High-Risk Human Papillomavirus DNA Detected in Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Urinary Bladder
From the Department of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, Florida (Drs Chapman-Fredricks, Cioffi-Lavina, Garcia-Buitrago, Gomez-Fernandez, Ganjei-Azar, and Jordà)Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine (Impact Factor: 2.84). 08/2013; 137(8):1088-93. DOI: 10.5858/arpa.2012-0122-OA
Context.-We reported previously that more than one-third (37%) of primary bladder squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) demonstrate diffuse p16 immunoreactivity independent of gender. This observation made us question whether p16 overexpression in bladder carcinoma is due to human papillomavirus (HPV)-dependent mechanisms. Objectives.-To determine whether the presence of high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) DNA could be detected in these tumor cells. Design.-Fourteen cases of primary bladder SCC, which were positive for p16 by immunohistochemistry, were probed for the detection of HR-HPV by in situ hybridization and the signal amplification Invader assay. Samples positive for detection of HR-HPV by Invader assay were amplified by using HR-HPV type-specific primers, and amplification products were DNA sequenced. Results.-Detection of HR-HPV by the in situ hybridization method was negative in all cases (0 of 14). However, in 3 of 14 cases (21.4%), the presence of HR-HPV DNA was detected with the Cervista HPV HR Invader assay, which was followed by identification of genotype. All positive cases were confirmed by using HR-HPV type-specific amplification followed by DNA sequencing. Identified HR-HPV genotypes included HPV 16 (2 cases) and HPV 35 (1 case). Conclusions.-High-risk HPV DNA is detectable in a subset of primary bladder SCCs. Based on the well-documented carcinogenic potential of HR-HPV, there is a necessity for additional studies to investigate the role of HR-HPV in bladder carcinogenesis.
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ABSTRACT: Squamous differentiation is the most common variant histology in urothelial carcinoma and may have effects on clinical outcome. Inconsistencies in reporting variant histologies in urothelial carcinoma are well documented. Immunohistochemical and molecular markers may help identify tumors with squamous differentiation beyond light microscopy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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ABSTRACT: Existing evidence suggests a possible role of viruses in human bladder cancer development. Recently, Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) was reported to be the most frequently detected virus in bladder cancer tissue from Croatian patients on screening with the Lawrence Livermore Microbial Detection Array. In the current study, to investigate the functional roles of KSHV in bladder cancer, five bladder cancer cell lines were infected with KSHV and their tumour progression-associated changes investigated. Four KSHV-infected bladder cancer cell lines were established; two invasive bladder cancer cell lines showed higher proliferation rates than uninfected cells. Additionally, these KSHV-infected invasive bladder cancer cells showed a greater number of colonies, which were also significantly larger than those of uninfected cells, in a soft agar colony formation assay. cDNA microarray analysis showed that various genes associated with cell proliferation and cancer development were upregulated in these KSHV-infected bladder cancer cells. Taken together, we suggest that KSHV infection affects the proliferation of a subset of invasive bladder cancer cells and may therefore play a role in their oncogenic progression. Further studies are required to elucidate the exact mechanism used by KSHV to promote bladder cancer progression.
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