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Organizational Culture and Job Satisfaction in Jordan

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105
PART TWO
NATIONAL RESPONSE
TO GLOBALIZATION
AND THE CHALLENGE OF REFORM
Organizational Culture
And Job Satisfaction in Jordan
Abbas J. Al.
Hala Sabri
SUMMARY. Organizational Culture and job satisfaction were examined across
four industrial industries in Jordan. The sample consisted of 24 managers and non-
managerial employees. The sample was randomly selected. The participants
Abbas J. Ali PhD. Is Professor of Management, Department of Management Eberly College
of Business and Information Technology, Indiana University of PA, Indiana, PA 15705 ((E-mail:
aaali@grove.iup.edu).
Hala Sabri is Deputy Secretary General, Arab Thought Forum, PO Box 924418, Amman,
Jordan (E-mail: hasabi@yahoo.com).
The authors wish to thank Professor Jeffery Barton for his comments on an earlier version of
this paper.
[Haworth co-indexing entry note]: “Organizational Culture and Job Satisfaction in Jordan.” Ali, Abbas, J. and
Hala Sabri. Co-published in Journal of Transnational Management Development (the International Business Press,
an imprint of the Haworth Press, Inc.) Vol. 6, No. 1/2, 2001, pp. 105-118; and: Management and International
Business Issues in Jordan (ed: Hamed El-Said and Kip Becker) International Business Press, an imprint of the
Haworth Press, Inc., 2001, pp. 105-118. Single or multiple copies of this article are available for a fee from the
Haworth Document Delivery Service [1-800-342-9678, 9:00 a.m.-5.00p.m. (EST). E-mail
address:getinfo@Haworthpress.com].
2001 by the Haworth Press, Inc. All Rights reserved
106
indicated that the prevailing organizational culture is power, and that the most
desired culture is achievement. In addition, participants showed high satisfaction
with their jobs. There was a significant correlation between job satisfaction and
power, role achievement cultures. [Article copies available for a fee from the Haworth
Document Delivery Service: 1-800-342-9678. E-mail address:
getinfo@haworthpressinc.com > Website: http://www.HaorthPress.com 2001 by the
Haworth press, Inc. All rights Reserved.]
KEYWORDS. Jordan, organizational culture, job satisfaction
A significant body of management research explicitly deals with organizational
culture. In fact, the 1980s and 1990s witnessed a phenomenal increase in the
number of studies that focused on the importance and impact of organizational
culture (Deal & Kennedy, 1982; Denison, 1990; Gordon, 1991; Kotter & Heskett,
1992).
One of most important elements of work environment is job satisfaction. Job
satisfaction is seen as an outcome of individual and organizational variables. Job
satisfaction, in fact, is considered to be a manifestation of general internal and
external forces that exert influence on the individuals at work. Organizational
culture is a vital factor that shapes and determines job satisfaction. A review of
existing literature reveals that there is an agreement that job satisfaction is directly
influenced by the prevailing work environment and norms.
Despite this assertion, few studies address the relationships between
organizational culture and job satisfaction. This is more common in the Arab world
and in Jordan in particular. Jordan has the potential to play a significant role in the
Arab economic and political affairs. In fact, Jordan is situated in a strategically
important position for technology transfer and foreign direct investment (FDI). In
recent years, Jordan initiated several policies that aimed at encouraging FDI and
stimulating local entrepreneurs to participate actively in its economic
transformation. Further, policymakers recognize that Jordan must capitalize on its
human resources to speed economic development. Understanding organizational
culture and prevailing work norms along with the factors that enhance employees’
commitment and motivation is essential for realizing economic development. This
study, therefore, is designed to investigate the determinants of, and the
relationships between, organizational culture and job satisfaction in Jordan. In
particular, the paper identifies the types of organizational culture in Jordan and
investigates whether or not Jordanian employees are satisfied with their jobs.
107
Certain hypotheses are suggested and implications for management and
organizations are provided.
THEORETICAL UNDERPINNING
Organizational culture is often viewed as a set of beliefs and values that
members of an organization share in common. When these beliefs and values are
clearly identified and are widely and deeply held, the culture is considered to be a
strong culture. In this respect, there is less need to detail organizational rules and
regulations. In contrast, in a weak organizational culture, rules and regulations for
controlling behavior are specified and strictly enforced. Cisco, Microsoft, Asea
Brown Boveri, Nestle, and Ford have strong cultures that guide and motivate their
employees. Most of these state enterprises, especially in developing countries, have
a weak culture and lack clear vision and direction.
Job satisfaction is closely related to the well-being of organization members (Ali
& Swiercz, 1985). And is generally viewed as a contentment with the aspects,
content and prospects of a job. This contentment is emotional and represents an
attachment and appreciation of the work satisfaction. Additionally, job satisfaction
is a function of individual and organizational variables (Ali, 1987; Pulakos &
Schmidt, 1983; Strauss, 1974). In other words, the level of job satisfaction is
situation-dependent. Since organization culture represents the prevailing beliefs
and values in an organization, job satisfaction is expected to be a function of
organizational culture.
Management scholars have associated a strong corporate culture with superior
long-term performance. It is argued that culture creates a high level of employee
loyalty and motivation. Schein (1985), for example, asserts that culture solves a
group’s basic problem of survival in, and adaptation to, the external environment
and group’s integration of its internal processes. Likewise, Morris (1992) suggests
that culture induces employees to work together and achieve organizational goals.
That is, rich and strong cultures are likely to result in the highest level of job
satisfaction.
In the context of organizational culture and job satisfaction in Jordan, the
literature is spares. Research in the region may shed light on the state of the
organizations, their environment and aspects. It is important to note that Jordan is
an Arab country that shares basic cultural values with the rest of the Arab World,
especially the Arab Gulf States. However, Unlike the Gulf States Jordan economy
is not oil-based, and the country does not rely heavily on foreign workers, because
it has a relatively skilled domestic force (mostly Palestinians). These differences,
however, are not likely to influence deeply-held values and orientations.
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Ali and Swiercz (1985) found that participatory rather than autocratic mangers
are highly satisfied with persons in their workgroups in Saudi Arabia. Likewise,
Ali (1987) found that work satisfaction is influenced by prevailing values systems
in organizations in the Arab gulf area. Al-Meer (1989) found that Arabian
employees scored low on job satisfaction relative to Asian working in Saudi
Arabia. Yasin and Stahl (1990) reported that Arab mangers, in Jordan and Kuwait,
have a motivational profile that is affiliation- and achievement- oriented rather than
organizational power-oriented. The authors argue that institutional power. At-
Twaijri (1989) found that mangers in Saudi Arabia showed a relatively moderately
high job satisfaction.
In the context of organizational culture, Khadra (1990) found that the prevailing
organizational culture in Jordan is one that is high on personalism, individualism,
and lack of institutionalism. He argues that personal power is highly sought. Both
Ali (1998) and Khadra (1990) assert that rules and regulations in the Arab culture
are contingent upon the wishes of those in power. Previously, Ali (1988) found that
Arab mangers are highly sociocentric and that egocentric value is the least
dominant. Previous research indicates that Arab mangers avoid responsibility and
risk-taking; prefer a stable lifestyle over rewarding but challenging work; are
highly concerned with job security, are reluctant to delegate authority; believe that
centralization builds respect, and finally, they give priority to friendships and
personal considerations over organizational goals and performance (Al-Hegelan &
Palmer, 1985; Al-Nimir & Palmer, 1982; Asaf, 1983).
Jordanian-based organizations, as with most Arabian firms, operate in an
environment that is full of great uncertainty, politically and economically. Most of
the organizations in Jordan traditionally relied on Iraqi and the Gulf-state markets.
After the 1990 crisis and the US led economic sanctions against Iraq, the
Jordanian-based organizations lost their traditional markets, and the Jordanian
economy has experienced a sever crisis. This, combined with scares natural
resources, places organizations in Jordan in a highly non-competitive position.
Based on the arguments just given, the following hypotheses are suggested:
Hypothesis 1
Organizational culture for Jordanian-based companies will
vary across industry
Hypothesis 2
Existing Organizational culture for Jordanian-based
organizations will be more oriented toward power and role
than achievement and support cultures
Hypothesis 3
Jordanians who work in organizations that display power and
109
role cultures will be more satisfied with their job than those
who work in achievement and support cultures
METHOD
Sample
A random sample of Jordanian-based organizations was used for this study.
The sample was drawn from greater Amman, the capital. Most of the organizations
in Jordan are located in and around the capital. The sample was selected based on
the Jordan Industry Directory (1994) and the Jordanian shareholding Companies
Guide (1994). The sample included companies ranging from family-dominated
firms to companies jointly owned by government and private shareholders. The
survey questionnaire was distributed to 360 individuals within these organizations.
Out of the distributed questionnaires, 302 were returned. About 68 questionnaires
were not included in the analysis because they were incomplete. Therefore, 24
questionnaires were used in the analysis (65%).
About 24% of the participants work in refineries; 34% in airlines, and 21 % in
electricity and in Potash industries. About 58% are managers, and 72% are
university graduates. Over 50% are 40 years of age or older, and 82% are male (see
Table 1).
Questionnaire
The survey has three parts. The first part is general information. The second and
third parts are related to organizational culture and job satisfaction Questions.
These two parts were translated from English to Arabic and were then given to an
Arab language expert who was fluent in English. The expert was asked to check
the translation and the use of proper Arabic words. After this stage, the
questionnaires were edited by an English editor whose native language was Arabic.
A pilot of six employees from various organizations was utilized. Participants in
the pilot sample were asked to comment on any difficulty they might find in
understanding the meaning of some of the terminology. Their comments were
incorporated in the final version of the questionnaire. Following is a brief
description of the organizational culture and job satisfaction parts.
Organizational Culture. The survey (Harrison & Stokes, 1990) contains 15
statements. Each statement has four possible alternatives, each of which represents
a particular culture. There are two columns for each alternative: existing and
110
TABLE 1. Type of Organization and Personal Characteristics of Participants
Variable
Frequency
% Frequency
Economic Sector:
Electricity
Potash
Refinery
Airline
Total
Job Level:
Managers
Non-Managers
Total
Educational Level:
University Graduates
Non-University Graduates
Total
Sex:
Males
Females
Total
Age Group:
20-24
25-30
30-34
35-39
40-50
Over 50
Total
49
48
57
80
234
136
98
234
169
65
234
191
43
234
5
22
47
41
97
22
234
21
21
24
34
100
58
42
100
72
28
100
82
18
100
2
9
20
18
42
9
100
preferred cultures. Participants were asked to rank each alternative for both
columns from 4 (the most dominant view) to 1 (the least dominant view). This
instrument has been used widely in different societies and found to be reliable
(e.g. Anderson, 1995; Al-Salem, 1996). The current reliability coefficient ranges
from .66 to .85. The four types of cultures are as follows:
111
1. The Power Culture. A power-oriented organization is based on inequality of
access to resources. In this organization, the leader is expected to be all-
knowing and powerful. The leader, however, displays justice and is
paternalistic. Subordinates are submissive and comply with the boss’ orders.
2. The Role Culture. A role-oriented organization has clearly defined rules and
expectations. Tasks are measurable. Employees receive protection under the
rules from subjective exercise of authority. There will be less direct
supervision and performance is monitored through well-established
information systems.
3. The Achievement Culture. The major assumption underlying this type of
culture is that employees enjoy-challenges and prefer tasks that are
intrinsically satisfying. Top management trust employees and give them the
freedom to make decisions and act to meet goals.
4. The Support Culture. The assumption underlying this type of culture is
simple: people derive satisfaction and are motivated because of mutual
respect, trust and support. The culture is a belonging one that highlights the
vitality of human relationships and interactions.
Job Satisfaction. The instrument (Hoppock, 1935) has four dimensions: how
well you like your job, satisfaction with job, possibility of changing current job,
and comparison of one’s job with others. Each dimension has seven alternatives.
Participants were asked to select one alternative under each dimension. The
instrument was found to be reliable (McNichols, Stahl & Manley, 1978). The
current reliability coefficient is .73.
RESULTS
The results of a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) are presented in Table
2. The results indicate that in existing cultures, there are three significant
differences across organizations in three industries. Significant differences in
power (F= 9.36, <.05) and achievement (3.26, <.05) are found across organizations
in electricity, potash, refinery and airline industries. No significant differences are
found in existing support culture or in preferred cultures across organizations.
Therefore, the results provide a partial support for Hypothesis 1.
The results of means of existing and preferred cultures are presented in Table 3.
The results reveal that power (х= 45.90), role (х= 41.50) and achievement (х=
33.6) are the most prevailing cultures. This fairly supports Hypothesis 2.
112
Support culture (х=29.10) is the least common culture. In the context of
preferred cultures, achievement (х= 46.80) and role (х= 43.10) are the most desired
while power (х= 24.50) is the least desired culture.
Table 4 shows the degree of satisfaction that participants display to ward their
jobs. The results indicate that 83% of them like and love their jobs; 77% feel
satisfied a good deal too all the time; 58.5% are not eager to change their jobs but
would do so if they were to get a better opportunity, and about 63% like their jobs
better or much better than others like their jobs.
Table 5 presents the correlation between job satisfaction and existing cultures.
The results indicate that there is a negative but significant correlation between job
satisfaction and power culture (r= -.23, <.05). There is, however, significant
positive correlation between job satisfaction and role (r= .12, < .05), and job
satisfaction and achievement (r= .21, < .01) cultures.
TABLE 2. Mean Scores and One-Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) for
Organizational Cultures Across Industries.
Culture
Organization
Electricity
Potash
Refinery
Airline
F-Ratio
N
49
48
57
80
Existing Power
Mean
47.10
41.3
43.7
49.5
9.36*
Preferred Power
Mean
23.3
23.7
25.2
25.2
1.20
Existing Role
Mean
40.8
44.3
42.6
39.3
8.67*
Preferred Role
Mean
43.6
42.8
42.9
43.0
0.02
Existing
Achievement
Mean
32.5
36.0
33.5
32.8
3.26*
Preferred
Achievement
Mean
46.6
48.4
46.2
46.4
1.70
Existing Support
Mean
29.6
28.4
30.1
28.4
1.13
Preferred Support
Mean
36.5
35.1
35.8
35.4
0.39
113
DISSCUSSION
The results relative to existing cultures in Jordan confirm previous research and
study in the Arab world. Power culture is found to be the most dominants culture
in organizations. Personal power rather than organizational power is sought. Top
executives demand complete submission from their employees, and employees in
return do not take initiatives that many not be sanctioned by top management. All
decisions are made by top executives. Organizations most often, therefore, do not
seek to be competitive in a dynamic environment. Uncertainty and risk are
avoided, and managing business affairs to ensure survival becomes the primary
goal. Perhaps this explains why the second most prevailing organizational culture
is “role”. Role-oriented organizations rely on specific procedures and rules. These
procedures and rules are enforced to cope with uncertainty and to avoid
undesirable behavior. Like the power culture, the role culture strengthens personal
power at the top but marginalizes the power of the middle- and lower-level
managers and employees. In fact, experience in Jordan indicates that top managers
utilized rules not to minimize subjectivity but to glorify their position as the “all-
knowing” and “supreme authority” within the organization. Furthermore, rules are
used to collect information about subordinates rather than to increase the efficient
utilization of information in order to improve performance.
The sad reality in Jordan is that time is wasted collecting personal information
when it would be better used to scan the competitive environment for new
opportunities and for growth. This situation is common, unfortunately, even at the
educational institutions, where mistrust of employees is widespread. The president
of a major university, for example, in April 1996 stated that he was proud that he
did not allow any correspondence to be sent outside the university without his or
his office’s approval, and that the faculty must be on campus for eight hours a day
during the work week.
TABLE 3. Total Mean Scores and Standard Deviations of Existing and Preferred
Cultural Orientations in Jordanian Organizations (n=234)
Type of Culture
Existing Culture
Preferred Culture
Power
Mean
45.9
24.5
SD
9.7
6.8
Role
Mean
41.5
43.1
SD
6.0
5.4
Achievement
Mean
33.6
46.8
SD
6.4
5.6
Support
Mean
29.1
35.7
SD
6.3
6.7
114
TABLE 4. Values, Frequencies and Percentages of Jordanian Employee Feelings
about their Jobs (n=234)
Questions
Value
Frequency
Percentage
1. How well do you like your job:
- Hate it.
1
2
9.0
- Dislike it.
2
6
2.6
- Don't like it.
3
10
4.3
- Indifferent to it.
4
21
9.0
- Like it.
5
40
17.0
- Enthusiastic about it.
6
62
26.5
- Love it.
7
93
39.7
Total
28
234
100%
2. Time of feeling satisfied with job:
- Never.
-
-
-
- Seldom.
2
9
3.8
- Occasionally.
3
17
7.3
- Half of the time.
4
27
11.5
- Good deal of the time.
5
63
26.9
- Most of the time.
6
95
40.6
- All the time.
7
23
9.8
Total
28
234
100%
3. Feeling about changing the job:
- Leave it at once if I could get anything else to do.
1
12
5.1
- Take any other job in which I earn as much as I earn
now.
2
11
4.7
- would like to change my job and my occupation.
3
12
5.1
- Would like to exchange my present job for another
job.
4
14
6.0
- Not eager to change my job, but would do so if
I could get a better job.
5
137
58.5
- Cannot think of any job for which I would exchange.
6
14
6.0
- Would not exchange my job for any other.
7
34
14.5
Total
28
234
100%
4. Show how you think you compare with other
people:
- No one dislikes his job more than I dislike mine.
1
3
1.3
- Dislike my job much more than most people dislike
theirs.
2
2
0.9
- Dislike my job more than most people dislike theirs.
3
6
2.6
- Like my job about as much as most people like theirs.
4
58
24.8
- Like my job better than most people like theirs.
5
72
30.8
- Like my job much better than most people like theirs.
6
75
32.1
- No one likes his job better than me.
7
18
7.7
Total
28
234
100%
115
TABLE 5. Correlation Coefficient of Job Satisfaction with The Four Existing
Cultural Orientations in Jordanian Organizations (n=234)
Culture
Mean
SD
Correlation with
Job Satisfaction
Power
47.1
1.37
-0.23**
Role
40.8
1.53
0.12*
Achievement
32.5
1.57
0.21**
Support
29.6
1.27
0.03
** p
0.01
* p < 0.05
The fact that participants scored high on job satisfaction reflects the reality of
employment opportunities in Jordan. There are limited economic opportunities and
the country has a high rate of unemployment. After the Gulf war and the
subsequent economic situation in Iraq, many Jordanians have found themselves out
of work. For many, the opportunity to find appropriate jobs is in the distant future.
Perhaps this explains the fact that more than 58% would consider changing their
current job if they found a better opportunity.
In terms of correlation with organizational culture, job satisfaction is found to be
negatively correlated with power culture. Employees in general would not like to
be treated as tools. Therefore, it is reasonable that job satisfaction will be low in a
culture that sanctions submission and complete obedience. In such a culture,
loyalty and commitment to job are sacrificed. Job satisfaction, however, is found to
be correlated with role and achievement cultures. It is possible that people who
seek certainty in their work will be satisfied in a culture that minimizes fears and
arbitrary rules. In addition, it is common in many organizational cultures that
employees who are task-oriented and have confidence in their abilities display high
satisfaction when opportunities are given for them to exercise their right to
participate and be involved in managing affairs.
There are certain implications for policy makers and multinational corporations
(MNCs) operating in Jordan. Policymakers have to face the fact that the prevailing
organizational culture that sanctions submission and obedience is not conducive
for creativity and productivity. If Jordan is going to be a regional economic model,
it has to combine market openness with a planned educational program that
emphasizes democratic approaches; objectivity in hiring, recruiting, and
promotion; responsibility; and accountability. In today’s competitive world
environment, market openness alone is not enough to attract FDI. A flexible,
talented, and skilled work force is critical to stimulate foreign investment.
Organizational culture is hard to change. Nevertheless, certain aspects can be
116
easily changed. This is because Islamic principles and some tribal traditions are not
in conflict with ideal consultative and participative approaches. The planned
educational programs should incorporate the elements of the Islamic instructions
that condone responsibility and participation.
In the context of MNCs, two important implications are identified. First, MNCs
operating in Jordan should make sure that recruited senior managers are oriented
toward organizational rather than personal power. These selected mangers must
encourage creativity, tolerate ambiguity and differences, and not be inclined
toward arbitrary use of power. That is, MNCs, should make sure that senior
managers show concern for both human dignity and productivity (Ali & Al-
Shakhis, 1991). The second implication stems from the fact that the participants
scored high on job satisfaction, and that job satisfaction is highly correlated with
role and achievement culture. In Jordan and in many parts of the Arab World,
individuals at work show remarkable loyalty to their organizations. This loyalty is
enhanced through careful cultivation of trust and employment security.
Furthermore, these individuals normally show a high respect for managers who
share information with them and give them opportunities to be involved in daily
affairs. This reinforces their commitment and loyalty to the organization.
In conclusion, the evidence presented in this paper indicates that the most
common organizational cultures in Jordan are power and role. Both cultures reflect
authoritarian tendencies and traditional outlooks and orientations. Nevertheless,
participants display high satisfaction with their jobs. This is largely attributed to
economic conditions and lack of employment opportunities. Therefore, it appears
that both cultural and economic conditions shape organizational outlooks and
employees’ attitudes toward work and jobs.
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This cross-sectional study aimed to determine job satisfaction among the Jordanian dietitians, the factors associated with job satisfaction, and the relationship between job satisfaction and intent to stay. A convenience sample of 600 dieticians performed a self-reported online survey. Most of the participants were females (83.2%), less than 30 years of age (68.3%) with a BSc degree in nutrition (77.3%). Results revealed that 20% of the dietitians were dissatisfied at work, 69.8% were neither dissatisfied nor satisfied, and 10.2% were satisfied. The satisfaction for the total score in all examined domains was neither dissatisfaction nor satisfaction, except for the salary. Participants with higher monthly salaries were 1.53 more likely to have higher job satisfaction than those with lower monthly salaries (CI 95%, (0.503- 2.55)). Intention to stay was positively correlated with the total job satisfaction and all domains except the knowledge and skills domain (p-value= 0.22). The main aspect that needs to be addressed and re-evaluated is to improve dietitians job satisfaction is the salary. The findings of this study point to improving dietitians' work status to attain the best possible health care achievements.
... Efforts to manage IC can be met with resistance (Miles et al., 1998). Bureaucratic structures and power prevail in Middle Eastern organizational cultures (Ali and Sabri, 2001; Attiyah, 1993; Hofstede, 1991). In Canada, lower power distance exists (Hofstede, 1991). ...
... Finally, they need to promote frequent interaction among employees to enhance the creation of team-based knowledge (Donnelly, 2008) and the sharing of tacit knowledge (Cavusgil et al., 2003). Our work provides greater insight into a number of previous studies about Middle Eastern countries (Ali and Sabri, 2001; Attiyah, 1993; Hofstede, 1991). These previous studies suggested that Middle Eastern firms restrict the effective transfer and management of knowledge through bureaucratic structures, power, and inadequate concern for knowledge, but they were unable to attribute the difficulties to a distinction between culture and climate. ...
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Purpose – This study aims to empirically investigate the role of organizational culture and climate in supporting intellectual capital (IC) management systems. Specifically, it seeks to investigate the relationship between organizational characteristics (culture and climate) and IC management systems in the Middle East (Iran and Lebanon) and Canada. Design/methodology/approach – Data were gathered via a survey instrument and statistical analysis was used to test for significance between dependent and independent variables. Then a two‐stage hierarchical multiple regression was used to test for the nature and effects of country of origin as a moderating variable. Findings – The findings suggest that both culture and climate play significant roles in developing management systems for IC. In addition, for country, when organizational climate improves, Middle Eastern respondents perceived an even greater improvement in IC management systems compared to their Canadian counterparts. Originality/value – There is limited research that has been undertaken to compare developed and developing countries with regard to the influence of organizational characteristics on IC management systems. This research is timely given the recent publication of the Arab Human Development Report and the Arab Knowledge Report. This study provides insight into the ability of organizations in the Middle East to develop a knowledge base and reduce the knowledge gap between the Arab world and countries currently classified as knowledge intensive.
... 2.1 Intellectual capital management Researchers (Ali and Sabri, 2001; Attiyah, 1993; Barakat, 1991; Hickson and Pugh, 1995; Hofstede, 1991; Sabri, 1997 Sabri, , 2005) have identified the following characteristics associated with management systems in the Middle East. Managers tend to have a personal/paternalistic manner in dealing with managerial issues within centralized organizations containing several levels of organizational hierarchy. ...
... Power distance within organizations could act as an impediment to knowledge sharing, as a component of IC (Chow et al., 1999). Several researchers (Ali and Sabri, 2001; Attiyah, 1993; Barakat, 1991; Hickson and Pugh, 1995; Hofstede, 1991; Sabri, 1997 Sabri, , 2005) identified bureaucratic structures and power as prevalent in Middle Eastern cultures, while Canada has been found to have low power distance (Hofstede, 1991). We propose the following: H2b. ...
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... With the young Arabs taking part in political and economic transformation, it can be said that Arab society is in transition, discarding its old tribal and traditionalist beliefs to move towards the basis for a more modern economy (Ali, 2005). ...
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... This change is evident as recent events in some Arab countries have shown that Arab youths have challenged, to a great extent, the argument that Arab populations have an expectation and acceptance that leaders will separate themselves from the group and this condition is not necessarily subverted upon the population, but rather accepted by the society as their cultural heritage (Hofstede, 2001). With the young Arabs taking part in political and economic transformation, it can be said that Arab society is in transition, discarding its old tribal and traditionalist beliefs to move towards the basis for a more modern economy (Ali, 2005). It could be concluded that national culture influence on organizational culture might be expected to be weakest on existing culture because it is likely to be more open to influences from immediate contingencies such as market conditions and technological developments. ...
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