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Moving Between Cultures: Cross-Cultural Research on Motor Development

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Abstract

- dren master a particular motor skill? What can parents do to promote skill acquisition? And, what patterns of develop - ment should give parents cause to worry? One aim of this chapter is to show how cross-cultural research provides new insights into such questions about normative development. Cross-cultural research illustrates the range in the human condition and the plasticity of developmental processes in ways that laboratory studies with human children cannot. A second aim is to address assumptions inherent in these types of questions—whether there is such a thing as a sequence of motor skills that children attain at particular ages, and whether childrearing practices and other contextual factors can alter the course of motor development. More generally, this chapter describes what cross-cultural research tells us about motor development. With a few notable exceptions (Bril, 1986b; Dennis, 1960; Hopkins, 1976), cross-cultural and laboratory research programs on motor development have been undertaken by different investigators, fueled by different questions, and informed by different research tra - ditions. Thus, these two distinct literatures have arisen with little overlap or connection. The chapter begins with a brief history of developmen - tal norms and the use of normative data for understanding cultural differences. The next section outlines central issues in cross-cultural research on motor development, setting the stage for bringing research out of the laboratory and into the

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... It can be presumed that infants raised in a limited environment have less opportunity to experience various movements. This supports the suggestion by Adolph et al. (2010) that restricting practice or reducing stimulation at appropriate time points within the circumstances of child-rearing practice, such as being raised in orphanages, can delay developmental milestones [42]. ...
... It can be presumed that infants raised in a limited environment have less opportunity to experience various movements. This supports the suggestion by Adolph et al. (2010) that restricting practice or reducing stimulation at appropriate time points within the circumstances of child-rearing practice, such as being raised in orphanages, can delay developmental milestones [42]. ...
... According to a number of studies [42,43], infants aged from 6 months and up to the end of their first year are able to attain new skills related to being upright, such as crawling, sitting up, pulling to stand, cruising, and finally walking independently. At this age range, a child is able to independently control the lower body and pelvis in conjunction with the development of past upper trunk or upper chest motor skills in the prone position [35]. ...
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(1) Objective: To investigate the effects of play in an upright position on intra-individual variability and to examine the relationship between the variability of gross motor and language development in institutionalized infants aged six to ten months. (2) Methods: Thirty infants were conveniently enrolled in either the experimental or control groups. The Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS) and the Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scales Developmental Profile (CSBS-DP) Infant/Toddler Checklist were tested pre and post each monthly intervention for three months. Sixteen infants in the experimental group received an additional program of 45 min play in an upright position three times a week for a 3-month period. (3) Results: There were significant between-group differences in intra-individual variability of the AIMS percentiles (p-value = 0.042). In addition, there was a significant difference in the intra-individual variability of the language percentile between groups (p-value = 0.009). The intra-individual variability of gross motor development was significantly correlated (rs = 0.541; p = 0.03) with language development. (4) Conclusions: Play in an upright position could be applied to improve intra-individual variability in gross motor and language development percentiles in institutionalized infants.
... An existing question in the literature is whether specific childrearing practices including the use of infant positioning devices (IPD) can alter the course of motor skill development (Adolph, Karasik, & Tamis-LeMonda, 2007). For the purposes of this study, IPDs are described as infant equipment which positions a child while restricting mobility in one or more joints. ...
... Within the United States and other Western cultures, childrearing practices have deviated significantly from those in Eastern cultures. Eastern culture childrearing typically includes more handling of the infant on the mother's hip or back, lap sitting, formal exercises, and floor time than what is seen in Western culture (Adolph, et al., 2007;Bril, 1986). Early research has indicated an accelerated pattern of motor skill acquisition for African infants (Geber & Dean, 1957;Iloeje, Obiekwe, & Kaine, 1991;Kilbride, Robbins, & Kilbride, 1970). ...
... However, further research indicated that acquisition of specific motor skills was only accelerated for as long as the stimulation for such skills continued (Geber & Dean, 1957). These accounts present the issue of a causal relationship between physical enrichment and timing of motor milestones (Adolph, et al., 2007) Zelazny, 2007;Majnemer, 2005). In a large longitudinal study of 351 infants, Davis et al. (1998) found that infants who slept in a prone position attained more motor milestones at an earlier age than infants who slept in a supine position. ...
Article
The purpose of this dissertation is to first establish the developmental trajectory of physical activity (PA) and use of infant positioning devices (IPD) during infancy and determine if there is a relationship between amount of PA and IPD use to rate of gain in weight, subcutaneous fat, and motor skill development in the first six months of life. Literature highlighting the significance of infant obesity and potential causal links is substantial. There is controversy surrounding many of the proposed contributing factors to infant obesity including the nature of their association as well as their general sensitivity to impacting obesity. Twenty-eight infants participated in this longitudinal study from one to six months of age. During that time, we monitored infant weight, length, ponderal index, subcutaneous fat, motor skill development, objective PA, and use of IPDs. The developmental trajectory of PA in infancy follows a positive linear trend of increased PA as the infant ages with the most dramatic rise in PA occurring during the first three months of life. The trajectory of use of IPD does vary from month to month with use of more types of devices as the infant ages and decreased frequency of use of those devices from one to six months of age. We found an emerging trend of increased motor skill development among more physically active infants, including earlier onset of age for supine reach, extended arms in prone position, whole hand grasp, supine to prone roll, and independent sitting. This trend was also observable in infants with greater use of IPDs. We did not find a significant trend of ponderal index and subcutaneous fat relating to amount of PA or time spent in an IPD; however an observable trend emerged with less physically active infants gaining weight more rapidly in the first few months. A comprehensive developmental study of this kind is the first to examine PA during the first six months in life. This knowledge represents the first step in developing effective preventative interventions that can be implemented during infancy in order to prevent lifelong battles with obesity and associated co-morbidities.
... When mothers carry infants on their backs rather than in their arms, the infant requires better head control to compensate for the mother's movements, has the advantage of more practice at sitting (on the back) and can reach and grasp more objects with their arms. Such practice at frequent postural adjustment and opportunities for manual exploration may result in accelerated reaching (e.g., in the !Kung) and sitting (Adolph et al., 2012). ...
... In many cultures, there are accepted practicesand different ethnotheoriesfor stimulating general motor development. Formal baby massage and stretching are common in many cultures in Africa, the Caribbean, and India and have often been shown to accelerate developmental progress (Adolph et al., 2012;Keller et al., 2002). Formal training of infant motor skills is not something that is common or even encouraged in Europe and North America. ...
Article
Self and culture are both fluid processes. I focus on three aspects of self: the body, the awareness of self, and the regulation of behavior. In each of these aspects, the self can be seen to be open in relation and thus varying with cultural and situational influences. From very early in infancy, we can see cultural differences in motor skills, types of self-awareness, and difference of regulation of infant behavior. The development of selfhood is a dialogical, participatory, and thus a fundamentally cultural process.
... Parental expectations and interactions with their children appear to influence motor abilities of young children (Cintas 1995;Abbott & Bartlett 1999;Adolph et al. 2010). Research has indicated that various cultures express different expectations about motor development and interaction with children (Cintas 1995;Hopkins & Westra 2008;Adolph et al. 2010). ...
... Parental expectations and interactions with their children appear to influence motor abilities of young children (Cintas 1995;Abbott & Bartlett 1999;Adolph et al. 2010). Research has indicated that various cultures express different expectations about motor development and interaction with children (Cintas 1995;Hopkins & Westra 2008;Adolph et al. 2010). These variations in expectations may function to facilitate or hinder specific motor behaviours and developmental skills. ...
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Background: Family ecology in early childhood may influence children's activity and participation in daily life. The aim of this study was to describe family functioning, family expectations of their children, family support to their children, and supports for families of young children with cerebral palsy (CP) based on children's gross motor function level. Methods: Participants were 398 children with CP (mean age = 44.9 months) and their parents residing in the USA and Canada. Parents completed four measures of family ecology, the Family Environment Scale (FES), Family Expectations of Child (FEC), Family Support to Child (FSC) and Family Support Scale (FSS). Results: The median scores on the FES indicated average to high family functioning and the median score on the FSS indicated that families had helpful family supports. On average, parents reported high expectations of their children on the FEC and strong support to their children on the FSC. On the FES, higher levels of achievement orientation were reported by parents of children in Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) level II than parents of children in level I, and higher levels of control were reported by parents of children in level I than parents of children in level IV. On the FEC, parents of children with limited gross motor function (level V) reported lower expectations than parents of children at all other levels. Conclusions: Family ecology, including family strengths, expectations, interests, supports and resources, should be discussed when providing interventions and supports for young children with CP and their families.
... Cross-cultural studies on the handling of young infants by non-Western cultures suggest that the above descriptions strongly reflect culture norms. One implication of these studies is that early head control is influenced by the degree to which infants are provided with postural and movement opportunities (reviewed in Adolph et al 10 ). As outlined below, systemic investigations of the effect of early experiences on head control, however, are rare. ...
... In addition to the positions that infants were placed in for play activities, the activities themselves altered the typical manner in which caregivers handled their infants. As stated previously, in Western cultures, caregivers tend to hold young infants carefully, supporting their heads for at least the first months of their life (reviewed in Adolph et al 10 ). In the current study, caregivers of the training group infants were instructed to perform activities that facilitated head control and were encouraged to handle their infants daily with less passive support of the head and in a much more active manner overall. ...
Article
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Daily experiences are thought to play an important role in motor development during infancy. There are limited studies on the effect of postural and movement experiences on head control. The purpose of this study was to quantify the effects of postural and movement experiences on head control through a comprehensive set of measurements beginning when infants were 1 month old. This was a prospective, longitudinal, 2-cohort study. Twenty-two full-term infants who were healthy were randomly assigned to either a training group or a control group. Infants were observed every other week from 1 to 4 months of age. Head control was assessed using a standardized developmental assessment tool, the Test of Infant Motor Performance (TIMP), as well as behavioral coding and kinematics of infants' head postures and movements in a supported sitting position. Caregivers performed at least 20 minutes of daily postural and movement activities (training group), or social interaction (control group) for 4 weeks. The training group had higher TIMP scores on head control-related items during the training period and after training stopped compared with the control group. Starting from the during training phase, the training group infants had their heads in a vertical and midline position longer compared with the control group infants. After training stopped, the training group infants actively moved their heads forward more often and for larger distances. The experiences outside daily training were not monitored, and the results may be specific to the experimental setup for infants with typical development. Young infants are able to take advantage of postural and movement experiences to rapidly advance their head control as early as 4 to 6 weeks of postnatal life. Infant positioning, caregiver handling, and caregiver-infant interactions were likely contributing factors. This database of comprehensive measures may be useful in future trials focused on head control in infants with special needs.
... Adolph and colleagues reported that the timing of motor milestones and the shape of the developmental trajectory are a result of childrearing practices, contextual factors, and culture. Therefore, a specific developmental domain may not demonstrate the stability of scores over time (Adolph, Karasik, & Tamis-LeMonda, 2010). Previous studies of longitudinal assessments of motor abilities found normative instability of development in typically developing infants (Darrah, Redfern, Maguire, Beaule & Watt , 1998;Darrah, Hodge, Magill-Evans, & Kembhavi, 2003;Darrah, Senthilselvan, & Magill-Evans, 2009). ...
Article
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Infants in an orphanage who live in an underprivileged environment show delayed gross motor development; however longitudinal investigations of gross motor development in orphaned infants are limited. This study aimed to assess the variability of gross motor development of orphaned infants using a longitudinal observation. The gross motor development of 11 infants aged1.5 months was assessed monthly until 11.5 months of age using the Alberta Infant Motor Scale. Infants showed instability of gross motor development. The total mean range of gross motor percentile was 55.4 (SD, 18.6; 95% confidence interval = 42.9–68.0). Thirty-six per cent of infants had little fluctuation of gross motor percentile that was below the 50th percentile across 11 assessments. Infants in orphanages display less instability of gross motor percentile. Orphaned infants, especially those with biological risk factors, should have their gross motor development monitored longitudinally during the first year of life.
... To our knowledge, research on hand use in Lebanese children in early childhood is lacking, making this study the first to report on handedness in this population. Inclusion of non-Western samples is critically needed in research, particularly for studies reporting on motor functions in young chil- dren (Karasik, Adolph, Tamis-LeMonda, & Bornstein, 2010). Although some lit- erature has reported on potential cultural difference in adult hand preference (Mandal, 1999;Singh & Bryden, 1994), the majority of children in our sample demonstrated a right hand preference for unimanual and RDBM actions, which is comparable to samples of children from other countries around the same age (Austria: Kastner-Koller et al., 2007;Australia: Johnston et al., 2009;Brazil: Brito et al., 1992;Canada: Bryden et al., 2007;Great Britain: Kilshaw & Annett, 1983;Italy: Longoni & Orsini, 1988). ...
Article
While handedness questionnaires are widely used in adults, there is no comparable measure designed specifically for children. The current study developed the Home Handedness Questionnaire (HHQ), a new measure for preschoolers administered by parents using common household items. The HHQ has two scales that distinguish action types typically combined on other measures: actions performed with only the right or left hand (i.e., unimanual, such as holding a toothbrush), and actions performed with one hand holding the object for the other hand’s action (i.e., role-differentiated bimanual manipulation or RDBM, such as unscrewing a lid from a jar). The HHQ was able to detect right preference, left preference, and no preference for unimanual and RDBM actions in a proof of concept study in 3-year-olds (N = 64). The HHQ identified a majority of children as right-handed, but was also sensitive to variability in direction across skill types. Approximately one-quarter of children in the sample had mixed preferences for the two types of manual skills, suggesting that for a subgroup of children, hand use patterns may still be undergoing change. Suggestions for refining the HHQ are discussed. Overall, the HHQ is a promising multidimensional parent-led tool for assessing preschool handedness.
... No entanto, é preciso estar atento às diferenças culturais que podem influenciar o desenvolvimento. Novos estudos que avaliam o desenvolvimento neuropsicomotor em diferentes culturas têm contribuído para apontar a grande variação na sequência, forma e momento de aquisição de habilidades, mostrando que as práticas de cuidado parental podem influenciar resultados diferentes(Adolph, Karasik & Tamis-LeMonda, 2012).As mudanças rápidas que acontecem no sistema nervoso durante os primeiros anos, em conjunto com o desenvolvimento físico e aquisição de novas habilidades, faz aumentar a capacidade de exploração do bebê. Maior capacidade de exploração influencia o desenvolvimento perceptivo e cognitivo, afetando também o desenvolvimento do cérebro. ...
Thesis
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The aim was to investigate influence of mother postpartum depression (PPD) on children's development over the first year of life (4, 8 and 12 months). The results indicated that child development was negatively affected by PPD at 8 and 12 months old but not at 04. Sex and day care attendance were significant.
... The idea of reduced input enhancement in esoteric societies is indirectly supported by evidence for cross-cultural differences in other aspects of parenting. Thus, depending on the culture, contingent parental reactions reinforce a range of culturally diverse behavioral repertoires of infants ( Bornstein et al., 2017), with parental encouragement of infant physical activities and motor skills being less (Karasik et al., 2010(Karasik et al., , 2015, and didactic activities encouraging cognitive and linguistic skills being more prominent in contemporary Western (i.e., exoteric) societies. Due to methodological difficulties associated with obtaining data on parenting behaviors for large numbers of different societies ( Kline et al., 2018) it is at present not possible to reliably link differences in parenting strategies to differences in the social complexity associated with exoteric communication. ...
... Hua et al. 2014;Hwang et al. 2014;Iivonen, Sääkslahti, and Nissinen 2011); and cultural factors (e.g. Adolph, Karasik, and Tamis-LeMonda 2012;van Rossem et al. 2012). Currently, little is known about individual variations in the motor development of children in Norwegian kindergartens. ...
Article
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This article explores variations in development of everyday motor-life-skills in 661 children (329 girls and 332 boys) in Norwegian kindergartens of ages 2:9 (T1) and 4:9 (T2) years:months. The particular focus is on children at risk for problems in motor development (the 10% weakest children in the sample). The methodological approach chosen is authentic assessment, applying the Early Years Movement Skills Checklist (EYMSC). All correlations between motor-life-skills at ages 2:9 and 4:9 are statistically significant (p < 0.01), varying between r = 0.26 to 0.38 for the four section scores of EYMSC (Self-help skills, Desk skills, General classroom skills and Recreational and playground skills) and r = 0.39 for the EYMSC total score. The group composition of children assumed to be at risk for motor difficulties changes considerably between ages 2:9 and 4:9. Approximately, two-thirds of the 10% weakest at T1 do not belong to the 10% weakest at T2. Logistic regression failed to identify children at risk at T1 being among the 10% weakest at T2. However, for two sections of EYMSC (Self-help skills; Recreational and Playground skills), it was possible to distinguish between stable and flux groups.
... For example, human infants that received daily stepping practice showed longer durations of stepping and an earlier onset of independent walking, compared to infants that did not receive stepping practice (Zelazo, Zelazo & Kolb, 1972). Additionally, cultural differences in infant rearing practices has been shown to produce differences in the onset of infant postural and locomotor behaviors (e.g., Adolph, Karasik, & Tamis-Lemonda, 2010;Adolph & Robinson, 2013;Bornstein, 2010;Hopkins & Westra, 1988, suggesting that the facilitation of locomotion is not merely a laboratory phenomenon. ...
Article
Some of the most simple, stereotyped, reflexive, and spinal-mediated motor behaviors expressed by animals display a level of flexibility and plasticity that is not always recognized. We discuss several examples of how coordinated action patterns have been shown to be flexible and adaptive in response to sensory feedback. We focus on interlimb and intralimb coordination during the expression of two action patterns (stepping and the leg extension response) in newborn rats, as well as interlimb motor learning. We also discuss the idea that the spinal cord is a major site for supporting plasticity in the developing motor system. An implication of this research is that normally occurring sensory stimulation during the perinatal period influences the typical development and expression of action patterns, and that exploiting the developmental plasticity of the motor system may lead to improved strategies for promoting recovery of function in human infants with motor disorders. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
... ''Handling'' is those behaviors that occur when caregivers are in physical contact with young infants. Differences in handling practices across cultures have been associated with differences in the development of adaptive behaviors, motor behaviors, early communication, and cognitive development (Adolph, Karasik, & Tamis-LeMonda, 2010;Bril & Sabatier, 1986;Hopkins & Westra, 1988). For instance, in areas of Kenya, Nigeria, and West India, formal handling techniques to encourage sitting and walking from birth have resulted in infants sitting and walking months earlier than those in Western cultures. ...
Article
Behaviors emerge, in part, from the interplay of infant abilities and caregiver-infant interactions. Cross-cultural and developmental studies suggest caregiver handling and positioning influence infant development. In this prospective, longitudinal study, the effects of 3 weeks of enhanced handling and positioning experiences provided to 14 infants versus control experiences provided to 14 infants at 2 months of age were assessed with follow-up through 15 months of age. Behaviors in prone were immediately advanced. Short-term advancements occurred in multiple behaviors, including prone, head control, reaching, and sitting behaviors. Longer term advancements, up to 12 months after the experience period, occurred in object transfer, crawling and walking behaviors. This suggests broad and long-lasting changes can arise via brief periods of change in caregiver-infant interactions.
Chapter
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Resumo A origem da variabilidade, a universalidade das mudanças, a relevância dos contextos, a gestão probabilística dos genes, as influências da morfologia, as relações e/ou efeitos entre múltiplos factores presentes no desenvolvimento do sujeito, são questões recorrentes do desenvolvimento motor humano. Neste texto procura-se revisitar a criança de sempre no mundo de hoje, discutindo a complexidade simplificada da criança nas suas trajectórias de desenvolvimento, à luz de alguns contributos presentes na investigação. Palavras-chave Criança; desenvolvimento motor; affordances. Célebres argumentos têm perpassado historicamente o campo de estudo do desenvolvimento humano em geral e do desenvolvimento motor em particular. Quem não se revê familiarmente na discussão entre a genética e o envolvimento (nature versus nurture), na dialéctica corpo/mente ou mesmo na discussão sobre a universalidade versus variabilidade do desenvolvimento? Na inquirição dos processos e mistérios do desenvolvimento, nada mais natural do que perscrutar particularmente o momento do ciclo de vida em que as mudanças ocorrem com maior frequência: a infância. E é precisamente neste período, e na procura da descoberta dos mistérios da mente, que resultados surpreendentes têm sido observados. Bebés com apenas três meses de idade mostram espanto-e consequentemente, reconhecimento das particularidades físicas das matérias e suas leis-quando confrontados com objectos que flutuam no ar ou que se encontram suspensos sem apoio; quando presenciam movimentos com inércias de proporções desmesuradas; quando observam objectos que desaparecem ou se transformam noutros diferentes em circunstâncias impossíveis (Baillargeon, 1994).
Article
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The gross motor development of a typically developing infant is a dynamic process, the intra-individual variability of which can be investigated through longitudinal assessments. Changes in gross motor development vary, according to the interaction of multiple sub-systems within the child, environment, task setting, and experience or practice of movement. At present, studies on environmental factors that influence gross motor development in full-term infants over time are limited. The main aim of this study was to investigate environmental factors affecting intra-individual variability from birth to 13 months. The gross motor development of 41 full-term infants was longitudinally assessed every month from the age of 15 days using the Alberta Infant Motor Scale. Parents were interviewed monthly about environmental factors during childcare. Infants showed fluctuations in the percentile of gross motor development, and no systematic pattern was detected. The total mean range of gross motor percentile was 65.95 (SD = 15.74; SEM = 2.28). The percentiles of gross motor skills over the 14 assessments ranged from 36 to 93 percentile points. Factors that were significantly associated with the gross motor development percentile were the use of a baby walker (Coef. = −8.83, p ≤ 0.0001) and a baby hammock (Coef. = 7.33, p = 0.04). The use of baby hammocks could increase the gross motor percentile by 7.33 points. Although the usage of a baby walker is common practice in childcare, it may cause a decrease in the gross motor percentile by 8.83 points according to this study. In conclusion, healthy full-term infants exhibited a natural variability in gross motor development. Placing infants in a baby walker during the first year of age should be approached with caution due to the risk of delayed gross motor development.
Chapter
This chapter presents the main ideas of the plenary speech given in the Conference. My research trajectory was very long, as my collaboration with the pedagogical coordination of the preschool in Modena started in the 1980s. In 2013, the preschool action research program for teacher development in mathematics was extended to include also toddler center educators. The ZEROSIX program was launched to cover early years mathematics education from birth. Several dozens of preschool teachers and toddler center educators and some pedagogical coordinators joined the author to start a tricky adventure with some research questions: what is mathematics for very young children? Is it possible to foresee a true continuity (with discontinuities) between toddler centers and preschools? What can be the elements of this continuity?
Thesis
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Cooperation and joint actions are often investigated in terms of how individuals explicitly coordinate their plans and intentions to achieve a shared goal. However, goals may also be achieved without prior arrangements, when, for instance, an individual takes part in someone else’s action without an explicit agreement, helping that action to be performed. Participating in social interaction may be considered as a basic form of cooperation that does not always require verbal communication or the ability to predict the other’s intentions. Rather, it is based on daily experiences of interacting and coordinating with others in many, different situations. Framed in this way, cooperative participation can be explored even in those who do not possess high mental abilities, such as infants. Indeed, infants seem to have a natural motive to engage in social interactions (Trevarthen, 1979 ). How does this participation develop from early forms of social interactions in infancy, to more complex types of interactions later on? Are there early forms of interactive participation in infancy that can be described as supportive for the caregivers’ action? The aim of the present Ph.D. work is to explore the way in which infants participate in daily routines, through the observation of 3-months-old infants’ behaviour in familiar interactions and their response to violations of these routines.
Article
Background The Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS) is a widely used screening tool used to measure gross-motor maturation for clinical and research usage in various countries. A cross-cultural translation and adaptation process is essential to produce reliable and applicable translated assessment tools. Aims The purposes of this cross-sectional study were to obtain the Alberta Infant Motor Scale Thai version and to determine its reliability, validity, and applicability. Methods The process of translation and cultural adaptation of the AIMS Thai version was performed. The conceptual, semantic, and idiomatic equivalences of the language of the AIMS Thai version were strictly reviewed by committee. The intra-rater/inter-rater reliabilities and concurrent validity with the Bayley III were examined in 30 full-term typically developing infants. Then, 19 infants from an orphanage and 23 typically developing infants were assessed using the final translated version of the AIMS. Results The AIMS Thai version was generated systematically. Two therapists showed high intra-rater reliability using the Thai AIMS with an ICC of 0.995 (95% CI 0.989–0.998) and 0.979 (95%CI 0.919–0.992), and the inter-rater reliability was 0.988 (95%CI 0.976–0.994). The concurrent validity of the AIMS Thai version and the Bayley III was 0.969 (p < 0.01). The AIMS percentile of gross-motor development of orphaned infants (94.7%) were equal or lower than the 5th percentile, while the AIMS percentile of home-raised infants ranged from the 5th to the 90th percentile. Conclusion The translated and adapted AIMS Thai version is reliable and valid to use in Thai infants.
Article
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The assessment of motor abilities is important to identify atypical development, to measure progress obtained with intervention, and for research. Motor assessment usually is based on the use of standardized tests, on which children are expected to perform specific tasks that are deemed common. As the majority of the motor development tests were created by researchers from European and North American countries, concepts from these cultures are embedded in the tasks, materials, and format of the instruments. This raises the question as to whether these instruments can be used internationally, with the perhaps misguided assumption that motor skill development is the same across different countries. Is it necessary to adapt standardized motor ability tests for cross-cultural use? This paper discusses the relationship between culture and motor development and points out some aspects that should be considered to make our assessment of motor ability more relevant cross-culturally.
Article
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Nativist and constructivist approaches to the study of development share a common emphasis on characterizing beginning and end states in development. This focus has highlighted the question of preservation and transformation-whether core aspects of the adult end state are present in the earliest manifestations during infancy. In contrast, a developmental systems approach emphasizes the process of developmental change. This perspective eschews the notions of objective starting and ending points in a developmental progression and rejects the idea that any particular factor should enjoy a privileged status in explaining developmental change. Using examples from motor development and animal behavior, we show how a developmental systems framework can avoid the pitfalls of the long and contentious debate about continuity versus qualitative change.
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