Article

Velocity- and Power-Load Relationships of the Bench Pull vs. Bench Press Exercises

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Abstract

This study compared the velocity- and power-load relationships of the antagonistic upper-body exercises of prone bench pull (PBP) and bench press (BP). 75 resistance-trained athletes performed a progressive loading test in each exercise up to the one-repetition maximum (1RM) in random order. Velocity and power output across the 30-100% 1RM were significantly higher for PBP, whereas 1RM strength was greater for BP. A very close relationship was observed between relative load and mean propulsive velocity for both BP (R2=0.97) and PBP (R2=0.94) which enables us to estimate %1RM from velocity using the obtained prediction equations. Important differences in the load that maximizes power output (Pmax) and the power profiles of both exercises were found according to the outcome variable used: mean (MP), peak (PP) or mean propulsive power (MPP). When MP was considered, the Pmax load was higher (56% BP, 70% PBP) than when PP (37% BP, 41% PBP) or MPP (37% BP, 46% PBP) were used. For each variable there was a broad range of loads at which power output was not significantly different. The differing velocity- and power-load relationships between PBP and BP seem attributable to the distinct muscle architecture and moment arm levers involved in these exercises.

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... Velocity-based training (VBT) for strength and power conditioning has gained increasing interest in numerous sports [1]. Based on a strong relationship between the movement velocity and the relative load of the one repetition maximum (% 1RM), resistance training can be controlled by movement velocity [2,3]. This VBT approach enables a 1RM estimation based on the load-velocity relationships on a daily basis in real-time with an acceptable degree of accuracy compared with traditional 1RM testing (R 2 = 0.954; standard error of the estimate (SEE) = 4.02%) [3,4]. ...
... Based on a strong relationship between the movement velocity and the relative load of the one repetition maximum (% 1RM), resistance training can be controlled by movement velocity [2,3]. This VBT approach enables a 1RM estimation based on the load-velocity relationships on a daily basis in real-time with an acceptable degree of accuracy compared with traditional 1RM testing (R 2 = 0.954; standard error of the estimate (SEE) = 4.02%) [3,4]. These findings suggest that VBT enables a robust, non-invasive and highly sensitive method to estimate relevant strength training indicators such as the relative loading intensity (% 1RM), the maximum strength (1RM) [5] or the level of effort and neuromuscular fatigue during a training set [2]. ...
... A standardized warm-up protocol was performed prior to each familiarization and testing day consisting of 5 min self-selected dynamic stretching and joint mobilization exercises followed by two warm-up sets of ten reps at 40% 1RM and five reps at 60% 1RM, respectively. During the familiarization session, multiple (3)(4) sets of squats (SQ) and hip thrust (HT) exercises were performed with moderate loads (approximately 60% 1RM, based on the 1RM reported by the participants). In order to minimize fatigue effects, only two major exercises that addressed both the anterior (SQ) and posterior chain (HT) of the lower body muscles were selected. ...
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The accurate assessment of the mean concentric barbell velocity (MCV) and its displacement are crucial aspects of resistance training. Therefore, the validity and reliability indicators of an easy-to-use inertial measurement unit (VmaxPro®) were examined. Nineteen trained males (23.1 ± 3.2 years, 1.78 ± 0.08 m, 75.8 ± 9.8 kg; Squat 1-Repetition maximum (1RM): 114.8 ± 24.5 kg) performed squats and hip thrusts (3–5 sets, 30 repetitions total, 75% 1RM) on two separate days. The MCV and displacement were simultaneously measured using VmaxPro® and a linear position transducer (Speed4Lift®). Good to excellent intraclass correlation coefficients (0.91 < ICC < 0.96) with a small systematic bias (p < 0.001; ηp2 < 0.50) for squats (0.01 ± 0.04 m·s−1) and hip thrusts (0.01 ± 0.05 m·s−1) and a low limit of agreement (LoA < 0.12 m·s−1) indicated an acceptable validity. The within- and between-day reliability of the MCV revealed good ICCs (0.55 < ICC < 0.91) and a low LoA (<0.16 m·s−1). Although the displacement revealed a systematic bias during squats (p < 0.001; ηp2 < 0.10; 3.4 ± 3.4 cm), no bias was detectable during hip thrusts (p = 0.784; ηp2 < 0.001; 0.3 ± 3.3 cm). The displacement showed moderate to good ICCs (0.43 to 0.95) but a high LoA (7.8 to 10.7 cm) for the validity and (within- and between-day) reliability of squats and hip thrusts. The VmaxPro® is considered to be a valid and reliable tool for the MCV assessment.
... Recently, isoinertial strength tests have been used to examine the kinetic and kinematic behavior by examining velocity-and power-load relationships during the concentric phase of a lift [7][8][9]. These studies have included a pause between the eccentric and concentric phases in order to minimize the contribution of the rebound effect and allow for more reproducible, consistent measurements during isoinertial strength tests [7][8][9]. ...
... Recently, isoinertial strength tests have been used to examine the kinetic and kinematic behavior by examining velocity-and power-load relationships during the concentric phase of a lift [7][8][9]. These studies have included a pause between the eccentric and concentric phases in order to minimize the contribution of the rebound effect and allow for more reproducible, consistent measurements during isoinertial strength tests [7][8][9]. However, it is well known that the stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) improves neuromuscular performance [10], influencing both the kinetics and kinematics of the movement in the subsequent concentric muscle action [11]. ...
... The contradictory findings of these studies do not clarify [7][8][9]14] whether it is best to undertake the isoinertial strength test with or without countermovement to examine the specific kinetic and kinematic performance. Increased muscle strength appears to be highly specific to the nature of the training task [15]. ...
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An isoinertial strength assessment was performed to examine the kinetic and kinematic behavior of the barbell during several muscle actions. Velocity–time characteristics, force–time relationship, one repetition maximum (1RM), power output, and acceleration were compared in eccentric–concentric (EC) versus concentric only (C) sequences of the bench press (BP) and military press (MP). In two separate sessions, 28 and 29 resistance-trained athletes executed EC or C sequences in random order of the BP and MP, respectively, in an incremental load test up to their 1RM. Higher values were recorded in BP-EC than in BP-C, MP-EC, or MP-C (p < 0.01) for peak acceleration, peak rate of force development, peak rate of velocity development, and power output. Significant differences were detected between exercises in terms of the portion of the concentric phase (%) at which peak acceleration was detected, or acceleration up until peak velocity was observed (p < 0.05). No differences were observed between exercises in the portion of the concentric phase where acceleration up to the braking phase took place. The eccentric muscle action prior to concentric movement was a key factor to enhance the kinematic and kinetic performance in BP exercise. No such effects of the countermovement were produced in MP.
... RM [11][12][13]. Similarly, it has been demonstrated that the load-velocity relationship is also subject-dependent, for example, between young athletes and older athletes [2,14], and between genders [3,15]. ...
... Load-velocity relationships have been extensively studied for exercises such as the bench press [16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23], squat [17,19,[24][25][26][27], deadlift [19,28,29], bench pull [13,30], shoulder press [11,15,31], hip thrust [17,32] and pullup [33,34]. However, even though the inclined leg press is a recurring exercise for lower-limb strengthening, the load-velocity relationship for this exercise has not been extensively studied. ...
... The subjects received verbal encouragement from the examiners to promote maximum effort. Only the best repetition (the highest MPV that was correctly executed) at each load was considered for further analysis [6,13,28]. ...
Article
The objectives of this study were threefold: (i) to analyze the load-velocity relationships between mean propulsive velocity (MPV), mean velocity (MV), peak velocity (PV), and relative load during the inclined leg press exercise; (ii) to analyze the differences in the load-velocity relationships between males and females; and (iii) to determine gender-specific predictive equations for loads between 50%-100% one-repetition maximum (1RM) in a population of trained young college students. The load-velocity relationships of 15 males and 13 females were explored through a progressive loading test, up to the individual 1RM load. Gender-specific load-velocity relationships were plotted along with the individual relationships. High to very high associations were found for gender-specific load-MPV and load-MV relationships , whereas load-PV presented moderate associations. The gender-specific load-velocity relationships in males were steeper than in females for MPV, MV and PV. However, individual load-velocity relationships presented higher associations than gender-specific relationships for all subjects. Finally, the predicted velocity outcomes for each %1RM load were always significantly higher in males than in females, except for PV at 95% and 100% 1RM load. Taken collectively, the findings from the present study support the application of subject-specific and gender-specific load-velocity relationships, highlighting the disparities between male and female relationships.
... In the past years, the velocity-based training (VBT) approach (i.e., monitoring the barbell velocity) has been shown as a highly effective and reliable methodology for training prescription and load monitoring during resistance training programs (3,15,20,26). Among other advantages, VBT allows to accurately determinate the relative load (%1RM) the lifter is using by measuring the first repetition of a set (6,10,17,18,29) and the objective assessment of the neuromuscular fatigue that is being incurred during the set, by monitoring the velocity loss (8,28). Thus, VBT allows coaches to accurately determine the strength level of the lifter and precisely program the training stimulus daily. ...
... Among the diverse causes, the individual differences in the strength level have been postulated as a possible cause of this large variability (5,8). Nevertheless, these studies used common velocities (provided by a general load-velocity relationship) associated with each %1RM to examine this intersubject variability (8,27 (10), and prone bench pull [PBP] (29), respectively) have been found in these general relationships, the velocity attained to each % 1RM may present relevant variations between individuals up to ;0.15 m·s 21 (10,11,17,18,29). This fact could have generated slight but meaningful differences (;10-12%) in the %1RM used by the individuals of these studies, thus increasing the nRM inconsistency in a biased way (8,27). ...
... Among the diverse causes, the individual differences in the strength level have been postulated as a possible cause of this large variability (5,8). Nevertheless, these studies used common velocities (provided by a general load-velocity relationship) associated with each %1RM to examine this intersubject variability (8,27 (10), and prone bench pull [PBP] (29), respectively) have been found in these general relationships, the velocity attained to each % 1RM may present relevant variations between individuals up to ;0.15 m·s 21 (10,11,17,18,29). This fact could have generated slight but meaningful differences (;10-12%) in the %1RM used by the individuals of these studies, thus increasing the nRM inconsistency in a biased way (8,27). ...
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Hernández-Belmonte, A, Courel-Ibáñez, J, Conesa-Ros, E, Martínez-Cava, A, and Pallarés, JG. Level of effort: A reliable and practical alternative to the velocity-based approach for monitoring resistance training. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2021-This study analyzed the potential of the level of effort methodology as an accurate indicator of the programmed relative load (percentage of one-repetition maximum [%1RM]) and intraset volume of the set during resistance training in the bench press, full squat, shoulder press, and prone bench pull exercises, through 3 specific objectives: (a) to examine the intersubject and intrasubject variability in the number of repetitions to failure (nRM) against the actual %1RM lifted (adjusted by the individual velocity), (b) to investigate the relationship between the number of repetitions completed and velocity loss reached, and (c) to study the influence of the subject's strength level on the aforementioned parameters. After determining their individual load-velocity relationships, 30 subjects with low (n = 10), medium (n = 10), and high (n = 10) relative strength levels completed 2 rounds of nRM tests against their 65, 75, 85, and 95% 1RM in the 4 exercises. The velocity of all repetitions was monitored using a linear transducer. Intersubject and intrasubject variability analyses included the 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and the the standard error of measurement (SEM), respectively. Coefficient of determination (R2) was used as the indicator of relationship. nRM showed a limited intersubject (CI ≤ 4 repetitions) and a very low intrasubject (SEM ≤1.9 repetitions) variability for all the strength levels, %1RM, and exercises analyzed. A very close relationship (R2 ≥ 0.97) between the number of repetitions completed and the percentage of velocity loss reached (from 10 to 60%) was found. These findings strengthen the level of effort as a reliable, precise, and practical strategy for programming resistance training.
... Since then, much research has been carried out to determine general equations for the velocity-load relationship so that velocity can be used to determine %1RM or 1RM [7,10,[15][16][17][18][19]. ...
... The velocity at which a movement is performed during strength training is critical to the type of adaptations that will occur, as well as the corresponding neuromuscular demands and fatigue levels [1]. However, the velocity values associated with %1RM in a population are not necessarily transferable to other muscle groups or to another population due to various aspects [10,17]. ...
... The same velocity represents different intensities or %1RM values depending on the exercise performed. For example, exercises that involve large muscle groups produce a higher velocity for the same 1RM percentages [10,17]. ...
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The purpose of this study was to determine the mean propulsive velocity (MVP) at various percentages of one repetition maximum (1RM) in the full squat and chest press exercises. A total of 96 young women and 256 young men (recreational athletes) performed an incremental test (50–60–70–80% 1RM) comprising the bench press and full squat exercises in two different sessions. The individual load and velocity ratios were established through the MPV. Data were analyzed using SPSS software version 25.0, with the significance level set at 5%. The following findings were revealed: highly linear load-velocity relationships in the group of women (r = 0.806 in the squat, and r = 0.872 in the bench press) and in the group of men (r = 0.832 and r = 0.880, respectively); significant differences (p < 0.001) in the MPV at 50–70–80% 1RM between the bench press and the full squat in men and at 70–80% 1RM in women; and a high variability in the MPV (11.49% to 22.63) in the bench press and full squat (11.58% to 25.15%) was observed in women and men (11.31% to 21.06%, and 9.26% to 24.2%) at the different percentages of 1RM evaluated. These results suggest that the load-velocity ratio in non-strength-trained subjects should be determined individually to more precisely establish the relative load to be used in a full squat and bench press training program.
... Many previous studies have shown a relationship between load and velocity which can be presented as the force-velocity profile [3,5,22,[24][25][26]. The load-velocity or forcevelocity profile demonstrates that with increasing load, the velocity should decrease and vice-versa. ...
... Characteristics of studies included in review.Table 1. Cont. BS 1RM: PVBT: ↑ 19.6%, OTL: ↑ 18.3% BP 1RM: PVBT: ↑ 8.5%, OTL: ↑ 10.2% DL 1RM: PVBT: ↑ 10.9, OTL: ↑ 22.9% BS PP: PVBT: ↑ 18.3%, OTL: ↑ 20.1% BP PP: PVBT: ↑ 14.5%, OTL: ↑ 27.9%, DL PP: PVBT:↑ 15.7%, OTL: ↑ 20.1% Note: P3, third training phase; VO 2max , maximal oxygen uptake; VT2, ventilatory threshold; PS max paddling speed at VO 2max , paddling speed at VT2; 1RM, one repetition maximum; BP, bench press; PBP, prone bench pull; T0, first date of tests during training cycle; T3, last date of tests during training cycle; U16, under-16 team; U18, under-18 team; U21, under-21 team; RT, resistance training; V1LOAD, the load that elicited 1.00 m/s velocity in the full squat exercise; CMJ, countermovement jump; MAS, maximal aerobic speed; FS, full squat; CMJ 20 , countermovement jump with 20 kg; FS 20-30-40 , full squat with load: 20, 30, 40 kg; FS 50-60 , full squat with load: 50, 60 kg; T[20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30] acceleration capacity between 20 and 30 m; VL15, group that trained with a mean velocity loss of 15% in each set; VL30, group that trained with a mean velocity loss of 30% in each set; AMPV, average mean propulsive velocity attained against absolute loads common to Pre-and Post-tests in the squat progressive loading test; T30, 30-m sprint; YYIRT, Yo-yo intermittent recovery test level 1; VBT, velocity-based training; PVBT, progressive velocity-based training; OTL, optimum training load; BS, back squat; DL, deadlift; PP, peak power output; FSG, full squat group; COM, combined group; CG, control group. ...
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Due to drawbacks of the percentage-based approach, velocity-based training was proposed as a method to better and more accurately prescribe training loads to increase general and specific performance. The purpose of this study was to perform a systematic review of the studies that show effects of velocity-based resistance training on strength and power performance in elite athletes. Electronic searches of computerized databases were performed according to a protocol that was agreed by all co-authors. Four databases—SportDiscus with Full Text and MEDLINE via EBSCO, SCOPUS, and Web of Science—were searched. Seven studies were found which researched the effects of velocity-based resistance training on athletes after a given training period. The analyzed studies suggest that applying velocity losses of 10–20% can help induce neuromuscular adaptations and reduce neuromuscular fatigue. Using velocity zones as part of a separate or combined (e.g., plyometric) training program can elicit adaptations in body composition and performance parameters. Moreover, velocity zones can be programmed using a periodized or non-periodized fixed velocity zones protocol. Lastly, obtaining instantaneous feedback during training is a more effective tool for increasing performance in sport-specific parameters, and should be used by sport practitioners to help keep athletes accountable for their performance.
... Another interesting focus of study would be to examine what happens when maintaining the same multimodal exercises in two FFT programs while modifying rest intervals, in which participants carry out the same number of repetitions with the same workload (same absolute training volume and absolute load but different density of training due to the different rest intervals). This could give rise to two situations: (1) Relative work intensities could differ as an absolute workload in one individual could represent different relative intensities depending on the velocity reached [13][14][15][16]. That is, with the introduction rest periods, repetitions could be performed at a higher velocity, representing a lower relative intensity for that absolute load. ...
... Thus, we were able to observe that many participants did not take breaks, or took minimal breaks (a few seconds) between repetitions. Several studies have shown that for a given absolute load (kg), subjects can show different velocities, meaning that this load can represent a different relative intensity (%) depending on the velocity reached by each subject in each exercise [13][14][15][16]. Thus, it could be that when the participants executed FFTstandard, because of the scarce rest intervals taken, execution velocities were reduced. ...
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Background: Functional Fitness Training (FFT) is a new exercise modality prioritizing functional multi-joint movements executed at high intensity as a circuit. Objective: To examine the impacts of introducing rest intervals in a FFT workout compared to "rounds for time" (RFT) FFT. Materials and Methods: Participants were 25 resistance-trained adults who completed two FFT workouts 1 week apart. The study design was crossover such that in a given session half the participants completed the standard and the other half the adapted FFT (FFTadapted). The workouts consisted of the same exercises (circuit of four rounds of exercises), but one (FFTadapted) included preset rest intervals (three sets of 1 min after each completed round). Before and after the workouts, countermovement jump ability and blood lactate were measured. Heart rate (HR) and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured post-exercise. Results: For both the standard and adapted protocols, mean HR was 90% age-predicted maximum. Final RPE was also similar for both workouts (~15-15.5) and indicated a "hard" work intensity. Both FFTs took the same time to complete (~13 min). Furthermore, no significant differences were observed in jump ability between FFTs. In contrast, lactate (15.11 ± 3.64 vs. 13.48 ± 3.64 mmol•L −1 , p < 0.05), measured 3 min post-exercise, was significantly lower in FFTadapted. Conclusions: In FFTadapted, there was a significant reduction in RPE and blood lactate concentrations after exercise, while there were no significant differences in either HR or jumping ability, compared to a FFT workout in RFT methodology.
... The findings mentioned above are based on the load-velocity relationship observed for exercises such as BP and squat. [15][16][17][18][19][20] The load-velocity relationship describes a mean velocity value associated with a certain %1RM, which is very similar for every individual, regardless of strength levels or changes in performance. 15 This velocity value can be obtained from both linear [21][22][23][24] and polynomial regression models. ...
... 15 This velocity value can be obtained from both linear [21][22][23][24] and polynomial regression models. [15][16][17][18][19][20] As a potential drawback, these general equations assume that the velocity associated with each %1RM is the same for all individuals; however, recent studies have shown a significant interindividual variability in the load-velocity relationship for BP and squat exercises. 25 has subsequently been shown that individual load-velocity relationships may provide more accurate predictions of %1RM than general equations. ...
Article
Purpose: This study aimed (1) to analyze the interindividual variability in the maximal number of repetitions (MNR) performed against a given relative load (percentage of 1-repetition maximum [%1RM]) and (2) to examine the relationship between the velocity loss (VL) magnitude and the percentage of completed repetitions with regard to the MNR (%Rep), when the %1RM is based on individual load-velocity relationships. Methods: Following an assessment of 1RM strength and individual load-velocity relationships, 14 resistance-trained men completed 5 MNR tests against loads of 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, and 90% 1RM in the Smith machine bench-press exercise. The relative loads were determined from the individual load-velocity relationship. Results: Individual relationships between load and velocity displayed coefficients of determination (R2) ranging from .986 to .998. The MNR showed an interindividual coefficient of variation ranging from 8.6% to 33.1%, increasing as the %1RM increased. The relationship between %Rep and the magnitude of VL showed a general R2 of .92 to .94 between 50% and 80% 1RM, which decreased to .80 for 90% 1RM. The mean individual R2 values were between .97 and .99 for all loading conditions. The %Rep when a given percentage of VL was reached showed interindividual coefficient of variation values ranging from 5% to 20%, decreasing as the %Rep increased in each load condition. Conclusions: Setting a number of repetitions had acceptable interindividual variability, with moderate relative loads being adjusted based on the individual load-velocity relationship. However, to provide a more homogeneous level of effort between athletes, the VL approach should be considered, mainly when using individual VL-%Rep relationships.
... Although several studies have shown that the 1RM test is valid and reliable to determine the muscular strength of athletes [11,12], its time-consuming characteristics make its use more complicated in large groups of individuals (i.e., team sports) [13,14]. In addition, as this measurement is performed under maximum loading conditions, the risk of injury could be high [14,15]. ...
... In addition, as this measurement is performed under maximum loading conditions, the risk of injury could be high [14,15]. To know if it is possible to predict the percentage of 1RM (%1RM) by simply calculating the velocity developed at submaximal intensities [16], several studies have examined the relationship between the percentages of %1RM and the corresponding mean propulsive velocity (MPV) in able-bodied athletes [12,17]. Iturricastillo et al. [10] also analyzed this relationship in WB players, where a nearly perfect and inverse relationship has been observed between the %1RM and MPV for the BP exercise (i.e., free execution mode). ...
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(1) Background: Performance in wheelchair basketball is determined by capabilities such as strength and power. The study has two aims: first, to analyze the association between speed and acceleration variables (collected in the bench press [BP] exercise) and the distinct percentages of one-repetition maximum (1RM); second, to analyze the effect of a strength training protocol on wheelchair basketball (WB) players according to their functional impairments. (2) Methods: Ten Spanish male WB players volunteered to participate in the study. The players did a pretest and posttest (1RM in bench press) with 6-week muscle strength intervention program. (3) Results: The results showed a high association between the %1RM and the mean propulsive velocity (MPV) and the maximum velocity (Vmax), both in the total of the participants, and in each separate group of athletes. After implementing the strength training program, both the players of the IWBF (International Wheelchair Basketball Federation) < 2.5 group and those of IWBF > 2.5 group im-proved their 1RM (p < 0.01, ES = 0.20 to 0.23). However, the program produced positive effects at submaximal intensities in the MPV reached with 30, 40, 70 and 80 kg and in time to maximum velocity (TVmax) with 30, 40 and 70 kg (ES = -3.24 to 1.32) only in players with greater functional impairments. (4) Conclusions: The high association between %1RM and MPV and Vmax can allow to determine the %1RM of the WB players in the BP using the MPV and the Vmax. The training program was effective in improving 1RM in both groups, while improvements in submaximal values only occurred in the IWBF < 2.5 group.
... Velocity-based training has been introduced as a reliable alternative for prescribing resistance exercise (Gonz alez-Badillo & S anchez-Medina, 2010;. Studies using several exercises (squat, bench pull, pull-up, bench press) show the high association between one repetition maximum (1RM) and bar movement velocity (S anchez-Medina et al., 2014;S anchez-Moreno et al., 2017), demonstrating the advantage of a velocity-based training upon the 1RM test to prescribe resistance exercise. Another significant concept of velocity-based training concerns the velocity loss during a set, in which the set is interrupted following a pre-determined loss of velocity (102,030%, so on) but not after a certain repetition number . ...
... However, the results for SDNN, RMSSD, and pNN50 contradict previous findings that showed a reduction in cardiac vagal modulation (Figueiredo et al., 2015;Kingsley & Figueroa, 2014;Mayo et al., 2016). It is important to highlight that the velocity-based training approach, as adopted in present study, is designed to reduce metabolic and neuromuscular stress S anchez-Medina et al., 2014). Perhaps the resistance exercise session, adopting velocity-based training approach, cannot cause significant cardiac autonomic disruption. ...
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The purpose is to analyze the effect of social networks on smartphones before and during velocity-based resistance exercise on the internal training load, heart rate variability (HRV), and cognitive interference control. Twelve trained adults volunteered to participate in this randomized and crossover design research study with three experimental conditions. The participants randomly performed a resistance exercise session, watching TV before (CON) the session or using social networks on a smartphone prior to (30SMA-P) and intra-session (SMA-INT). The participants underwent sets with repetitions [15RM load] up to 20% mean velocity loss. HRV indicators and cognitive interference control were measured before and 30-min after each experimental session. Internal training load was evaluated 30-min after each experimental session, which was calculated by the product between resistance exercise volume and RPE. No condition versus time interaction for HRV indicators (p > 0.05) was observed. It was not revealed a condition versus time interaction for cognitive interference control (p > 0.05). No condition effect for internal training load (p > 0.05) was observed. It was concluded that 30-min of social networks on smartphones before or intra-session resistance exercise had no effects on HRV indicators, cognitive interference control, and internal training load in trained adults.
... Strong inverse relationships have been observed between load and barbell velocity in free-weight 2,7-9 (r > .93) and fixed-path Smith machine exercises [10][11][12][13][14] (r > .90). However, the application of this method has often been dictated by the procedures employed. ...
... The LVPs are traditionally fitted with either linear regression 7 or nonlinear equivalents, such as second-order polynomials. 13,14 A small number of studies have compared the 2 statistical models 2,8,10 ; however, these have often been limited to Smith machine or upper body exercises. Nevertheless, Banyard et al 2 did investigate this comparison during the free-weight back squat and found no statistical differences; however, the small number of loads (6) used to construct the LVP may account for this. ...
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Purpose: This study compared pooled against individualized load–velocity profiles (LVPs) in the free-weight back squat and power clean. Methods: A total of 10 competitive weightlifters completed baseline 1-repetition maximum assessments in the back squat and power clean. Three incremental LVPs were completed, separated by 48 to 72 hours. Mean and peak velocity were measured via a linear-position transducer (GymAware). Linear and nonlinear (second-order polynomial) regression models were applied to all pooled and individualized LVP data. A combination of coefficient of variation (CV), intraclass correlation coefficient, typical error of measurement, and limits of agreement assessed between-subject variability and within-subject reliability. Acceptable reliability was defined a priori as intraclass correlation coefficient > .7 and CV < 10%. Results: Very high to practically perfect inverse relationships were evident in the back squat (r = .83–.96) and power clean (r = .83–.89) for both regression models; however, stronger correlations were observed in the individualized LVPs for both exercises (r = .85–.99). Between-subject variability was moderate to large across all relative loads in the back squat (CV = 8.2%–27.8%) but smaller in the power clean (CV = 4.6%–8.5%). The power clean met our criteria for acceptable reliability across all relative loads; however, the back squat revealed large CVs in loads ≥90% of 1-repetition maximum (13.1%–20.5%). Conclusions: Evidently, load– velocity characteristics are highly individualized, with acceptable levels of reliability observed in the power clean but not in the back squat (≥90% of 1-repetition maximum). If practitioners want to adopt load–velocity profiling as part of their testing and monitoring procedures, an individualized LVP should be utilized over pooled LVPs.
... One practical application provided by the VBT is the determination of players' individual L-V relationship, based on the close association between the barbell velocity and the %1RM (21,29,33,49). The L-V relationship ensures that the player trains at the programmed % 1RM in each training set, thus avoiding the meaningful mismatches that might occur when programming is based on the kg-%1RM method and the negative effects related to the traditional nRM approach (12,35,39,44). ...
... SEE 5 standard error of estimation. Bench press and prone bench pull (49); full squat (paused) (29); full squat (nonpaused) (50); deadlift (33); shoulder press (21); pull-ups (51). ...
... However, loads in the range 40-80% (BSQ) and 50-70% 1RM (HBD) did not differ statistically concerning P max (Figure 3). These data strongly support previous studies showing that mechanical power output is quite similar across a range of light-moderate loads in other resistance exercises such as the bench press (20-60% 1RM) [37], bench pull (20-70% 1RM) (37), traditional deadlift (40-80% 1RM) [17], and half-BSQ (25-85% 1RM) [10]. These findings raise some questions about how much attention has been given to determining a single "optimal load" [24,37,38]. ...
... These data strongly support previous studies showing that mechanical power output is quite similar across a range of light-moderate loads in other resistance exercises such as the bench press (20-60% 1RM) [37], bench pull (20-70% 1RM) (37), traditional deadlift (40-80% 1RM) [17], and half-BSQ (25-85% 1RM) [10]. These findings raise some questions about how much attention has been given to determining a single "optimal load" [24,37,38]. This is supported by previous studies showing improvements in strength-power ability using a wide range of moderate (i.e. ...
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The aim of this study was to analyse the load-velocity and load-power relationships in the free-weight back-squat (BSQ) and hexagonal bar deadlift (HBD) exercises. Twenty-five (n = 25) resistance-trained men (age = 23.7 ± 2.8 years) performed a progressive load test at maximal intended velocity to determine their BSQ and HBD one-repetition maximum (1RM). Mean propulsive velocity (MPV) during the concentric phase of the lift was recorded through a linear encoder. Load-velocity and load-power relationships were analysed by fitting linear regression and the second-order polynomial, respectively, to the data. Maximum strength (1RM), MPV (30–80% 1RM), and power output (30–90% 1RM) were higher for HBD compared to BSQ exercise (p < 0.05). A very strong relationship between MPV and relative intensity was found for both BSQ (R2 = 0.963) and HBD (R2 = 0.967) exercises. The load that maximizes power output (Pmax) was 64.6 ± 2.9% (BSQ) and 59.6 ± 1.1% (HBD) 1RM. There was a range of loads at which power output was not different than Pmax (BSQ: 40–80% 1RM; HBD: 50–70% 1RM). In conclusion, the load-velocity and load-power relationships might assist strength and conditioning coaches to monitor and prescribe exercise intensity in the BSQ and HBD exercises using the velocity-based training approach.
... Resistance training loads were quantified using volume load (the workload of a resistance exercise) and training intensity (the average intensity of a resistance exercise) during different phases of the 2019 National Rugby League (NRL) season, which included 15 weeks of preseason (where 3 trial matches were played) and 25 weeks of competition. The competition was further categorized into 3 sections: early competition (weeks 16-23), mid-competition (weeks 24-31), and late competition (weeks [32][33][34][35][36][37][38][39][40][41]. Throughout the resistance training sessions, all players manually completed their training loads on a hard copy of their training program, which was given to strength and conditioning staff following each session. ...
... During the bench pull, players were instructed to lie in a prone position with their chest at the top of the high bench, and elbows were fully extended before beginning the pull. The barbell was required to touch the underside of the high bench, in a controlled manner, while legs remained down and together throughout (35). All attempts were assessed by 2-dimensional motion analysis and inspected immediately following attempt to verify that players had met specific criteria for a successful lift. ...
Article
Redman, KJ, Connick, MJ, Beckman, EM, and Kelly, VG. Monitoring prescribed and actual resistance training loads in professional rugby league. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2021-Coaches devote a considerable amount of time and effort prescribing and selecting exercises to elicit training adaptations. Adherence to the prescribed resistance training load may vary for a number of reasons. The aim of this study was to quantify the difference between prescribed and actual resistance training loads in a team of professional rugby league players. Training loads were quantified using volume load and training intensity throughout a season. The competition was categorized into preseason, early competition, mid-competition, and late competition. Twenty-seven players participated in this study. Four exercises were monitored: back squat, bench press, bench pull, and clean pull. A Friedman's test was used to assess differences between prescribed and actual training loads throughout different phases of the season, for different exercises, and during different weeks in a training block. There were significantly greater differences in prescribed and actual volume loads during the mid-competition in comparison to all other phases of the season (p , 0.01). Although players adherence to prescribed training intensity was significantly greater during the preseason compared with the remainder of the season (p , 0.05), they completed significantly less prescribed training load during week 1 in comparison to week 4 within a training block (p , 0.05). The results of this study demonstrate that regular monitoring of completed resistance training loads may be of greater importance to strength and conditioning coaches to assist in examining potential progress and fatigue or allow for more accurate prescription of load to enhance adaptation throughout a season.
... Some studies have also observed that the loadvelocity relationship is well-fitted in machine and cable-based exercises (e.g., the leg extension) [35]. What is important to highlight here is that the load-velocity relationship is exercise-dependent [18,52,53], since the load that represents a certain absolute velocity can vary greatly between exercises (Table 2). Thus, the use of absolute "velocity zones" is discouraged, since a certain velocity (e.g., 1.0 m·s −1 ) can represent a low load (mass) (e.g., when performing a back squat) or a near maximal load (e.g., when performing an Olympic Snatch). ...
... Velocities for different %1RM from an individual load-velocity profile of one player, for bench-press, back squat, deadlift and pull-up exercises[8,18,52,53]. ...
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While velocity-based training is currently a very popular paradigm to designing and monitoring resistance training programs, its implementation remains a challenge in team sports, where there are still some confusion and misinterpretations of its applications. In addition, in contexts with large squads, it is paramount to understand how to best use movement velocity in different exercises in a useful and time-efficient way. This manuscript aims to provide clarifications on the velocity-based training paradigm, movement velocity tracking technologies, assessment procedures and practical recommendations for its application during resistance training sessions, with the purpose of increasing performance, managing fatigue and preventing injuries. Guidelines to combine velocity metrics with subjective scales to prescribe training loads are presented, as well as methods to estimate 1-Repetition Maximum (1RM) on a daily basis using individual load–velocity profiles. Additionally, monitoring strategies to detect and evaluate changes in performance over time are discussed. Finally, limitations regarding the use of velocity of execution tracking devices and metrics such as “muscle power” are commented upon.
... Assuming that each percentage of 1RM ( %1RM) is always associated with a given velocity [10,11], different general load-velocity (LV) equations have been previously developed to estimate the %1RM from the recorded velocity with a sub-maximal load [10,12,13]. However, there are some limitations with this approach as: i) an important inter-subject variability in the LV relationship has been previously reported [14][15][16][17][18], ii) low reliability has been observed for the velocity associated to 1RM (V 1RM ) [16,19,20], and iii) the force-velocity relationship analysis has detected a high inter-subject variability for the intercept of the velocity axis and therefore, for the estimated velocity without external load [21,22]. ...
... This result is coincident with previous studies that found high linearity in the LV when individual regressions were analyzed [14,20,23,24]. It must be pointed out that secondorder polynomial generalized LV equations have been previously reported [10,12,13], although the extremely low values of the quadratic coefficient suggest a quasi-linear profile. Therefore, our data reinforce the observation of linearity in individual LV relationships [14,20,23,24], showing that this profile is preserved after different training programs. ...
Article
This study explored the changes in load-velocity relationship of bench press and parallel squat exercises following two programs differing in the set configuration. A randomized controlled trial was carried out in a sample of 39 physically active individuals. Participants were assigned to rest redistribution set configuration, traditional set configuration, or control groups. Over 5 weeks, the experimental groups completed 10 sessions with the 10 repetitions maximum load of both exercises. Rest redistribution sets consisted in 16 sets of 2 repetitions with 60 s of rest between sets, and 5 min between exercises, whereas traditional sets entailed 4 sets of 8 repetitions with 5 min of rest between sets and exercises. The load-velocity relationships of both exercises were obtained before and after the training period. For bench press, an increase of the velocity axis intercept, and a decrease of the slope at post-test were observed in both rest redistribution (p < 0.001, G = 1.264; p < 0.001; G = 0.997) and traditional set (p = 0.01, G = 0.654; p = 0.001; G = 0.593) groups. For squat, the slope decreased (p < 0.001; G = 0.588) and the velocity axis intercept increased (p < 0.001; G = 0.727) only in the rest redistribution group. These results show that rest redistribution sets were particularly efficient for inducing changes in the load-velocity relationship
... Strong inverse relationships have been observed between load and barbell velocity in free-weight 2,7-9 (r > .93) and fixed-path Smith machine exercises [10][11][12][13][14] (r > .90). However, the application of this method has often been dictated by the procedures employed. ...
... The LVPs are traditionally fitted with either linear regression 7 or nonlinear equivalents, such as second-order polynomials. 13,14 A small number of studies have compared the 2 statistical models 2,8,10 ; however, these have often been limited to Smith machine or upper body exercises. Nevertheless, Banyard et al 2 did investigate this comparison during the free-weight back squat and found no statistical differences; however, the small number of loads (6) used to construct the LVP may account for this. ...
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Purpose: This study compared pooled against individualized load-velocity profiles (LVPs) in the free-weight back squat and power clean. Methods: A total of 10 competitive weightlifters completed baseline 1-repetition maximum assessments in the back squat and power clean. Three incremental LVPs were completed, separated by 48 to 72 hours. Mean and peak velocity were measured via a linear-position transducer (GymAware). Linear and nonlinear (second-order polynomial) regression models were applied to all pooled and individualized LVP data. A combination of coefficient of variation (CV), intraclass correlation coefficient, typical error of measurement, and limits of agreement assessed between-subject variability and within-subject reliability. Acceptable reliability was defined a priori as intraclass correlation coefficient > .7 and CV < 10%. Results: Very high to practically perfect inverse relationships were evident in the back squat (r = .83-.96) and power clean (r = .83-.89) for both regression models; however, stronger correlations were observed in the individualized LVPs for both exercises (r = .85-.99). Between-subject variability was moderate to large across all relative loads in the back squat (CV = 8.2%-27.8%) but smaller in the power clean (CV = 4.6%-8.5%). The power clean met our criteria for acceptable reliability across all relative loads; however, the back squat revealed large CVs in loads ≥90% of 1-repetition maximum (13.1%-20.5%). Conclusions: Evidently, load-velocity characteristics are highly individualized, with acceptable levels of reliability observed in the power clean but not in the back squat (≥90% of 1-repetition maximum). If practitioners want to adopt load-velocity profiling as part of their testing and monitoring procedures, an individualized LVP should be utilized over pooled LVPs.
... In order to assess SPC, exercises should be selected that provide a transfer to the sport in skill movement and strength. Thus, the squat (SQ) and the bench press (BP) are two of the most used and effective exercises in resistance training for strengthening the lower and the upper body for improving athletic performance [29,30]. ...
... Exclusion criteria included a musculoskeletal injury over the past six months, any medical condition that could limit the exercise performance, and taking steroids, drugs, medications or dietary supplements for enhancing sport performance. Subjects were national amateur rugby players and included 30 and body mass 72.23 ± 3.04 kg; 10 males and 7 females). Their average weekly training volume was 13 h*wk -1 including three days of rugby-specific training, three days of resistance training and competition. ...
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Rugby players need muscular strength and power to meet the demands of the sport; therefore , a proper assessment of the performance in rugby players should include both variables. The purpose of this study was to examine the strength and power characteristics (SPC) during the squat (SQ) and bench press (BP) in national amateur rugby players and to analyze gender-and position-related differences. A total of 47 players (30 males and 17 females; age: 25.56 ± 1.14 and 23.16 ± 1.38 years, respectively) participated in the study. The one repetition-maximum (1-RM) and SPC in SQ and BP were obtained using a Smith Machine. Then, subjects performed one set of five repetitions on the SQ and BP against six relative loads (30-40-50-60-70-80% 1-RM) using a linear transducer. Differences between genders were found in 1-RM for maximal power, kilograms lifted at maximal power, maximal power, maximal strength and maximal speed in BP (p < 0.00) and 1-RM, kilograms lifted at maximal power, maximal power, maximal strength and maximal speed in SQ (p < 0.00). Comparisons between variables in SQ and BP present a significant relationship (p < 0.01) in SQ and BP 1-RM with kilograms lifted at maximal power (r = 0.86 and r = 0.84), maximal strength (r = 0.53 and r = 0.92) and maximal power (r = 0.76 and r = 0.93). This study confirms the importance of the SPC assessment for training prescription in rugby amateur players.
... This novel procedure demonstrated that it is possible to estimate the 1RM without applying direct or indirect methods (González-Badillo and Sánchez-Medina, 2010). From that period to now, several studies proposed regression equations based on the load-velocity relationship in different resistance exercises, such as the full, parallel, and half squat Sánchez-Medina et al., 2017), 45 • inclined leg-press (Conceição et al., 2016), prone-bench pull (Sánchez-Medina et al., 2014) pull-up (Sánchez-Moreno et al., 2017, deadlift (Benavides-Ubric et al., 2020), and shoulder press (Hernández-Belmonte et al., 2020). However, all predictive equations are specific for trained young adults, which means that they might not be accurate to estimate the 1RM in other populations, such as older adults. ...
Article
This study analyzed the predictive ability of movement velocity to estimate the relative load (i.e., % of one-repetition maximum [1RM]) during the horizontal leg-press exercise in older women and men. Twenty-four women and fourteen men living in community-dwelling centers volunteered to participate in this study. All participants performed a progressive loading test up to 1RM in the horizontal leg-press. The fastest peak velocity (PV) and mean velocity (MV) attained with each weight were collected for analysis. Linear regression equations were modeled for women and men. We observed very strong linear relationships between both velocity variables and the relative load in the horizontal leg-press in women (PV: r² = 0.93 and standard error of the estimate (SEE) = 5.96% 1RM; MV: r² = 0.94 and SEE = 5.59% 1RM) and men (PV: r² = 0.93 and SEE = 5.96% 1RM; MV: r² = 0.94 and SEE = 5.97% 1RM). The actual 1RM and the estimated 1RM using both the PV and MV presented trivial differences and very strong relationships (r = 0.98–0.99) in both sexes. Men presented significantly higher (p < 0.001–0.05) estimated PV and MV against all relative loads compared to women (average PV = 0.81 vs. 0.69 m·s⁻¹ and average MV = 0.44 vs. 0.38 m·s⁻¹). Our data suggest that movement velocity accurately estimates the relative load during the horizontal leg-press in older women and men. Coaches and researchers can use the proposed sex-specific regression equations in the horizontal leg-press to implement velocity-monitored resistance training with older adults.
... Previous work showed that the m. latissimus dorsi is a prime mover and contracts concentrically to extend and internally rotate the shoulder joint during the bench pull exercise (27) and during the pull phases in kayaking (4,14,30) and canoeing (23). The m. triceps brachii contract concentrically to extend the elbow joint during the bench press exercise (16,22) and during the final part of the pull phase in both kayaking and canoeing (14,23). ...
Article
Gäbler, M, Prieske, O, Elferink-Gemser, MT, Hortobágyi, T, Warnke, T, and Granacher, U. Measures of physical fitness improve prediction of kayak and canoe sprint performance in young kayakers and canoeists. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2021-Markers of talent selection and predictors of performance in canoe and kayak sprint are not yet well defined. We aimed to determine the combination of variables (i.e., demographic, anthropometric, and physical fitness) that most accurately predicts sprint performance (i.e., 500- and 2000-m race time) in semielite, young kayakers and canoeists (n = 39, age 13 year, 10F). The level of significance was set at p < 0.05. Linear regression analyses identified boat type (i.e., kayak or canoe), skeletal muscle mass, and average power during a 2-minute bench pull test, normalized to body mass, as predictors of 2000-m race time (R22000 m = 0.69, Akaike information criterion [AIC] = 425) and together with vertical jump height, as predictors of 500-m race time (R2500 m = 0.87, AIC = 255). This was an improvement over models containing solely demographic variables (R2500 m = 0.66, AIC = 293; R22000 m = 0.44, AIC = 446) and over models containing demographic and anthropometric variables (R2500m = 0.79, AIC = 277; R22000 m = 0.56, AIC = 437). Race time showed the strongest semipartial correlations with the 2-minute bench pull test (0.7 ≤ r ≤ 0.9). Adding physical fitness data (i.e., 2-minute bench pull test) to demographic and anthropometric data improves the prediction accuracy of race times in young kayak and canoe athletes. The characteristics of physical fitness tests should resemble as much as possible the biomechanical (e.g., prime movers) and metabolic (e.g., duration) demands of the sport.
... This is founded on a stable linear relationship (R 2 5 0.90-0.98) between barbell velocity and relative load (percentage of 1-RM) if each load is lifted as fast as possible in an unfatigued state (2,12,36). It is therefore possible to use barbell velocity measurements to estimate relative loads, and this has been termed programming with velocity-based training (VBT) (43). ...
Article
Andersen, V, Paulsen, G, Stien, N, Baarholm, M, Seynnes, O, and Saeterbakken, AH. Resistance training with different velocity loss thresholds induce similar changes in strengh and hypertrophy. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2021-The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 2 velocity-based resistance training programs when performing resistance training with matched training volume. Ten resistance-trained adults volunteered (age, 23 ± 4.3 years; body mass, 68 ± 8.9 kg; and height, 171 ± 8 cm) with a mean resistance training experience of 4.5 years. A within person, between leg design was used. For each subject, the legs were randomly assigned to either low velocity loss (LVL) threshold at 15% or high velocity loss (HVL) threshold at 30% velocity loss. Leg press and leg extension were trained unilaterally twice per week over a period of 9 weeks. Before and after the intervention, both legs were tested in 1 repetition maximum (RM) (kg), maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) (N), rate of force development (N·s-1), average velocity (m·s-1), and power output (W) at 30, 45, 60, and 75% of 1 RM (all in unilateral leg press). Furthermore, muscle thickness (mm) of the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris, pennation angle (°) of the vastus lateralis, and the fascicle length (mm) of the vastus lateralis were measured using ultrasound imaging. The data were analyzed using mixed-design analysis of variance. No differences between the legs in any of the variables were found; however, both low and HVL were effective for increasing 1 RM (ES = 1.25-1.82), MVC (effect size [ES] = 0.42-0.64), power output (ES = 0.31-0.86), and muscle thickness (ES = 0.24-0.51). In conclusion, performing velocity-based resistance training with low and HVL with equal training volume resulted in similar effects in maximal and explosive strength in addition to muscular adaptations.
... Regarding general prediction equations, previous literature has noted that the relationship between mean barbell velocity during single repetitions and 1RM percentage may be influenced by exercise type [99,[102][103][104], technique [105,106], gender/sex [107,108], and the device used to measure velocity [104,[109][110][111], but may also be specific to the individual [112]. Regarding prediction equations that use an individual's mean barbell velocity against several loads, it should be noted that individual mean barbell velocities at 1RM may not be reliable in 1RM prediction equations [80,82,113]. ...
Article
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Linear loading, the two-for-two rule, percent of one repetition maximum (1RM), RM zones, rate of perceived exertion (RPE), repetitions in reserve, set-repetition best, autoregulatory progressive resistance exercise (APRE), and velocity-based training (VBT) are all methods of adjusting resistance training intensity. Each method has advantages and disadvantages that strength and conditioning practitioners should be aware of when measuring and monitoring strength characteristics. The linear loading and 2-for-2 methods may be beneficial for novice athletes; however, they may be limited in their capacity to provide athletes with variation and detrimental if used exclusively for long periods of time. The percent of 1RM and RM zone methods may provide athletes with more variation and greater potential for strength–power adaptations; however, they fail to account for daily changes in athlete’s performance capabilities. An athlete’s daily readiness can be addressed to various extents by both subjective (e.g., RPE, repetitions in reserve, set-repetition best, and APRE) and objective (e.g., VBT) load adjustment methods. Future resistance training monitoring may aim to include a combination of measures that quantify outcome (e.g., velocity, load, time, etc.) with process (e.g., variability, coordination, efficiency, etc.) relevant to the stage of learning or the task being performed. Load adjustment and monitoring methods should be used to supplement and guide the practitioner, quantify what the practitioner ‘sees’, and provide longitudinal data to assist in reviewing athlete development and providing baselines for the rate of expected development in resistance training when an athlete returns to sport from injury or large training load reductions.
... To facilitate this process, and not have to perform actual 1RM testing, practitioners sometimes use group-based averages of the MVT, which can be found in the published research literature [6]. However, using an individual's actual MVT from maximal tests generally provides more reliable results [10,23] because the velocity achieved at different percentages of 1RM, including the velocity at the 1RM itself, is both participant-and exercise-dependent [6,12,24,25]. Moreover, it has been observed that MVT can exhibit poor reliability for different exercises like the back squat, bench-press, or deadlift [8,9,14]. ...
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The purpose of the current study was to compare the ability of five different methods to estimate eccentric-concentric and concentric-only bench-press 1RM from load-velocity profile data. Smith machine bench-press tests were performed in an eccentric-concentric (n = 192) and a concentric only manner (n = 176) while mean concentric velocity was registered using a linear position transducer. Load-velocity profiles were derived from incremental submaximal load (40-80% 1RM) tests. Five different methods were used to calculate 1RM using the slope, intercept, and velocity at 1RM (minimum velocity threshold-MVT) from the load-velocity profiles: calculation with individual MVT, calculation with group average MVT, multilinear regression without MVT, regular-ized regression without MVT, and an artificial neural network without MVT. Mean average errors for all methods ranged from 2.7 to 3.3 kg. Calculations with individual or group MVT resulted in significant overprediction of eccentric-concentric 1RM (individual MVT: difference = 0.76 kg, p = 0.020, d = 0.17; group MVT: difference = 0.72 kg, p = 0.023, d = 0.17). The multilinear and regularized regression both resulted in the lowest errors and highest correlations. The results demonstrated that bench-press 1RM can be accurately estimated from load-velocity data derived from submaximal loads and without MVT. In addition, results showed that multilinear regression can be used to estimate bench-press 1RM. Collectively, the findings and resulting equations should be helpful for strength and conditioning coaches as they would help estimating 1RM without MVT data.
... No entanto, métodos indiretos também possuem limitações relevantes [3]. A medição da velocidade de movimento durante os exercícios resistidos ganhou popularidade no campo da força e condicionamento para evitar as limitações desses métodos, visto que relações quase perfeitas foram encontradas entre a magnitude da carga e a velocidade da barra em muitos exercícios resistidos [7][8][9][10][11]. Neste sentido, equações de regressão generalizadas foram propostas para determinar a carga relativa (% 1RM) e a carga de 1RM [8,12]. ...
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Objetivos: Os objetivos deste estudo foram: 1) comparar a relação carga-velocidade estimada pelo método de dois pontos entre homens e mulheres destreinados durante o exercício agachamento paralelo (BS) e 2) comparar o perfil carga-velocidade encontrado em nosso estudo com os perfis de carga-velocidade relatados na literatura científica para indivíduos treinados. Além disso, comparar a velocidade de 1RM medida com a velocidade de 1RM predita pelo método de dois pontos no exercício BS em indivíduos destreinados. Métodos: Setenta e seis indivíduos destreinados (38 homens (22,7 ± 4,4 anos; 174,9 ± 6,8 cm; 76,1 ± 14,9 kg) e 38 mulheres (24,7 ± 4,3 anos; 159,1 ± 6,0 cm; 64,7 ± 13,3 kg) realizaram um teste de uma repetição máxima e um teste progressivo de duas cargas com 20% e 70% 1RM para estimar suas relações carga-velocidade. Resultados: Os principais resultados revelaram que 1) a velocidade média propulsiva e a velocidade média atingida em cada carga relativa foram diferentes entre homens e mulheres (p < 0,05). No entanto, a velocidade de 1RM medida não foi significativamente diferente entre eles. Homens destreinados forneceram uma relação carga-velocidade mais acentuada do que as mulheres. Descobrimos que 2) os indivíduos destreinados de nosso estudo apresentaram um perfil carga-velocidade diferente dos indivíduos treinados dos estudos da literatura científica. Além disso, 3) a velocidade de 1RM medida foi menor do que a velocidade de 1RM predita (p < 0,05). Conclusão: Esses resultados sugerem que a relação carga-velocidade é dependente do sexo e treinamento, e que o método de dois pontos usando 20% e 70% 1RM não seria confiável para estimar a relação carga-velocidade no exercício agachamento paralelo em homens e mulheres destreinados. Palavras-chave: exercício; mensuração da velocidade; força muscular.
... [8][9][10] A potential method for predicting both the 1RM and XRMs consists of recording the velocity at which submaximal loads are lifted. 9,11 Researchers have reported the general relationship between lifting velocity and the %1RM in different exercises, such as the bench press, 12 prone bench pull, 13 back squat, 14 leg press, 14 or shoulder press. 15 Other studies have attempted to estimate the 1RM through the modeling of the individualized load-velocity relationship in exercises such as the bench press, 11 prone bench pull, 10 lat pull-down, 8 seated cable row, 8 back squat, 16 or deadlift. ...
Objective: To explore (1) the goodness of fit of generalized and individualized relationships between the maximum number of repetitions performed to failure (RTF) and the fastest mean velocity and peak velocity of the sets (RTF-velocity relationships), (2) the between-sessions reliability of mean velocity and peak velocity values associated with different RTFs, and (3) whether the errors in the prediction of the RTF under fatigued and nonfatigued conditions differ between generalized and individualized RTF-velocity relationships. Methods: Twenty-three sport-science students performed 4 testing sessions with the prone bench pull exercise in a Smith machine: a 1-repetition-maximum [1RM] session, 2 identical sessions consisting of singles sets of RTF against 4 randomized loads (60%-70%-80%-90%1RM), and 1 session consisting of 4 sets of RTF against the 75%1RM. Results: Individualized RTF-velocity relationships presented a higher goodness of fit (r2 = .96-.97 vs .67-.70) and accuracy (absolute errors = 2.1-2.9 repetitions vs 2.8-4.3 repetitions) in the prediction of the RTF than generalized RTF-velocity relationships. The reliability of the velocity values associated with different RTFs was generally high (average within-subject coefficient of variation = 4.01% for mean velocity and 3.98% for peak velocity). The error in the prediction of the RTF increased by ~1 repetition under fatigue (ie, set 1 vs sets 2-4). Conclusions: Individualized RTF-velocity relationships can be used with acceptable precision and reliability to prescribe the loads associated with a given RTF during the match a specific XRM during the prone bench pull exercise, but a lower accuracy is expected in a fatigued state.
... Currently, because of advances in technology that allow the execution velocity measurement in exercises with free weights, there is the possibility of determining/estimating, with a high degree of precision, the relative intensity (%1RM) that represents the absolute load lifted from the first (or fastest) repetition of the set, always performed at the maximum possible velocity [5,[25][26][27][28], all this through specific regression equations for each exercise. This result occurs because the mean propulsive velocity of the fastest repetition of the set is intrinsically associated with the relative load magnitude (%1RM), and therefore each %1RM has its velocity [5]. ...
Article
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Determinação e controle da intensidade e volume do treinamento de força na pesquisa nas ciências do exercício e sua aplicação. Resumo Nos estudos iniciais, que documentaram os efeitos positivos do treinamento com pesos e a execução de esforços musculares repetidos [1-3], o propósito da ciência de conhecer a melhor maneira de definir, controlar e dosar o treinamento de força tem sido uma das questões que concentraram o maior interesse e esforço. Trata-se de uma questão extremamente importante, pois os resultados originários dos trabalhos científicos de maior qualidade devem possibilitar a continuação da geração do corpo de conhecimento que ajuda a melhorar a metodologia do treinamento e, portanto, as participações na prática dos profissionais. Para que isso seja cumprido, os estudos científicos devem ter, entre outros atributos, um método preciso de determinação e controle das variáveis que definem o estímulo do treinamento proposto, a fim de verificar a relação entre ele e os efeitos produzidos. No entanto, se isso não acontecer, pesquisadores e profissionais do treinamento correm o risco de tomar decisões sobre a configuração dos estímulos (manipulação das variáveis da carga) com base em conclusões científicas "falsas" ou incertas, na melhor das hipóteses. Palavras-chave: Variáveis, dosagem, quantificação, carga, intensidade, volume.
... The L-V relationship of one subject is shown in Figure 2 to exemplify the prediction of 1RM_Mean and 1RM_Peak based on the empirical relationship between load and measured lifting velocity. The resulting MVT value for the barbell bench press is comparable to previously reported MVT values in similar subject groups (i.e., recreationally trained athletes), such as 0.15 ± 0.03 [22], 0.16 ± 0.04 [12,27], and 0.17 [28]. Lower MTV values for the same exercise are reported in the literature for athletes with increased level of strength training experience, such as powerlifters with a reported MVT of 0.10 ± 0.04 [24] and college-age experienced benchers with an MVT of 0.14 ± 0.04 [29]. ...
Article
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The goal of this study was to assess the validity, reliability and accuracy of a smartwatch-based workout analysis application in exercise recognition, repetition count and One Repetition Maximum (1RM) prediction in the strength training-specific setting. Thirty recreationally trained athletes performed four consecutive sets of barbell deadlift, barbell bench press and barbell back squat exercises with increasing loads from 60% to 80% of their estimated 1RM with maximum lift velocity. Data was measured using an Apple Watch Sport and instantaneously analyzed using an iOS workout analysis application called StrengthControl. The accuracies in exercise recognition and repetition count, as well as the reliability in predicting 1RM, were statistically analyzed and compared. The correct strength exercise was recognised in 88.4% of all the performed sets (N = 363) with accurate repetition count for the barbell back squat (p = 0.68) and the barbell deadlift (p = 0.09); however, repetition count for the barbell bench press was poor (p = 0.01). Only 8.9% of attempts to predict 1RM using the StrengthControl app were successful, with failed attempts being due to technical difficulties and time lag in data transfer. Using data from a linear position transducer instead, significantly different 1RM estimates were obtained when analysing repetition to failure versus load-velocity relationships. The present results provide new perspectives on the applicability of smartwatch-based strength training monitoring to improve athlete performance.
... Recently, simple methods of measuring movement velocities during resistance exercise have enabled the frequent and easy determination of the force-velocity profiles [12,16,27,29,36,37] and load-velocity relationships in order to create generalized equations for the estimation of maximum strength (1RM) and %1RM from movement velocity [7,11,14,15,21,26,28,32,33,35]. These approaches provide strength and conditioning coaches with useful information to monitor adaptations and adjust strength training programs. ...
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Study aim : This study compared movement velocity and force-velocity profile parameters measured by a free video analysis software program, with the use of a high-speed video recording, and a validated linear position transducer (LPT). Material and methods : Ten team-sports athletes performed double-leg and single-leg ballistic lower limb extensions on a leg press machine against a wide range of resistive loads. Each repetition was recorded by the LPT a high-speed camera (300 fps), and later analysed with a free video analysis software program. Results : Mean and peak movement velocity presented high reliability (ICC: 0.990 and 0.988, p < 0.001) and agreement between the two measuring systems (systematic bias: –0.06 ± 0.04 and –0.01 ± 0.03 m/s, respectively). Force-velocity profile parameters were also similar: maximum velocity at zero load (Vo: 1.79 ± 0.15 vs. 1.78 ± 0.12 m/s, p = 0.64), slope (b: –1585 ± 503 vs. –1562 ± 438 N · s/m, p = 0.43), maximum force at zero velocity (Fo: 2835 ± 937 vs. 2749 ± 694 N, p = 0.41) and maximum power (1274 ± 451 vs 1214 ± 285 W, p = 0.38). Both measuring systems could similarly detect the individual force or velocity deficit (p=0.91). Conclusion : In conclusion, a free video analysis software combined with a high-speed camera was shown to be a reliable, accurate, low bias and cost-effective method in velocity-based testing.
... The FV relationship allows to characterize the mechanical capabilities of musculoskeletal system to produce force, power and velocity (Jaric, 2015;Samozino et al., 2016). Since the first study on the topic (Hill, 1937) it has been known that the FV relationship of individual muscles is approximately hyperbolic, while the novel studies show that FV relationship of multi-joint performance tasks is quasi-linear (Bobbert, 2012;Sánchez-Medina et al., 2014;Jaric, 2015;Sreckovic et al., 2015;Zivkovic et al., 2017). This allows using simple linear model to calculate the maximal theoretical force (i.e., the F-intercept; F 0 ), maximal theoretical velocity (V-intercept; V 0 ) and maximal power (P max = F 0 · V 0 /4) (Jaric, 2015). ...
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The force-velocity (FV) relationship allows the identification of the mechanical capabilities of musculoskeletal system to produce force, power and velocity. The aim of this study was to assess the associations of the mechanical variables derived from the force-velocity (FV) relationship with approach jump, linear sprint and change of direction (CoD) ability in young male volleyball players. Thirty-seven participants performed countermovement jumps with incremental loads from bodyweight to 50-100 kg (depending on the individual capabilities), 25-meter sprint with split times being recorded for the purpose of FV relationship calculation, two CoD tests (505 test and modified T-test) and approach jump. Results in this study show that approach jump performance seems to be influenced by maximal power output (r = 0.53) and horizontal force production (r = 0.51) in sprinting, as well as force capacity in jumping (r = 0.45). Only the FV variables obtained from sprinting alone contributed to explaining linear sprinting and CoD ability (r = 0.35-0.93). An interesting finding is that sprinting FV variables have similar and some even stronger correlation with approach jump performance than jumping FV variables, which needs to be considered for volleyball training optimization. Based on the results of this study it seems that parameters that refer to horizontal movement capacity are important for volleyball athletic performance. Further interventional studies are needed to check how to implement specific FV-profile-based training programs to improve specific mechanical capabilities that determine volleyball athletic performance and influence the specific physical performance of volleyball players.
... e use of LTs is limited to vertical movements only. erefore, most researchers use the Smith machine to ensure movements' verticality Sánchez-Medina et al., 2014). When deviations occur in the horizontal plane of the execution, the LT overestimates the measurement (Cormie, Deane, et al., 2007;Crewther et al., 2011;Hori et al., 2007). ...
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There is currently an increase in inertial flywheel application in strength training; thus, it must be monitored by an accurate and reliable device. The present study tested: (1) the accuracy of an inertial measurement device (IMU) to correctly measure angular velocity and (2) its inter-unit reliability for the measurement of external load. The analysis was performed using Pearson Correlation and Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC). The IMU accuracy was tested using Bland-Altman and the reliability with the coefficient of variation (CV). Ten elite-level football players performed ten series of 5 repetitions in a one-hand standing row exercise (5 series with each arm). A nearly perfect accuracy (ICC=.999) and a very good between-device reliability (Bias=-.010; CV=.017%) was found. IMU is a reliable and valid device to assess angular velocity in inertial flywheel workout objectively.
... Currently, because of advances in technology that allow the execution velocity measurement in exercises with free weights, there is the possibility of determining/estimating, with a high degree of precision, the relative intensity (%1RM) that represents the absolute load lifted from the first (or fastest) repetition of the set, always performed at the maximum possible velocity [5,[25][26][27][28], all this through specific regression equations for each exercise. This result occurs because the mean propulsive velocity of the fastest repetition of the set is intrinsically associated with the relative load magnitude (%1RM), and therefore each %1RM has its velocity [5]. ...
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Nos estudos iniciais, que documentaram os efeitos positivos do treinamento com pesos e a execução de esforços musculares repetidos, o propósito da ciência de conhecer a melhor maneira de definir, controlar e dosar o treinamento de força tem sido uma das questões que concentraram o maior interesse e esforço. Trata-se de uma questão extremamente importante, pois os resultados originários dos trabalhos científicos de maior qualidade devem possibilitar a continuação da geração do corpo de conhecimento que ajuda a melhorar a metodologia do treinamento e, portanto, as participações na prática dos profissionais. Para que isso seja cumprido, os estudos científicos devem ter, entre outros atributos, um método preciso de determinação e controle das variáveis que definem o estímulo do treinamento proposto, a fim de verificar a relação entre ele e os efeitos produzidos. No entanto, se isso não acontecer, pesquisadores e profissionais do treinamento correm o risco de tomar decisões sobre a configuração dos estímulos (manipulação das variáveis da carga) com base em conclusões científicas "falsas" ou incertas, na melhor das hipóteses.
... The main finding of our study is that in professional canoeists and kayakers the power-load relationship differs between PBP, BP and BBP exercises, with the highest average power output monitored in the PBP in comparison with both, BP and BBP. Our study agrees with the one carried out by Sánchez-Medina et al., using a strength-trained population (5). In addition, the P-L relationship of the PBP in Italian international paddle athletes is extremely similar to the one monitored in the Spanish National rowing team (6). ...
... The initial load for the incremental protocol was based on 1RM values recorded in the previous season. The incremental test protocol for the 1RM HBD was adapted from similar procedures reported in the literature (6)(7)(8)12,20). Each subject refrained from strenuous activity for 24 hours before the testing. ...
Article
The aim of this study was to determine if bar velocity can be used to estimate the one-repetition maximum (1RM) on the hexagonal bar deadlift. Twenty-two NCAA Division I male ice hockey players (age= 21.0 ± 1.5 yrs, height= 182.9 ± 7.3 cm, body mass= 86.2 ± 7.3 kg) completed a progressive loading test using the hexagonal bar deadlift at maximum intended velocity to determine their 1RM. Mean concentric velocity (MV) was measured for each load via a linear position transducer. The a-priori alpha level of significance was set at p = 0.05. MV showed a very strong relationship to %1RM (R2 = 0.85). A non-significant difference and a trivial effect size (ES) were observed between actual and predicted 1RM (p = 0.90, ES = -0.08). Near-perfect correlations were also discovered between actual and predicted 1RM (R = 0.93) with low typical error and coefficient of variation (5.11 kg, 2.53%, respectively). The current study presented results that add the HBD to the list of exercises with established load-velocity relationships. The predictive ability for 1RM HBD indicates that this is a viable means of prediction of 1RM.
... The barbell was then lowered and a brief pause of 1 s was observed to avoid the rebound effect or any stretch-shortening cycle interference. The protocol followed Sanchez-Medina's instructions (Sánchez-Medina et al., 2014). Initial load started at 20 kg and increased by increments of 10 kg until mean propulsive velocity (BP MPV ) was lower than 0.7 m.s −1 . ...
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This study aimed to determine the key performance indicators of inshore sailing during the sailing Tour de France. Technical and physical parameters were investigated to determine the discriminating factors between successful and less successful international level sailors. Measurements from 21 sailors (mean ± SD; age = 23.81 ± 4.18 years) were conducted prior to the sailing Tour de France. Global Positioning System data of all participating teams (n = 23) was analysed. Sailors were divided into two groups (i.e. successful and less successful) according to qualifying performance percentage. The differences between successful and less successful sailors were explored by means of independent t-tests. Results indicate that successful boats displayed higher maximal speed, higher average speed and more efficient starting performance per race than less successful boats. Successful sailors have stronger handgrip strength, higher isometric maximal voluntary force relative to bodyweight (isometric mid-thigh pull) and more powerful submaximal pulling (bench pull) actions than their less successful counterparts. The results of this study suggest that multiple sailing, physical and physiological variables are related to sailing performance in inshore sailing. Therefore, we emphasize the importance of integrating specific testing protocols to evaluate the performance potential of inshore sailors participating in the sailing Tour de France.
... Örneğin squat egzersizinin standart bir şekilde yapılması için açıölçer, tripot ile açı kısıtlaması ve hareket analiz sistemleri gibi yöntemler kullanılırken yine squat egzersizi ve "bench press" egzersizi için hareket düzlemini sabit tutmak adına "smith machine" kullanılmıştır. 40,65,67,70,71 Bunun yanı sıra "deadlift" egzersizinde, sırtın ve kalçanın tam ekstansiyon pozisyonuna gelmesi gözetilmiştir. 62 Ayrıca hız verisi konsantirik fazda kaydedildiği için konsantirik faz olabildiğince yüksek hızda gerçekleştirilmeli, kas uzama kısalma döngüsü devreye sokulmadan sporcular, hareketin konsantrik bölümünden önce ortalama 1,30 sn kadar beklemelidir. ...
... This load was individually adapted through second-order polynomial [47] settings to the velocity and progressive load data during warm-up without BFR [24]. During the performance of the different sets with specific %AOP, participants were encouraged to perform each concentric repetition as quickly as they could, whereas the eccentric phase [40,44] ...
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The aim was to compare the acute effects of bench press (BP) and squat (SQ) exercises with blood flow restriction (BFR) (40%, 60%, 80% and 100% of the complete arterial occlusion pressure (AOP)) and without BFR (CON) on the mean propulsive (VelMED) and maximum (VelMAX) bar velocity. Fourteen healthy, physically active males (age, 23.6 ± 4.1 years; height, 1.85 ± 0.11 m; body weight 85.4 ± 4.1 kg) took part in the study. There was one set for each testing condition (CON, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100%) with 6 repetitions for BP and 6 repetitions for SQ, at 60% of 1RM, and 3 minutes of recovery between sets. The results showed statistically significant differences of the sets with 80% BFR vs. CON (mean difference [MD] = 0.035 m · s-1, p < 0.05, ES = 0.52 [1.02–0.03]) and 100% BFR sets vs. CON (MD = 0.074, p < 0.001, ES = 1.08 [1.79–0.38]) for BP. In the SQ exercise, statistically significant differences were found between 100% BFR vs. CON (DM = 0.031 m · s-1, p <0.05), vs. 100% BFR 40% (MD = 0.04 m · s-1, p < 0.05). Trend analysis showed a statistically significant linear trend (F[1,9] = 34.9, p < 0.001, F[1,13] = 27.32, p < 0.001) for the VelMED in relation to the different levels of BFR. In conclusion, our results showed that BFR levels above ~80% AOP (BP) and ~100% AOP (SQ) produce a VelMED improvement at 60% 1RM.
... 21,22 All the training and testing sessions were conducted on free weight. The technique used for each RT exercise, during both training and testing sessions, was detailed in Sánchez-Medina et al 23 (2) maximal intended velocity. 28,29 These aspects were supervised in all training and testing sessions by 2 experienced researchers. ...
Article
Purpose: To compare the strength and athletic adaptations induced by 4 programming models. Methods: Fifty-two men were allocated into 1 of the following models: linear programming (intensity increased while intraset volume decreased), undulating programming (intensity and intraset volume were varied in each session or set of sessions), reverse programming (intensity decreased while intraset volume increased), or constant programming (intensity and intraset volume kept constant throughout the training plan). All groups completed a 10-week resistance-training program made up of the free-weight bench press, squat, deadlift, prone bench pull, and shoulder press exercises. The 4 models used the same frequency (2 sessions per week), number of sets (3 per exercise), interset recoveries (4 min), and average intensity throughout the intervention (77.5%). The velocity-based method was used to accurately adjust the planned intensity for each model. Results: The 4 programming models exhibited significant pre-post changes in most strength variables analyzed. When considering the effect sizes for the 5 exercises trained, we observed that the undulating programming (mean effect size = 0.88-2.92) and constant programming (mean effect size = 0.61-1.65) models induced the highest and lowest strength enhancements, respectively. Moreover, the 4 programming models were found to be effective to improve performance during shorter (jump and sprint tests) and longer (upper- and lower-limb Wingate test) anaerobic tasks, with no significant differences between them. Conclusion: The linear, undulating, reverse, and constant programming models are similarly effective to improve strength and athletic performance when they are implemented in a real-context routine.
... A side finding of the present study was the close association between the mean propulsive velocity and load that was already observed in many other sports [31,32]. Concerning the wide range of sports in the Paralympic arena, the usefulness of mean propulsive velocity were highlighted in wheelchair basketball athletes and visually impaired sprinters [33,34]. ...
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The aim of this case series was to evaluate the effectiveness of a dry-land home-training program conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic period in Paralympic swimmers. Previous evidence showed the importance of muscular strength and power training for Paralympic swimmers due to the positive relationship between severity of impairment, swimming technique and biomechanics parameters. Specifically, we aimed to analyze: (i) the effects of a customized training regime conducted pre, during and post restrictions on upper-body muscular strength and power (one repetition maximum, mean propulsive velocity, and mean relative propulsive power) compared to a regular gym-based program; (ii) the associations between mean propulsive velocity and load during two upper body exercises in order to estimate the one repetition maximum. Four elite Paralympic swimmers were retrospectively analyzed in upper-body muscular strength, mean propulsive velocity and mean relative propulsive power in bench press and lat pull-down exercises at three time points: T0 (prior the Lockdown period), T1 (immediately after the Lockdown confinement), T2 (sixteen weeks after returning to gym training). Our findings suggest a very likely decrement in one repetition maximum, mean propulsive velocity, and mean relative propulsive power during the Lockdown period compared with the T0 period with a subsequent very likely increment in one repetition maximum after returning to gym training (T2) compared with the lockdown period (T0). Conversely, mean relative propulsive power showed an unclear improvement in all athletes in T2 compared with T1. These results were also corroborated by the Friedman’s test followed by the Dunn’s pairwise comparison that mainly showed a decrement from T0 to T1 (p < 0.05). At the same time, it appears that muscle strength and power could be rapidly restored close to the pre-lockdown levels following an adequate training program in the gym, albeit without significance (p > 0.05). Finally, the close relationship between mean propulsive velocity and load in bench press and lat pull-down exercises was also confirmed in para swimming, making a possible estimation of one repetition maximum.
... During the bench pull, players were instructed to lie in a prone position with their chest at the top of the high bench and elbows were fully extended before beginning the pull. The barbell was required to touch the underside of the high bench, in a controlled manner, whereas legs remained down and together throughout (28). All attempts were assessed by 2-dimensional motion analysis and inspected immediately following attempt to verify if players had meet specific criteria for a successful lift. ...
Article
Redman, KJ, Wade, L, Whitley, R, Connick, MJ, Kelly, VG, and Beckman, EM. The relationship between match tackle outcomes and muscular strength and power in professional rugby league. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2020-Tackling is a fundamental skill in collision sports, such as rugby league. Match success is largely dependent on a player's ability to complete tackles and tolerate physical collisions. High levels of strength and power are key physical qualities necessary for effective tackling because players are required to generate large forces while pushing and pulling their opponents. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between tackle outcomes and strength and power qualities in professional rugby league. Fourteen rugby league players participated in this study. Maximal strength was assessed through 1 repetition maximum on the back squat, bench press, and bench pull. Lower-body vertical and horizontal powers were evaluated using a countermovement jump and standing broad jump (SBJ), respectively. Upper-body power was assessed on a plyometric push-up (PPU). Postmatch analysis of 5 National Rugby League matches was conducted to examine tackling outcomes. A series of Spearman's rank-order correlations were used to assess the relationship among match tackle outcomes and strength and power variables. Significant associations were observed between play-the-ball speed and SBJ peak power (rs = -0.74, p = 0.003), postcontact metres and PPU peak power (rs = 0.77, p = 0.002), losing the play-the-ball contest in defence with SBJ distance (rs = 0.70, p = 0.006), and ineffective tackles with PPU concentric impulse (rs = 0.70, p = 0.007). These results suggest the development and maintenance of full-body power to enhance the likelihood of positive tackle outcomes during professional rugby league match-play.
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Previous research has identified acute caffeine intake as an effective ergogenic aid to enhance velocity and power during bench press exercise. However, no previous investigation has analyzed the effects of chronic intake of caffeine on training adaptations induced by bench press strength training. Thus, the aim of this investigation was to determine the effects of pre-exercise caffeine intake on training adaptations induced by a bench press training protocol. Using a double-blind, randomized experimental design, 16 healthy participants underwent a bench press training protocol for 4 weeks (12 sessions). Seven participants ingested a placebo and nine participants ingested 3 mg/kg/BM of caffeine before each training session. Three days before, and 3 days after the completion of the training protocol, participants performed a one-repetition maximum (1RM) bench press and force-velocity test (from 10 to 100% 1RM). From comparable pre-training values, the strength training similarly increased 1RM in the caffeine and placebo groups (+13.5 ± 7.8% vs. +11.3 ± 5.3%, respectively; p = 0.53). In the caffeine group, the strength training induced a higher mean velocity at 40%, (0.81 ± 0.08 vs. 0.90 ± 0.14 m/s), 60% (0.60 ± 0.06 vs. 0.65 ± 0.06 m/s), 70% (0.47 ± 0.05 vs. 0.55 ± 0.06 m/s), 80% (0.37 ± 0.06 vs. 0.45 ± 0.05 m/s), 90% (0.26 ± 0.07 vs. 0.34 ± 0.06 m/s), and 100% 1RM (0.14 ± 0.04 vs. 0.25 ± 0.05 m/s; p < 0.05) while the increases in the placebo group were evident only at 30 (0.95 ± 0.06 vs. 1.03 ± 0.07 m/s), 70% (0.51 ± 0.03 vs. 0.57 ± 0.05 m/s) and 80% 1RM (0.37 ± 0.06 vs. 0.45 ± 0.05 m/s) (p < 0.05). The placebo group only increased peak velocity at 60 and 70% 1RM (p < 0.05) while peak velocity increased at 10%, and from 30 to 100% 1RM in the caffeine group (p < 0.05). The use of 3 mg/kg/BM of caffeine before exercise did not modify improvements in 1RM obtained during a 4 week bench press strength training program but induced more muscle performance adaptations over a wider range of load.
Article
The aims of this study were: i) to analyze the load-velocity relationship in the bilateral leg-press exercise in female breast cancer survivors, ii) to assess whether mean velocity (MV) or peak velocity (PV) show stronger relationship with the relative load, and iii) to examine whether linear (LA) or polynomic (PA) adjustment predict the velocities associated with each %1RM with greater precision. Twenty-two female breast cancer survivors (age: 50.2±10.8 years, weight: 69.6±15.2 kg, height: 160.51±5.25 cm) completed an incremental load test until 1RM in the bilateral leg-press exercise. The MV and the PV of the concentric phase were measured in each repetition using a linear velocity transducer, and were analyzed by regression models using LA and PA. A very close relationship of MV (R²=0.924; p<0.0001; SEE=0.08m.s⁻¹ by LA, and R²=0.952; p<0.0001; SEE=0.063 m.s⁻¹ by PA) and PV (R²=0.928; p<0.0001; SEE=0.119 m.s⁻¹ by LA and R²=0.941; p<0.0001; SEE=0.108 m.s⁻¹ by PA) with %1RM were observed. The MV of 1RM was 0.24±0.03 m·s⁻¹, whereas the PV at 1RM was 0.60±0.10 m.s⁻¹. A comprehensive analysis of the bilateral leg-press load-velocity relationship in breast cancer survivors is presented. The results suggest that MV is the most recommendable velocity variable to prescribe the relative load during resistance training, and that the PA presents better accuracy to predict velocities associated with each %1RM, although LA is sufficiently valid to use this model as an alternative to the quadratic model. The implications for resistance training in breast cancer are discussed.
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El cáncer es una de las principales causas de mortalidad en España, siendo el cáncer de mama el más diagnosticado en mujeres. La propia enfermedad y los tratamientos oncológicos producen distintos efectos secundarios, entre los que se encuentra la fatiga relativa al cáncer (CRF). Ésta, es una de las secuelas más prevalentes y que más afecta la vida diaria de las supervivientes de cáncer de mama. Con una etiología compleja, la CRF se desencadena por distintos mecanismos fisiológicos, por lo que su tratamiento puede requerir la aplicación de terapias tanto farmacológicas, como no farmacológicas. Entre las últimas, el ejercicio físico es la terapia más efectiva para reducir su impacto. De modo general, existe amplia evidencia sobre los beneficios que el ejercicio físico produce en pacientes y supervivientes de cáncer. Los efectos de entrenamientos de tipo aeróbico, entrenamiento de fuerza, actividades cuerpo-mente y/o actividades deportivas, son una creciente área de estudio, especialmente prolífica en supervivientes de cáncer de mama. Así, para la reducción de la CRF, existen guías específicas donde el ejercicio forma parte esencial del tratamiento. Aunque en ellas se propone la práctica de actividad física de tipo concurrente (incluyendo tanto entrenamiento aeróbico, como de fuerza), diversos autores apuntan que es preciso individualizar la prescripción de ejercicio físico. Esto se debe, en parte, al diferente nivel de tolerancia al ejercicio de los supervivientes de cáncer, que incluso puede resultar una barrera para la práctica de actividad física. Dentro de los diferentes tipos de entrenamiento, el entrenamiento de la musculatura inspiratoria (IMT), ha sido propuesto como una herramienta válida para la mejora de la condición física y la función pulmonar en pacientes de diversas patologías. Debido a su sencillez y viabilidad a la hora de implementarlo, y a su demostrado efecto sobre el aumento de la tolerancia al ejercicio, el IMT ha sido estudiado en personas con distintas patologías, incluyendo tumores intratorácicos y abdominales. En supervivientes de cáncer de mama (SCM), aunque el IMT no ha sido analizado en profundidad, se ha reconocido que podría mejorar la capacidad de ejercicio en esta población. Sin embargo, no se ha publicado ningún estudio que analice su efectividad en la reducción de la fatiga. Por otro lado, el nivel de actividad física (AF), ha sido asociado a la mejora de la calidad de vida (QoL) en supervivientes de cáncer y la reducción de la CRF. Por este motivo, el nivel de actividad física ha sido estudiado en cohortes de SCM españolas. Sin embargo, y a pesar de que sería interesante conocer el estado de dicha cuestión, se desconoce cuáles son los niveles actuales de actividad física y calidad de vida de las SCM españolas. Dada la importancia que tiene el nivel de actividad física sobre la CRF y la QoL, y debido al efecto que el IMT podría tener sobre este efecto secundario de las SCM, esta Tesis Doctoral fijó dos objetivos. En primer lugar, analizar los niveles de actividad física y QoL en una muestra representativa de la población de supervivientes de cáncer de mama españolas (Estudio 1). En segundo lugar, analizar el efecto del IMT sobre su CRF, capacidad funcional y tolerancia al esfuerzo (Estudio 2). Para el primer objetivo (Estudio 1), se administraron dos cuestionarios a la población objetivo a través del contacto con distintas asociaciones de pacientes y entidades relacionadas. Uno para el registro de datos sobre patrón de AF (HUNT1-PAQ), y otro, específico para evaluar la QoL en supervivientes de cáncer de mama (FACT-B). Una vez se alcanzó el número de respuestas que se había considerado mínimo para que la muestra fuera representativa de la población española de SCM, se realizó un análisis descriptivo de los resultados. Para el segundo objetivo (Estudio 2) se realizó una intervención experimental, en el que se aplicó, a SCM, un programa de ejercicio, en el que se combinó un programa de IMT con un entrenamiento de fuerza con cargas ligeras. Las participantes, fueron asignadas a un grupo intervención (realizando el IMT) y un grupo placebo, realizando todas ellas el entrenamiento de fuerza. Entre las valoraciones seleccionadas, se administró un cuestionario específico de análisis del nivel de fatiga (FACIT-F). El Estudio 1 reveló que las supervivientes de cáncer de mama españolas, no cumplían con las recomendaciones mínimas de actividad física propuestas por las principales organizaciones internacionales. Por otro lado, el análisis de correlaciones realizado, mostró que el índice de masa corporal (IMC) y la intensidad del ejercicio, eran las variables más relacionadas con la QoL de las SCM españolas. Adicionalmente, se propuso el cuestionario HUNT1-PAQ como herramienta de fácil aplicación, en el ámbito clínico, para evaluar el nivel de actividad física de las supervivientes de cáncer de mama. Finalmente, los resultados del Estudio 2 mostraron un incremento en la puntuación del cuestionario FACIT-F en el grupo experimental, que había modificado su presión inspiratoria máxima tras 6 semanas de IMT. Esto muestra que el IMT es una herramienta segura, viable y efectiva en la reducción del nivel de CRF de las supervivientes de cáncer de mama.
Article
Introduction Movement velocity (MV) has been featured as a more accurate and stable variable for resistance exercise (RE) monitoring. However, its application in RE prescription based on self-selected MV (MVss) is not possible because the benefits were evaluated only in the maximal intended MV practice context. Thus, the objective of this study was to verify the validity and reliability of MVss as a performance measure in RE. Methods A group of 41 people (28.75 ± 10.06 years, 77.25 ± 9.04 kg, 1.76 ± 0.06 m for men and 30.25 ± 15.97 years, 62.96 ± 14.31 kg, 1.65 ± 0.06 for women) volunteered to participate in this study, and their performances were evaluated in knee extension and close grip pull-down, using a rotary position transducer. Results In fact, the results presented evidence of concurrent validity of MVss, although its predictive validity must be questioned (R² = 0.5; P < 0.05). Moreover, two points of performance transitions seem to exist, which could characterize three distinct zones of effort. Additionally, performances in both RE presented reasonable indicatives of reliability in consecutive evaluations (typical error = 0.05–0.07 m/s), suggesting the existence of minimal MVss thresholds. Despite the positive analyses of validity and reliability, practical applications of the MVss thresholds proposed here should be viewed with caution for RE monitoring in the individual context, taking into account the real capability to discriminate maximal and submaximal performances not supported by average-based comparisons.
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In strength training, personalised strength training (autoregulation) approaches have been used to individualise exercise programs with monitoring an for dynamic adjustment based on their responses to training. While this transition from tradition-based training to evidence-based training framework has been an improvement in training practices, we argue that the future of strength training will also incorporate deep learning models powered by data. We refer to this data-driven framework as precision strength training inspired by the similar modeling frameworks used in precision medicine. In contrast to current personalised training in which the acquired athlete data is often subject to human expert decision-making, we are anticipating the rise of human-in-the-loop systems with an augmented coach who will be doing decisions collaboratively with the machine. Similar to other precision frameworks, such as precision health, we envision such a future to take decades to be realised and we focus here on practical short-term targets on a way to long-term realisation. In this chapter, we will review the measurement technology needed for continuous data acquisition from an individual during training/physical activity, how to acquire these datasets for the development of such systems and, how a proof-of-concept system could be developed for powerlifting training with applicability to general strength and conditioning (S&C) and physical rehabilitation purposes. Additionally, we will evaluate how the user experience (UX) of the system feedback and visualisation could be designed.
Chapter
Resistance training (RT) is one of the most popular methods of exercise for improving physical fitness. The current interest in RT by women is evidenced by the great number of women who now train and the growth of female training contests. It is well documented that long-term systematic RT causes increased muscle strength and cardiovascular function. Regarding women, evidence has shown other related benefits such as an increased bone mineral density, improvements in maternal health and perinatal outcomes during pregnancy, changes in body composition, improvements in health-related outcomes in old age, and the treatment and risk reduction for multiple chronic diseases. In this chapter, we will cover the importance of RT training in women and its associated increase in general physical fitness and so in quality of life. We will describe the physiological mechanisms related to resistance training in women, and some gender differences. We will also describe the main effects and characteristics of RT programs in women, and focus on the potential benefits of resistance exercise during pregnancy and post-partum. Finally, we will try to provide some recommendations specific to women RT based on current research.
Chapter
Currently, velocity-based training (VBT) is one of the hot topics in sport science and among strength and conditioning coaches. However, its wide use has spread some misunderstandings of the fundamental concepts of this methodology. It should be highlighted that this is not a new training method, but rather, a new approach that enables more accurate, frequent, and objective control of resistance training intensity and volume. The VBT approach is no other thing than recording lifting velocity every repetition during resistance training. The quantification of actual repetition velocities achieved during resistance training sessions provides a more consistent and precise understanding of training effects, opening up the possibility to establish causal relationships between stimuli and response, which is one of the main and most important targets of research and practice in sport science. As such, VBT can be defined as a resistance training method that uses movement velocity to improve training process and enhance training effects, via a deeper understanding of the input signal (actual training load) and the output signal (changes in performance). Through this chapter we will see how VBT contributes to improve the resistance training methodology, as well as discuss its potential benefits, limitations, and practical implications.
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Understanding how loading affects power production in resistance training is a key step in identifying the most optimal way of training muscular power - an essential trait in most sporting movements. Twelve elite male sailors with extensive strength-training experience participated in a comparison of kinematics and kinetics from the upper body musculature, with upper body push (bench press) and pull (bench pull) movements performed across loads of 10-100% of one repetition maximum (1RM). 1RM strength and force were shown to be greater in the bench press, while velocity and power outputs were greater for the bench pull across the range of loads. While power output was at a similar level for the two movements at a low load (10% 1RM), significantly greater power outputs were observed for the bench pull in comparison to the bench press with increased load. Power output (Pmax) was maximized at higher relative loads for both mean and peak power in the bench pull (78.6 +/- 5.7% and 70.4 +/- 5.4% of 1RM) compared to the bench press (53.3 +/- 1.7% and 49.7 +/- 4.4% of 1RM). Findings can most likely be attributed to differences in muscle architecture, which may have training implications for these muscles.
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The performance of ten elite powerlifters were analyzed in a simulated competition environment using three-dimensional cinematography and surface electromyography while bench pressing approximately 80% of maximum, a maximal load, and an unsuccessful supramaximal attempt. The resultant moment arm (from the sagittal and transverse planes) of the weight about the shoulder axis decreased throughout the upward movement of the bar. The resultant moment arm of the weight about the elbow axis decreased throughout the initial portion of the ascent of the bar, recording a minimum value during the sticking region, and subsequently increased throughout the remainder of the ascent of the bar. The electromyograms produced by the prime mover muscles (sternal portion of pectoralis major, anterior deltoid, long head of triceps brachii) achieved maximal activation at the commencement of the ascent phase of the lift and maintained this level essentially unchanged throughout the upward movement of the bar. The sticking region, therefore, did not appear to be caused by an increase in the moment arm of the weight about the shoulder or elbow joints or by a minimization of muscular activity during this region. A possible mechanism which envisages the sticking region as a force-reduced transition phase between a strain energy-assisted acceleration phase and a mechanically advantageous maximum strength region is postulated.
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The efficient coordination of agonist and antagonist muscles is one of the important early adaptations in resistance training responsible for large increases in strength. Weak antagonist muscles may limit speed of movement; consequently, strengthening them leads to an increase in agonist muscle movement speed. However, the effect of combining agonist and antagonist muscle exercises into a power training session has been largely unexplored. The purpose of this study was to determine if a training complex consisting of contrasting agonist and antagonist muscle exercises would result in an acute increase in power output in the agonist power exercise. Twenty-four college-aged rugby league players who were experienced in combined strength and power training served as subjects for this study. They were equally assigned to an experimental (Antag) or control (Con) group and were no different in age, height, body mass, strength, or maximal power. Power output was assessed during bench press throws with a 40-kg resistance (BT P40) with the Plyometric Power System training device. After warming up, the Con group performed the BT P40 tests 3 minutes apart to determine if any acute augmentation to power output could occur without intervention. The Antag group also performed the BT P40 tests; however, an intervention strategy of a set of bench pulls, which is an antagonistic action to the bench throw, was performed between tests to determine if this would acutely affect power output during the second BT P40 test. Although the power output for the Con group remained unaltered between test occasions, the significant 4.7% increase for the Antag group indicates that a strategy of alternating agonist and antagonist muscle exercises may acutely increase power output during complex power training. This result may affect power training and specific warm-up strategies used in ballistic sports activities, with increased emphasis placed upon the antagonist muscle groups.
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A great deal of literature has investigated the effects of various resistance training programmes on strength and power changes. Surprisingly, however, our understanding of the stimuli that affect adaptation still remains relatively unexplained. It is thought that strength and power adaptation is mediated by mechanical stimuli, that is the kinematics and kinetics associated with resistance exercise (e.g. forces, contraction duration, power and work), and their interaction with other hormonal and metabolic factors. However, the effect of different combinations of kinematic and kinetic variables and their contribution to adaptation is unclear. The mechanical response to single repetitions has been investigated by a number of researchers; however, it seems problematic to extrapolate the findings of this type of research to the responses associated with a typical resistance training session. That is, resistance training is typified by multiple repetitions, sets and exercises, rest periods of varying durations and different movement techniques (e.g. controlled and explosive). Understanding the mechanical stimuli afforded by such loading schemes would intuitively lead to a better appreciation of how various mechanical stimuli affect adaptation. It will be evident throughout this article that very little research has adopted such an approach; hence our understanding in this area remains rudimentary at best. One should therefore remain cognizant of the limitations that exist in the interpretation of research in this field. We contend that strength and power research needs to adopt a set kinematic and kinetic analysis to improve our understanding of how to optimise strength and power.
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The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of isoinertial assessment to monitor training effects. Both parametric and curve analysis of the results were used to underline the specificity of maximal strength and maximal velocity resistance training methods. Twenty-four untrained subjects were randomly assigned into three groups: a maximal strength-training group (heavy loads: 80% to 98% of the one repetition maximum [1-RM]), a maximal velocity-training group (light loads: 25% to 50% of 1-RM) and a control group. All the subjects were tested in bench press exercises before and after the 6-week training period. An isoinertial dynamometer was used to assess velocity and power at four increasing loads: 35%, 50%, 70% and 95% of the 1-RM load. Post-test protocol also included a trial at 105% of the 1-RM load. Isoinertial assessment demonstrated for both training groups significant gains at each load. Some specific adaptations appeared: strength training presented a greater increase for average power (+49%, P<0.001) and average velocity (+48%, P<0.001) at 95% of 1-RM, while velocity training emerged as a more effective way to improve performance at 35% and 50% of 1-RM (+11 to 22%) in comparison with strength training (+7 to 12%). The analysis of power and velocity curves specified that strength training enhanced performance earlier in the movement, while velocity training extended the propulsive action at the end of movement. The original combination of parametric and curve isoinertial assessment appears to be a relevant method for monitoring specific training effects. The complementarity of both strength and velocity training programmes underlined in this study could lead to practical applications in profiling training programmes.