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Chemical and Process Engineering Research www.iiste.org
ISSN 22247467 (Paper) ISSN 22250913 (Online)
Vol.12, 2013
1
Optimization of Extraction Process of Carob Bean Gum Purified
from Carob Seeds by Response Surface Methodology
Hicham El Batal, Aziz Hasib
*
Laboratory of Environment and Valorization of Agroresources; Faculty of Science and Technology of
BeniMellal; University of Sultan Moulay Slimane; Morocco
*Email of the corresponding author: azhasib@yahoo.fr
Abstract
The carob product most widely used, especially for the food industry, is the carob bean gum (CBG), or locust
bean gum (LBG). This gum comes from the endosperm of the seed and chemically is a polysaccharide, a
galactomannan. It is used as thickener, stabilizer, emulsifier and gelling agent.
Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize the extraction of CBG from Moroccan carob
seeds. A central composite design was used for experimental design and analysis of the results searching for the
optimal extraction conditions: Extraction temperature, extraction time and water to endosperm seeds ratio. Based
on the RSM analysis, optimum conditions were: temperature 97°C, time 36 min and water to endosperm of seeds
ratio of (197:1). Under the optimized conditions, the experimental values were in close agreement with values
predicted by the model and for wish. Predicted yield of carob gum extracted is 69% of endosperm seeds.
Keywords: Carob bean gum; Extraction; Central composite design; Optimization experiment.
1. Introduction
Carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) is a typical tree of the semiarid environments in the Mediterranean area. This
species belongs to the subfamily Caesalpinioideae of the Leguminosae family (Biner et al. 2007). It produces
edible pods used as a fodder for breeding cattle; it has also a long history of application as a source of health
products. World production is estimated at about 315 000 tons per year, produced from about 200 000 hectares
with very variable yields depending on the cultivar, region, and farming practices (Makris & Kefalas 2004) and
the main producers for (pulp, seeds) respectively are Spain (36%, 28%), Morocco (24%, 38%), Italy (10%, 8%),
Portugal (10%, 8%), Greece (8%, 6%), Turkey (4%, 6%) and Cyprus (3%, 2%) (Ait chitt et al. 2007).
The two main carob pod constituents are pulp (90%) and seeds (10%) by weight (Tous et al. 1995). Carob pulp
is high (48–56%) in total sugar content that include mainly sucrose, glucose, fructose and maltose. In addition it
contains about 18% cellulose and hemicelluloses, (3–4%) protein and (0.4–0.8%) lipids (Santos et al. 2005).
Also, ripe carob pods contain a large amount of condensed tannins (16–20%, d.b.). The pulp of carob pods is
used extensively as a raw material for the production of syrups (Petit & Pinilla 1995; El Batal et al. 2011;
El Batal et al. 2013 ) and crystallized sucrose for the food industry. On the other hand, carob seed constituents
are seed coat (23–33%), endosperm (42–56%) and embryo (20–25%) by weight (Dakia et al. 2008).
Carob bean gum (CBG), is the refined endosperm of the seed of the carob pods (Ceratonia siliqua) by extraction
of the seeds with water or aqueous alkaline solutions. The extraction of the gum from the seeds is a slow,
difficult process, due principally to the hardness of the seed coat. Many bibliographical studies showed the effect
of the conditions of extraction on the yield of extracted polysaccharides (XuJie & Wei 2008; RenJie 2008; Qiao
et al. 2009; FiratligilDurmus & Evranuz 2010).
CBG is a galactomannan composed of a linear chain 1→4 linked βDmannopyranosyl units, with αD
galactopyranosyl residues 1→6 joined as irregularly spaced side chain (Belitz & Grosch 1999).
Featuring different physicochemical properties, CBG is a versatile material used for many applications: they are
excellent stiffeners and stabilizers of emulsions, and the absence of toxicity allows their use in the textile,
pharmaceutical, biomedical, cosmetics, nutrition sciences, and food industries (Srivastava & Kapoor 2005;
Vieira et al. 2007; Matthausa & Ozcanb 2011; Vilà et al. 2012; Karababaa & Coskunerb 2013).
An important application of this biopolymer is its ability to form very viscous solution at relatively low
concentration, to stabilize dispersion and emulsion and to replace fat in many dairy products. Carob gum
properties are generally unaffected by pH, salts, or heat processing because it is nonionic (Pollard et al. 2010; El
Batal et al. 2011). It is also compatible with other gums and thickening agents (carraghenan, agar, xanthan) to
form a more elastic and stronger gel (Puhan & Wielinga 1996). These properties of CBG allow its use as
interesting additives for several industries, in particular for the food industry.
The objective of the present work was to optimize and study the effect of extraction temperature, extraction time
and water to endosperm seeds ratio on the aqueous extraction yield of gum polysaccharide from carob seeds
using the response surface methodology (RSM) widely applied in the food industry to determine the effects of
several variables and optimize conditions.
Chemical and Process Engineering Research www.iiste.org
ISSN 22247467 (Paper) ISSN 22250913 (Online)
Vol.12, 2013
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2. Materials and methods
2.1. Samples
Samples of carob were collected during August–September, in 2009; from Morocco (BeniMellal region) in here
they grow naturally. Sample were taken from 60 pods and stored at ambient temperature.
Figure 1. Extraction process of carob been gum.
2.2. Extraction procedure
Figure 1 show the extraction and purification processes used in this work to obtain the purified CBG. The seeds
are dehusked by treating the kernels with thermal mechanical treatments, followed by milling and screening of
the peeled seeds to obtain the endosperm (native carob bean gum). The pretreated dry powder of crude carob
bean gum was extracted with distilled water (ratio of water to endosperm of seeds ranging from (100 to 300),
while the temperature of the water bath ranged from (70°C to 90°C), for a given time (extraction time ranging
from 20 to 60 min).
The solution and the solidphase were separated by centrifugation at (21875rpm, 1h). The Carob Bean Gum is
precipitated with one volume excess of isopropanol. The white fibrous precipitate formed was collected by
filtration with screen 45µm, and washed twice with isopropanol and with acetone. After drying under vacuum
overnight at 30°C, the precipitate was ground to a fine powder.
2.3 Experimental design
The extraction parameters were optimized using RSM (Myers & Montgomery, 1995). The central composite
design (CCD) was employed in this regard. The range and center point values of three independent variables
presented in Table 1 were based on the results of preliminary experiments and on the results of other authors
(Bouzouita et al. 2007; Pollard et al. 2010).
Table 1. Independent variables and their levels used for central composite rotatable design
1.68 1 0 1 1.68
Extraction temperature °C 63.18 70 80 90 96.81
Extraction time (min) 6.36 20 40 60 73.63
Ratio of water to endosperm of seeds 31.82 100 200 300 368.17
CCD in the experimental design consists of eight factorial points, six axial points and six replicates of the central
point (Table 2). Extraction temperature (X
1
), extraction time (X
2
) and ratio of water to endosperm of seeds (X
3
)
Chemical and Process Engineering Research www.iiste.org
ISSN 22247467 (Paper) ISSN 22250913 (Online)
Vol.12, 2013
3
were chosen for independent variables. Yield of polysaccharides was selected as the response for the
combination of the independent variables given in (Table 2). Experimental runs were randomized to minimize
the effects of unexpected variability in the observed responses.
The variables were coded according to the equation:
XXXx
ii
∆−= /)(
0
(1)
Where is the (dimensionless) coded value of the variable X
i
, X
0
is the value of X
i
at the centre point, and ∆X is
the step change. Table 3 shows the actual design of experiments. The behavior of the system was explained by
the following second degree polynomial equation:
∑∑∑∑
= +===
+++=
2
1
3
1
3
1
2
3
1
0
i ij
jiij
i
iii
i
ii
XXAXAXAAY
(2)
2.4. Statistical analyses
Analysis of the experimental design and calculation of predicted data were carried out using NEMRODW
Software to estimate the response of the independent variables. Subsequently, three additional confirmation
experiments were conducted to verify the validity of the statistical experimental strategies.
3. Result and discussion
3.1. Preliminary study
Singlefactor experimental designs (extracting temperature, extracting times, and ratio of water to endosperm of
seeds ratio) were carried out before RSM experiments, in order to determine the experimental fields.
3.1.1. Temperature
To investigate the effect of extracting temperature on the yield of carob been gum, extraction process was carried
out using different extraction temperature of 60, 70, 80, 90 and 100°C, while other extracting parameters were
fitted as following: extracting time 40 min and extracting ratio of water to endosperm of seeds 200. As shown in
Figure 2, there was an increasing trend in the yield of carob gum from 60 to 90°C. This tendency was in
agreement with other reports in extracting polysaccharides (Vinogradov et al. 2003).
The maximum yield (68.7%) of polysaccharides was observed when extraction temperature was 95°C; the effect
is not significant when extracting temperature is higher than 90°C. Therefore, 80°C was selected as the centre
point of extracting temperature in the RSM experiments as higher temperature will bring about the energy waste
and cost increase for extraction process.
Figure 2. Effect of extraction temperature on extraction yield (Time = 40 min; Ratio of water to endosperm of
seeds = 200).
3.1.2. Time
Extraction time is another factor that would influence the extraction efficiency and selectivity of the fluid. It was
reported that a long extraction time also presents a positive effect on the yield of polysaccharides (Hou & Chen
2008). Extraction was carried out at different time conditions (10 to 70 min) while other extraction parameters
were fixed at temperature = 80 °C and ratio of water to endosperm of seeds = 200.
The effect of different time on extraction yield of gum polysaccharides (CBG) is shown in Figure 3. When
extraction time varied from 10 to 40 min, the variance of extraction yield was relatively rapid, and CBG yield
reached a maximum at 4060 min, and then became stable as the extraction proceeded. This indicated that 60
min was sufficient to obtain maximum yield of CBG extraction.
Chemical and Process Engineering Research www.iiste.org
ISSN 22247467 (Paper) ISSN 22250913 (Online)
Vol.12, 2013
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Figure 3. Effect of extraction time on extraction yield (Temperature = 80°C; Ratio of water to raw material =
200).
3.1.3. Ratio of water to endosperm of seeds
The effect of different ratio of water to endosperm of seeds on extraction yield of polysaccharides is shown in
Figure 4. The extraction was carried out with ratios which vary between 50 and 350 under the following
conditions of extraction: temperature = 80°C and Time = 40 min.
Figure 4 shows that the CBG yield increased significantly from 56.3% to 63.9% as the ratio of water to the
endosperm of seeds increased from 50 to 350; this is due to the increase of the driving force for the mass transfer
of polysaccharides (Bendahou et al. 2007). However, when the ratio continued to increase, the extraction yields
no longer changed.
Figure 4. Effect of ratio of water to endosperm of seeds on extraction yield (Temperature = 80 °C; Time = 40
min).
3.2. Predicted model and statistical analysis
Table 3 shows the process variables and experimental data. The results of the analysis of variance, goodnessof
fit and the adequacy of the models are summarized. The percentage yield ranged from 54.3% to 69.1%. The
maximum value was found at the extraction temperature 96.82°C, extraction time 40 min and ratio of water to
endosperm of seeds 200. The application of RSM offers, based on parameter estimates, an empirical relationship
between the response variable (extraction yield of gum) and the test variables under consideration. By applying
multiple regression analysis on the experimental data, the response variable and the test variables are related by
the following secondorder polynomial equation (3):
Y=62.39 + 2.09
∗
X
1
+ 0.87
∗
X
2
+ 2.68
∗
X
3
 0.87
∗
X
1
∗
X
2
 1.30
∗
X
1
∗
X
3
+0.075
∗
X
∗
2
X
3
+ 1.08
∗
X
1
∗
X
1

0.32
∗
X
2
∗
X
2
– 0.89
∗
X
3
∗
X
3
Where X1, X
2
and X
3
were the coded values of the test variables: extracting temperature (°C), extracting time
(min) and ratio of water to endosperm of seeds, respectively.
Chemical and Process Engineering Research www.iiste.org
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Vol.12, 2013
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Table 2. The central composite experimental design (in actual level of three variables) employed for extraction
of CBG.
Run
Temperature
(X1)
Time
(X2)
Ratio of water to
endosperm of seeds
(X3)
∗
CBG yield (%)
Experimental Predicted
1 70 20 100 54.3 54.3
2 90 20 100 63.1 62.5
3 70 60 100 57.8 57.9
4 90 60 100 62.6 63.1
5 70 20 300 62.4 61.9
6 90 20 300 65.5 65.4
7 70 60 300 65.7 65 .4
8 90 60 300 65.8 65.8
9 63.18 40 200 62.1 62.4
10 96.81 40 200 69.1 69.1
11 80 6.36 200 60.1 58.9
12 80 73.63 200 63.2 62.4
13 80 40 31.82 55.6 55.6
14 80 40 368.17 64.5 64.4
15 80 40 200 62.4 62.4
16 80 40 200 62.5 62 .4
17 80 40 200 62.5 62 .4
18 80 40 200 62.0 62 .4
19 80 40 200 62.5 62 .4
20 80 40 200 62.4 62 .4
∗
% per report has one grams of crude CBG.
The statistical significance of regression equation was checked by Ftest, and the analysis of variance (ANOVA)
for response surface quadratic polynomial model was done by software Nemrodw. The ANOVA of quadratic
regression model demonstrated that the model was highly significant. And the Fisher’s Ftest had a very high
model Fvalue (396.72) and a very low Pvalue (P < 0.0001). The value of R
2
Adj
(0.9947) for Eq. (3) is
reasonably close to 1, and indicates a high degree of correlation between the observed and predicted values. A
very low value of coefficient of the variation (C.V.) (0.40 %) clearly indicated a very high degree of precision
and a good deal of reliability of the experimental values. The lackoffit measures the failure of the model to
represent the data in the experimental domain at points which are not included in the regression. The Fvalue
(2.28) and Pvalue (0.1938) of lackoffit implied the lackoffit was not significant relative to the pure error. It
indicates that the model equation is adequate for predicting the yield of carob gum under any combination of
values of the variables. The lackoffit measures the failure of the model to represent the data in the experimental
domain at points which are not included in the regression. The coefficient estimates of model equation, along
with the corresponding Pvalues, were presented in Table 3. The Pvalues are used as a tool to check the
significance of each coefficient, which also indicate the interaction strength between each independent variable.
Smaller the Pvalue is, more significant the corresponding coefficient is (Muralidhar et al. 2001). When value of
‘‘probability > F” is less than 0.05. It can be seen from this table that the linear coefficients (X
1
, X
2
, X
3
), a
quadratic term coefficient (X
1
2
, X
2
2
, X
3
2
) and cross product coefficients (X
1
* X
2
, X
1
* X
3
) were significant, with
very small P values (P < 0.01). The other term (X
2
* X
3
) are not significant (P > 0.05).
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Vol.12, 2013
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Table 3. Test of significance for regression coefficients
Effect
Coefficient
estimate
Standard
error Fvalue P value
X
1
2.0921 0.0672 968.8117 < 0.0001
X
2
0.8650 0.0672 165.6162 < 0.0001
X
3
2.6776 0.0672 1586.8752 < 0.0001
X
1
*X
1
1.0768 0.0654 99.2654 < 0.0001
X
2
*X
2
0.3197 0.0654 219.1133 0.0006
X
3
*X
3
0.8853 0.0654 0.7292 < 0.0001
X
1
*X
2
0.8750 0.0878 270.8269 < 0.0001
X
1
*X
3
1.3000 0.0878 23.8719 < 0.0001
X
2
*X
3
0.0750 0.0878 183.0890 0.4131
3.3. Response surface plot
The 3D response surfaces are the graphical representations of regression equation. They provide a method to
visualize the relationship between responses and experimental levels of each variable and the type of interactions
between two test variables. In the present study, the effects of the three factors as well as their interactive effects
on the extraction rate are shown in figure 5(a), figure 5(b).
Figure 5a denotes the three dimensional surfaces plots of effect of extraction temperature (X
1
) and the time of
extraction (X
2
) on response. As can be seen, enhancing the extraction temperature (X
1
) from 70 to 90°C could
increase the yield of CBG. Also, this increase is more significant on the yield of CBG when the time of
extraction (X
2
) is minimal. In the same way, the increase in the time of extraction from 20 to 60 min increases
the yield of CBG significantly when temperature of extraction (X1) is minimal.
Figure 5b shows the effect of extraction temperature (X
1
) and the ratio of water to endosperm of seeds (X
3
) on
the yield of polysaccharides. It was observed that yield of CBG increased with the increase in the temperature of
extraction (X
1
) from 70 to 90°C. Also, this increase is more significant on the yield of extraction when the ratio
of water to endosperm of seeds (X
3
) is minimal. In the same way, the increase in the ratio of water to endosperm
of seeds (X
3
) from 100 to 300 increases the yield of CBG significantly when temperature of extraction (X1) is
minimal.
Figure 5a. Response surface plots and showing the effect of extracting temperature (X
1
) and time (X
2
) on the
yield of CBG.
Chemical and Process Engineering Research www.iiste.org
ISSN 22247467 (Paper) ISSN 22250913 (Online)
Vol.12, 2013
7
Figure 5b. Response surface plots and showing the effect of extracting temperature (X
1
) and ratio of water to
endosperm of seeds (X
3
) on the yield of CBG.
3.4. Optimization of extracting parameters and validation of the model
The optimum conditions were: Temperature 97°C, time 36 min and water to endosperm of seeds ratio at (197:1).
To ensure the predicted result was not biased toward the practical value, experimental rechecking was performed
using this deduced optimal condition. A mean value of 69.7 ± 1.03 (N = 3), obtained from real experiments,
demonstrated the validation of the RSM model. The good correlation between these results confirmed that the
response model was adequate for reflecting the expected optimization
4. Conclusions
The performance of the extraction of carob bean gum was studied with a statistical method based on the response
surface methodology in order to identify and quantify the variables which may maximize the yield. The three
variables chosen, namely extraction Temperature, extraction time, and ratio of water to endosperm of seeds ratio
all have a positive influence on the yield of polysaccharides using the extraction method. The optimal conditions
obtained by RSM for production of CBG include the following parameters: extraction temperature 97°C,
extraction time 36 min, and ratio of water to endosperm of seeds 197.
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