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The Position Of The Leptoscelini And Other Taxonomic Changes Within The Family Coreidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera)

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The coreine tribe Leptoscelini is subsumed under the tribe Anisoscelini, which receives the genera Leptoscelis LaPorte, Malvana Stål and Phthia Stål. The genus Amblyomia Stål, lacking numerous characters of the tribe, is placed in incertae sedis. Other genera tentatively placed in the tribe include: Coribergia Casini, Dalmatomammurius Brailovsky, Kalincka- scelis Brailovsky, Leptopelios Brailovsky, Leptostellana Brailovsky, Malvanaioides Brailovsky, Onoremia Brailovsky, Plunentis Stål, and Sephinioides Brailovsky. Ugnius Stål and Bellamynocoris Brailovsky are removed from Acantho- cephalini to Anisoscelini.
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Accepted by C. Schaefer: 20 Dec. 2007; published: 1 Feb. 2008
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Copyright © 2008 · Magnolia Press
Zootaxa 1696: 6368 (2008)
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The position of the Leptoscelini and other taxonomic changes within the family
Coreidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera)
RICHARD J. PACKAUSKAS
Dept. of Biological Sciences, Associate Curator of Entomology, Sternberg Museum, Fort Hays State University, 600 Park St., Hays, KS
67601, USA
Abstract
The coreine tribe Leptoscelini is subsumed under the tribe Anisoscelini, which receives the genera Leptoscelis LaPorte,
Malvana Stål and Phthia Stål. The genus Amblyomia Stål, lacking numerous characters of the tribe, is placed in incertae
sedis. Other genera tentatively placed in the tribe include: Coribergia Casini, Dalmatomammurius Brailovsky, Kalincka-
scelis Brailovsky, Leptopelios Brailovsky, Leptostellana Brailovsky, Malvanaioides Brailovsky, Onoremia Brailovsky,
Plunentis Stål, and Sephinioides Brailovsky. Ugnius Stål and Bellamynocoris Brailovsky are removed from Acantho-
cephalini to Anisoscelini.
Key words: Coreinae, Acanthocephalini, Anisoscelini, Leptoscelini, Bellamynocoris, Coribergia, Dalmatomammurius,
Kalinckascelis, Leptopelios, Leptostellana, Leptoscelis, Malvana, Malvanaioides, Onoremia, Phthia, Plunentis, Sephin-
ioides, Ugnius, tribal synonymy
Introduction
The family Coreidae has been plagued by a multitude of taxonomic problems, synonyms, and a lack of keys to
identify members. As with many taxonomic groups, there are often tribes within subfamilies that become
catch basins for new genera and species described within the family or subfamily. Among tribes of the Core-
inae, this is certainly true for the Coreini, and it is becoming so for the Leptoscelini. This paper will not clarify
those problems, but attempts to produce a natural grouping that may give direction for further work as well as
clarify a few taxonomic problems within the Coreidae.
The tribe Leptoscelini was erected by Stål as Leptoscelidida in his key to the genera of American Core-
idae (1867). The tribe then comprised three genera: Leptoscelis Latreille, Malvana Stål, and Phthia Stål, and
was separated from the tribe Anisoscelini Latreille by the lack of expanded hind tibiae. Packauskas (1994a)
used the same character to separate the tribe and also used characters shared with most species found in the
Anisoscelini: all femora spinose below, a porrect head, juga and tylus extended forward, and rostrum extend-
ing onto abdomen, to further differentiate the tribe from other tribes lacking hind tibial expansions.
Packauskas (1994b, mostly unpublished) examined genera in the tribes Acanthocephalini, Anisoscelini,
and Leptoscelini. He produced a phylogeny based on external and internal (genitalic) morphological charac-
ters of numerous genera within these tribes. For the Leptoscelini he used the three genera first established for
the tribe by Stål (1867) as well as the genus Amblyomia Stål (placed in the tribe by Stål, 1870). The outgroup
used in the analysis was comprised of members of all three subfamilies: Coreinae, Meropachyinae, and
Pseudophloeinae . The members of the Coreinae came from both Old World tribes (Coreini, Homeocerini, and
Petascelidini) and New World tribes (Acanthocerini, Coreini, Chariesterini, Chelinideini, Nematopodini, and
Spartocerini). One of the inescapable conclusions in polarizing characters was the result that the expansion of
PACKAUSKAS
64 · Zootaxa 1696 © 2008 Magnolia Press
the hind tibia becomes plesiomorphic as it is scattered in occurrence among other tribes of the Coreidae and
may, along with expansion of the 3
rd
antennal segment, be an underlying synapomorphy of the family. During
analysis of the characters, all those which occurred in both plesiomorphic and apomiorphic states within a
genus were discarded. Nevertheless, 45 characters were used in the analysis. The data were analyzed using
Phylogenetic Analysis Using Parsimony (PAUP) (Swofford 1991). This resulted in 70 equally parsimonious
trees. The majority rule consensus tree (Fig. 1) is presented here, but only the genera of Anisoscelini and Lep-
toscelini are shown. For character data sets, discussion of all character and branches, see Packauskas (1994b).
The tribe Stenoscelideini Schaefer has been re–erected elsewhere (Packauskas 2006) from within the Acan-
thocephalini.
Examination of the majority rule consensus cladogram (Fig. 1) reveals that of the 70 most parsimonious
trees, 100 % of the trees show a single branch leading to most of the anisosceline and leptosceline genera and,
indeed, 7 characters hold that clade together. Beyond that branch , there is a tritomy in which one branch leads
to an unresolved pentatomy leading to seven genera. Among those seven genera we find that none of the gen-
era (underlined) in Stål’s original Leptoscelini tribal designation show an affinity for one another, but all share
characters with three anisosceline genera, as well as with the genus Ugnius Stål (formerly in the Acanthoceph-
alini).
On the basis of this tree, I believe that members of the Leptoscelini should be subsumed under the Anisos-
celini; and that the genus Ugnius Stål should be removed from the Acanthocephalini and placed within the
Anisoscelini.
The genus Amblyomia Stål is here placed in incertae sedis as it has several characters which exclude it
from any of the tribes studied here. Its vesica is uncoiled, and it lacks a posttylar sulcus, characters shared with
the Nematopini and Meropachyinae to one of which it is most likely aligned.
The Tribe Anisoscelini Laporte
Many authorities (Schaefer 1965, Osuna 1984, Froeschner 1988) have attributed the first use of the higher
group name Anisoscelini to Amyot & Serville (1843), but the first use was actually by Laporte (1832), who
described the family Anisoscélites, differentiating it from his family Coréites. At this time the family con-
tained: Anisoscelis Latreille, Holhymenia La Peletier & Serville, Stenocephalus Latreille (now in Stenocepha-
lidae), Leptoscelis Laporte (later in Leptoscelini), Nematopus Latreille and Pachylis La Peletier & Serville
(both now in Nematopodini), Leptocorisa Latreille, Micrelytra Laporte, and Alydus Fabricius (all now in Aly-
didae), Acanthocephalus Laporte (now in Acanthocephalini), Meropachus Laporte (now in Meropachyinae),
and Pachymeria Laporte (= Lycambes Stål). Laporte (1832) also placed Chondrocera Laporte (now in Ani-
soscelini) in his family Coréites.
Costa (1838) described the family Anisoscelini, thus implying that it included Anisoscelis, presumably
because he had seen Laporte (1832); but Costa included only Alydus Fabricius, Micrelytra Laporte (both now
in Alydidae), and Stenocephalus Latreille (now in Stenocephalidae). Costa's description of the family was
general, easily fitting all the presently known Coreoidea, without further explanation. Horváth (1911) cited
Costa (1838) as the first user of the tribal name, overlooking the earlier use by Laporte (1832).
Amyot & Serville (1843) in their group Anisoscélides included only the genera Anisoscelis Latreille,
Diactor Perty, Leptoscelis Laporte, and Tynotoma Amyot & Serville, an Old World genus later synonymized
under Serinetha Spinola (Stål 1873).
Stål in his 1867 key both expanded and restricted his group (not indicating the rank), given as Anisosceli-
dida, to include: Anisoscelis Latreille, Baldus Stål, Chondrocera Laporte, Copium Thunberg, Diactor Perty,
Narnia Stål, Tarpeius Stål, and Theognis Stål. In Stål's (1867) key, the group Anisoscelidida was distinguished
as having the hind tibia more or less expanded as opposed to simple (or terete) in the rest of Sl's Coreida
Zootaxa 1696 © 2008 Magnolia Press · 65
THE POSITION OF THE LEPTOSCELINI
grouping, the two being differentiated earlier in the key from Stål's Mictidida (now known as the tribes Nem-
atopini and Acanthocerini) and Stål's Placoscelidida (now the tribe Acanthocephalini) by having the space
between antenniferous tubercles wider than the width of one tubercle and the head produced or porrect ante-
rior to the tubercles. Sl moved Leptoscelis Laporte into a new grouping, his Leptoscelidida, along with
Phthia Stål and Malvana Stål. Within Stål's Coreida, Leptoscelidida were distinguished from Anisoscelidida
by the lack of expanded hind tibiae, and from the rest of Stål's Coreida by possessing the combination of: all
femora spinose; rostrum extending between or beyond hind coxae, first segment extending past eyes or behind
base of head; head porrect or subporrect; bucculae shorter than head by more than half. For the rest of Core-
idae Stål gives: femora unarmed and slender, but if spinose, then bucculae extending to middle of head. Stål
(1870) subsequently published a list of genera and species in his division Anisoscelidina, synonymizing
Copium Thunberg under Holymenia La Peletier & Serville (an unnecessary emendation, or a misspelling, of
Holhymenia [the correct name] by Stål), and synonymizing Theognis Stål under Leptoglossus Guérin. Gibson
& Holdridge (1918b) divided the tribe into two groups, the Anisoscelaria and the Chondroceraria, based on
the lack, or presence, of antennal dilations, respectively. These divisions may indeed be valid and do show up
in my cladistic analysis, but the affinities of the genera involved are not fully resolved at that level and the
nymphs of Anisoscelis have an expanded third antennal segment (my observation), whereas adults do not.
Gibson & Holdridge (1918b) also included two genera now excluded from Anisoscelini: Uranocoris Walker
(included in the tribe by Lethierry & Severin [1894]) and Stenoscelidea Walker. Uranocoris has been shown
by Osuna (1984) to be an Old World genus and provisionally placed by him in Homoeocerini. The tylar
expansion and deflexed juga would clearly place Stenoscelidea in Acanthocephalini; however, on the basis of
a cladistic analysis, Packauskas (2006) placed it in the re-erected tribe Stenoscelideini Schaefer.
Osuna (1984) revised Anisoscelini, splitting a new genus, Bitta, from Anisoscelis, and also splitting four
new genera, Fabrictilis, Stalifera, Theognis (re-erected), and Veneza, from the genus Leptoglossus. All these
genera were relegated to group status by Packauskas and Schaefer (2001).
Schaefer (1968) discussed Leptoscelis and Phthia, and their cladistic arrangements with Anisoscelini and
Acanthocephalini. However, his paper is flawed, in that he clearly shows (his Fig. 37) a metapleural supra-
coxal spine in his Phthia sp.; this does not occur in any of the species I have examined of this genus. Reexam-
ination of the specimens used by Schaefer shows them to be of the genus Petalops
(Acanthocephalini). In his
paper Schaefer proposes the removal of Phthia from Leptoscelini. On the basis of this paper, Casini (1984)
looked at the relationship of his new genus, Coribergia, with Leptoscelini sensu strictu (that is, with Phthia
removed), and noted the closeness of Leptoscelis and Coribergia. Brailovsky (1989) went one step further and
tentatively placed Coribergia and Plunentis Stål (formerly in Coreini) in the Leptoscelini.
During the course of this work, Brailovsky described six new genera which he placed in the Leptoscelini:
Dalmatomammurius Brailovsky 1982, Kalinckascelis Brailovsky 1990, Leptopelios Brailovsky 2001, Leptos-
tellana Brailovsky 1997b, Malvanaioides Brailovsky 1990, Onoremia Brailovsky 1995, and Sephinioides
Brailovsky 1996. I have not had the opportunity to examine these for characters that actually place them in
Anisoscelini, but they all are tentatively placed under Anisoscelini until they can be further analyzed with
respect to their proper placement.
The genus Ugnius was removed from the Coreini and placed in the Acanthocephalini by Casini (1983).
Ugnius, however, shares a number of synapomorphies with Anisoscelini: the juga extend past the antennifer-
ous tubercles, the extended tylus is more like an extended spine, the rostrum reaches the abdomen, the vesica
has three long, tight coils, and there is a median lateral lobe on the conjunctiva (not found in the Acanthoceph-
alini). I have, on the basis of these shared apomorphies and as previously discussed in the tree, placed Ugnius
in the Anisoscelini.
In addition, Brailovsky (1997a) also described the genus Bellamynocoris with two species and placed this
genus in the Acanthocephalini. This genus also belongs in the Anisoscelini. The first antennal segment is
shorter than the head (always longer in Acanthocephalini), the juga extend past the antenniferous tubercles
PACKAUSKAS
66 · Zootaxa 1696 © 2008 Magnolia Press
(not so in Acanthocephalini), and the tylar expansion is similar to that of members of the genus Ugnius and
Leptoglossus clypealis. The paramere shape is unknown, but all members of the Acanthocephalini have an
apical tooth (see Packauskas 1994b). The species of Bellamynocoris are also the smallest in the tribe Acantho-
cephalini and very similar in shape and aspect to members of the genus Leptoglossus (Anisoscelini). The tibial
expansions constitute less than 55 % of the length of the tibia while among Acanthocephalini species the
expansions are over 75% of the length of the tibiae.
The following description of the tribe does not take into account the genera listed above as tentatively
placed in the Anisoscelini.
FIGURE 1. Majority consensus tree produced from 70 equally parsimonious trees during analysis of leptosceline
(underlined) and anisosceline genera. Numbers on branches = percentage of trees in which the branch occurs.
Description of the Tribe Anisoscelini
Head porrect in most species; tylus and juga never deflexed, both usually extending well beyond antennifer-
ous tubercles. Head usually longer than scutellum (except Baldus and Anisoscelis). Ocellar tubercle pro-
nounced (except Diactor). Distance between antenniferous tubercles greater than width of one tubercle. Small
postocular tubercle in some species. Ratio of length of head anterior to ocellar line to length posterior to ocel-
lar line greater than 1.0. Shortest antennal segment I, II, or III, never IV; longest antennal segment II or IV;
antennal segment IV longer than III, less than 2 times longer. Antennal segment I usually longer, rarely
shorter, than head. Antennal segment II and/or III widened in some species. Antennal segment IV longer than
III. Bucculae extending to level of anterior margin of eye or not. Rostral segment III shortest; longest segment
may be any other. First two segments of rostrum longer than last two segments. Rostrum extending to at least
metacoxae, usually onto abdomen. Degree of pronotal rise, anterior to posterior, 45-70 º. Pronotum with dis-
tinct collar, punctate, occasionally rugose, never tuberculate; humeral angles acute to obtusely angled, rarely
rounded; posterior angles obtuse to rounded (angles acute in Baldus); callar region usually raised. Usually
lacking metapleural supracoxal spine. Metapleural scent gland opening separated, with two auricles; anterior
Zootaxa 1696 © 2008 Magnolia Press · 67
THE POSITION OF THE LEPTOSCELINI
auricle larger. Abdomen rarely wider than thorax. Spiracle of abdominal segment IV closer to lateral edge of
segment than to anterior or posterior edge. Abdominal segments never spined posterolaterally. Connexivum
VI separated from dorsum or slightly fused at apex; connexivum VII fused to dorsal plate. Scutellum longer
than wide or subequal, rarely wider than long. Hind tibia often expanded, but not in all genera. All femora
spined below, at least distally. Hind femora rarely incrassate or spined above (exceptions: Leptoglossus, Nar-
nia, Ugnius). Ratio of body length to width greater or equal to 3, less than 4. Parameres without apical tooth
on ventral arm (except Diactor).
Synapomorphies: Juga porrect (level with tylus) and extending past antenniferous tubercles, rostrum
reaching abdomen (reversed in a few species of Leptoglossus), abdominal spiracle placement closest to lateral
edge, vesica forming three long, tight coils, median lateral lobe on conjunctiva.
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The family Coreidae is distributed worldwide, but these phytophagous bugs are most abundant in the tropics and subtropics. In the Neotropical region, all of the subfamilies and 16 tribes are represented. In tropical ecosystems, these bugs feed on herbs and shrubs in open areas of forests as well as at the forest edge. Some species are spectacularly colored, and unusual expansions of antennae, humeral angles, femora, or tibiae occur in many groups. Some of them move lazily even when disturbed and hardly fly to escape; others are extremely nimble, fast flying away when disturbed. They are frequently encountered in crops, representing important pests in several commodities. No one common name is universally accepted for the family, and none of the frequently used names (e.g., squash bug, leatherbug, leaf-footed bug, Randwanzen) are collectively appropriate for all members of the family. © Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015. All rights reserved.
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The Neotropical genus Phthia Stål, 1862 in its current wide concept is revised and divided into five genera: Phthia s. str., Phthiacnemia gen. nov., Phthiadema gen. nov., Phthiarella gen. nov., and Rhytidophthia gen. nov. The following nine new combinations (all from Phthia) are proposed: Phthiacnemia picta (Drury, 1770), comb. nov.; Phthiadema cyanea (Signoret, 1862), comb. nov., Ph. ornata (Stål, 1865), comb. nov., and Ph. smaragdina (Walker, 1871), comb. nov.; Phthiarella affinis (Distant, 1901), comb. nov., Ph. decorata (Stål, 1865), comb. nov., Ph. femorata (Breddin, 1901), comb. nov., and Ph. sponsa (Breddin, 1901), comb. nov.; and Rhytidophthia splendida (Valdés, 1910), comb. nov.
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Genera previously created for species of the genera Leptoglossus GuérinMénéville and Anisoscelis Latreille (Anisoscelini) are given species-group status. These species groups are keyed, their included species listed with synonymies, and their distributions given. Dallacoris Osuna (Leptoscelini) is a name never published and therefore invalid; its single species is restored to the genus Phthia Stål as Phthia picta (Drury). The species groups in Leptoglosus (and the number of included species) are the dilaticollis species group (3 species), gonagra species group (1), harpagon species group (3), cinctipes species group (3), lineosus species group (3), and zonatus species group (24).
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Bellamynacoris Brailovsky, n. genus, and 2 new species, B. peruvianus Brailovsky and B. monticeps Brailovsky, collected in Peru, are described and illustrated.
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Leptopelios ventus new genus and new species from Brazil are described, illustrated, and included in the tribe Leptoscelidini (Coreidae).
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Se realiza una revisión a nivel de géneros de la Tribu Leptoscelidini, en base al estudio de material representativo de las especies conocidas, contenido en la colección del Instituto de Zoología Agrícola de la Facultad de Agrnomía de la U.C.V. y material adicional facilitado por diversos museos del exterior. La tribu comprende 12 géneros bien definidos, los cuales pueden ser organizados en dos grupos de géneros: Grupo Leptoscelis con 7 géneros, integrados por: Iza gen.n. (1 especie), Crascelis gen.n. (5 especies), Amblyomía Stal (1 especie), Malvana Stal (4 especies), Crinocoris gen.n (1 especie), Leptoscelis Laporte sens.str. (21 especies), y Coricinus gen.n. (1 especie); Grupo Phthia con 5 géneros integrados por: Dallacoris gen.n. (1 especie), Phthia Stal sens. str. (6 especies) y Deverticoris gen.n. (1 especie). El número de especies ha sido elevado de 26 a un total de 45 especies. Se revisan y describen los géneros Malvana, Leptoscelis sens.str. y Phthia sens.str. de los cuales los dos últimos se dividen para constituir a los géneros Iza, Crascelis y Coricinus derivados de Leptoscelis sens.lat. y Dallacoris, Tenuicelis y Fulgicoris de Phthia sent.lat.; se describen dos géneros nuevos adicionales Crinocoris y Deverticoris del Grupo Phthia. El género Amblyomía queda pendiente para una posterior revisión dado que no se conoce ningún material conservado y ni siquiera el especimen tipo de la especie tipo ha podido ser ubicado.