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A Case Study of Usability Testing - the SUMI Evaluation Approach of the EducaNext Portal

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Abstract

The new challenge for designers and Human-computer interaction (HCI) researchers is to develop software tools and applications for effective e-learning. Software usability is one aspect of Human-computer interaction that can benefit from knowledge of the user and their tasks. However, in practice not much attention is given to this issue during testing. Evaluators often do not have the knowledge, instruments and/or time available to handle usability. One set of methods for determining whether an application enables users to achieve their predetermined goals effectively and efficiently is usability evaluation with end users. The paper presents the results of empirical study of usability evaluation which was based on SUMI (Software Usability Measurement Inventory) questionnaires. The software application tested was a multilingual educational portal EducaNext.
A Case Study of Usability Testing – the SUMI Evaluation Approach of
the EducaNext Portal
TANJA ARH, BORKA JERMAN BLAŽIČ
Laboratory for Open Systems and Networks
Jožef Stefan Institute
Jamova cesta 39, 1000 Ljubljana
SLOVENIA
{tanja, borka}@e5.ijs.si http://www.e5.ijs.si
Abstract: - The new challenge for designers and Human–computer interaction (HCI) researchers is to develop
software tools and applications for effective e-learning. Software usability is one aspect of Human–computer
interaction that can benefit from knowledge of the user and their tasks. However, in practice not much attention
is given to this issue during testing. Evaluators often do not have the knowledge, instruments and/or time
available to handle usability. One set of methods for determining whether an application enables users to
achieve their predetermined goals effectively and efficiently is usability evaluation with end users. The paper
presents the results of empirical study of usability evaluation which was based on SUMI (Software Usability
Measurement Inventory) questionnaires. The software application tested was a multilingual educational portal
EducaNext.
Key-Words: - human computer interaction (HCI), EducaNext educational portal, distance learning, software
usability measurement inventory (SUMI), usability, end users
1 Introduction
Despite the fact that there has been an abundance of
e-learning websites that offer education over the
Internet over the past decade, their usability,
educational effectiveness, practical efficiency, and
general level of satisfaction with such websites on
the Internet [13] are still not yet well known or
understood. In the literature, there are numerous
recommendations for the design of pages, text,
graphics, and navigation in web-based systems, but
in spite of that, it is still recognized that “severe
usability problems are present and common” [14].
Despite the increased awareness of these problems
when adopting internet-based education (e.g.,
Johnson & Hegarty) [15] the usability of e-learning
sites has still not been sufficiently explored and
solutions not yet provided. At the same time,
usability is becoming an area that is beginning to
touch those who would not previously have thought
that understanding these issues was relevant to their
work, i.e. e-learning service providers and web
designers. It is becoming apparent that for e-
learning websites to be usable, an appreciation of
what students expect from the site, how they learn,
what motivates them, and what helps them to
achieve their learning goals is needed.
These are some of the realizations that led us to
perform the experiment described in this paper and
to analyze the results. The experiments were
undertaken as part of a FOCUS-SIAT project – e-
learning and training in the field of cross border
cooperation centered on the issues of introducing
internet-based education in a region that suffers
from a low level of business-oriented usage of the
Internet and related e-services together with a
relatively high level of unemployment. We found
the environment and the context of this study
extremely suitable for an evaluation and assessment
of the usability of the e-learning system, offered
over the Internet, and to try to identify the
“threshold of acceptability beyond which users can
begin to interact productively and voluntarily
instead of simply acting and reacting” [16].
2 Current Approaches to Usability
Evaluation
The usability testing is of key importance in the
human-computer interaction. It is one of the basic
elements used to verify the user interface quality
[7]. There are many definitions of usability. The de
facto definition of usability is based on the implicit
assumption that users are rational agents, interacting
with a system by using their knowledge and
deriving information from the system’s reactions to
achieve their specific goals [12]. In usability testing,
which is one of the mostly applied methods for
identifying usability problems of a system, test
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participants are usually required to perform specific
tasks with the system for which they have
incomplete or even erroneous concepts. We claim
that these imperfect concepts can presumably be
improved when users engage in achieving tasks with
the system, given their ability to reason, learn and
reflect. The improved mental models of the system
will better support the subsequent interaction; users
can then accomplish their tasks more effectively and
efficiently. While we seldom query the take-for-
granted assumption about the rationality of human
behaviours, there is a concern to what extent is this
assumption applicable to users of ever-changing
information technologies (IT). How learnable
should a system be so that novice users can adapt
their conceptual models to situational demands with
ease and effectiveness? Indeed, learnability is one of
the quality metrics to be evaluated in usability tests.
However, it is usually measured in terms of
subjective perceptions with the use of a
retrospective questionnaire (e.g., Kirakowski &
Corbett) [1] rather than objective performances such
as time-on-task and error rate.
All of the definitions, including ISO 9241/11[4],
consider multiple factors, such as ease of learning,
ease of use, effectiveness of the system, user
satisfaction; the definitions connect those factors to
the impact on humans. There are many evaluation
methods [8] used in usability evaluations. To ensure
a software project has the essential usability
characteristics, we divide the usability methods into
inspection methods (without end users) and test
methods (with end users).
Inspection methods are methods for identifying
usability problems and improving the usability of an
interface design by checking it against established
standards. These methods include heuristic
evaluation, cognitive walkthroughs, and action
analysis. Heuristic evaluation (HE) is the most
common informal method. It involves having
usability specialists’ judge whether each dialogue or
other interactive element follows established
usability principles [9]. A cognitive walkthrough
(CW) is a task-oriented method by which the analyst
explores the system’s functionalities; that is, CW
simulates step-by-step user behaviour for a given
task [10]. The action analysis method is divided into
formal and back-of-the-envelope action analysis; in
both, the emphasis is more on what the practitioners
do than on what they say they do. The formal
method requires close inspection of the action
sequences a user performs to complete a task. [11].
Testing with end users is the most fundamental
usability method and is in some sense indispensable.
It provides direct information about how people use
our systems and their exact problems with a specific
interface. There are several methods for testing
usability, the most common being thinking aloud,
field observation, and questionnaires. Thinking
aloud (THA) [7] may be the single most valuable
usability engineering method. It involves having an
end user continuously thinking out loud while using
the system. By verbalizing their thoughts, the test
users enable us to understand how they view the
system, which makes it easier to identify the end
users’ major misconceptions. Field observation is
the simplest of all methods. It involves visiting one
or more users in their workplaces. Notes must be
taken as unobtrusively as possible to avoid
interfering with their work. Many aspects of
usability can best be studied by querying the users.
This is especially true for issues related to the
subjective satisfaction of the users and their possible
anxieties, which are difficult to measure objectively.
Questionnaires are useful for studying how end
users use the system and their preferred features, but
need some experience to design.
3 Aspects of User Satisfaction
Studies have shown that satisfaction can be
subdivided into five aspects [1]:
Efficiency: this refers to the user feeling that
the software is enabling the taks(s) to be
performed in a quick, effective and economical
manner or, at the opposite extreme, that the
software is getting in the way of performance;
Affect: this is a psychological term for
emotional feeling. In this context it refers to the
user feeling mentally stimulated and pleasant or
the opposite as a result of interacting with the
software;
Helpfulness: this refers to the user's
perceptions that the software communicates in
a helpful way and assists in the resolution of
operational problems;
Control: degree to which the user feels that he,
and not the product, is setting the pace;
Learnability: ease with which a user can get
started and learn new features of the product;
In the next chapters the approach and methodology
used are described in more details.
4 SUMI Evaluation
The method selection often depends on what is
being evaluated, the software and hardware used,
users that are tested and the research budget. In our
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case, we used the Software Usability Measurement
Inventory (SUMI) method [1], which was developed
in the project 'Metrics for Usability Standards in
Computing' (MUSiC, CEC ESPRIT project number
5429) by the Human Factors Research Group
(HFRG), University College, Cork.
Software Usability Measurement Inventory
(SUMI) is a solution to the recurring problem of
measuring users' perception of the usability of
software. It provides a valid and reliable method for
the comparison of (competing) products and
differing versions of the same product, as well as
providing diagnostic information for future
developments. SUMI provides an objective way of
assessing user satisfaction with software.
This generic usability tool is comprised of a
validated 50-item paper-based questionnaire in
which respondents score each item on a three-point
scale (i.e., agree, undecided, disagree). The
following sample shows the kind of questions that
are asked:
This software responds too slowly to inputs;
I would recommend this software to my
colleagues;
The instructions and prompts are helpful;
I sometimes wonder if I am using the right
command;
Working with this software is satisfactory;
The way that system information is presented is
clear and understandable;
I think this software is consistent;
The questionnaire is designed to measure the affect,
efficiency, learnability, helpfulness and control [3].
During its development, the questionnaire was
standardized as a measurement tool for some of the
user-orientated requirements expressed in the
European Directive on Minimum Health and Safety
Requirements for Work with Display Screen
Equipment (90/270/EEC). SUMI is also mentioned
in the ISO 9241 standard as a recognized method of
testing user satisfaction [4].
Users normally need about ten minutes to
complete the inventory. In a software development
environment if the users have no previous
experience of the software, additional time is needed
for introduction, training, and carrying out a set of
benchmark task with the software. Benchmark tasks
refer to tasks that reflect the realistic context of use
of the software. These tasks are usually written as
scenarios, or tasks that are embedded within a real-
world situation. How long this takes depends on the
complexity of the software being evaluated and may
be from 20 minutes to more than an hour.
5 Software Environment
FOCUS-SIAT project decided to provide Internet-
based education to the target groups by using a
model of e-learning services similar to a business
portal with e-shopping facilities. The selected
service is known as the EducaNext portal. Hence,
the basic purpose of our usability testing was to
evaluate the affects (emotional response),
efficiency, learnability, helpfulness, and ease of use
of the EducaNext educational portal (Fig. 1). The
EducaNext portal (www.educanext.org
) addresses
the new trends in higher education by providing a
web-based tool for the sharing of learning resources.
On EducaNext, educators are able to provide
learning resources to their peers and specify offer
conditions on which interested consumers are
required to agree before accessing the learning
resources [5, 6].
Fig. 1: The educational portal Educanext – v. 1.0
Based on general educational metadata and target-
audience specific offer information (e.g. commercial
offer, open content-like license agreement, etc.),
learning resources are advertised through a
catalogue and interest-specific mailing lists. Based
on this information, educators can choose and
access learning resources from dispersed delivery
systems such as video conferencing applications,
learning management systems, streaming media
servers and standard web servers after agreeing on
the terms specified. The process of agreeing on the
offer terms is referred to as booking and constitutes
an important means for creating awareness about
intellectual property rights issues.
As such, the EducaNext portal provided an
excellent infrastructure for the activities of the
FOCUS-SIAT project. EducaNext is an educational
mediator created within the European UNIVERSAL
project from the EU 5th Framework Programme
[17]. The EducaNext portal resides in a distributed
multi-lingual, web-based, and learning content
management system called the Universal Brokerage
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Platform (UBP). It is built from open-source
components and is being used by national ministries
of education and the European Academic
Consortium of Management Schools (CEMS). The
EducaNext portal is available in Slovenian language
that is relevant for the FOCUS-SIAT project.
For the purpose of SUMI evaluation we used the
data of the usability tests on the Slovenian versions
of the platform. Standard user test procedures were
adopted [2]. Slovenian native speakers were
involved.
6 Procedures and Observations
Usability testing of EducaNext educational portal
was done in computer-equipped rooms with a
computer dedicated to each of the participants. The
evaluation process was almost identical for every
group of participants in Slovenia. The experimenters
met with each group for 10 minutes to explain the
purpose of the evaluation session and present the
methodology of SUMI evaluation. Throughout the
detailed explanation about evaluation session, the
participants received verbal instructions from the
experimenters. The experimenters were present to
assist with any difficulties with the questionnaire
and to answer questions as they possibly arose. In
the second phase, the users were asked to fill the
SUMI questionnaire for user-interaction
satisfaction. The evaluation sessions lasted about 20
minutes each. During the sessions users were not
allowed to ask the evaluator questions.
6.1 Participants
We tested the EducaNext web portal with 31
individuals in three groups at three institutions. The
first group consisted of 10 trainees, the second of 9,
and the third of 12. Two groups were situated at the
Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer
Science in Maribor and one in Chamber of
Commerce in Maribor, but separately in each own
session. The participants included mostly adults,
who were partially employed and partially
unemployed. The age range of the participants was
18 to 50. As part of the recruiting process, we
ensured that all participants had some basic
computer and web browser experience. Beyond this
basic level, the participants varied in their computer
skills as well as in their language skills (mother
language and English language).
6.2 SUMI Questionnaires
The Slovenian version of SUMI questionnaire was
developed for measuring the usability. The SUMI
questionnaire includes as already mentioned 50
items for which the user selects one of three
responses (“agree”, “don’t know”, “disagree”). The
statements presented to the participants are about
their attitudes to the software they have just used.
Once questionnaires are completed, a dedicated
software program named SUMISCO that comes in
the SUMI evaluation package scores them and
compares the results to the standardization database.
The mean score of the standardization database is
50, with a standard deviation of 10. Since the
standardization database is developed from
successful commercial products, a system that
achieves a score in the range 40–60 is comparable in
terms of usability to most of these products (the
standardization database does include score below
and above that range).
In addition to the global and subscale scores, the
SUMI questionnaire can also provide information
about particular items on the questionnaire. This
analysis is called Item Consensual Analysis. The
SUMISCO software compares the results of each
item – the number of responses in each of the three
response categories – to the expected values from
the standardization database, using a Chi-square
test. Those items with patterns that are significantly
different from the expected values are flagged in the
SUMISCO output.
6.3 Study Results
The results from the SUMI evaluations are
presented in Table 1 in terms of the median, upper,
and lower confidence levels. These levels are
derived from the global usability scale and each of
the five usability sub-scales. The median is the
middle score when the scores are arranged in
numerical order. It is an indicative sample statistic.
The upper and lower confidence limits represent the
limits within which the theoretical true score falls 95
% of the time for this sample of users. Based on the
data in the SUMI database, it can be stated that the
global score has an average value of 50 in a normal
distribution with a standard deviation of 10 (with a
maximum score of 73). This means that by
definition for a value exceeding 50 the user
satisfaction is higher than average [19].
On the global scale, the most reliable of all the
SUMI scales indicates that the usability of the
evaluated system is comparable to successful
commercial systems. In terms of the usability, sub-
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scales show that the results are consistent and that
the scores obtained are above average.
Scale Lcl Median Ucl
GLOBAL n=31
43 56 59
Efficiency
55 58 61
Affect
50 63 66
Helpfulness
57 60 63
Control
33 49 52
Learnability
51 55 59
Table 1: The results of SUMI Questionnaires
The higher values/scores were obtained for Effect,
Helpfulness and Efficiency, while the lowest
values/score was given to the Control and
Learnability.
Fig. 2: Comparison of quantitative usability
measurements
6.4 Item Consensual Analysis
The Goodness of Fit between the observed and
expected values is summarised using Chi Square
[18] and these statistics were presented in the
SUMISCO output. The greater the value of the total
Chi Square, the more likely it was that the obtained
values differ from what is expected from the
standardisation database.
In this output, the SUMI items which differ most
(at least 99.99 % certain) from the standardisation
are presented in the order of appearance:
1. “It is relatively easy to move from one part of a
task to another.” => more people were
undecided than expected
2. “There have been times in using this software
when I have felt quite tense.” => more people
were undecided or disagree than expected
3. “I feel in command of this software when I am
using it.” => more people were undecided than
expected
4. “Working with this software is mentally
stimulating.” => more people agreed than
expected
5. “The software documentation is very
informative.” => more people agreed than
expected
6. “I feel safer if I use only a few familiar
commands or operations.” => more people
were undecided than expected, but mostly
agreed as expected
7. “This software occasionally behaves in a way
which can't be understood.” => more people
disagree than expected
8. “The instructions and prompts are helpful.” =>
more people agreed than expected
7. Applicability of SUMI
On the basis of the test carried out in practice, a
number of conclusions have been drawn regarding
the applicability of SUMI:
it is easy to use; not many costs are involved.
This applies both to the evaluator and the
student. On average a SUMI test can be carried
in approximately 4 days; this includes the time
necessary for a limited context analysis and
reporting;
during the testing the emphasis is on finding
defects, this often results in a negative quality
indications. SUMI however, provides an
objective opinion;
the usability score is split into various aspects,
making a thorough more detailed evaluation
possible (using the various output data).
However, also some disadvantages can be
distinguished:
a running version of the system needs to be
available; this implies SUMI can only be
carried at a relatively late stage of the project;
the high (minimum of ten) number of users
with the same background, that needs to fill out
the questionnaire. Quite often the
implementation or test doesn’t involve ten or
more users belonging to the same user group;
the accuracy and level of detail of the findings
is limited (this can partly be solved by adding a
small number of open question to the SUMI
questionnaire).
8 Discussion
Generally speaking, the above findings are
consistent with the assumption that users behave
rationally when working with an interactive system
such as an educational portal EducaNext. The users’
behaviors indicate that they were aware of the fact
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that their own knowledge state slightly deviated
from the optimum level required for interacting
effectively with the portal. This is an obvious
conclusion if the context and the targeted audience,
selected according to the set principles, are taken in
account. Consequently, the users have shown
sufficient engagement regarding exploratory
actions. The lower the user’s level of domain
knowledge required for interacting effectively with
the system, the higher the tendency for the user to
explore the situation to bridge the knowledge gap.
For the provider of the educational service, the most
important findings were that the EducaNext portal
has shown a high level of learnability, especially in
the case of a novice user.
Based on the usability ratings which we gathered
for the user interface, as shown in Fig. 2, we
received a result that on Global scale the user
interface shown better results than average. Also for
all other sub-scales was seen that results were better
than average and in the desired range of 40 to 60.
In order to improve the score, there was only
evidence that the designers need to make
modifications in the user interface to improve
control and learnability with better navigation and
informative functions. Control scores were the most
none spreading and this shows that most people did
not agree or were undecided about control of the
user interface.
There is a need to make faster responds of the
software and to make easier path for moving from
one task to another task. Also user interface should
be more economically in the mean of keystroke
using. On the other way it was found that users has
to read too much before starting the portal and do
not have a possibility to see all options at a glance.
9 Conclusions
The usability methodology presented in this paper
for evaluating the learnability of an educational
portal EducaNext is plausible. It provides better
understanding of the cognitive mechanism
underlying the observed effects and precise
information about the tradeoffs in using SUMI
methodology.
The results and findings of the study gave
important information for the producers and
designers of the educational portal EducaNext to
know how users learn from their problems in
interacting with the system and how effective their
workarounds are. This is certainly relevant for the
bodies and governmental institutions interested in
supporting lifelong learning systems over the
Internet and improving the general educational level
in the country.
Acknowledgment
This work has been performed in the framework of
the European PHARE CBC Slovenia – Austria
Grant Scheme S1000-316-01-002, FOCUS-SIAT.
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... It provides a valid and reliable method for comparing different versions of the same product and providing diagnostic information for bug fixes and future developments. It consists of a 50-item questionnaire divided into batches of 10 that allow answers through a linked scale composed of three values: ''Agree'', ''Uncertain'', ''Disagree'' (Arh & Blažič, 2008). The questions relate to five analysis traits: ...
... Furthermore, the SUMI questionnaire also has a global score that refers to the general satisfaction of users when using the software. It is calculated by evaluating the 25 statements of the questionnaire that are the most relevant elements in terms of usability (Arh & Blažič, 2008). In addition to the 50 items, the questionnaire includes two more questions and one feedback request. ...
... As described in Section 5.1, we adopted 5 analysis traits and an overall score (''Global Perception'', last bar in the graph). The scores reported in the graph were calculated as in Arh and Blažič (2008), i.e., for each analysis trait, we simply computed the percentages of ''Disagree'', ''Uncertain'', ''Agree''. ...
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... Although the software industry has yet to adopt a predominant consensus for evaluating software quality; expert reviews, software metrics, and quality models are commonly accepted forms of evaluation (Behkamal et al., 2008). One of the challenges for software developers and experts in human-computer interaction is to design and create software products for e-learning systems (Arh & Blazic, 2008). As software products become increasingly complex, consumers tend to place a higher importance on how easy it is to use the software as a critical measure of the product quality (Jordan, 1997). ...
... According to Kirakowski (2003), the SUMI model recommends a minimum of 10 to 12 users in order to achieve adequate precision. Arh and Blazic (2008) noted that the SUMI questionnaire typically takes ten minutes to complete unless additional time is needed to acclimate the evaluator to the software and perform benchmark tasks that represent real-world scenarios. ...
... There is a great deal of academic production in the computing field concerning usability evaluation and quality in use regarding and applied to different software products, since, as we said above, usability is integrated into the development process of software products and is a key quality factor. We found, among many others, evaluations for: web applications (Covella & Olsina, 2006), for web portals (Arh & Blažič, 2008), for semantic web exploration tools (González et alii, 2012), for mobile users' interfaces (Alnanih et alii, 2013) and, more recently, for Big Data (Merino et alii, 2016), or for video conferencing system (Khalid & Hossan, 2017). ...
... Davies and Brailsford (1994) also recommend SUMI in their publication about guidelines for developers of multimedia courseware development. SUMI was also used to assess the usability of an e-learning system for occupational medicine (Rognoni et alii, 2008), a multilingual educational portal (Arh & Blažič, 2008), an eLearning course (Deraniyagala et alii, 2015) or a video conferencing system in a university's classroom (Khalid & Hossan, 2017), among many others studies. Good evidence of its representativeness is that SUMI is referred to in ISO 9241-11:1998 about "Ergonomic requirements for office work with visual display terminals (VDTs) -Part 11: Guidance on usability". ...
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... The Painometer is made accessible to medical care experts and nonprofessional's like kids, youths, and youthful adults. (Tanja, 2008) Involved SUMI for assessing the learnability of an instructive entry Educa Next. Their discoveries give the data of how clients gain from their concerns and accomplish a powerful while collaborating with the system. ...
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Objective: The motivation behind this exploration is to look at the best practices for effective hotel management in the context of Top 3, five stars hotels in Navi Mumbai. Methodology: This study tracks important differences between practices and effective hotel management and helps to examine whether HRM practices influence effective hotel management. Information was compiled through surveys that were produced. The study estimated four accepted practices in HRM. The HRM practices selected for the audit study were organic food, health and safety, green environment, and repeat customer offers/incentives. A relationship study was used to test the relationship between HRM practices and effective hotel management. A regression study was used to test the impact of HRM practices on effective accommodation management. Results and conclusions: It can be concluded that HRM practices have an impact on effective hotel management, and studies have revealed positive effects. In addition, the audit also showed positive results of human resource management practices related to organic food, health and safety, green environment, offers/incentives for patrons.
... The global scale of our tool (60.31) was clearly above the value of "50", which is considered to be the average value according to the SUMI reference database (cf. Arh and Blažič 2008;Kirakowski and Corbett 1993;van Veenendaal 1998). Further, UR:SMART was judged to purposefully support the analysis of social media data (dimension "efficiency" -mean "58.83") and its graphical user interface was considered attractive by users (dimension "affect" -mean "60.46"). ...
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The digital transformation, with its ongoing trend towards electronic business, confronts companies with increasingly growing amounts of data which have to be processed, stored and analyzed. Instant access to the “right” information at the time it is needed is crucial and thus, the use of techniques for the handling of big amounts of unstructured data, in particular, becomes a competitive advantage. In this context, one important field of application is digital marketing, because sophisticated data analysis allows companies to gain deeper insights into customer needs and behavior based on their reviews, complaints as well as posts in online forums or social networks. However, existing tools for the automated analysis of social content often focus on one general approach by either prioritizing the analysis of the posts’ semantics or the analysis of pure numbers (e.g., sum of likes or shares). Hence, this design science research project develops the software tool UR:SMART, which supports the analysis of social media data by combining different kinds of analysis methods. This allows deep insights into users’ needs and opinions and therefore prepares the ground for the further interpretation of the voice. The applicability of UR:SMART is demonstrated at a German financial institution. Furthermore, the usability is evaluated with the help of a SUMI (Software Usability Measurement Inventory) study, which shows the tool’s usefulness to support social media analyses from the users’ perspective.
... The original sample size was acceptable between 10 and 12 and the computational time could be short (Kirakowski 1994). Therefore, the SUMI was often used to evaluate systems prototypes by collecting users' opinions of the developing software (Tanja and Borka 2008;Mansor et al. 2012;Reis et al. 2016). ...
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The Delphi method is widely used in the fields of education, society, and medicine to achieve consensus and convergence of expert opinions. However, the Delphi method is limited in terms of the temporal and spatial issues to elicit the convergence of the experts’ views; therefore, many studies have aimed to modify its design to improve expert participation for decision convergence. This study proposes a theoretical framework for the synchronous Delphi method that integrates the interaction of the experts to ensure the convergence of the member function of decision making. A case study adopting the proposed method was conducted to synthesize the key factors needed for IT experts in Taiwan to use server virtualization technology. The Software Usability Measurement Inventory (SUMI) was used to analyze its usability. The result showed that the method’s scores in efficiency, affect, learnability and global (general satisfaction) were higher than 60, which was 10% higher than average. In addition, the scores for helpfulness and controllability were 7% higher than average.
... Based on the findings of the Web Analytics investigation, we argue that educational portals need to focus more on learner modeling in order to overcome the one-size-fits-all approach and increase their usability, educational effectiveness and general level of satisfaction [AB08]. Especially with the upcoming open data repositories 4 joining the OEP family, it would be a great advantage, if OEPs would support the diversity of stakeholders with personalized content for individual information needs and develop beyond the one-size-fits-all approach. ...
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... In addition, users filled out a questionnaire consisting of twenty questions to measure usability. This questionnaire was based on QUIS [26], SUMI [27] and SUS [28]. ...
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This study proposes the use of Think Aloud and Focus Group methods for evaluating the usability of the Intelligent Police Patrolling System (I-Pat). The study was conducted with twenty-one students of computer engineering. The study included two evaluation methods. First, the application of Think Aloud using audio recordings, image capturing and questionnaires. Second, the application of a Focus Group for brainstorming. The total number of the usability problems identified was fifteen. Comprehensiveness (46%) and layout (43%) problems were the most frequently found. The study showed that the problems encountered were due to the lack of understanding of the system’s functions, so it is recommended increasing the users’ levels of knowledge about the system. The application of these methods caused the students to find a greater number of errors than when applying a single method, allowing them to generate a report with usability improvements according to the reported errors.
... The principal goal of usability testing is for obtaining answer to the question: Is the product that has been developed useful to meet the need of the users. Research on usability has been done by many researchers such as Erik [1], Aprilia, et al. [4], Mansor, et al. [5], and Arh, et al. [6]. On the whole, the results described that usability testing is very useful in doing a research on products that have been developed. ...
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