Phosphate control in end-stage renal disease: Barriers and opportunities

The Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, USA.
Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation (Impact Factor: 3.58). 07/2013; 28(12). DOI: 10.1093/ndt/gft244
Source: PubMed


Hyperphosphatemia is a nearly universal complication of end-stage renal disease that is widely recognized as one of the most important and most challenging clinical targets to meet in the care of dialysis patients. Left untreated, it can lead to bone pain, pruritus and worsening secondary hyperparathyroidism. Data from observational studies demonstrate that an elevated serum phosphorus level is an independent risk factor for mortality, and that treatment with phosphate binders is independently associated with improved survival. Experimental studies provide support for the epidemiologic findings: phosphate excess promotes vascular calcification, induces endothelial dysfunction and may contribute to other emerging chronic kidney disease-specific mechanisms of cardiovascular toxicity. On the basis of this evidence, clinical practice guidelines recommend specific targets for serum phosphorus levels in the dialysis population. The purpose of this review is to summarize common challenges in meeting these targets and to identify potential opportunities for improvement.

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    ABSTRACT: Background and objectives: Hyperparathyroidism and hyperphosphatemia contribute to the inflammatory effects in chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients. Interleukin-17-producing CD4+ effector memory T (Th17) cells and CD4+CD25+Foxp3 regulatory T (Treg) cells both play critical roles in immune activation and inflammation. We investigated the relationship between the Treg and Th17 cells and the phosphate level in chronic HD patients. Methods: 105 patients aged ≥35 years on chronic HD over 3 months were enrolled. The peripheral blood mononuclear cells were collected, cultured, and stimulated by phytohemagglutinin-L, phorbol myristate acetate, and ionomycin at different time points for T cell differentiation. Results: The T cell differentiation was as follows: Th17 cells (mean±standard deviation (SD): 25.61%±10.2%) and Treg cells (8.45%±4.3%). The Th17 cell differentiation was positively correlated with the phosphate and albumin levels and negatively correlated with age. The Treg cell differentiation was negatively correlated with albumin level and age. In the nondiabetes group (n=53), the Th17 cell differentiation was predominantly correlated with the phosphate and iPTH (intact parathyroid hormone) levels as well as the dialysis vintage. Conclusion: Higher phosphate and iPTH levels and longer dialysis duration may increase Th17 cell differentiation, especially in the nondiabetic chronic HD patients.
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