previously been correlated with higher team performance (Haverbeke et al. 2008;Hoummady et al. 2016). As proposed by Horn et al. (2013a), familiarity may not be as influential as a strong dog-handler relationship on the dog's performance or learning ability. ...
Thesis
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Detection dog success is dependent on the selected individuals. Thus, to investigate factors important to dog and handler selection, I trained 12 dogs from three breeds at detection work, experimentally assessing their training times and odour discrimination ability. My research determined there are multiple traits that create a successful dog-handler team, which are not specific to a certain breed or personality type. The dog-handler relationship was also significant in impacting team success and welfare. It is therefore crucial to continue challenging and advancing best practises, not only for animal welfare but also for the success of the working dog industry.
... However, when seeking to predict working dog success, or explore factors that may influence that success, there has been less focus on validating measures of success or performance. Some studies have quantified the proportion of targets found in a single standardized search task (18)(19)(20), but most have relied on training organizations' own long-established ratings of performance [e.g., (13,19,21,22)], or used pass/ fail at selection (6) or certification (23) as measures of success. These approaches ensure that the outcomes of the studies have great practical relevance and validity and enable individuals responsible for training working dogs to determine predictors of successful training. ...
Article
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The growing body of working dog literature includes many examples of scales robustly developed to measure aspects of dog behavior. However, when comparing behavior to working dog ability, most studies rely on training organizations' own long-established ratings of performance, or simply pass/fail at selection or certification as measures of success. Working ability is multifaceted, and it is likely that different aspects of ability are differentially affected by external factors. In order to understand how specific aspects of selection, training, and operations influence a dog's working ability, numerous facets of performance should be considered. An accurate and validated method for quantifying multiple aspects of performance is therefore required. Here, we describe the first stages of formulating a meaningful performance measurement tool for two types of working search dogs. The systematic methodology used was: (1) interviews and workshops with a representative cross-section of stakeholders to produce a shortlist of behaviors integral to current operational performance of vehicle (VS) and high assurance (HAS) search dogs; (2) assessing the reliability and construct validity of the shortlisted behavioral measures (at the behavior and the individual rater level) using ratings of diverse videoed searches by experienced personnel; and (3) selecting the most essential and meaningful behaviors based on their reliability/validity and importance. The resulting performance measurement tool was composed of 12 shortlisted behaviors, most of which proved reliable and valid when assessed by a group of raters. At the individual rater level, however, there was variability between raters in the ability to use and interpret behavioral measures, in particular, more abstract behaviors such as Independence. This illustrates the importance of examining individual rater scores rather than extrapolating from group consensus (as is often done), especially when designing a tool that will ultimately be used by single raters. For ratings to be practically valuable, individual rater reliability needs to be improved, especially for behaviors deemed as essential (e.g., control and confidence). We suggest that the next steps are to investigate why individuals vary in their ratings and to undertake efforts to increase the likelihood that they reach a common conceptualization of each behavioral construct. Plausible approaches are improving the format in which behaviors are presented, e.g., by adding benchmarks and utilizing rater training.
... Educational opportunities should be proposed to these DH teams (e.g., courses for handlers on Ethology with a special topic on fear-related aggression and observation of a dog's behavioural responses). Handlers should be encouraged to concentrate on using positive reinforcement rather than punishment for training (Haverbeke et al., 2008b). ...
... A number of studies have also highlighted the link between aversive training methods and signs of negative emotional states in dogs. For example, dogs trained by military dog handlers had a significantly lower body posture, associated with anxiety and appeasement (Schilder and Van Der Borg, 2004), after the use of aversive methods like pulling on the lead and verbal scolding compared to following reward-based methods like physical praise (Haverbeke et al., 2008). Sound blasts, like those used as a tool for correcting unwanted behaviour, have been shown to produce physiological stress responses in dogs (Beerda et al., 1998). ...
Article
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The majority of owners use rewards (e.g. treats and praise) when training their dogs. However, many additionally use aversive methods (e.g. physical reprimands, sound/spray distractions) which can compromise the welfare of dogs. The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with owner-reported use of aversive training methods. A study was conducted using data provided by owners living in the UK or Republic of Ireland participating in a longitudinal study (‘Generation Pup’). Data from a registration questionnaire completed when puppies were ≤16 weeks of age, and a follow-up questionnaire completed when dogs were nine-months of age were analysed. Responses to questions about owners’ intended/actual use of different training methods at each time point were grouped into two categories. ‘Reward only’ training: positive reinforcement (PR; increasing behaviour through application of rewarding stimulus) and/or negative punishment (NP; decreasing behaviour through removal of rewarding stimulus), and’ reward and aversive’ training: >2 methods of positive punishment (PP; decreasing behaviour by application of aversive stimulus) and/or negative reinforcement (NR; increasing behaviour through removal of aversive stimulus). Associations between training approach (’reward only’ / ‘reward and aversive’) and potential owner-related risk factors were modelled using multivariable logistic regression. Data from 2,154 owners at registration were collected, and a follow-up questionnaire for 9-month-old dogs were completed by 976 owners. At registration, 99.7% of owners reported their intention to use PR and/or NP, and 84.1% intended to use PP and/or NR. At 9 months, 99.7% of owners reported using PR and/or NP, and 74.2% used PP and/or NR. Data were available for 161 owners at both time points, of which 80% reported the same training approach in both questionnaires. At 9 months, not attending training or puppy classes in the previous 2-months (Odds Ratio = 3.16, 95% Confidence Interval = 2.18-4.59, P < 0.001), and not having dog-related employment (Odds Ratio = 2.70, 95% Confidence Interval = 1.53-4.77, P = 0.001) were associated with increased odds of reporting a reward and aversive approach. Owners aged 55 years or more were twice as likely as those younger than 55 (Odds Ratio = 1.93, 95% Confidence Interval = 1.29-2.87, P = 0.001), and male owners were three times as likely as female owners (Odds Ratio = 3.10, 95% Confidence Interval = 1.52-6.36, P = 0.002) to use a reward and aversive training approach. Owners reporting a reward and aversive training approach was common within this cohort. Increased awareness of optimal training approaches for dogs is needed, especially for older, male owners, who have not accessed puppy training classes.
... This expected degradation in performance highlights the critical role of the EDC handler [28][29][30]. This individual must anticipate alterations in performance or identify the subtle signs of early performance degradation. ...
Article
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The explosive detection canine (EDC) team is currently the best available mobile sensor capability in the fight against explosive threats. While the EDC can perform at a high level, the EDC team faces numerous factors during the search process that may degrade performance. Understanding these factors is key to effective selection, training, assessment, deployment, and operationalizable research. A systematic description of these factors is absent from the literature. This qualitative study leveraged the perspectives of expert EDC handlers, trainers, and leaders (n = 17) to determine the factors that degrade EDC performance. The participants revealed factors specific to utilization, the EDC team, and the physical, climate, operational, and explosive odor environments. Key results were the reality of performance degradation, the impact of the handler, and the importance of preparation. This study’s results can help improve EDC selection, training, assessment, and deployment and further research into sustaining EDC performance.
... Since there is some scientific evidence that aversive-based training is less effective than reward-based training (Hiby et al., 2004;Haverbeke et al., 2008;Blackwell et al., 2012), it would be interesting to investigate whether disobedience -even in other periods of the dog's life than the adolescent phase -is a direct consequence of an insecure attachment bond or a collateral effect of using less effective aversive training techniques, which in turn may affect the relationship with the owner (Todd, 2018;La Follette et al., 2019). ...
Article
The dog-owner relationship seems to share several features with the child-mother attachment bond. In this review, we will first briefly explain the attachment theory in the context of the child-caregiver relationship in order to provide a background to the dog-owner attachment bond research. Then, we will retrace the steps that led to the current view of the dog-owner relationship as an attachment bond, with a specific focus on those studies that investigated the dog's attachment behavior towards the owner. We will briefly examine the implications of this theory in the field of veterinary clinical ethology and finally discuss its critical points and future directions.
... Por lo anterior, el adiestramiento canino es un proceso complejo en el que intervienen numerosas variables, entre estas el sistema de refuerzo utilizado, el tipo de condicionamiento más adecuado y los dispositivos empleados para lograr la conducta deseada, sobre todo en aquellos animales previstos para realizar actividades de seguridad y defensa. Si bien el objetivo de esta revisión no es discutir el comportamiento asociado a la respuesta de los perros frente a los dispositivos, es de aclarar que en el contexto de las fuerzas policiales y militares, Haverbeke et al. (2008) confirman que son pocos los estudios que analizan los métodos y dispositivos utilizados en el adiestramiento canino con fines de seguridad y defensa; además, sugieren que el rendimiento del perro está directamente asociado con el sistema de refuerzo y la capacidad de concentración del animal, por lo que se infiere que las herramientas que se empleen en este proceso (clickers, cajas, collares, entre otros), así como la relación entre el binomio (adiestrador-canino), forman parte integral de la respuesta ante los estímulos y el logro de las conductas deseadas, que mejorarían en gran medida la sinergia entre los dispositivos electrónicos y los sistemas de refuerzo físico, y probablemente aumentarían el rendimiento del perro de trabajo en escenarios reales. En este orden de ideas, Lazarowski et al. (2020a) argumentan que la detección de explosivos por medio de perros es uno de los métodos más efectivos en la actualidad, así como identificación de narcóticos, fauna silvestre y diagnóstico médico (Lazarowskyi et al., 2020b), como por ejemplo la presencia de covid-19 en pacientes (Jendrny et al., 2020), entrenamientos que emplean herramientas tecnológicas, especialmente para discriminar el olor, siendo uno de los focos de atención prioritario para certificar los perros detectores. ...
Article
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Over its fifty years of established existence beginning in 1967, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) has expounded its consolidated and integrated model in political relations, economic developments, and cultural values. However, confronted by threats to global security, ASEAN has also faced the complex impacts of transnational narcotics trafficking (TransNT). The study uses grey literature as secondary data to illustrate the current situations of TransNT in Southeast Asia by way of examining drug trafficking starting from the original countries (Myanmar) through the transit points (Vietnam) to final destination countries (Malaysia). Besides reviewing more than four decades of collaboration, the paper analyses ASEAN’s milestones in building its cooperative mechanism and assesses its institutional framework for combatting TransNT with specific initiatives. The study notes the main barriers and practical challenges that constrain the process of regional cooperation. Some brief recommendations are also suggested for further research in the near future to enhance regional cooperation in combatting transnational crimes.
... sitting) as soon as prosperous discovery of the target. However, in the absence of the detection of the target, withholding the reward is often used as a form of negative punishment (Haverbeke et al., 2008;Hayes et al., 2018). ...
... Por lo anterior, el adiestramiento canino es un proceso complejo en el que intervienen numerosas variables, entre estas el sistema de refuerzo utilizado, el tipo de condicionamiento más adecuado y los dispositivos empleados para lograr la conducta deseada, sobre todo en aquellos animales previstos para realizar actividades de seguridad y defensa. Si bien el objetivo de esta revisión no es discutir el comportamiento asociado a la respuesta de los perros frente a los dispositivos, es de aclarar que en el contexto de las fuerzas policiales y militares, Haverbeke et al. (2008) confirman que son pocos los estudios que analizan los métodos y dispositivos utilizados en el adiestramiento canino con fines de seguridad y defensa; además, sugieren que el rendimiento del perro está directamente asociado con el sistema de refuerzo y la capacidad de concentración del animal, por lo que se infiere que las herramientas que se empleen en este proceso (clickers, cajas, collares, entre otros), así como la relación entre el binomio (adiestrador-canino), forman parte integral de la respuesta ante los estímulos y el logro de las conductas deseadas, que mejorarían en gran medida la sinergia entre los dispositivos electrónicos y los sistemas de refuerzo físico, y probablemente aumentarían el rendimiento del perro de trabajo en escenarios reales. En este orden de ideas, Lazarowski et al. (2020a) argumentan que la detección de explosivos por medio de perros es uno de los métodos más efectivos en la actualidad, así como identificación de narcóticos, fauna silvestre y diagnóstico médico (Lazarowskyi et al., 2020b), como por ejemplo la presencia de covid-19 en pacientes (Jendrny et al., 2020), entrenamientos que emplean herramientas tecnológicas, especialmente para discriminar el olor, siendo uno de los focos de atención prioritario para certificar los perros detectores. ...
Article
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El entrenamiento de los caninos de trabajo emplea diversos mecanismos de condicionamiento, los cuales permiten un rendimiento posterior superior, contrarrestando el sistema de drogas ilícitas, las organizaciones criminales, los grupos armados organizados (GAO) y residuales (GAOr), garantizando la seguridad y convivencia ciudadana en Colombia. Por lo anterior, se propone un enfoque cualitativo empleando una revisión sistemática de la literatura, con el objetivo de analizar el rol de la tecnología y aparatos para adiestrar caninos detectores, entre los años 2000 y 2020 dentro de las bases de datos Scopus, Elsevier y Scielo. Como resultados, se observa un aumento en la producción de artículos entre los años 2000 y 2019 (pasando de seis artículos a 86, respectivamente). Además, dentro de las herramientas empleadas en los estudios se encuentran las cajas; clickers; collares electrónicos y carruseles, los cuales discriminan el olor, utilizando sistemas de refuerzo, con diferencias dependiendo del tipo de estudio, el número de animales y el objetivo de entrenamiento. Como conclusión, es necesario desarrollar prototipos adecuados según las necesidades de entrenamiento en cada contexto, continuando con estudios que integren efectivamente los estímulos y los sistemas de recompensa para impactar los resultados en el rendimiento del perro de trabajo.
... In addition to extensive socialisation, it is widely acknowledged that puppies benefit from appropriate training [27,41]. During the puppy raising program, puppies and their raisers received weekly group training, and raisers could access trainers via private social media groups or by telephone outside of training sessions, if needed. ...
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Many assistance dog providers use volunteer raisers to manage each puppy’s learning and daily experiences, which partly determines the puppy’s behavioural development. Therefore, it is important that raisers engage in recommended practices. Three common recommendations from the literature include frequent socialisation and consistent training for the puppies, and effective training for the raisers. However, what facilitates or hinders raisers’ engagement in these practices remains unclear. To understand this, we interviewed eight raisers (three men and five women) every month during their year-long puppy raising program, and pseudo-randomly selected 16 from 48 interviews for data analysis. Thematic analyses revealed several facilitating and/or hindering factors corresponding to each of the three recommended practices. Frequent socialisation was influenced by the raisers’ availability, sharing of puppy raising responsibility with others, support from their workplace, and the puppy’s behaviours (e.g., soiling indoors, jumping). Consistent training was challenged by the presence of everyday distractors, accessibility to timely advice, perceived judgement from others, and the puppy’s undesirable behaviours. Effective learning was facilitated by having information available in raisers’ preferred learning modality, opportunities for peer-learning, and willingness to seek help. Future research should examine these factors quantitatively, which will enable more robust evaluation of programs aimed at supporting puppy raisers.
... Corrections may also include force, such as seen in jerking the leash, hitting or kicking the dog. Particularly corrections using force may by themselves lead to stress, pain and/or fear (Schilder & Van der Borg, 2004;Haverbeke et al., 2008;Vieira de Castro et al., 2020) and thus cause welfare issues (Vieira de Castro et al., 2020). Additionally, welfare issues may arise from the dog aggressing in response to the corrections (Herron et al., 2009), resulting in higher relinquishment risk (Coe et al., 2014;Lambert et al., 2015). ...
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Dogs need to adapt to a human environment to enhance their welfare and to avoid risks of undesired dog behaviour and relinquishment. Crucial to this adaptation may be how an owner interacts with the dog. Owner–dog interactions may be influenced by the human caregiving system with regard to how care, protection and resources are provided. This narrative review discusses how a consideration of the human caregiving system can benefit owner–dog interactions. Literature suggests that the human caregiving system and parenting styles could influence owner–dog interactions. Owner–dog education may improve these interactions. However, studies on owner–dog education present mixed outcomes for the dog. Also, only a few studies address owner outcomes, indicating a gap that needs filling. It is concluded that, when intervening in owner–dog interactions, more attention should be directed to aspects of human psychology. Dog-directed parenting styles can form one strategy as to improve owner–dog interactions and dog welfare.
... It is possible that all of these induce some form of stress in the developing dog. Dogs from strenuous breeding conditions show signs of poor welfare (Sonntag and Overall 2014), as do dogs trained with aversive methods (Haverbeke et al. 2008). Kennel housing is known to induce stress (Polgar et al. 2019) through factors including social isolation, lack of enrichment, and noise level (Coppola et al. 2006;Overall et al. 2019). ...
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Executive functions (EFs) are a set of cognitive processes used for effortful self-regulation of behaviour. They include inhibition, working memory, cognitive flexibility and, in some models, attention. In humans, socioeconomic factors and life experiences shape development of EFs. Domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) must often regulate their behaviour in the human environment (e.g. no jumping up on humans or chasing cats), and life experiences also probably influence the development of EFs in dogs. Research into dog cognition and behaviour has been thriving, and some methods used to explore these concepts (e.g. object-choice task, questionnaires measuring traits like distraction and aggression) are likely to be sensitive to differences in EFs, even if that is not their stated aim. Here we examine relevant studies to identify experiential factors which may influence the development of EFs in dogs living in human care. These are early experience, training, housing and stress. We conclude that the development of dogs’ EFs may be negatively affected by hardships, and positively by surmountable challenges, early in life. Training methods appear important, with punishment-based methods leading to poorer dog EFs. Kennel environments seem to affect dog EFs negatively. While mild stressors might enhance the development of EFs, too much stress seems to have negative effects. Regulation of behaviour, a key outcome of EFs, is crucial for dogs’ integration into human society. We should, therefore, strive to better understand how the environment shapes dogs’ EFs.
... In this study, owners who reported using a combination of positive reinforcement and positive punishment or positive punishment only, had increased odds of reporting a problem behaviour in their dog in the 9-months questionnaire compared with owners who reported that they used positive reinforcement only. This is supported by findings from other studies that reported fewer behaviour problems and better obedience as reported by dog owners who used positive reinforcement (Hiby et al., 2004;Blackwell et al., 2008,), and increased fear, stress, aggressive reactions, problem behaviours and distraction during training by owners who used punishment based techniques with their dogs (Roll and Unshelm, 1997;Beerda et al., 1998;Hiby et al., 2004;Schilder and van der Borg, 2004;Schalke et al., 2007;Haverbeke et al., 2008;Herron et al., 2009;Casey et al., 2014;Cooper et al., 2014). Of course, it could be that owners of dogs with problem behaviours are more likely to use punishment-based methods (Arhant et al., 2010). ...
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Problem behaviours may lead to compromised welfare, risk of relinquishment and euthanasia for dogs, as well as distress and safety issues for owners. This study used data provided by 1111 UK and Republic of Ireland participants in the ‘Generation Pup’ longitudinal study of canine health and behaviour. The aims were to; i) identify the proportion and type of problem behaviours reported by owners when their dogs were 6 and 9-months; ii) identify risk factors for behaviours owners reported as a ‘problem’ when their dog was 9-months old; iii) identify risk factors for behaviours reported to occur but not recorded as a ‘problem’ by owners when dogs were 9-months old; and iv) identify whether and how owners sought help for undesired behaviours. In the 6 and 9-months questionnaires, 31 % and 35 % (respectively) of owners reported their dog to be showing behaviour(s) that they found a problem. Owners most often sought help for these behaviours from dog trainers (72 % at 6-months and 68 % at 9-months), and online sources excluding those associated with welfare organisations (which were listed separately) (34 % at 6-months and 27 % at 9-months). The most commonly reported problem behaviours at both ages were pulling on the lead, jumping up at people and poor recall. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that female owners, owners who were unemployed/homemakers/pensioners/retired, owners who did not attend (nor planned to attend) puppy classes, and owners who reported they used a mixture of positive reinforcement and positive punishment or positive punishment only training methods at 9-months had increased odds of reporting a problem behaviour in their dogs at that age. Further investigation determined risk factors for owners reporting one or more of the three most commonly reported problem behaviours (pulling on the lead, jumping up at people and poor recall) in their dog’s 9-months questionnaire compared with those owners who separately recorded the occurrence of these behaviours, but did not report any to be problematic. Owners who were employed/self-employed/students, owners who reported that they used positive reinforcement only, owners that had not attended puppy class, and owners of small dogs had increased odds of not reporting a behaviour to be problematic despite evidence of the behaviour having been observed by the owner. These results indicate that not all potentially concerning canine behaviours were perceived by the owners to be problematic, and has identified groups of owners more likely to require support with behaviour issues in their dogs.
... Keşif köpeklerinin etkinliğini belirleyen en önemli faktörlerden biri, eğitimci ve köpek arasındaki etkileşimdir (59,60). Fizyolojinin ötesinde, gelişmiş koku tespit ve keşif sonuçlarıyla ilişkili diğer değişkenler arasında köpek olgunlaşması, eğitici deneyimi ve verilen eğitim miktarı bulunmaktadır (3). ...
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Uyuşturucu, patlayıcı maddeler veya insan vücudu tarafından serbest bırakılan uçucu organik birleşiklerin kokusunun belirlenebilmesi kaçakçılığın, terörün, canlı veya ölü bireyin varlığını gösterebileceği gibi bir kişiyi belirli bir yer veya nesneyle ilişkilendirebileceği için ceza soruşturmalarında artan bir öneme sahiptir. Her ne kadar koku tespitinde kullanılan araç ve gereçler son yıllarda önemli ölçüde iyileşmiş, biyolojik detektörler olan köpekler ile rekabet edebilecek seviyeye yaklaşmış olsalar da, köpeklerin hız, çok yönlülük, kokuyu takip etme becerisi ve ayırt edici özelliklerinden dolayı hala koku kaynağının tespitinde ilk tercih olarak kullanıldıkları kabul edilmektedir. Uçucu organik birleşiklerin tespitinde kaydedilen ilerlemelerin yanı sıra, cihazlar ve köpekler için standardize uygulamaların geliştirilmesi, kokunun kanıt olarak güvenilirliğini sürekli olarak artırmaktadır. İyi uygulama kılavuzlarının geliştirilmesi, ilgilenilen uçucu organik birleşiklerin tespit edilmesindeki duyarlılık, seçicilik ve güvenilirliğinin artması ile bugün için sadece takip ve yakalamada kullanılan yöntemin ceza yargılamasında kabul edilebilir bir adli kanıt olarak kullanımını olanaklı kılacaktır. Bu çalışmada koku algılamasında rolü olan anatomik yapılar, histolojik ve fizyolojik mekanizma ile halen bu süreçte kullanılan temel aktörler olan köpeklerin anatomik, fizyolojik, genetik farklılıkları, eğitimleri ve eğiticileri ile olan ilişkileri, sınırlamaları, bu alanda kullanılan analitik cihazların temel prensip ve kapasiteleri ile kaydedilen ilerlemeler araştırılmış ve okuyucuya derli toplu bir şekilde sunulması amaçlanmıştır.
... animal-assisted activities: Haubenhofer and Kirchengast, 2006), the type of reinforcement used (e.g. Haverbeke et al., 2008;Hiby et al., 2004) or the associated physical constraints (Rooney et al., 2016). In horses, the impact of work, and especially riding, has long been underestimated (Ödberg and Bouissou, 1999), but it is well established now that riding can be a source of acute stress for horses (McGreevy and McLean, 2005), so that the sight of work-related objects such as saddles may lead to negative reactions (Fureix et al., 2009). ...
Article
Several previous studies have shown that working conditions (including riding) can induce stress in horses. Riders' actions and postures, when inappropriate, induce stress and conflict behaviours during riding and welfare impairment and negative emotional states outside work. Optimistic biases have been found in leisure horses, which, amongst positive management factors, were ridden with loose reins and low hands. Thus, one can wonder whether horses may positively perceive work or parts of it. Indicators of positive emotions are poorly known yet but we recently found that, out of the working context, a non-vocal acoustic signal, snorts, could reflect mild positive emotions in horses. We hypothesized that snorts could help identifying the working phases and actions appreciated by horses. An overview of snort production in 127 horses spread over 16 riding schools was first conducted to highlight a potential site effect. Results show a great difference in snorts frequency between facilities which may be due to different riding techniques. In order to test this hypothesis, we then focused on 37 horse-rider dyads by scoring horses' postures (neck) and riders' positions (hand, reins) during, but also out of the context of snort production. Results show that snorts were particularly associated with phases when the rider technique, i.e. long and loose reins, allowed more comfort for the horse, especially while walking. Results were more mitigated for higher paces since the association of snorts with signs of comfort was less clear-cut. Snorts could therefore be useful tools for identifying better practices, especially at slower gaits. However, care has to be taken at higher paces.
... Los autores Haverbeke, Diederich, Depiereux y Giffroy (2008) establecieron que el miedo y la ansiedad en perros se pueden presentar, incluso, en ausencia de estímulos específicos. El desempeño del equipo canino está influenciado por el método de entrenamiento y la concentración del perro, lo que especifica que la "distracción" es la variable comportamental que más influencia tiene sobre los resultados (Haverbeke, Laporte, Depiereux, Giffroy & Diederich 2008). ...
... This can be exemplified in the way humans interact with domestic animals; they are largely infantilized (Lewis, 2020b) and 'conditioned' to meet our demands. Whether it be the 'fear based' training methods commonly employed in training horses (Visser et al., 2009), the aversive techniques previously employed by dog trainers, who believed that dominance by aggression was the most appropriate method of interaction (Haverbeke et al., 2008), or the more recent developments in 'positive reward-based training' (Veeder et al., 2009;Hiby et al., 2004), the premise of human-animal interaction is often not to communicate. The aim is to signal, in simplistic binary terms of 'yes' or 'no', when an individual has met the trainer's requirements. ...
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In this paper, I examine the way humans interact with domestic companion animals, with a focus on 'positive reward-based training' methods, particularly for dogs. From a biosemiotic perspective, I discuss the role of animal training in today's society and examine what binary reward-based reinforcement schedules communicate, semiotically. I also examine the extent to which reward-based training methods promote better welfare, when compared to the more traditional methods which rely on aversive stimuli and punishment, if and when they are relied upon excessively. I conclude that when used as the primary means of communication, they have the potential to be detrimental to animal welfare, because the underlying social signal is control and resource dominance. As an alternative view to behaviourist-based learning theory and conditioning, I outline how enactivist theories of cognition support a semiotic approach to interspecific human-animal communication. I therefore propose a move toward a dynamic semiosis and mutual understanding based upon Peirce's phenomenology, resulting in a more balanced merging of Umwelten. The aim is to create rich and more complex semiospheres around humans and domestic animals, which allow for individual agency and autonomy.
Article
This research guide is a selective bibliography of resources discussing United States military working dogs and mascots. It is intended to help researchers find relevant books, articles, military publications, Web sites, and other resources about military working dogs. It also contains references to bills and laws designed to provide for the retirement, medical care, and adoption of military working dogs once their service is complete.
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There is a growing number of dogs kept as companion animals, and the methods by which they are trained range broadly from those using mostly positive punishment and negative reinforcement (aversive-based methods) to those using primarily positive reinforcement (reward-based methods). Although the use of aversive-based methods has been strongly criticized for negatively affecting dog welfare, these claims do not find support in solid scientific evidence. Previous research on the subject lacks companion dog-focused research, investigation of the entire range of aversive-based techniques (beyond shock-collars), objective measures of welfare, and long-term welfare studies. The aim of the present study was to perform a comprehensive evaluation of the short- and long-term effects of aversive- and reward-based training methods on companion dog welfare. Ninety-two companion dogs were recruited from three reward-based (Group Reward, n=42) and four aversive-based (Group Aversive, n=50) dog training schools. For the short-term welfare assessment, dogs were video recorded for three training sessions and six saliva samples were collected, three at home (baseline levels) and three after the training sessions (post-training levels). Video recordings were then used to examine the frequency of stress-related behaviors (e.g., lip lick, yawn) and the overall behavioral state of the dog (e.g., tense, relaxed), and saliva samples were analyzed for cortisol concentration. For the long-term welfare assessment, dogs performed a cognitive bias task. Dogs from Group Aversive displayed more stress-related behaviors, spent more time in tense and low behavioral states and more time panting during the training sessions, showed higher elevations in cortisol levels after training and were more ‘pessimistic’ in the cognitive bias task than dogs from Group Reward. These findings indicate that the use of aversive-based methods compromises the welfare of companion dogs in both the short- and the long-term.
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This represents one of several sections of "A Bibliography Related to Crime Scene Interpretation with Emphases in Geotaphonomic and Forensic Archaeological Field Techniques, Nineteenth Edition" (The complete bibliography is also included at ResearchGate.net.). This is the most recent edition of a bibliography containing resources for multiple areas of crime scene, and particularly outdoor crime scene, investigations. It replaces the prior edition and contains approximately 10,000 additional citations. As an ongoing project, additional references, as encountered, will be added to future editions. The topic of search dogs could be a component of a more all-encompassing category of search techniques. It is highlighted here, however, because of the routine historic use of dogs in searches for both live and deceased victims. The compiler has found the use of qualified cadaver dog teams the most efficient and cost effective means of searching large areas. By the same token, he has been frustrated by the inconsistency of some dogs and the inappropriate conduct by their handlers. Search and rescue teams will typically volunteer their efforts. A canine search is inherently a low impact technique involving minimal disruption of potential buried scenes. It is also a technique which can be implemented discretely and repeatedly as environmental conditions (ie. temperature, moisture, or vegetation), change across a search area. A drawback to the use of dogs involves confirmation of their abilities. Obviously, the best confirmation includes a history of multiple finds in the past. In the absence of such history and referrals, the nature and extent of the team’s training should be considered. The resources listed below should offer insight into proper training techniques and the use of canine search teams. The use of trained canines is only one of several search tools. The competent investigator incorporates as many tools as feasible yet does not base his investigation on one technique or resource. An important aspect of incorporating a qualified search dog team into a law enforcement investigation is preparation through cross-training. While a member of the FBI's St. Louis Evidence Response Team, the compiler introduced outside cadaver dogs and handlers into Evidence Response Team training as a way to familiarize both teams with the capabilities and protocols of the other. Periodic testing of dogs and their handlers is a must. Search dog handlers reluctant to be tested using accepted training standards should be avoided. Likewise, investigators should not be shy in requesting documentation of finds and failed searches by search teams under consideration. Legitimate teams record those call-outs they have had and the results of same. If they do not, or only document finds without recording later discoveries missed by their dogs, then they should be avoided. As a crime scene investigator, the compiler considers legitimate those handlers who acknowledge failed searches, among their successes, in which victims' remains were missed by their dogs. Those handlers have then analyzed such experiences to determine why their dogs did not alert and to refine their training. Consideration of search dogs should also include the conduct of their handlers. Their backgrounds, behavior, and ethics will be scrutinized in court if not by the law enforcement who use them. In 2005, internationally recognized dog handler Sandy Anderson was convicted after and investigation discovered her planting of human remains fragments at search sites. (Shepardson, 2004 and Walker, 2004 below). Unfortunately, Anderson's canine counterpart, "Eagle", had successfully located victims. This handler's unethical behavior was not necessary to enhance or validate the capabilities of her dog. As with virtually every other category in this bibliography, technological developments attempt to improve the state of the art. Vass, et al's. (2004 through 2012) work, Furton, et al. (2015), and others in scent detection, seek to develop devices which may never replace man's best friend, but to join him as another tool in the search arsenal. With mass disasters such as the aftermath of September 11, 2001 and Hurricane Katrina in 2005, research into scent measurements is increasingly appearing in mass media and forensic science literature. Citations encountered by the compiler are included in this section. The reader is also directed to that section of this bibliography which deals with topics of Decomposition under Taphonomy. (603 citations)
Article
To determine whether participation in dog agility has an impact on canine arousal and welfare, this study aimed firstly to identify the effect of the competition context on arousal changes experienced by dogs, as distinct from purely physical participation in agility, and secondly to assess the handlers’ ability to recognize this. Behaviors indicative of changes in arousal were recorded for twenty dogs immediately before completion of both a competition and a training run, whilst the accuracy of handlers’ observations of their dogs’ behavior was examined via questionnaire. Whilst a moderate number of behaviors presented with greater frequency or duration in competition, the total number of different arousal behaviors performed was higher for dogs in competition (p < 0.01). Context had a relatively modest effect on the level of arousal of agility dogs, with a greater number of behaviors indicating increased arousal in competition. Such increased arousal may adversely influence the success of dog-handler partnerships in competition. In both contexts, handlers observed fewer behaviors than their dogs performed and this finding may have implications for dog welfare.
Chapter
Domestic dogs differ enormously in both their morphology and behavior. Numerous factors can influence the development and expression of canine behavior and, more generally, determine the success of the pet–owner relationship. This chapter considers the role of nature and nurture in shaping canine behavior. The influence of factors intrinsic to the animal is outlined, focusing on research that has explored the role of breed, sex, and cerebral lateralization in guiding canine behavior and cognitive functioning. The chapter goes on to consider the role of more extrinsic factors that can influence the development of dog behavior, discussing the contribution of early experience, source of acquisition, training techniques, and owner-related traits including personality and attachment style. The article points to the enormous amount of individual variation that exists between dogs and the myriad of factors that can work together to shape the behavior and functioning of the animal we see before us.
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Historically, pet dogs were trained using mainly negative reinforcement or punishment, but positive reinforcement using rewards has recently become more popular. The methods used may have different impacts on the dogs’ welfare. We distributed a questionnaire to 364 dog owners in order to examine the relative effectiveness of different training methods and their effects upon a pet dog’s behaviour. When asked how they trained their dog on seven basic tasks, 66% reported using vocal punishment, 12% used physical punishment, 60% praise (social reward), 51% food rewards and 11% play. The owner’s ratings for their dog’s obedience during eight tasks correlated positively with the number of tasks which they trained using rewards (P < 0.01), but not using punishment (P = 0.05). When asked whether their dog exhibited any of 16 common problematic behaviours, the number of problems reported by the owners correlated with the number of tasks for which their dog was trained using punishment (P < 0.001), but not using rewards (P = 0.17). Exhibition of problematic behaviours may be indicative of compromised welfare, because such behaviours can be caused by—or result in—a state of anxiety and may lead to a dog being relinquished or abandoned. Because punishment was associated with an increased incidence of problematic behaviours, we conclude that it may represent a welfare concern without concurrent benefits in obedience. We suggest that positive training methods may be more useful to the pet-owning community
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Over the last 10 years, the influence of the dog–owner relationship on dog behaviour has received growing attention, unlike the working dog handler's relationship. Using a questionnaire addressed to the 430 dog handlers of the Belgian army in 2001 (303 respondents), this study investigated the association between the time spent by handlers with their military dog (MD) and some behaviours of these dogs, reflecting welfare, obedience, and aggressiveness. Less than half of the handlers took their MD home and/or practised a sport with their MD. Most of the handlers practising sport with their MD also took their animal home. Statistically significant associations were detected. Obedience of MDs was clearly greater in MDs living at their handler's home and in MDs practising sport. On the contrary, we found no influence on obedience either for the first time handlers or for their length of service. Handlers taking their MD home and handlers practising sport with their MD declared fewer bites than the other handlers did. Bites concerned almost exclusively military staff. Only one family member was bitten by an MD and this MD had been left in a military kennel. Suspicion of previous rough handling was associated with fearful and aggressive behaviours. Handlers taking their MD home had dogs that were more sociable, this was not evidenced for MDs practising sport. Finally, being taken to a handler's home and practising sport were associated with a lower expression of behaviours indicative of impaired welfare. Discussion of our results in the field of dog-human relationship leads to conclude that the effects of housing at a handler's home and practising sport were strongly linked to the enhanced dog–handler relationship.
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On the basis of a study by D. J. Povinelli, D. T. Bierschwale, and C. G. Cech (1999), the performance of family dogs (Canis familiaris) was examined in a 2-way food choice task in which 4 types of directional cues were given by the experimenter: pointing and gazing, head-nodding ("at target"), head turning above the correct container ("above target"), and glancing only ("eyes only"). The results showed that the performance of the dogs resembled more closely that of the children in D. J. Povinelli et al.'s study, in contrast to the chimpanzees' performance in the same study. It seems that dogs, like children, interpret the test situation as being a form of communication. The hypothesis is that this similarity is attributable to the social experience and acquired social routines in dogs because they spend more time in close contact with humans than apes do, and as a result dogs are probably more experienced in the recognition of human gestures.
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The ability of animals to use behavioral/facial cues in detection of human attention has been widely investigated. In this test series we studied the ability of dogs to recognize human attention in different experimental situations (ball-fetching game, fetching objects on command, begging from humans). The attentional state of the humans was varied along two variables: (1) facing versus not facing the dog; (2) visible versus non-visible eyes. In the first set of experiments (fetching) the owners were told to take up different body positions (facing or not facing the dog) and to either cover or not cover their eyes with a blindfold. In the second set of experiments (begging) dogs had to choose between two eating humans based on either the visibility of the eyes or direction of the face. Our results show that the efficiency of dogs to discriminate between "attentive" and "inattentive" humans depended on the context of the test, but they could rely on the orientation of the body, the orientation of the head and the visibility of the eyes. With the exception of the fetching-game situation, they brought the object to the front of the human (even if he/she turned his/her back towards the dog), and preferentially begged from the facing (or seeing) human. There were also indications that dogs were sensitive to the visibility of the eyes because they showed increased hesitative behavior when approaching a blindfolded owner, and they also preferred to beg from the person with visible eyes. We conclude that dogs are able to rely on the same set of human facial cues for detection of attention, which form the behavioral basis of understanding attention in humans. Showing the ability of recognizing human attention across different situations dogs proved to be more flexible than chimpanzees investigated in similar circumstances.
Article
Behavioural effects of the use of a shock collar during guard dog training of German shepherd dogs were studied. Direct reactions of 32 dogs to 107 shocks showed reactions (lowering of body posture, high pitched yelps, barks and squeals, avoidance, redirection aggression, tongue flicking) that suggest stress or fear and pain. Most of these immediate reactions lasted only a fraction of a second. The behaviour of 16 dogs that had received shocks in the recent past (S-dogs) was compared with the behaviour of 15 control dogs that had received similar training but never had received shocks (C-dogs) in order to investigate possible effects of a longer duration. Only training sessions were used in which no shocks were delivered and the behaviour of the dogs (position of body, tail and ears, and stress-, pain- and aggression-related behaviours) was recorded in a way that enabled comparison between the groups. During free walking on the training grounds S-dogs showed a lower ear posture and more stress-related behaviours than C-dogs. During obedience training and during manwork (i.e. excercises with a would-be criminal) the same differences were found. Even a comparison between the behaviour of C-dogs with that of S-dogs during free walking and obedience exercises in a park showed similar differences. Differences between the two groups of dogs existed in spite of the fact that C-dogs also were trained in a fairly harsh way. A comparison between the behaviour during free walking with that during obedience exercises and manwork, showed that during training more stress signals were shown and ear positions were lower. The conclusions, therefore are, that being trained is stressful, that receiving shocks is a painful experience to dogs, and that the S-dogs evidently have learned that the presence of their owner (or his commands) announces reception of shocks, even outside of the normal training context. This suggests that the welfare of these shocked dogs is at stake, at least in the presence of their owner.
Article
In two studies, we have investigated the co-operative behaviour between dogs and their owners. We supposed that co-operative behaviour is an inherited trait in dogs, and is a major contributing factor in the development of successful guide dog performance. According to our view, leading a blind person involves complex behaviour where success depends on the ability of the participants to synchronise their actions. In Study I, we observed both British and Hungarian blind owners taking a half-hour walk in their neighbourhood. In Study II, both guide dogs with their blind and pet dogs with their blind-folded owners had to master an obstacle course. Measuring the frequency of initiations of various actions during leading their owners, dogs did not keep the role of the initiator to themselves. However, both dogs and humans were found to initiate more often in some types of actions, for example, guide dogs initialised avoidance or stepping up more often than their owners. Further, the role of the initiator was kept only for short durations, longer sequences of initialising were rare.Despite many differences among groups studied, we observed some qualitative similarities in the co-operative behaviour of dogs. We assume that during domestication, dogs have been selected for the ability to change to-and-fro the role of the initiator that seems to be fundamental in this type of co-operation. In the case of leading the blind, information should not only be provided but also accepted by both parties in the course of the joint actions, therefore, the leadership (the role of the initiator) may vary form one action to the next.
Article
Sleep-wake cycles of six drug detector dogs were video recorded, and the effects on them of shift work assessed. Observations were also recorded of interactions between dogs and their handlers during rest and work. Non-working dogs recorded immediately after work or at the same time of day or night when not scheduled for work, slept for 43 ± 16% (SD) of the 8-h recording sessions. They had 3.8 ± 1.2 sleep sessions per h, each of which lasted 7.2 ± 2.3 min. Active sleep occurred during 6.4% ± 4.8% of the total recorded time; there were 0.6 ± 0.4 active sleep sessions per h, each lasting on average 5.9 ± 3.8 min. The rhythms, duration and nature of active sleep were closely comparable with rapid eye movement (REM) sleep patterns recorded electrophysiologically by other workers; active and REM sleep in dogs are most probably identical. Patterns of sleep-wake cycles were not altered when handler-dog teams worked different day and night shifts. The ability of dogs to cope with changing shifts may be due to their natural brief and frequent sleep-wake cycles which may allow them sufficient and easy adjustment to changing routines. Two dogs examined after extended periods of not working showed a first-day-back-at-work effect in which active sleep on the following night was diminished, and less total time was spent asleep.
Article
Recently more evidence has been found that the dog could serve as a viable model for studying the evolutionary emergence and regulating mechanisms of human behaviour. This approach is of especial importance when someone wants to study the underlying mechanisms of such human behaviour disorders like attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Using questionnaires is a widely accepted methodology in this field of human behaviour research and recently many reported parallel observations also on dogs (e.g. questionnaire analysis of temperament traits). However, the handicap of this line of studies is, that the psychometric properties (validity) of the animal questionnaires were rarely examined, therefore, the reliability of this methodology remains uncertain.In the present paper a 13-item questionnaire assessing attention skills, impulsivity and motor activity in pet dogs was developed on the basis of a validated one used for evaluating ADHD related problems in children. The primary purpose of this study was to measure reliability and validity of the questionnaire in order to introduce a new method for studying behaviour problems related to attention skills and the levels of activity/impusivity in pet dogs.The owners of a pet dog population (N=220) of many different breeds (69) were involved in the study and the sample was balanced for the dogs’ age, gender and training/qualification. Internal and external validity of the questionnaire were analysed and results supported the relevance of the two subscales predetermined from the items of the questionnaire (inattention and activity–impulsivity). Comparisons of the inattention and activity–impulsivity scores of the different age-, gender- and training-groups showed significant effects of age and training on the attention skills in the dogs. Findings suggest that the application of human ADHD questionnaire (dog-ADHD rating scale) is a reliable and valid method of assessing attention skills and activity in dogs.
Article
The present investigations were undertaken to compare interspecific communicative abilities of dogs and wolves, which were socialized to humans at comparable levels. The first study demonstrated that socialized wolves were able to locate the place of hidden food indicated by the touching and, to some extent, pointing cues provided by the familiar human experimenter, but their performance remained inferior to that of dogs. In the second study, we have found that, after undergoing training to solve a simple manipulation task, dogs that are faced with an insoluble version of the same problem look/gaze at the human, while socialized wolves do not. Based on these observations, we suggest that the key difference between dog and wolf behavior is the dogs' ability to look at the human's face. Since looking behavior has an important function in initializing and maintaining communicative interaction in human communication systems, we suppose that by positive feedback processes (both evolutionary and ontogenetically) the readiness of dogs to look at the human face has lead to complex forms of dog-human communication that cannot be achieved in wolves even after extended socialization.
Article
The Handbook of Applied Dog Behavior and Training series provides a coherent and integrated approach to understanding and controlling dog behavior. In Volume 3, various themes introduced in Volumes 1 and 2 are expanded upon, especially causally significant social, biological, and behavioral influences that impact on the etiology of behavior problems and their treatment. Ethological observations, relevant behavioral and neurobiological research, and dog behavior clinical findings are reviewed and critiqued in detail. Many of the training concepts, procedures, and protocols described have not been previously published, making this book a unique contribution to dog behavior and training literature.
Article
Over one year, 206 dog owners were questioned in a veterinary clinic. The survey included two groups: 151 owners who visited the clinic because of an injury to their dog caused by another dog and 55 people who owned dogs that caused injuries to others. The questioning served to compare aggressors and victims of dog fights. The form contained 43 questions concerning the dog, the owner, and the incident of intraspecific aggression.The results reveal that both groups, victim and aggressor, showed regularities regarding the breeds, gender, and process of the fight. Important factors include housing conditions, criteria concerning the selection of a dog, and the dog's training. Significant differences were found comparing the owners of aggressors and their victims, including the owner's gender, profession, age, his/her attitude towards dogs, the selection of a specific breed, training methods, the purpose of keeping a dog, and previous experiences owning a dog.Further conclusions were drawn regarding the time and location of the incidents. Their influence on a potential solution to the problem caused by aggressive dogs is discussed.
Article
Performance of scent-detection dogs might be negatively affected when they have been trained to discriminate between scents according to a handler-issued verbal cue, compared to dogs trained to only locate one scent. The performance of scent-detection dogs trained to locate only live scent (live-only dogs) was compared to that of scent-detection dogs trained to locate either live or cadaver scent depending on the handler's verbal cue (cross-trained dogs). Specifically, it was predicted that live-only dogs would be more successful than cross-trained dogs at locating live scent when cadaver scent was present. Twenty-three dogs (11 live-only and 12 cross-trained) were given handler commands to search for live scent in four search areas containing different combinations of scent: no scent, live scent, cadaver scent, and live/cadaver scent. Each dog ran each search area twice. Live-only dogs had significantly more correct responses than cross-trained dogs in the no scent, cadaver scent, and live/ cadaver scent search areas. There was no significant performance difference between live-only and cross-trained dogs in the live scent search area, confirming detection abilities of the cross-trained dogs when presented with only live scent. The ability of cross-trained dogs to correctly indicate the presence or absence of live scent according to a verbal cue was compromised when cadaver scent or no scent was present. This strongly suggests that cross-trained dogs should not be deployed where cadaver scent is present and the desired target is live scent, for example, a disaster deployment of search dogs to locate surviving victims amongst possible non-survivors. # 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Article
The hypothesis that short, rapidly repeated rising notes increase motor activity levels in canids, and that longer, continuous descending notes decrease activity was tested. Young laboratory-raised domestic dogs were trained in a repeated measures study to (1) come to the trainer and to (2) sit and stay for 2 s to two different acoustic stimuli: four short notes with a rising fundamental frequency and one long note with a descending fundamental frequency. While one long note was not more effective at eliciting a sit/stay response, four short notes were more effective at eliciting a come response and increasing motor activity levels than one longer continuous note. Thus, acoustic stimuli are not equipotent in eliciting responses that require changes in motor activity levels and could be used by signal senders to influence the behaviour of the signal receiver. The acoustic structures in the study are compared with vocalizations of mammals and birds that elicit approach, and/or increase motor activity levels.
Article
Stress parameters that can be measured noninvasively may help to identify poor welfare in dogs that live in private homes and institutions. Behavioural parameters are potentially useful to identify stress, but require further investigation to establish which behaviours are appropriate. In the present study, behaviours were recorded and analysed for signs of acute stress in dogs. Simultaneously, saliva cortisol and heart rate were measured to support the interpretation of the behavioural data with regard to stress. Ten dogs of either sex, different ages and various breeds were each subjected to six different stimuli: sound blasts, short electric shocks, a falling bag, an opening umbrella and two forms of restraint. Each type of stimulus had been selected for its assumed aversive properties and was administered intermittently for 1 min. The stimuli that could not be anticipated by the dogs, sound blasts, shocks and a falling bag, tended to induce saliva cortisol responses and a very low posture. The remainder of the stimuli, which were administered by the experimenter visibly to the dog, did not change the cortisol levels but did induce restlessness, a moderate lowering of the posture, body shaking, oral behaviours, and to a lesser extent, yawning and open mouth. Pronounced increases in the heart rate were nonspecifically induced by each type of stimulus. Heart rate levels normalized within 8 min after stressor administration had stopped. Saliva cortisol levels decreased to normal within the hour. Correlations between behavioural and physiological stress parameters were not significant. From the present results, we conclude that in dogs a very low posture may indicate intense acute stress since dogs show a very low posture concomitant with saliva cortisol responses. Dogs may typically show increased restlessness, oral behaviours, yawning, open mouth and a moderate lowering of the posture when they experienced moderate stress in a social setting. The nonspecific character of canine heart rate responses complicates its interpretation with regard to acute stress.
Article
In Exp I, retrospective data of 92 cases on dangerously aggressive companion dogs demonstrated the avoidance nature of the aggressive response and its intractability to established counterconditioning treatments. In Exp II, safety training, a modified avoidance-learning procedure, resulted in complete and permanent elimination of aggression in all 36 dogs tested. In addition, it produced extinction-resistant prosocial avoidance responses, significant increases in the dogs' emotional stability, an avoidance-learning and safety acquisition response set, and improvements in measures of the dog's "carriage." Exp III (18 Ss) showed how effective safety training is when compared with other behavior modification techniques that, in theory, should have an impact on avoidance-motivated aggression. Exp IV (16 Ss) demonstrated the importance of using the conditioned safety cue as a positive reinforcement. The relationship of avoidance-motivated aggression to other forms of aggression is discussed, the theoretical concepts of behavioral balance and an avoidance-learning set are presented, and suggestions to improve the effectiveness of counterconditioning for human avoidance-motivated pathologies are offered. (90 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).
Article
Lesions of dorsomedial amygdala (DMA) or lateral hypothalamus (LH) produced prominent impairment of the alimentary behavior in dogs. Besides, various behavioral responses, including social, were depressed. To evaluate whether these changes were either specific for alimentary disturbances or dependent on changes in the general reward system, another type of reward, i.e. social contact with experimenter as a reinforcement for several motor responses was introduced. Damage of amygdalo-hypothalamic system, which produced a syndrome of depression, also impaired socially reinforced responses. This impairment lasted much longer then decrease of food intake. Therefore it was assumed that DMA and LH damage produced impairment not limited to alimentary mechanisms, but involving various aspects of positive motivational system and in particular including the social behavior during man-dog relations. Taking into account various theories of reinforcement in instrumental learning the authors are inclined towards a hedonistic theory of reward.
Article
Domesticated dogs occasionally exhibit predatory behaviour towards domestic sheep when running loose in pasture. Both young and old dogs of either sex may chase sheep. Electronic dog collars applying electric shocks are utilised as one method of training dogs to refrain from attacking sheep. This device is used for a number of other training purposes which have raised concern for the welfare of the dogs being trained. This study aims at testing long-term learning effects of previous sheep tests on sheep chasing in hunting dog breeds (Norwegian elkhounds (grey), English setters, and hare hunting dogs), in particular with use of electronic dog collars, in addition to uncovering potential secondary negative effects on dogs’ behaviour and mental stability. The dogs (N=114) were subjected to three tests for two subsequent years, the second year being reported here. Dogs were tested for reactions to different stimuli, including a sheep, in a path test. In a sheep confrontation test, dogs were fenced in with a sheep group and given el. shocks when approaching 1–2 m from sheep. A questionnaire to the dog owners reported differences in dogs’ behaviour between the years.
Article
The present investigations were undertaken to compare interspecific communicative abilities of dogs and wolves, which were socialized to humans at comparable levels. The first study demonstrated that socialized wolves were able to locate the place of hidden food indicated by the touching and, to some extent, pointing cues provided by the familiar human experimenter, but their performance remained inferior to that of dogs. In the second study, we have found that, after undergoing training to solve a simple manipulation task, dogs that are faced with an insoluble version of the same problem look/gaze at the human, while socialized wolves do not. Based on these observations, we suggest that the key difference between dog and wolf behavior is the dogs' ability to look at the human's face. Since looking behavior has an important function in initializing and maintaining communicative interaction in human communication systems, we suppose that by positive feedback processes (both evolutionary and ontogenetically) the readiness of dogs to look at the human face has lead to complex forms of dog-human communication that cannot be achieved in wolves even after extended socialization.
Article
Dogs' ability to recognise cues of human visual attention was studied in different experiments. Study 1 was designed to test the dogs' responsiveness to their owner's tape-recorded verbal commands (Down!) while the Instructor (who was the owner of the dog) was facing either the dog or a human partner or none of them, or was visually separated from the dog. Results show that dogs were more ready to follow the command if the Instructor attended them during instruction compared to situations when the Instructor faced the human partner or was out of sight of the dog. Importantly, however, dogs showed intermediate performance when the Instructor was orienting into 'empty space' during the re-played verbal commands. This suggests that dogs are able to differentiate the focus of human attention. In Study 2 the same dogs were offered the possibility to beg for food from two unfamiliar humans whose visual attention (i.e. facing the dog or turning away) was systematically varied. The dogs' preference for choosing the attentive person shows that dogs are capable of using visual cues of attention to evaluate the human actors' responsiveness to solicit food-sharing. The dogs' ability to understand the communicatory nature of the situations is discussed in terms of their social cognitive skills and unique evolutionary history.
Purely Positive Training-Companion to Competition
  • S Booth
Booth, S., 1998. Purely Positive Training-Companion to Competition. Podium Publications, Ridgefield, USA, fourth print.
Adaptation and Learning
  • S R Lindsay
Lindsay, S.R., 2000. Handbook of Applied Dog Behavior and Training, vol. 1. Adaptation and Learning. Iowa State Press, Iowa, pp. 273–276.
Excel-Erated learning. Explaining How Dogs Learn and How Best to Teach Them
  • P J Reid
Reid, P.J., 1996. Excel-Erated learning. Explaining How Dogs Learn and How Best to Teach Them. James and Kenneth Publishers, Oakland, CA.
Harnessing Thought Handbook of Behavior Problems of the Dog and Cat The quality of the relation between handler and military dogs influences efficiency and welfare of dogs
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Johnston, B., 1995. Harnessing Thought. Queen Anne Press, London, UK. Landsberg, G., Hunthausen, W., Ackerman, L., 2003. Handbook of Behavior Problems of the Dog and Cat, 2nd Edition. Saunders. Lefebvre, D., Diederich, C., Delcourt, M., Giffroy, J.M., 2007. The quality of the relation between handler and military dogs influences efficiency and welfare of dogs. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 104 (1–2), 49–60.
Dukes' Physiology of Domestic Animals, chapter 53: Consciousness and Higher Cortical Function
  • G M Strain
Strain, G.M., 2004. Dukes' Physiology of Domestic Animals, chapter 53: Consciousness and Higher Cortical Function, 12th Edition. Comstock Publishing, pp. 935-951.
Handbook of Behavior Problems of the Dog and Cat
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Landsberg, G., Hunthausen, W., Ackerman, L., 2003. Handbook of Behavior Problems of the Dog and Cat, 2nd Edition. Saunders.
The Role of Constructs in Psychological and Educational Measurement
  • D L Paulhus
Paulhus, D.L., 2002. In: Braun, H.I., Jackson, D.N. (Eds.), The Role of Constructs in Psychological and Educational Measurement. D.E. Wiley, p. 49.