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Conductive Polymers as Organic Nanometals

  • actual: BWITB, Ormecon Pvt. Ltd.


The metallic character and nanostructure of conductive polymers, especially Polyaniline, is described; a detailed discussion using experimental facts and theoretical thermodynamical considerations about solubility of conductive polymers follows, the chapter is finished by a description of existing and possible applications.
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This paper presents a new theory on the behaviour of shear-thickening (dilatant) fluids under turbulent conditions. The structure of a dilatant colloidal fluid in turbulent motion may be characterized by (at least) four characteristic length scales: (i) the 'statistically largest' turbulent scale, , labeling the begin of the inertial part of the wavenumber spectrum; (ii) the energy-containing scale, (iii) Kolmogorov's micro-scale, , related with the size of the smallest vortices existing for a given kinematic viscosity and forcing; (iv) the inner ('colloidal') micro-scale, , typically representing a major stable material property of the colloidal fluid. In particular, for small ratios , various interactions between colloidal structures and smallest turbulent eddies can be expected. In the present paper we discuss particularly that for turbulence (in the narrow, inertial sense) is strangled and chaotic but less mixing fluid motions remain. We start from a new stochastic, micro-mechanical turbulence theory without empirical parameters valid for inviscid fluids as seen in publications by Baumert in 2013 and 2015. It predicts e.g. von Karman's constant correctly as . In its generalized version for non-zero viscosity and shear-thickening behavior presented in this contribution, it predicts two solution branches for the steady state: The first characterizes a family of states with swift (inertial) turbulent mixing and small , potentially approaching . The second branch characterizes a state family with and thus strangled turbulence, . Stability properties and a potential dynamic commuting between the two solution branches had to be left for future research.
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