Epigenetic silencing of miR-126 contributes to tumor invasion and angiogenesis in colorectal cancer

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Gastroenterology, Department of Gastroenterology, Nangfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510515, P.R. China.
Oncology Reports (Impact Factor: 2.3). 07/2013; 30(4). DOI: 10.3892/or.2013.2633
Source: PubMed


microRNAs (miRNAs) have been reported to play a crucial role in regulating a variety of genes pivotal for tumor metastasis. miR-126 is well known as one of the angiogenesis regulatory miRNAs. Recent studies have reported controversial roles of miR-126 in tumor progression. In this study, we sought to investigate the potential roles of miR-126 in colorectal cancer (CRC). By real-time PCR, miR-126 was shown to be downregulated in primary CRC tissues and cell lines. Restoration of miR-126 in CRC cells inhibited cell growth, migration and invasion. Using both in silico prediction and immunoblotting, we found that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was a target of miR-126. The interaction of miR-126 on the 3'UTR of VEGF mRNA was validated by luciferase reporter assay. Mechanistically, we found that the silencing of miR-126 was induced by promoter methyl-ation of its host gene, EGFL7. Treatment with 5-aza-CdR restored miR-126 expression and thereby led to a decline in VEGF expression. Functionally, due to suppression of VEGF, enhanced miR-126 expression inhibited tumor neovasculature triggered by CRC cells. In conclusion, our findings suggest that DNA methylation-induced silencing of miR-126 contributes, at least in part, to tumor invasion and angiogenesis in CRC, through upregulation of VEGF expression. miR-126 may be a potential target for the therapeutic strategy against CRC.

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    • "MiR-126 has been previously shown to be down-regulated in different types of tumors [33] [34] [35] [36] [37], including MM [7] [8], and was found to be significantly lower in cancerous stromal cells [38]. It was reported that silencing of miR-126 was induced by promoter methylation of its host gene EGFL7 [9] [10] [11]. Clinical data analyses have demonstrated a correlation between reduced miR-126 expression and poor prognosis of breast cancer patients [39], indicating that expression of the miR-126 gene may undergo changes during disease progression. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a highly aggressive tumor with poor prognosis. A major challenge is the development and application of early and highly reliable diagnostic marker(s). Serum biomarkers, such as 'soluble mesothelin-related proteins' (SMRPs), is the most studied and frequently used in MM. However, the low sensitivity of SMRPs for early MM limits its value; therefore, additional biomarkers are required. In this study, two epigenetically regulated markers in MM (microRNA-126, miR-126, and methylated thrombomodulin promoter, Met-TM) were combined with SMRPs and evaluated as a potential strategy to detect MM at an early stage. Materials and methods: A total of 188 subjects, including 45 MM patients, 99 asbestos-exposed subjects, and 44 healthy controls were prospectively enrolled, serum samples collected, and serum levels of SMRPs, miR-126 and Met-TM evaluated. Logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the diagnostic value of the three biomarkers. Using this approach, the performance of the '3-biomarker classifier' was tested by calculating the overall probability score of the MM and control samples, respectively, and the ROC curve was generated. Results and conclusion: The combination of the three biomarkers was the best predictor to differentiate MM patients from asbestos-exposed subjects and healthy controls. The accuracy and cancer specificity was confirmed in a second validation cohort and lung cancer population. We propose that the combination of the two epigenetic biomarkers with SMRPs as a diagnosis for early MM overcomes the limitations of using SMRPs alone.
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    • "MicroRNA-126 (miR-126) originates from a common precursor structure located within intron 7 of epidermal growth factor-like domain 7 (EGFL7) [14]. It is highly expressed in vascular endothelial cells and functions as a key positive regulator to promote angiogenesis in response to angiogenic growth factors by repressing negative regulators of signal transduction pathways [15]. Recent studies have found the involvement of miR-126 in various human malignancies. "
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    ABSTRACT: Numerous studies have suggested that microRNA-126 (miR-126) is involved in development of various cancer types as well as in malignant proliferation and invasion. However, its role in human prostate cancer (PCa) is still unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate miR-126 expression in PCa and its prognostic value for PCa patients undergoing radical prostatectomy. A series of 128 cases with PCa were evaluated for the expression levels of miR-126 by quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (qRT-PCR). Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to investigate the correlation between miR-126 expression and prognosis of PCa patients. Compared with non-cancerous prostate tissues, the expression level of miR-126 was significantly decreased in PCa tissues (PCa vs. non-cancerous prostate: 1.05 +/- 0.63 vs. 2.92 +/- 0.98, P < 0.001). Additionally, the loss of miR-126 expression was dramatically associated with aggressive clinical pathological features, including advanced pathological stage (P = 0.001), positive lymph node metastasis (P = 0.006), high preoperative PSA (P = 0.003) and positive angiolymphatic invasion (P = 0.001). Moreover, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that PCa patients with low miR-126 expression have shorter biochemical recurrence (BCR)-free survival than those with high miR-126 expression. Furthermore, multivariate analysis indicated that miR-126 expression was an independent prognostic factor for BCR-free survival after radical prostatectomy. These findings suggest for the first time that the loss of miR-126 expression may play a positive role in the malignant progression of PCa. More importantly, the downregulation of miR-126 may serve as an independent predictor of BCR-free survival in patients with PCa.Virtual slides: The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here:
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    ABSTRACT: Recent evidence shows that altered microRNA-126 (miR-126) expression is implicated in the progression of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the precise roles and mechanisms of miR-126 in CRC remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the roles of miR-126 in CRC cells and to elucidate miR-126-mediated mechanisms in CRC cells. First, miR-126 expression was analyzed using qRT-PCR in 4 human CRC cell lines (SW480, SW620, HT-29 and HCT-116). Furthermore, the biological properties of miR-126 in CRC cells in vitro were examined by applying Cell Counting Kit 8, cell cycle, cell apoptosis and transwell assays. The mechanisms and pathways of miR-126-mediated in CRC cells were detected by using qRT-PCR, western blotting and luciferase reporter assay. We found that miR-126 overexpression inhibited cell proliferation, migration and invasion, and induced cell arrest in the G0/G1 phase of CRC cells, suggesting that miR-126 functions as a tumor suppressor in CRC cells. Furthermore, we identified the CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) as a target of miR-126, and showed that it was negatively regulated by miR-126. We demonstrated that miR-126-mediated tumor suppression might be partly dependent on AKT and ERK1/2 signaling pathways. In conclusion, our data revealed that miR-126 functions as a tumor suppressor in CRC cells by regulating CXCR4 expression via the AKT and ERK1/2 signaling pathways and might be a novel target for therapeutic strategies in CRC.
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