Article

The Incubation Effect: Hatching a Solution?

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Abstract

Numerous anecdotal accounts exist of an incubation period promoting creativity and problem solving. This article examines whether incubation is an empirically verifiable phenomenon and the possible role therein of nonconscious processing. An Idea Generation Test was employed to examine (a) whether an incubation effect occurred and (b) the impact of different types of break on this effect. In the Idea Generation Test, two groups of participants were given a distracting break, during which they completed either a similar or an unrelated task, and a third group worked continuously (N = 90). The Idea Generation Test was validated against established measures of cognitive ability and personality, and was found to exhibit variance distinct from those marker tests. Most important, results demonstrated that having a break during which one works on a completely different task is more beneficial for idea production than working on a similar task or generating ideas continuously. The advantage afforded by a break cannot be accounted for in terms of relief from functional fixedness or general fatigue, and, although it may be explicable by relief from task-specific fatigue, explanations of an incubation effect in terms of nonconscious processing should be (re)considered.

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... Prior work on IE in the context of classroom tasks (Ellwood, Pallier, Snyder, & Gallate, 2009;Fulgosi & Guilford, 1970;Gilhooly et al., 2013;Penaloza & Calvillo, 2012;Sio & Ormerod, 2009) investigated which specific factors lead to successful incubation and suggested that engaging in a different activity may produce a better outcome. On the other hand, (Penney, Godsell, Scott, & Balsom, 2004) claimed that engaging in a task with similar nature would promote priming which allows students to realize the correct solution to the problem but (Segal, 2004) said that the task during incubation has no effect on its outcome. ...
... This discrepancy contributed to the relatively low success rate in clusters C and D which means that taking a break is not as helpful if one was unproductive before and during the incubation period. Previous study (Ellwood et al., 2009;Fulgosi & Guilford, 1970;Gilhooly et al., 2013;Penaloza & Calvillo, 2012;Sio & Ormerod, 2009) said that incubation period with high cognitive demand tasks resulted to smaller incubation effect more so if the learner has not been productive with these tasks. 4. (F9) Total levels played during incubation that are similar to the unsolved problem in terms of the canonical solutions and total levels played during incubation It might seem odd that playing more levels similar to level X during the break was not beneficial. ...
... However, if we take into consideration the total number of all levels played during the break (F8) as well the total number of levels played from start of the session until the post-incubation phase (F16) which were both relatively high, we can infer that the similarity might have been overshadowed by all the other levels that the player attempted to solve. Also, having played many levels can cause fatigue even during the break which prior work (Ellwood et al., 2009;Talandron et al., 2017) considered to be a hindrance to beneficial incubation. ...
Conference Paper
This study continues prior work of the investigation and modeling of Incubation Effect, a phenomenon in which a momentary break helps the generation of a solution to a problem, among students using in a computer-based learning environment called Physics Playground. This paper attempts to improve the detection of IE-False by identifying notable features among instances of unsuccessful incubation by using a combination of t-SNE dimensionality reduction and x-means clustering techniques. We found that there are overlaps on some characteristics of IE-True and IE-False incidences but discovered features that do not make a break beneficial which are low success rate prior to post-incubation, too many levels played during the incubation phase even if some of these are similar to the unsolved problem, a lengthy incubation duration, and too much attempts on the level which has been previously related to frustration.
... Also, for school students, it can be defined as the process that provides novel or insightful solutions to a given problem, the possibility that allows a problem to be considered from a new perspective, the opportunity to seek new ways to solve an old problem and the formulation of new questions (Sriraman, 2005, p. 23;Liljedahl &Sriraman, 2006). It seems that some researchers believe that, at the school levels, creativity in mathematics is commonly related to problem solving or problem posing (e.g., Chamberlin& Moon, 2005;Silver, 1997;Sriraman, 2009a;Liljedahl &Sriraman, 2006;Ellwood et al., 2009;Posamentier, Smith & Stepelman, 2010;Haylock,1987). Plucker, Beghetto and Dow (2004) reflect on creativity as an essential component of problem solving. ...
... In spite of the fact that processes relating to the incubation stage are not completely clear (Chamorro-Premuzic, 2009;Helie & Sun, 2012), the literature puts forward many diverse hypotheses to clarify the mechanisms behind the incubation phenomenon in creative problem solving. Three important hypotheses are unconscious work (Kim, 2009;Wallas, 1926;Hadamard, 1945;Sio&Ormerod, 2009a, 2009bChristensen, 2005;Liljedahl, 2004), forgetting fixation (Liljedahl, 2004;Zhong et al.,2008;Seabrook &Dienes, 2003;Vul&Pashler., 2007;Christensen, 2005;Davidson, 1995) and fatigue (Christensen, 2005;Sio &Ormerod, 2009a;Sio &Ormerod, 2009b;Vul&Pashler, 2007, Ellwood et al., 2009. The unconscious work hypothesis focuses on the fact that in the incubation stage when the problem is not being actively considered, it is being processed unconsciously. ...
Article
Full-text available
Creativity of mathematicians plays a vital role when new mathematical ideas are formulated. It is evident that studying the way in which mathematical ideas are created in a mathematicians’ mind is worthwhile for investigation. Creativity in the domain of mathematics is defined in this paper. Research findings illustrating the workings of the mathematician's mind while engaged in the creative process and its characteristics are described. In order to demonstrate this process, a model of creativity is reviewed. The criteria for the acceptance of new ideas in mathematics as creative are also enumerated.
... The benefits of incubation prompted researchers to incorporate breaks into educational activities which have shown to have positive results (Lynch & Swink, 1967;Medd & Houtz, 2002;Rae, 1997;Webster, Campbell, & Jane, 2006). Earlier work on IE (Ellwood, Pallier, Snyder, & Gallate, 2009;Fulgosi & Guilford, 1968;Gilhooly et al., 2013;Penaloza & Calvillo, 2012;Sio & Ormerod, 2015) investigated specific factors that could lead to successful incubation in the context of classroom tasks and suggested that engaging in a different activity may produce a better outcome. On the other hand, Penney, Godsell, Scott, and Balsom (2004) claimed that engaging in a task with similar nature would promote priming which allows students to realize the correct solution to the problem but Segal (2004) said that the task during incubation has no effect on its outcome. ...
... Aside from contributing to what is known about IEs, this work consolidated the first attempt to investigate and model IE in the context of a computer-based learning environment with fine-grained interaction logs like Physics Playground. Most research in IE used standard tests to measure fluency and creativity (Baird et al., 2012;Fulgosi & Guilford, 1968;Gilhooly et al., 2013;Sio & Ormerod, 2015), mathematical adeptness (Fulgosi & Guilford, 1968;Segal, 2004;Tan, Zou, Chen, & Luo, 2015), and even memory (Ellwood et al., 2009). These earlier works manually observed, recorded, and assessed test subjects based on task performance and were scored based on the results produced in the pre-and post-incubation phases. ...
Article
Full-text available
The incubation effect (IE) is a problem-solving phenomenon composed of three phases: pre-incubation where one fails to solve a problem; incubation, a momentary break where time is spent away from the unsolved problem; and post-incubation where the unsolved problem is revisited and solved. Literature on IE was limited to experiments involving traditional classroom activities. This initial investigation showed evidence of IE instances in a computer-based learning environment. This paper consolidates the studies on IE among students playing an educational game called Physics Playground and presents further analysis to examine the incidence of post-incubation or the revisit to a previously unsolved problem. Prior work, which focused on predicting successful outcomes, includes a coarse-grained IE model developed with logistic regression on aggregated data and an improved model which leveraged long short-term memory (LSTM) combined with dimensionality reduction visualization technique and clustering on fine-grained data. The additional analysis which aims to understand factors that may trigger the post-incubation phase also used fine-grained data and LSTM to create a revisit model. Results show that time elapsed relative to the activity period and encountering a problem with a similar solution during incubation were possible factors in revisiting previously unsolved problems.
... However, Helie et al.'s (2008) focus was free recall from episodic memory rather than creative thinking, which requires novel combinations and so, although suggestive, and consistent with Unconscious Work, this result does not directly address creative thinking which is the focus of the present paper. Ellwood et al. (2009) found a beneficial effect on number of responses post-incubation of a dissimilar interpolated task in a Delayed Incubation experiment. However, this study used a fluency of uses task rather than a novel uses task. ...
... However, this study used a fluency of uses task rather than a novel uses task. Also, as Ellwood et al. (2009) pointed out, although their findings are consistent with an explanation in terms of unconscious work, an explanation in terms of selective relief of fatigue could also be invoked to account for the effects of similarity between incubation and target tasks. On this view, for example, a spatial Delayed Incubation task very different from a main verbal task could facilitate more recovery from fatigue specific to verbal processing than might an interpolated verbal task. ...
Article
Full-text available
Creative problem solving, in which novel solutions are required, has often been seen as involving a special role for unconscious processes (Unconscious Work) which can lead to sudden intuitive solutions (insights) when a problem is set aside during incubation periods. This notion of Unconscious Work during incubation periods is supported by a review of experimental studies and particularly by studies using the Immediate Incubation paradigm. Other explanations for incubation effects, in terms of Intermittent Work or Beneficial Forgetting are considered. Some recent studies of divergent thinking, using the Alternative Uses task, carried out in my laboratory regarding Immediate vs. Delayed Incubation and the effects of resource competition from interpolated activities are discussed. These studies supported a role for Unconscious Work as against Intermittent Conscious work or Beneficial Forgetting in incubation.
... Meta-analytic findings suggest that incubation effects are robust and found for divergent thinking as well as insight problem solving (Sio & Ormerod, 2009). Incubation gains are especially pronounced when participants are confronted with distraction tasks that are cognitively undemanding (Baird et al., 2012;Sio & Ormerod, 2009), conceptually unrelated to the creative problem (Ellwood, Pallier, Snyder, & Gallate, 2009), or reflect different 11 stimulus modalities (i.e., verbal vs. figural; e.g., Gilhooly, Georgiou, & Devery, 2013). ...
... Despite the passive mechanisms that may promote incubation effects in creative cognition, specific incubation findings suggest an active involvement of spontaneous processes during creative incubation (Ritter & Dijksterhuis, 2014). For example, incubation gains are stronger when distractor tasks are unrelated to the creative task at hand (Ellwood et al., 2009;Gilhooly et al., 2013). These findings indicate that incubation periods benefit from a disengagement of task-relevant cognitive systems (i.e., verbal versus numerical), which might give rise to unconscious processes in this system, but not necessarily facilitate the refreshing of mindset. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Creative cognition has long been hypothesized to rely on spontaneous as well as controlled cognitive processes. This chapter gives a brief overview of pertinent dual process models of creative thought, followed by a review of cognitive and neuroscience research supporting the relevance of controlled and spontaneous processes in creative cognition. We conclude by considering potential ways of interaction between goal-directed, controlled and undirected, spontaneous thought in creative problem solving (short-term perspective) and also during more extended creative work (long-term perspective).
... Hocevar (1980) demonstrated ideational fluency to be a predictor for creativity. Besides the amount of ideas produces, the creation of new concepts seems to be the result of interplay between explicit and implicit knowledge and learning processes (Dijksterhuis & Meurs, 2005;Ellwood, Pallier, Snyder & Gallate, 2009;Gallate, Wong, Ellwood, Roring, & Snyder, 2012;Nonaka, 1994;Szpunar, 2010;Wallas, 1926) and has in some cases been described as a generative dance (Cook & Brown (1999). The implicit characters of knowledge and learning contains motivation, emotions, and cognitions (nonepisodic information), whereas the explicit characters are symbolic and propositional cognitions (e.g. ...
... The effect of mindfulness on ideational fluency. We hypothesize mindfulness to have an influence on ideational fluency because our inherited human creative ability seems to be activated when our attention changes from one instance to another; like when being surprised or challenged or assigned to perform a task (Dijksterhuis & Meurs, 2005;Ellwood, Pallier, Snyder & Gallate, 2009;Fenker & Schütze, 2008;Gallate, Wong, Ellwood, Roring, & Snyder, 2012;Wallas, 1926). The original practice of mindfulness was applied within the eastern religion among Buddhists. ...
Conference Paper
The purpose of this study was to examine how perceptions of music and body movement respectively influence creative productivity, compared to a traditional learning situation. The main hypothesis was that there is a significant difference in creative output (ideational fluency) for people who listen to music or engage in physical body movement compared to passive listeners (traditional classroom or conference setting). The result gave no indication of any effect of music or physical movement on ideational fluency compared to the control group. In the aftermath, we realized that we used specialists as a control, which probably obscured the result.
... Incubation means "a stage of creative problem solving in which a problem is temporarily put aside after a period of initial work on the problem" (Smith & Dodds, 1999, p. 39). There is empirical evidence supporting an incubation effect, that is, being interrupted and forced to work on an unrelated task increases solution rates for creativity-related problems (for review, see Ellwood et al., 2009). Illumination is also known as insight. ...
Chapter
In spite of the increasing awareness of the importance of creativity and innovation, scientific research into creativity and innovation is still non-mainstream due to the relatively short history of this field. In most cases, laypersons and scholars alike tend to use the words “creativity”, “innovation”, “creative” or “innovative” interchangeably. Indeed, creativity and innovation are two conceptually closely related concepts, but they are by no means identical. Particularly for scholars, it is necessary to differentiate these two concepts, partition their integral elements, and get to know the approaches of how these two complex phenomena are usually measured. To demonstrate this, this chapter combines the leading theories from the fields of educational psychology, organizational psychology, and engineering and present the definitions of and research approaches to creativity and innovation.
... 219 An experiment on incubation conducted by Australian psychologist Sophie Ellwood and colleagues concluded that taking a break from work does not uniformly contribute to insight, and the contribution depends on what type of work is accomplished when taking a break from the topic problem. 220 The most significant time-related discovery from the IC analysts' insight experiences was their overall duration, as shown earlier in Figure 7 (Duration in Years of Analyst's Insight Story). The long timelines over which the analysts worked on their novel problems suggest that analysts using a problem-finding approach where high levels of uncertainty prevail-e.g., prediction and mysteries-cannot be expected to produce insightful solutions or observations in short timeframes of minutes, hours, or days, which is consistent with Isaksen and Akkermans' findings. ...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The Intelligence Community (IC) has identified insight as a desirable outcome of its intelligence assessments, but the community does not understand the insight process well enough to consistently achieve such an outcome. This gap of knowledge places intelligence analysts and managers in a double bind and reduces their ability and motivation to comply with policymakers' calls for insightful assessments. Theoretically, insight and creativity have been studied under very specific conditions: in controlled laboratory experiments, interviews, or historical reviews of either individuals who work in full-time creative positions that produce recognized creative outcomes, like Nobel Prize winners, or those who experience critical incidents. Little, if any, research has considered professionals not in full-time creative positions-e.g., intelligence analysts who apply analytical knowledge-who periodically are insightful. To fill these practitioner and theoretical gaps, a qualitative, interview-based study was conducted to understand how insight emerged in 36 intelligence analysts who solved novel problems. The findings identified a four-phase process: a triggering phase consisting of unpredictability, problem finding, problem type, and conflicting representations; an emergence phase consisting of internalized tensions, priming, and dwell time; an insight phase; and an after-insight phase consisting of resistance, mitiga-tion, and solutions. The process produced four archetypes of insight outcomes across the emotion-cognition and individual-social dimensions: understanding of novel problems; effective communication of complexity with others; self-reflection and greater awareness; and navigation of organizational politics and agendas. Individuals who experienced insights developed long-term, compelling emotional and cognitive benefits.
... De Dreu et al. (2012) Higher working memory capacity, manipulated with cognitive load, predicted greater originality, fluency, and persistence (interpreted as maintaining attention). Ellwood et al. (2009) Participants who had opportunities for incubation demonstrated greater creative fluency compared to those who worked continuously on a creative task. Lebuda et al. (2016) A meta-analysis suggested that the awareness, or attention-based component of mindfulness, was weakly related to creativity overall when compared to other elements of mindfulness. ...
Article
Full-text available
Creativity supports the advancement of all disciplines, providing both individual and societal benefits. Most individuals can demonstrate and improve their creativity; therefore, understanding the creative process is of particular interest to facilitate deliberate development of creative thinkers. Despite copious research of the creative process, the work tends to be fragmented without a unified, general theoretical foundation. Historically, creative process research has examined the steps that creative people use, while overlooking how people learn these steps and the mechanisms behind the process. This paper proposes to situate the creative process within broader theoretical framework of self-regulated learning (SRL). This merger emphasizes that the creative process can be learned and that creative process strategies may inspire general learning strategies. Further, the SRL framework provides an organizational structure that illuminates gaps in current research and provides inspiration for new measurement techniques. Current assessment methods are often unable to determine how people regulate themselves throughout the creative process, specifically how internal psychological processes, external behaviors, and explicit strategies influence the creative process; however, SRL measurement techniques, like SRL microanalysis interviews, may provide an opportunity to identify intervention casual mechanisms, extend experimental studies, provide consistent variables to compare across disciplines and studies, and help practitioners assess students’ creative process.
... Monitoring process awareness takes place during a process and/or workshop when an individual expresses awareness of aspects such as being 'too primed' or needing a 'break to incubate' and the consequences of those aspects. Being 'too primed' might have a negative influence on the ability to generate new ideas (Friis-Olivarius, 2015), and incubation breaks can be used as a method in creative processes (Ellwood, Pallier, Snyder, & Gallate, 2009). We see planning-and monitoring process awareness having strong references to metacognition as discussed below. ...
... walking (Oppezzo & Schwartz, 2014), squeezing a ball (Kim, 2015), strategic use of breaks (Ellwood, Pallier, Snyder, & Gallate, 2009), or mindfulness (Colzato, Ozturk, & Hommel, 2012) were excluded. The output from the search is shown in Table 2. ...
Article
Throughout decades of creativity research, a range of creativity training programs have been developed, tested, and analyzed. In 2004 Scott and colleagues published a meta-analysis of all creativity training programs to date, and the review presented here sat out to identify and analyze studies published since the seminal 2004 review. Focusing on quantitative studies of creativity training programs for adults, our systematic review resulted in 22 publications. All studies were analyzed, but comparing the reported effectiveness of training across studies proved difficult due to methodological inconsistencies, variations in reporting of results as well as types of measures used. Thus a consensus for future studies is called for to answer the question: Which elements make one creativity training program more effective than another? This is a question of equal relevance to academia and industry, as creativity training is a tool that can contribute to enhancement of organizational creativity and subsequently innovation. However, to answer the question, future studies of creativity training programs need to be carefully designed to contribute to a more transparent landscape. Thus this paper proposes a methodological research standard consisting of three criteria, to which researchers can look when designing future studies of the effectiveness of creativity training.
... Incubation means "a stage of creative problem solving in which a problem is temporarily put aside after a period of initial work on the problem" (Smith & Dodds, 1999, p. 39). There is empirical evidence supporting an incubation effect, that is, being interrupted and forced to work on an unrelated task increases solution rates for creativity-related problems (for review, see Ellwood et al., 2009). Illumination is also known as insight. ...
Book
Full-text available
The Handbook of the Management of Creativity and Innovation: Theory and Practice is a collection of theories and practices for the effective management of creativity and innovation, contributed by a group of European experts from the fields of psychology, education, business, engineering, and law. Adopting an interdisciplinary and intercultural approach, this book offers rich perspectives — both theoretical and practical — on how to manage creativity and innovation effectively in different domains and across cultures. This book appeals to students, teachers, researchers, and managers who are interested in creative and innovative behavior, and its management. Although the authors are from the fields of psychology education, business, engineering, and law, readers from all disciplines will find the coverage of this book beneficial in deepening their understanding of creativity and innovation, and helping them to identify the right approaches for managing creativity and innovation in an intercultural context.
... We used an incubation paradigm to compare the effects of incubation tasks that systematically varied in their levels of attentional demand and thus in their conduciveness to mind-wandering. These filler tasks were performed during incubation periods in the unusual uses task (UUT), a classic measure of creativity (Guilford, 1967), typically yielding robust incubation effects (Ellwood, Pallier, Snyder, & Gallate, 2009;Sio & Ormerod, 2009). The UUT requires participants to generate as many unusual uses as possible for a common object, such as a brick, within a time limit. ...
... Researchers have also looked at how creative thinkers organize their thoughts and ideas, and the steps they go through to "be creative". There has been much study on thinking processes such as incubation [11] and fixation [25,21], which are both highly relevant to design. ...
Article
Is creativity important in engineering design? If it is, then why do most undergraduate engineering programs spend so little time teaching creativity? And therefore, as a result of our programs, do our students emerge more creative, less creative or no different compared to when they arrived? If creativity is worth developing, can we accurately measure it in our students, and can we enhance it systematically?These were some of the questions that motivated the initiation of a creativity research program in the College of Engineering at the University of Saskatchewan. The assumption was that creativity is important in engineering, especially in design. The intent was to understand how we could assess creativity in our students and then enhance it.The focus of this initial study is a precursor to many of these more applied questions. We had students and faculty from a variety of Colleges, including Engineering, answer an online survey that probed attitudes towards creativity, respondent personality characteristics, opinions regarding conditional influences on creativity, and potential demographic factors influencing the creativity of individuals. As well, we employed a validated creativity attitudes and beliefs measurement tool (rCAB) as an accepted benchmark for assessment.The survey included both closed- and open-ended questions. The results from some of the open-ended questions have been analyzed to determine emerging groups of similar types of answers, and then efforts have been made to relate the groups in a meaningful framework.The results for the Engineering students are emphasized, but they are also compared with students and faculty from other Colleges. Closed questions were analyzed using inferential statistical tests (distributions, means, standard deviations, t-tests, ANOVA, Cronbach’s alpha), while the open-ended responses are compared more qualitatively when they cannot be quantified easily.The survey went through ethics approval and was distributed in the latter half of the Fall 2015 term.
... Incubation is the stage that a new idea comes across our mind unconsciously. After acquiring the relevant and irrelevant knowledge, we need to take time off for the unconscious mind that processes and associates the information (Beeftink, Van Eerde, & Rutte, 2008; Ellwood et al., 2009). We expect a creative insight or inspiration during or after the incubation stage. ...
Article
Full-text available
Generating new ideas is exceedingly important in today’s rapidly changing environment. Although numerous academic institutes provide workshop programs to generate innovative ideas, little theoretical or empirical research exists which investigates the thinking processes of idea generation for enhancing the appropriateness of ideas generated through workshop facilitation. This study reviewed existing models of creative process and found that incubation and deliberation process is crucial for generating a new idea. Thus, we propose a workshop process and effective tasks that encourage participants to generate appropriate ideas. We conducted two different types of workshops: with deliberation session and without it. As a result, we observed a slightly but statistically significant relationship between having a deliberation session and generating an appropriate idea. This paper proposes a workshop design method based on theoretical and empirical supports to enhance thinking skills of participants in new idea generation.
... First, relatively little has been written in the investigation of IE in computer-based learning environments with fine-grained interaction logs like Physics Playground. Most researches in IE used standard tests to measure fluency and creativity (Baird et al., 2012;Fulgosi & Guilford, 1968;Gilhooly et al., 2013;Sio & Ormerod, 2015), mathematical adeptness (Fulgosi & Guilford, 1968;Segal, 2004;Tan, Zou, Chen, & Luo, 2015), and even memory (Ellwood, Pallier, Snyder, & Gallate, 2009). Most of these researches manually observe, record, and assess test subjects based on taskperformance and are scored based on the results produced in the pre-and post-incubation phases. ...
Conference Paper
We investigate the Incubation Effect (IE), a phenomenon by which a momentary break facilitates the generation of a solution to a problem, and its relationship with both achievement and affect of middle school students playing Physics Playground. Statistical data reports no significant improvement in the overall performance when breaks are done. Also, the success rate of solving problems after taking a break has no significant difference with the success rate of attempts without breaks. This could be attributed to the fact that the activity done during breaks is very similar to the problem-solving task, but further investigation needs to be done for validation. The results may say IE has not improved the in-game achievement of students, however, majority of IE occurrences resulted to success. This is evidence to support the positive effect of incubation. Also, a significant positive correlation was found between IE incidence and frustration.
... So, returning to the problem, which can be triggered by an event of chance, the mind is more open to new possibilities. The incubation effect has been recently demonstrated in laboratory experiments (e.g., Ellwood et al. 2009;Baird et al. 2012). The third stage is usually a convergent one, where one brings as many ideas as one can from the incubation period and try to combine them in unexpected ways. ...
Article
Full-text available
In recent years, humanity has entered a new factory period, an age of electronic devices. The gadget-man working set and the mobility and abstract learning required by such gadgets leads Flusser (Mundo Codificado, 1st edn. Cosac Naify, São Paulo, 2007) to pose the question: what will factories be like in the future? We believe that this factory will be a place of creation and learning. As well as the mass production by machines allowed the widespread of various products and food, these electronic devices will free people for creative activities and mobility. Production Engineering must adapt and anticipate this new manufacturing paradigm, working on gradual adaptation of existing organizations and on the development of new organizations for this gadgets age. It is the production engineer role to study ways to better manage and organize factories and productive environments with a focus on creativity. In this paper, we present the theoretical foundations for Organizational Creativity—fundamental structure of the entertainment industries—under a standpoint of Production Engineering, highlighting the relationships that can open paths for the Production Engineering entry into these future factories. We hope to arouse interest of researchers and students alike for this field of knowledge that is each time harder to remain ignored in our society. We also hope to show entertainment industry members how the harmonization with Production Engineering tools may add to their job.
... The gains of this method are furthermore discussed by e.g. Ellwood et al. [2009] and Onarheim and Friis-Olivarius [2013]. A quote exampling this was e.g. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Creativity is widely accepted to be important for design, raising the interest to identify ways to train designers to be more creative. To improve such creativity training this study observed individual creativity skills during team interactions and their influence on the creative process. The key finding is the importance of Process awareness, in which individual designers utilize own knowledge of cognitive processes to manage/advance teamwork. It is thus important to educate designers about such cognitive processes during training and arm them with knowledge to strategically deploy them.
... For example, we can also prime incomplete ideas or tasks that we wish to address later. Individuals could employ a conscious priming strategy to utilize incubation periods in creativity (Ellwood, Pallier, Snyder, & Gallate, 2009). They can even try to prime the unconscious processing in the gut decision research that shows that unconscious processing (with delay) is sometimes better than conscious processing (Dijksterhuis, 2004). ...
Article
Full-text available
Through this article we examine ways through which consumers can take advantage of marketers’ priming attempts and make better decisions. Specifically, we investigate what happens when individuals are made aware of primes that may potentially improve their performance. Using an Embedded Figures Test, we demonstrate that individuals can be consciously primed into an analytic thinking mindset and perform better when they believe that the prime will enhance performance. Individuals are able to successfully ignore the prime when they believe that the prime hinders performance. Utilizing both holistic and analytic primes and by alternating the valence of the prime’s potential outcome, we are able to disentangle the conscious effects of primes from demand effects. We discuss how these findings may lead to and suggest avenues for future research.
... To encourage divergent thinking, it is important to allow time (about five minutes) for students to settle and begin shading. Researchers have called this time to settle an " incubation " interval (Sio and Ormerod, 2009, p.94; Ellwood et al., 2009, p.6). The longer the incubation interval, the greater the effect (Sio and Ormerod, 2009 ). ...
... A recent literature review found a set of potential moderators reported, including the problem type, length of the preparation period (explicit and intense ideation), and the incubation task, leading to the possible existence of multiple types of incubation [4]. Apparently, taking a break from work on a topic is differentially advantageous, and depends on the type of task undertaken during the break [7]. A study of expert and novice chess players found that incubation does not always facilitate creative problem solving, but only when the problem solvers' mind is fixated [8]. ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents the results of experiments with a computational model of group brainstorming as an environment to study the role of incubation in creativity. In this model, exploration refers to the random search for solutions, exploitation refers to the guided search for new solutions based on existing solutions, and incubation is defined as the re-organization of the search processes used previously to find solutions but with no direct output of actual solutions. This work suggests that the beneficial effects of incubation in ideation could depend on the type of ideation processes carried out in previous stages of the creative process, and it provides insights for understanding the complex nature of incubation. We suggest the concept of "critical mass of ideas" as a plausible mechanism to explain incubation and argue for its inclusion in future studies of creativity.
... 人们在日常工作学习解决问题时,大多有过这样的经历:当持续思考、尽力解决一个困难的或创造 性的问题,又百思不得其解时,起身做点其他事儿,把这个没有解决的问题搁置一旁而将注意转移到与 此无关的活动上,当再次面对该问题时,突然想到答案或促进了问题的解决,这种现象在心理学中被称 为酝酿效应 (Smith & Blankenship, 1989;Ellwood, Pallier, Snyder, & Gallate, 2009;Gilhooly, 2016) (Wallas, 1926; 司继伟,2000),包含两个步骤:一是将注意力转移不断尝试解决的难 题,二是做一些与该难题无关的事情,这可能涉及到一些特殊加工,例如无意识加工的参与,为顿悟提 供更多的可能。或使这个困难问题的答案突然想到。酝酿效应在名家轶事中也非常常见,例如阿基米德 被皇冠是否是纯金的问题困扰了两天之久, 决定洗澡放松一下, 他刚走进浴缸便从水的浮力中获得灵感, 顿悟发现著名的阿基米德原理;再如凯库勒的苯环、门捷列夫的元素周期表 (Csikszentmihalyi, 1996;Ghiselin, 1952)等。 创造性,又称创造力,产生新颖又实用产品的能力,是现存研究领域较为认可的概念。新颖是指原 创的,出乎意料的,对于创造者来说是前所未闻的,而实用性要求产品是有用的,有适应性的,合适的 好产品 (Runco & Jaeger, 2012;Sternberg & Lubart, 1996) ...
... Through training in discriminative thinking in both SPT and CBT, workshop participants are temporarily drawn away from the conscious processing of their work, endowing them with an opportunity to "incubate, " to allow the unconscious processing of work to take place (34). Unconscious work and task switching during the incubation stage is conducive to creative problem-solving and reduced mental fixation (35,36), the latter of which is key to promoting cognitive and response flexibility (37). ...
Article
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This study aimed to evaluate a newly developed gamification-based intervention of serious play training (SPT). A randomized controlled trial was conducted to assess the efficacy of the new intervention program in comparison with a widely adopted cognitive-behavioral training (CBT) program. Real-life work teams were recruited to enhance the ecological validity of outcome evaluation. The participants comprised 250 Chinese working adults (68% men; median age = 25 years, range: 18–40) who took part voluntarily. They were randomly assigned to the SPT, CBT, and waitlist conditions. For outcome evaluation, team effectiveness was the primary outcome, whereas coping flexibility was the secondary outcome. For explanation of outcome changes, group cohesion and discriminative thinking were tested as the hypothesized learning mechanisms. The results revealed that the SPT group alone reported greater team effectiveness over time, with an increase in group cohesion found to explain the improvement. Both the SPT and CBT groups reported greater coping flexibility over time, with discriminative thinking found to account for the beneficial changes. These findings provide initial evidence indicating the efficacy of utilizing the gamification approach in corporate training for team-building and personal coping.
... Thus, interrupting deliberate work on a difficult task improved performance and provided evidence for a productive incubation period. Additional work on the impact of different types of break on incubation has revealed that engaging in a completely different task during the interruption period improves idea generation significantly more so than engaging in a similar task or continuing to work without a break (Ellwood, Pallier, Snyder, & Gallate, 2009). Similarly, a series of studies has shown that unconscious thought may promote remote associations due to the lack of deliberate attention on a problem: by temporarily diverting attention away from creative generation tasks (e.g., generating names for new products), participants engaged in broader semantic searches and produced responses that were less constrained by conventional associations (Dijksterhuis & Meurs, 2006;Dijksterhuis & Nordgren, 2006). ...
Chapter
The purpose of this chapter is to provide an overview of some key background issues and recent trends in the experimental and cognitive neuroscience study of creativity. Despite its status as a hallmark of higher order thinking, research on creativity has not progressed with the same rigor as the study of other aspects of human cognition. Among the challenges for creativity researchers are concerns with the operational definition and measurement of this seemingly elusive ability. Research on the neurocognitive bases of creative thinking suggests that creativity is highly multifaceted and requires intricate interhemispheric interactions among a widely distributed network of brain regions. Recent theoretical and methodological perspectives highlight the importance of moving away from approaching creativity as a unitary construct, synonymous to the abstract concept of divergent thinking. Instead, they focus on specific cognitive and neural processes underlying creative thought, which may rely on trade‐offs between spontaneous and regulatory brain networks.
... [47][48][49][50] Switching off work, especially in the middle of a project, allows the brain to subconsciously consider the problem and arrive at more creative solutions. 32,[51][52] Deliberate professionals realize that coming up with solutions while walking, driving, or showering is not a fluke but an opportunity to be cultivated. ...
... It has been observed that individuals find it hard and sometimes impossible to let go of a problem and they insist on finding a solution which leads not only to stress but depletion of their energies (Ellwood, Pallier, Snyder, & Gallate, 2009;Hélie & Sun, 2010;Ritter & Dijksterhuis, 2014) which is also associated with job satisfaction and enhances the cognitive fitness of an individual (Rajper, Ghumro, & Mangi, 2020). It has been mentioned before that leaving a problem aside helps in finding a solution. ...
Article
Creative thinking is essential for the progress in education, industry and life in general. Incubation is a widely studied phenomenon in creativity research, referring to leaving a problem aside for a period, to accrue performance on a creative problem. This study investigated the effect of incubation on creative problem-solving by means of a pretest-posttest quasi-experimental design, and remote associates tasks (RATs) were used as a measure of creative problem-solving. For this purpose, a sample of 60 students (22 males, 38 females) was recruited from the population of a private university. They were assigned to a control condition and two different experimental conditions based on the time of onset of incubation. The data collected was analyzed for a significant effect across all conditions by means of a chi-squared test and covariates were inferred by means of Spearman's Rho, with a significance level set at ?<.05. The results did not find an incubation effect in creative problem-solving, and several possible explanations may account for this trend, especially the limited cross-cultural application of measurement tools and theoretical paradigms. The disparity is especially prominent with regards to Pakistan, which is predominantly collectivistic, and the educational system stymies creative thinking. Future research must take into account the relevance of culture in creative problem-solving, and propose solutions to circumvent the dearth of creative potential in developing nations such as Pakistan. Keywords: Incubation, Creative Problem-Solving, Creativity, Remote Associate Tasks, Cross-Cultural Psychology
... The effect of analogy types [42][43][44][45] or their distance [46] has been studied. Incubation is found to be useful [47,48]. ...
Article
Ideation methods have been extensively studied, and several ideation methods can be beneficial in different contexts, but it is not understood what makes a specific method work. Previous work has shown that all the ideation methods comprise of 25 fundamental ideation mechanisms in two categories: idea implementation and idea promoting mechanisms. In this study, we try to understand how individual mechanisms affect idea generation outcomes. We chose four idea promoting mechanisms: two from the process category (Classification & Combination) and two from the idea sources category (Building on Others and Stimulation). These mechanisms were selected as they are examples of comparable mechanisms that could easily be integrated into any other ideation method. We conducted four experiments and assessed idea quantity, novelty, and originality. Our study showed that the chosen mechanism increased ideation performance. For the most part, the mechanisms are statistically equivalent, but we found evidence that classification outperforms combination in a simple ideation exercise. We also found the building on others can be more useful than the type of stimulation used in engineering concept generation, but the difference was not found in a simple ideation exercise. Overall, we find evidence that all mechanisms improve ideation effectiveness and could be incorporated into any ideation method, but further studies are needed to build more comprehensive understanding
... During incubation, one refrains from consciously thinking about a problem by putting the problem aside and working on something else. Being interrupted and working on an unrelated task helps to find a solution for the problem one has been working on before-as a review of numerous studies showed (Ellwood et al., 2009). Often, the solutions that pop up are unpredictable and surprising. ...
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Steps involved in the creative process have been described in previous research, yet the exact nature of the process still remains unclear. In the current study, we take this investigation further, referring to two flying machines developed by Leonardo da Vinci and his other notes. Nine iterative steps are described with a focus on motivation and cognition: (a) vision and curiosity; (b) social recognition; (c) asking questions; (d) analogical thinking; (e) trial and error; (f) abductive reasoning; (g) incubation and forgetting; (h) overinclusive thinking, latent inhibition, and illumination; and (i) schema elaboration. The influence of da Vinci’s socio-historic context is also briefly discussed. The analyses show how general psychological mechanisms can explain extraordinary acts of creativity. The steps discussed can be further formalized in future research to advance the modeling of creativity.
... His notebook, with all its scribbling and bibbling, is part of the creative process. Actions such as doodling, daydreaming, or taking purposeful breaks from the task at hand have all been argued to be integral to creative development, just as much as putting conscious effort toward a project is (e.g., see Christoff et al. 2009;Crosby 2020;Ellwood et al. 2009;Gallate et al. 2012;Snyder et al. 2012;Zedelius and Schooler 2015). The science of creativity is of course varied and there is not much consensus about the processes underlying it or even what counts as "creative" in the first place. ...
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I argue that an enactivist framework has more explanatory power than traditional philosophical theories of cognition when it comes to understanding the mechanisms underlying human-animal relationships. In both intraspecies and interspecies exchanges, what we often find are novel forms of cognition emerging from such transactions, but these “co-cognitive” processes cannot be understood apart from the interaction itself. I focus on a specific form of human-animal interaction—play, as it occurs between humans and domestic dogs—and argue that the best theory suited to the task of explaining how these two species create unique thought processes is a “sympoietic enactivism.” Rather than the more common “autopoietic” arguments defended by many enactivists, I argue that what is more accurately occurring during bouts of human–dog play is sympoietic, or “collectively producing.” Drawing on several different disciplines that converge on similar conclusions about creativity and collaboration, I show that human–dog play is a quintessential case of cognition that cannot be readily understood by appealing to the inner workings of either individual among the dyad. Thinking, on this view, is a form of play, and in playful interaction what gets created are wholly intersubjective modes of thought.
... Contemporary cognitive psychologists have observed the interplay of convergent and divergent thinking during the subphase of incubation (Ellwood et al., 2009;Wells, 1996). Even if the former plays an important role in the most externalised phases of creativity, it is also crucial in incubation, as creators can benefit from this subphase only in the context of ongoing conscious processing (Sawyer, 2012, p. 104), that is, only if they have worked hard on the problem beforehand, and then continue to work hard on it afterwards. ...
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According to cognitive psychologists, creativity is a special kind of problem-solving experience, which involves the activation of two opposite but complementary mental processes, convergent thinking and divergent thinking, as well as insight. Creativity as an insight problem experience is a mainly unexplored phenomenon which has attracted increasing scholarly interest in the last two decades ranging from cognitive psychology and sociology to cognitive linguistics and literary studies. This paper aims to enter into the contemporary debate on the topic by analysing a well-known Keatsian sonnet, “When I have fears … ”. The poem stands out for the degree of awareness it shows concerning the mental processing of creative thinking. It artistically models a successful insight problem experience in the domain of poetic writing. This analysis proceeds through an interdisciplinary perspective, which integrates close reading and cognitive psychology.
... With respect to the second stage of the Wallas stage model of creativity, namely incubation, one of the oldest observations in the psychology of creativity is that a creative idea is often preceded by a period of unconscious incubation [17,32]. There is much research studying the incubation effect and its relationship with creative insight [16,[33][34][35]. It is generally agreed upon that there exists an incubation effect, although the exact nature of the associated unconscious processes remains uncertain. ...
... The benefits of incubation prompted researchers to incorporate breaks into educational activities which were shown to have positive results (Lynch & Swink, 1967;Medd & Houtz, 2002;Rae, 1997;Webster, Campbell, & Jane, 2006). Prior studies (Ellwood, Pallier, Snyder, & Gallate, 2009;Fulgosi & Guilford, 1968;Gilhooly et al., 2013;Penaloza & Calvillo, 2012;Sio & Ormerod, 2015) investigated specific factors that could lead to successful incubation in the context of classroom tasks and suggested that engaging in a different activity may produce a better outcome. On the other hand, (Penney, Godsell, Scott, & Balsom, 2004) claimed that engaging in a task with similar nature would promote priming which allows students to realize the correct solution to the problem but (Segal, 2004) said that the task during incubation has no effect on its outcome. ...
Conference Paper
Incubation Effect (IE) refers to the phenomenon where one gets stuck in a problem-solving activity, decides to take a break, and afterwards revisits the unsolved problem and eventually solves it. While studies on IE were all limited to traditional classroom activities, this research aimed to continue the study of IE in the context of a computer-based learning environment and find features that would predict the incidence of revisiting an unsolved problem and its positive outcome. A prior IE model was developed using a logistic regression but the hand-crafted features used were from aggregated data and do not reflect specific characteristics of students’ actions. Further analysis was conducted in this study and used a deep learning technique which significantly improved the performance of the IE model. In order to interpret the learned features of the neural network, a combination of dimension reduction, visualization technique, and clustering were used. It was found that the coarse-grained features are consistent with the fine-grained features but action level features were also discovered which provided more evidence that there was an improvement on how students tried to solve the problem after incubation.
... It has also been argued that humor strongly promotes associative thinking, in particular stimulating remoteness of association and the creation of non-obvious connections (Koestler, 1964;Goodchilds, 1972;Besemer and Treffinger, 1981;Sitton and Pierce, 2004). These are all related to creativity (Mednick, 1962;Koestler, 1964;Ellwood et al., 2009;Gilhooly et al., 2012Gilhooly et al., , 2013 and have a facilitatory effect in insight problem solving where the solution cannot be reached by simply reproducing familiar procedures. Creative or divergent processes are required (Dominowski and Dallob, 1995;Öllinger and Knoblich, 2009). ...
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In this paper, a parallel analysis of the enjoyment derived from humor and insight problem solving is presented with reference to a “general” Theory of the Pleasures of the Mind (TPM) (Kubovy, 1999) rather than to “local” theories regarding what makes humor and insight problem solving enjoyable. The similarity of these two cognitive activities has already been discussed in previous literature in terms of the cognitive mechanisms which underpin getting a joke or having an insight experience in a problem solving task. The paper explores whether we can learn something new about the similarities and differences between humor and problem solving by means of an investigation of what makes them pleasurable. In the first part of the paper, the framework for this joint analysis is set. Two descriptive studies are then presented in which the participants were asked to report on their experiences relating to solving visuo-spatial insight problems (Study 1) or understanding cartoons (Study 2) in terms of whether they were enjoyable or otherwise. In both studies, the responses were analyzed with reference to a set of categories inspired by the TPM. The results of Study 1 demonstrate that finding the solution to a problem is associated with a positive evaluation, and the most frequent explanations for this were reported as being Curiosity, Virtuosity and Violation of expectations. The results of Study 2 suggest that understanding a joke (Joy of verification) and being surprised by it (Feeling of surprise) were two essential conditions: when they were not present, the cartoons were perceived as not enjoyable. However, this was not enough to explain the motivations for the choice of the most enjoyable cartoons. Recognizing a Violation of expectations and experiencing a Diminishment in the cleverness or awareness initially attributed to the characters in the cartoon were the aspects which were most frequently indicated by the participants to explain why they enjoyed the joke. These findings are evaluated in the final discussion, together with their limitations and potential future developments.
... However, this divergent process is often stymied by fixation, where a person continuously falls back on previously thought-of solutions (Runco and Chand, 1995). Recommendations for relieving fixation have focused on taking cognitively engaging breaks from the task at hand in order to foster incubation of new perspectives and ideas (Ellwood et al., 2009;Tan et al., 2015). Here, dual-process theory provides a framework for explaining the link between association, fixation and its amelioration. ...
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Design research faces a critical 'impact gap' where the potential for scientific and practical impact is yet to be fully realised. A key means of bridging this gap is the adoption of fundamental theory from other fields to support clarification and synergy in design research. In this paper we examine one of the main candidates for adoption: dual-process theory of cognition. Cognition forms a common element across much of the design literature and leads to fundamental dual-process theories of reasoning. While dual- process theory has started to be recognised in design research, its widespread recognition and potential utility have not been widely explored. Following a conceptual theory development approach we identify and logically describe interactions between dual-process theory and design research. We conclude the paper with a proposition of a design research framework with a core rooted in dual-process theory, and based on this, an agenda for theory-driven design research. This contributes to the debate on how to improve impact, and theoretical and scientific rigour in design research, and provides a concrete agenda for discussion and development within the community.
... Taken together, the previous research has shown that functional fixedness and creativity are interconnected (Adamson, 1952;Chrysikou et al., 2016;Ellwood, Pallier, Snyder, & Gallate, 2009;Kearsley, 1975). Our previous knowledge clearly impacts the potential uses individuals see for objects, what is unclear is whether this hinders the creative process. ...
Article
This research explored the relationship between mental fatigue and creativity by testing the creative potential of 25 Keene State College students, half of which were subjected to mental fatigue. Little research has been done to look at these 2 variables together, but considerable research has been done on them individually. Using an independent-measures study, it was demonstrated that, although many view mental fatigue as inhibitory and bad for productivity, this inhibitory nature can actually be beneficial to one’s creativity by inhibiting the rigidity of one’s role assignment for objects. Participants (23 female) were primarily recruited from underclass-level psychology courses. Two forms of a working memory task—one difficult (43% correct) to induce mental fatigue, and the other easy (985 correct) as a control condition—and the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking (TTCT) to measure creativity, revealed that mental fatigue resulted in significantly higher scores across all measurements and forms of creativity within the TTCT.
... An incubation effect occurs when time spent away from a problem (i.e., an incubation period; Wallas, 1926) results in better performance on that problem than what would have occurred without time spent away (Smith & Blankenship, 1989; for a review, see Sio & Ormerod, 2009a). There are many theories regarding how an incubation period benefits problem solving and divergent thinking (e.g., Beeftink, Van Eerde, & Rutte, 2008;Ellwood, Pallier, Snyder, & Gallate, 2009;Lehrer, 2008;Miller & Cohen, 2001;Morrison, McCarthy, & Molony, 2017;Ohlsson, 1984Ohlsson, , 1992Scheerer, 1963;Segal, 2004;Weisberg, 1995Weisberg, , 2006Weisberg, , 2013; according to the forgetting fixation hypothesis, however, incubation effects can occur because taking time away from a problem allows fixating information to become inaccessible and thus less likely to limit or constrain creative thinking (Kohn & Smith, 2009;Smith, 1995;Smith & Blankenship, 1989;Smith & Linsey, 2011). In the remote associates test, for example, participants are presented with three seemingly unrelated words and asked to find a new word that forms a relationship with each of the words (e.g. ...
Article
Schacter’s (2001) work on The Seven Sins of Memory conceptualized and communicated many of the failures of memory and their critical role in cognition. At the heart of the framework is the idea that memory often fails not because it is dysfunctional or maladaptive, but because it prioritizes flexibility and the ability to think and behave adaptively over the ability to retain and remember veraciously. This article adapts the 7 sins framework to a new domain—that of creative cognition. Each of the 7 sins are discussed in relation to how they might play a role in allowing people to generate new ideas, solve problems, and overcome the various barriers that hinder creative thought. Expanding upon the creative cognition approach, it is argued that memory and creativity are intrinsically interconnected and that one’s ability to think and behave creatively relies in part on the ability to forget and misremember.
... These partially activated items may then combine with each other or interact with external cues to yield insightful ideas. The spreading activation hypothesis is supported by the data from studies examining the role of incubation in solving problems involving retrieval of remote associations (Ellwood, Pallier, Snyder, & Gallate, 2009;Gilhooly, Georgiou, & Devery, 2013;Gilhooly, Georgiou, Garrison, Reston, & Sirota, 2012;Patrick, 1986;Smith & Blankenship, 1989). ...
Article
Based on a detailed reading of Graham Wallas’ Art of Thought (1926) it is argued that his four-stage model of the creative process (Preparation, Incubation, Illumination, Verification), in spite of holding sway as a conceptual anchor for many creativity researchers, does not reflect accurately Wallas’ full account of the creative process. Instead, it is suggested that a four-stage model that gives due recognition to the detailed treatment Wallas gave to the Intimation stage is a more authentic representation of his explanation of creativity. A version of this model with three levels of proximity to consciousness (nonconsciousness; fringe consciousness; consciousness) and five stages (Preparation; Incubation; Intimation; Illumination; Verification) is presented as a general conceptual architecture within which relevant concepts and theories from more recent creativity research, including neuroscience and intuition, are positioned and from which a number of implications are drawn.
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The aim of this study is to find out the level of achievement of non-routine problem in Geometry and level of mathematical creativity among primary school students. In the study, quantitative and qualitative data were collected through tests and interviews with teachers. This study is a part of research design to develop a learning strategy that can enhance mathematical creativity in non-routine mathematical problem solving among primary school students. A sample of 15 students of Year Five participated in this study. The researcher of this study developed a mathematical creativity test and non-routine problem solving test. Apart from this, an interview was conducted on three experienced mathematics teachers. A descriptive analysis of data reveals that the level of mathematical creativity and non-routine problem solving are below the average level. From the teacher's perspective, students can't perform well when solving non-routine problem solving due to lack of creative thinking in mathematics.
Article
Product dissection is a popular educational tool in engineering design due to its ability to help students understand a product, provide inspiration for new design ideas, and aid in product redesign. While prior research has investigated how dissecting a product before idea generation impacts the creative output of the ideation session, these studies failed to look at the types of ideas generated before dissection or how the type of product dissected impacts this. Thus, the goal of the current study was to examine how product dissection impacts the solution space explored by students. Fifty-five undergraduate engineering students participated in the experiment; 40 participants virtually dissected a product, while the remaining 15 completed a personality test. The results of the study highlight that students explored new types of ideas during the second ideation session for all conditions and at all levels, with students having the biggest increase in embodiment variety when they dissected analogically far products. Overall, there were no differences in design variety between students in the dissection condition and the incubation condition. This study highlights how incubation can impact design variety and calls for further investigation of the interaction between product dissection and incubation.
Conference Paper
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One of the main issues of teaching talented students is challenging them. The research literature suggests that digital educational games have many potential benefits for mathematics and statistics teaching and learning. One of their foremost qualities is the capacity to motivate, engage, and immerse players. It has been shown that educational games captivate students’ attention, contributing to their increased motivation and engagement with mathematics and statistics (Ke, 2008). The current article contributes to the emerging literature on game-enhanced statistics learning by exploring the capabilities of a learning environment that uses programming logic in a game setting. Based on challenging students to create their own games, we attempted to enhance students’ (aged between 8 to 13 years old) reasoning about probability by asking them to design a computer game for modeling probabilistic ideas. Students were introduced to the block-based programming language Scratch 2.0, and used it to create their own games. In this article we present the case of a talented 13 year-old boy who expressed many probabilistic ideas while he was designing and playing his game.
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Could creative problem solving be the object of work in preschool education? This study followed the work of fifteen, four and five year old children and their teacher during a two month process of solving combinatorial problems with a large number of solutions. Findings show that all children responded positively to the problems, were successful in solving them and developed sophisticated strategies during the process.
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In recent years, calls to nurture and teach creativity from an early age in schools has intensified. Creativity is something regular in the teaching of arts subjects but is not a common feature in teaching science, technology, engineering and mathematics subjects. However, what really matters, is how the subject is being taught. This research aimed to foster creativity through the teaching of mathematics via problem solving that challenges the solving of problems in a creative manner, which is defined as creative problem solving. This quasi-experimental study investigates changes in students learning of mathematics via creative problem solving. Altogether, 172 Form 1 students forming treatment and comparison groups from four schools in Gombak District area, Malaysia were involved. A mixed qualitative and quantitative data were collected to investigate the effect of the 3 cycles of creative problem solving lessons implemented. Instruments used were Torrance Test of Creative Thinking, a mathematics problem solving test and creativity checklist. This paper will only present the quantitative data obtained. Results show statistically significant increases in scores for most categories of creativity and problem solving tests. This research brought together teachers and researchers in trialling creative problem solving to teach mathematics, to achieve the enhancement of students’ creative thinking and problem solving skills. This coincided with the introduction of Kurikulum Standard Sekolah Menengah with new emphasis to strengthen the quality of science, technology, engineering and mathematics education in general, where higher-order thinking reforms are emphasized.
Chapter
Dieses Kapitel veranschaulicht, welche kognitiven Aspekte Innovationsfähigkeit begünstigen. Nochmals wird die Rolle von Wissen und Expertise für Kreativität, Ideen und Innovation betont. Neben Fachwissen spielt prozedurales Wissen eine wichtige Rolle. Außerdem lernen Sie den Begriff „träges Wissen“ kennen und erfahren, dass sich dieses durch Kreativitätstrainings und betriebliche Lernmöglichkeiten vermeiden lässt. Besonders hervorgehoben wird die Trennung von Phasen divergenten Denkens und Phasen konvergenten Denkens bei betrieblichen Problemlöse- und Entscheidungsvorgängen. Sie lernen darüber hinaus unterschiedliche kognitive Stile anhand ihrer Idealtypen kennen und können die Unterschiedlichkeit Ihrer Mitarbeiter in Sachen Kreativität und Innovation besser verstehen und einschätzen. Außerdem geht es am Ende dieses Kapitels um nichtkognitive Merkmale im Sinne von Persönlichkeitsmerkmalen, die ebenfalls das Können beeinflussen.
Conference Paper
We attempted to model the Incubation Effect, a phenomenon in which a momentary break helps the generation of a solution to a problem, among students playing Physics Playground. We performed a logistic regression analysis to predict the outcome of the incubation using a genetic algorithm for feature selection. Out of 14 candidate features, those that significantly predicted the outcome were total badges earned prior to post-incubation, the problem’s level of difficulty, total attempts made prior to post-incubation, and time interval of post-incubation. We found evidence that incubation in the earlier part of the game is more beneficial than breaks at the later part where students may already be mentally exhausted.
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The objective of this research is to analyze the relationship between academic performance in mathematics and students' creativity levels and coping styles. To this aim, a sample of 91 fourth-graders from Madrid, Spain, took the CREA test to evaluate creativity and the EAN to evaluate coping styles in mathematics; their average grade in mathematics was used as an indicator of academic performance. The results reveal the existence of significant correlation between performance and creativity, as well as between performance and coping style, while creativity and coping style predict academic performance in mathematics. These findings have educational implications for enhancing academic performance in mathematics. © 2018 Consejo Mexicano de Investigacion Educativa. All rights reserved.
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Статья содержит материалы библиографического поиска среди исследований иностранных специалистов в области обучения одаренных учеников и студентов. Рассмотрены особенности сущности и структуры творческого процесса в разных областях деятельности человека.
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In this chapter, we wish to revive a concern with problem-solving experience, in particular the experiences of intuition and incubation leading to insight, and to argue that recent work on implicit memory provides a model for examining the role of unconscious processes during problem solving.
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This paper proposes an explanation of the cognitive change that occurs as the creative process proceeds. During the initial, intuitive phase, each thought activates, and potentially retrieves information from, a large region containing many memory locations. Because of the distributed, content-addressable structure of memory, the diverse contents of these many locations merge to generate the next thought. Novel associations often result. As one focuses on an idea, the region searched and retrieved from narrows, such that the next thought is the product of fewer memory locations. This enables a shift from association-based to causation-based thinking, which facilitates the fine-tuning and manifestation of the creative work.
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The recognition of the correct solution to a problem after a period when one is not actively searching for an answer is well documented. However, previous research has focused on problems an individual has not yet resolved. We presented a scenario in which 125 participants believed that they had completed a task and so had no reason to seek further solutions. To their surprise, after a period of distraction, we resumed the testing session. This novel method was combined with accurate recording of both response content and timing. The results from the second session a remarkable similarity n initial burst to those from the first, including a ideas, allowing the inference that, even in the absence of a reason to seek solutions, a process of nonconscious idea generation might be operating.
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Creativity refers to the potential to produce novel ideas that are 'task-appropriate and high in quality. Creativity in a societal context is best understood in terms of a dialectical relation to intelligence and wisdom. In particular, intelligence forms the thesis of such a dialectic. Intelligence largely is used to advance existing societal agendas. Creativity forms the antithesis of the dialectic, questioning and often opposing societal agendas, as well as proposing new ones. Wisdom forms the synthesis of the dialectic, balancing the old with the new. Wise people recognize the need to balance intelligence with creativity to achieve both stability and change within a societal context.
Article
The creative process, one of the key topics discussed in Guilford's (1950) address to the American Psychological Association and his subsequent work, refers to the sequence of thoughts and actions that leads to novel, adaptive productions. This article examines conceptions of the creative process that have been advocated during the past century. In particular, stage-based models of the creative process are discussed and the evolution of these models is traced. Empirical research suggests that the basic 4-stage model of the creative process may need to be revised or replaced. Several key questions about the creative process are raised, such as how the creative process differs from the noncreative process and how process-related differences may lead to different levels of creative performance. New directions for future research are identified.
Chapter
Because creativity has to do with the production of new ideas, one might think that its study rightly falls within the domain of cognitive psychology. Of course, creativity involves cognition, but it involves a type of cognition that seems only to occur within a matrix of associated motivational, attitudinal, and personalogical traits. Thus, to understand creativity, the person as a whole must be considered. Because of this, theories about the creative process have traditionally been personality theories rather than purely cognitive theories. In 1949, Guilford (1950) pointed out that we did not know enough about creativity. We can never know too much about the creative personality, but we certainly know more than I could hope to cover in this chapter. For more information, the reader may consult the reviews of the literature by Dellas and Gaier (1970), Wallach (1970), Stein (1974), Taylor and Getzels (1975), and Barron and Harrington (1981).
Article
Stfinn?ary.-Performance on a functional fixedness problem was investigated under conditions of continuous work on the problem vs interpolation of unrelated activity, and in Ss of low vs high problem-solving ability. The performance of low-ability Ss was most proficient under the interpolated-activiry condition, whereas for high-ability Ss performance was best under continuous work. It was suggested that different types of problem-solving processes occurred in low- and high-ability Ss, and that interpolated activity influenced these processes in opposite ways.
Article
Subjects worked on a problem, engaged in an intervening activity, and then resumed work on the problem. Different intervening activities represented various mechanisms that might produce incubation (e.g., set breaking, facilitation by analogy, review of the problem's elements). These various treatment groups were compared to a control group that worked on the problem continuously. None of them showed evidence of incubation, despite previously reported incubation with the same problem. Since these systematically negative findings are consistent with those of several recent studies, the status of incubation as an objectively demonstrated phenomenon is questioned and directions for further research are suggested.
Article
The creative process, one of the key topics discussed in Guilford's (1950) address to the American Psychological Association and his subsequent work, refers to the sequence of thoughts and actions that leads to novel, adaptive productions. This article examines conceptions of the creative process that have been advocated during the past century. In particular, stage-based models of the creative process are discussed and the evolution of these models is traced. Empirical research suggests that the basic 4-stage model of the creative process may need to be revised or replaced. Several key questions about the creative process are raised, such as how the creative process differs from the noncreative process and how process-related differences may lead to different levels of creative performance. New directions for future research are identified.
Article
Three aspects of creative thinking and production were examined: (a) metacognitive processing, (b) the knowledge base, and (c) personality variables. It was concluded that all three are essential elements, that they operate interactively, and that the results of creative thinking and problem solving are best assessed through evaluation of the products.
Article
Three studies sought to determine whether incubation effects could be reliably generated in a problem-solving task. Experimental variables manipulated were the duration of the interval between two problem-solving opportunities and the activity performed by the problem solvers during the interval. A multi-solution anagram task was used which required problem solvers to generate five-letter words from the letters in a ten-letter “starter” word until they could produce no more words. After a break (the incubation period) the problem solvers returned to the anagram task anew. Some participants also engaged in an activity related to the anagram task during the break which was expected to prime potential solutions that would emerge during the second problem-solving attempt. In all conditions problem solvers were able to generate new responses after the break, thus demonstrating a reliable incubation effect. The optimal incubation period was between 15 and 30 min long. The priming task increased the number of solutions to the anagram task on the second attempt, suggesting that exposure to solution ideas during the incubation period may facilitate an incubation effect during problem solving.
Article
This article reports an investigation into the empirical status of a little understood cognitive factor—tactile-kinesthetic ability. To this end, a variety of haptic tasks, including three subtests of the Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Test Battery (HRB), were administered to 108 participants, along with established markers commonly employed in contemporary psychometric investigations. The results suggest that these subtests of the HRB measure cognitive abilities conceptually equivalent to fluid intelligence. Since these tests reflect efforts to operationalize Halstead's (1947) concept of “biological intelligence,” the results reported herein allow evaluation of this concept in relation to current models of human intelligence. Previous studies investigating the nature of abilities assessed by the HRB have reached contradictory conclusions. Present findings clarify the source of these anomalies.Keywords: theory of fluid and crystallized intelligence (Gf/Gc), Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales (WAIS), Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Test Battery (HRB)
Article
Incubation is defined as a facilitation of thinking (not simply recall) that is evident after an interval during which no conscious work is done on a problem-solving task, assuming that there has been an earlier period of substantial conscious work. Incubation is differentiated from "creative worrying" and from the "tip of the tongue" phenomenon. An experimental paradigm is presented for the study of incubation, in which the experimental group has a period of time intervening between a 1st and a 2nd period of work on a problem, while the control group does not have the intervening period. Review of a number of studies, however, leads to the conclusion that no convincing evidence has been formed of the facilitating effect of the interval. Methods of demonstrating the phenomenon are suggested. If proven, guidance might be offered toward maximizing its effects. (17 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
80 undergraduates were given the farm problem or the tree planting problem to solve. For each problem there were control Ss who just worked on the problem, incubation Ss who put the problem aside temporarily and later continued to work on it, pictorial analogy Ss who had pictorial analogies of the problem in front of them while they worked on the problem, and combined pictorial analogy and incubation Ss who had the pictorial analogies in front of them and also had an incubation phase in which they put the problem aside temporarily. It was found that pictorial analogies significantly aided Ss in solving the 2 problems, and that the interaction effect of analogies and incubation significantly aided Ss in solving the farm problem. Results are discussed and explained from a unifying viewpoint involving several theories. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Conducted 2 experiments with undergraduates (N = 141) to determine the effects of hints and interpolated activity on Ss' behavior in trying to solve the hatrack problem. Results indicate that the "ceiling hint" was more effective in facilitating solution than the "clamp hint" but that interpolated activity alone was ineffective. In both experiments, Ss achieving low scores on problem solving responded to a hint more rapidly when it was given during continuous work compared to giving the hint after a period of interpolated activity; in contrast, high scorers responded more rapidly to a hint given after interpolated activity. The conditions under which positive effects of interpolated activity might be expected are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Presents a comprehensive review of cognitive psychology which includes sections on representation in memory, abstraction and iconic concepts, symbolic concepts and mental structures, mental operations, consciousness, and search strategies and problem solving. (18 p ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Examined the relationship between measures of creativity and aesthetic preference and established personality scales in 3 studies involving 308 college students. Study 1 derived indices of fluency, originality, and preference for complexity and Meaningfulness using random polygons varying in complexity; the scales of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (Revised), a schizotypal personality scale, and the Sensation Seeking Scale Form V (see record 64:08099) were the personality measures. Study 2 added Openness to Experience from the NEO Personality Inventory (Revised) to the personality measures; factors derived from a music preference Scale were added to the creativity/preference set. Study 3 replaced the polygons used in Study 2 with 2 creativity tests, and added a word association task. Results suggest a substantial relationship between sensation-seeking, openness, and psychoticism, and a creativity/preference set particularly represented by preference for complexity, dislike of soft popular music, and originality or number of divergent thinking responses. Subscale analyses implicate willingness to question conventional values as a major component of the creative personality. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
A factor analysis of word fluency was based on the interrelationships of 17 scores derived from the 6 tests: First and Last Letters, Synonyms, Suffixes, Letterstar, Adjectives, and Things Round. 8 factors were isolated and these are described. Partial corroboration was found for the 3 factors of word fluency previously identified by Taylor in an analysis for which he used only one score from each of these 6 tests. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Potential creativity as measured by the Alternate Uses Test, remoteness of word associations, and rated creativity of fantasy stories was found to be related to primary process content in written fantasy stories. Psychoticism and openness to experience have been found to be related to creativity. There are theoretical reasons to think that they might also be related to use of primary process cognition. However, neither potential creativity nor primary process content were significantly correlated with either psychoticism or openness to experience. An exploratory factor analysis, though, suggests that creativity, primary process cognition, extraversion, and psychoticism are interrelated. The common train linking them together may be disinhibition.
Article
Creativity refers to the potential to produce novel ideas that are task-appropriate and high in quality. Creativity in a societal context is best understood in terms of a dialectical relation to intelligence and wisdom. In particular, intelligence forms the thesis of such a dialectic. Intelligence largely is used to advance existing societal agendas. Creativity forms the antithesis of the dialectic, questioning and often opposing societal agendas, as well as proposing new ones. Wisdom forms the synthesis of the dialectic, balancing the old with the new. Wise people recognize the need to balance intelligence with creativity to achieve both stability and change within a societal context.
Article
Presently available criteria of creativity are reviewed and classified into ten categories: tests of divergent thinking, attitude and interest inventories, personality inventories, biographical inventories, teacher nominations, peer nominations, supervisor ratings, judgments of products, eminence and self-reported creative activities and achievements. These techniques for measuring creativity are then criticized in terms of their reliability, discriminant validity, dimensionality and convergent validity. It is concluded that an inventory of self-reported creative activities and accomplishments is the most defensible technique for selecting creative individuals.
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