ArticlePDF Available

Metabolic Cost of Rope Training

Authors:

Abstract and Figures

Rope training, consisting of vigorously undulating a rope with the upper body, has become a popular cardiovascular training choice in fitness centers and athletic performance enhancement facilities. Despite widespread use and growing popularity, little is known about the metabolic demands of rope training. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to quantify the cardiovascular and metabolic cost from an acute 10-minute bout of rope training. Eleven physically active participants used a 15.2 m rope anchored by a post, resulting in the participant holding 7.6 m of rope in each hand. The 10-minute protocol consisted of 15-seconds of vertical double arm waves followed by 45-seconds of rest, for 10 total repetitions. The metabolic cost was estimated from heart rate, lactate, resting O2 uptake, exercise O2 uptake, and excess post-exercise O2 consumption measurements. The average heart rate for the workout was 163 ± 11 bpm with peak VO2 of 35.4 ± 5.4 ml·kg·min, and peak METs were 10.1 ± 1.6. Total energy expenditure (TEE) was 467.3 ± 161.0 kJ. When expressed per unit of time, EE was 41.3 ± 14.1 kJ/min. The results of this study suggest an acute 10-minute bout of rope training is a vigorous-intensity workout, resulting in high heart rates and energy expenditure, which meet previously established thresholds known to increase cardiorespiratory fitness.
Content may be subject to copyright.
METABOLIC COST OF ROPE TRAINING
CHARLES J. FOUNTAINE
1
AND BRAD J. SCHMIDT
2
1
Department of Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, University of Minnesota Duluth, Duluth, Minnesota; and
2
Department of Athletics, Creighton University, Omaha, Nebraska
ABSTRACT
Fountaine, CJ and Schmidt, BJ. Metabolic cost of rope training.
J Strength Cond Res 29(4): 889–893, 2015—Rope training,
consisting of vigorously undulating a rope with the upper body,
has become a popular cardiovascular training choice in fitness
centers and athletic performance enhancement facilities.
Despite widespread use and growing popularity, little is known
about the metabolic demands of rope training. Therefore, the
purpose of this study was to quantify the cardiovascular and
metabolic cost from an acute 10-minute bout of rope training.
Eleven physically active participants used a 15.2-m rope
anchored by a post, resulting in the participant holding 7.6 m
of rope in each hand. The 10-minute protocol consisted of 15
seconds of vertical double-arm waves followed by 45 seconds
of rest for 10 total repetitions. The metabolic cost was esti-
mated from heart rate, lactate, resting O
2
uptake, exercise O
2
uptake, and excess postexercise O
2
consumption measure-
ments. The average heart rate for the workout was 163 611
b$min
21
with peak V
_
O
2
of 35.4 65.4 mL$kg
21
$min
21
, and
peak METs were 10.1 61.6. Total energy expenditure was
467.3 6161.0 kJ. When expressed per unit of time, EE was
41.3 614.1 kJ$min
21
. The results of this study suggest an
acute 10-minute bout of rope training in a vigorous-intensity
workout, resulting in high heart rates and energy expenditure,
which meet previously established thresholds known to
increase cardiorespiratory fitness.
KEY WORDS battle rope, cardiovascular conditioning, energy
expenditure, undulation training
INTRODUCTION
Acommon challenge shared by personal trainers
and performance enhancement specialists is the
selection of exercises that address specific training
goals, yet impart a novel challenge for athletes
and clients (31). Thus, unique and innovative training tech-
niques are continually introduced and disseminated via
certifications, conferences, and webinars to provide fitness
professionals with new ideas and training methodologies
to consider implementing (4–7,10,14,31). Nonetheless,
a notable lack of evidence-based research exists to either
substantiate the effectiveness of many of these practices or
validate hypothesized physiological adaptations (18).
Concurrently, the implementation of functional training
methodologies that are purported to address athletic and
tactical work capacity or metabolic conditioning for fat loss
have increased in popularity (4,5,6,10,14,19,23,24). Modalities
such as kettlebells, sandbags, and body-weight suspension
training devices are commonplace within these types of work-
outs, and research has begun to emerge to demonstrate their
potential effectiveness and utility (11,12,13,15,18,25,26). The
use of this ground-based and dynamic total body approach to
training has been defined by Martino and Dawes as dynamic
specific action training (DSAT) and may have additional
application to occupational and tactical athletes (19).
The use of large ropes, also known as battle ropes, Battling
Ropes, or undulation training (4,5,6,16,19,21), is a relatively
new modality within DSAT. Rope training typically consists
of creating waves with 9-m to 15-m rope, 3–5 cm in diam-
eter, which is looped around a fixed object. The rope is then
vigorously undulated in a series of waves for a set interval,
usually ranging from 10 to 30 seconds (5,10,18,19,21,23).
Rope undulation options are truly limitless as the upper
body may move with a fixed lower body, or undulations
may occur with simultaneous movement in the lower body
(4,16,19). Proponents of rope training highlight this chal-
lenging low-impact upper-body exercise as an intense met-
abolic workout that will result in improvements ranging
from improved body composition to increases in aerobic
and anaerobic capacity, and overall grip, shoulder, core,
and total body conditioning (4,10,18,19,21,23). However,
research has yet to substantiate the aforementioned benefits
of rope training.
In addition to DSAT performed with tactical athletes, rope
training has emerged in fitness centers and personal training
studios as a popular group fitness activity (14,31). Many
collegiate and professional strength and conditioning spe-
cialists have also begun to incorporate rope training with
their athletes (5,6,10,21,23). However, no published research
exists that documents either the acute or chronic effects of
any aspect of rope training. Hence, recommendations for
rope training exist solely at the expert opinion level of evi-
dence-based practice hierarchy (3). Therefore, the purpose
Address correspondence to Charles J. Fountaine, cfountai@d.umn.edu.
29(4)/889–893
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Ó2015 National Strength and Conditioning Association
VOLUME 29 | NUMBER 4 | APRIL 2015 | 889
Copyright © National Strength and Conditioning Association Unauthorized reproduction of this article is prohibited.
of this study was to quantify the cardiovascular and meta-
bolic cost from an acute 10-minute bout of rope training in
a sample of physically active male and female subjects.
METHODS
Experimental Approach to the Problem
To establish descriptive data specific to rope training,
recreationally trained subjects volunteered to perform a 10-
minute rope-training workout. The rope-training protocol
consisted of a 15-second interval of rope undulation,
followed by 45 seconds of rest, repeated for 10 total
repetitions. Heart rate, lactate, resting oxygen (O
2
) uptake,
exercise O
2
uptake, and excess
postexercise O
2
consumption
(EPOC) were all measured to
help estimate total energy
expenditure to determine the
cardiovascular and metabolic
cost of rope training.
Subjects
A total of 11 physically active
participants (5 male, 6 female,
age 24.7 61.9 years) were
recruited for this study. Inclu-
sion criteria sought physically active participants in good
health. Eight subjects were former collegiate athletes, and
all 11 subjects were currently involved in either recreational
resistance training or running. This study was approved by
the University’s Institutional Review Board, and all subjects
signed informed consent documents and a medical health
history questionnaire before their participation. Participants
with cardiorespiratory or other health problems that
inhibited their ability to exercise were excluded from the
study. All 11 participants completed the study with no
injuries reported. Physical characteristics of the subjects are
displayed in Table 1.
Procedures
Participants were instructed not to exercise on the day of
testing and to fast at least 4 hours before testing. The subjects
were acquainted with the rope training protocol on the day
of testing by a Certified Strength and Conditioning Specialist
(CSCS) with experience in rope instruction. All subjects
demonstrated rope technique deemed acceptable by the
CSCS before data collection commenced. Testing proce-
dures began when subjects were seated in a chair, fitted with
a mask and headgear, and resting O
2
uptake was recorded
and averaged over a 5-minute period (28,29). Resting blood
lactate was collected after the resting O
2
measurement was
completed. At the end of the 5-minute resting baseline mea-
surement period, the rope protocol commenced.
All participants used a nylon rope 15.24-m long, weigh-
ing 16.33 kg, and 3.81 cm in diameter (Rope Factory 2u2,
Lake Charles, LA, USA). The rope was anchored at the
base of a post, resulting in the participant holding 7.62 m of
rope in each hand. The 10-minute rope protocol consisted
of 15 seconds of vertical double arm waves followed by 45
seconds of rest for 10 total repetitions. Subjects began in an
athletic position, feet shoulderwidthapart,withthetrunk
flexed forward to approximately 30–458angle. Subjects
held the ends of the rope with a neutral grip, with the arms
straight and relaxed at their side (Figure 1). When perform-
ing the vertical double arm waves, the subjects were
coached to use minimal lower body and trunk movement
as to generate the waves primarily through shoulder flex-
ion when raising the ropes and shoulder extension when
crashing the ropes to the floor (Figure 2). The total number
Figure 1. Rope undulation starting position.
TABLE 1. Physical characteristics of subjects (n= 11).
Variable Total Male Female
Age, y 24.7 61.9 24.8 61.5 24.7 62.4
Height, cm 172.3 614.4 184 612.3 162.5 66.6
Body mass, kg 75.7 618.3 91.2 616.2 62.8 64.5
Values are given as mean 6SD.
Rope Training
890
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
the
TM
Copyright © National Strength and Conditioning Association Unauthorized reproduction of this article is prohibited.
of rope oscillations was recorded for each 15-second inter-
val. As there is no singular standardized method for rope
training, a 1:3 work-to-rest ratio was selected, consistent
withanaerobicenergysystemtraining guidelines (8). After
the 10-minute rope protocol was complete, participants
were seated and postexercise O
2
was recorded until 2
consecutive measurements were within 65% of resting O
2
uptake, with the postexercise O
2
used to calculate
EPOC (17). Peak lactate measurements were taken at 1
and 2 minutes postexercise completion, with the highest
concentration recorded (28,29).
Heart rate, resting O
2
,exerciseO
2
,andEPOCweremea-
sured via indirect calorimetry with a metabolic cart (Parvo
Medics True One 2400, Sandy, UT, USA) in 15-second
sampling periods. Age-predicted maximum heart rate was
estimated using the Gellish formula, 206.920.67 3age (1).
All blood-lactate measurements were recorded in duplicate
using 2 handheld lactate analyzers (Lactate Plus Meter;
Nova Biomedical, Waltham, MA) and were averaged for
data analysis.
Aerobic energy expenditure was estimated at 1 L O
2
=
21.1 kJ (22). To estimate anaerobic energy expenditure, the
authors utilized non–steady-state O
2
uptake measurements
methods previously described by Scott et al. (27,28,29,30).
Anaerobic energy expenditure was determined from the dif-
ference between peak and resting blood lactate measures,
multiplied by body weight, then by 3.0 mL of O
2
(22). Con-
versions to O
2
equivalents were subsequently converted to kJ
as 1 L of O
2
= 21.1 kJ (26,27,28,29). Resting O
2
and EPOC
were converted to energy expenditure as 1 L of O
2
= 19.6 kJ
to dismiss the glycolytic component from the O
2
measure
(27,28,29,30). Total energy expenditure was calculated by
summing aerobic energy expenditure, anaerobic energy
expenditure, and EPOC (27,28,29,30).
TABLE 2. Descriptive cardiovascular and metabolic variables of rope training.
Variable Total Male Female pValue
Aerobic EE, kJ 362.4 6128.3 487.6 664.0* 258.1 630.3 #0.001
Anaerobic EE, kJ 60.0 614.1 62.5 611.5 41.3 66.8 0.005
EPOC EE, kJ 54.0 622.2 72.1 616.4 38.9 613.3 0.005
Total EE, kJ 467.3 6161.0 622.2 685.5* 338.3 644.8 #0.001
EE kJ$min
21
41.3 614.1 54.9 67.5* 29.9 63.2 #0.001
Peak lactate, mmol 11.9 61.4 11.7 61.5 12.1 61.5 0.668
EPOC length, min 13.4 64.1 13.6 61.6 13.3 65.6 0.933
Peak exercise V
_
O
2
,ml$kg
21
$min
21
35.4 65.4 40.2 63* 31.3 62.9 0.001
Avg. exercise heart rate, b$min
21
163 611 158 614 165 69 0.333
Peak exercise heart rate, b$min
21
178 611 171 611 183 610 0.112
Peak METs 10.1 61.6 11.5 60.9* 9.0 60.8 0.001
Values are given as mean 6SD.
EE, energy expenditure; EPOC, excess postexercise O
2
consumption.
The pvalues indicate differences between male and female subjects.
*Statistically significant with Bonferroni correction, p#0.0045.
Figure 2. Rope undulation midpoint.
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
the
TM
|
www.nsca.com
VOLUME 29 | NUMBER 4 | APRIL 2015 | 891
Copyright © National Strength and Conditioning Association Unauthorized reproduction of this article is prohibited.
Statistical Analyses
All data were analyzed using IBM SPSS Statistics (version
21). Independent samples t-tests were used to analyze for
gender differences between cardiovascular and metabolic
measurements. Due to the large number of t-tests conducted,
a Bonferroni correction was used to control the global Type
I error rate at a= 0.05 for the 11 between gender compar-
isons. Thus, statistical significance was defined as p#0.05/
11 = 0.0045. Cohen’s deffect sizes were calculated
(M
1
2M
2
/pooled SD) to assess the meaningfulness of signif-
icant differences, with effect sizes .0.8 considered large (9).
RESULTS
Descriptive statistics of the cardiovascular and metabolic
variables of rope training are presented in Table 2. All data
are presented as mean 6SD. Throughout the 10-minute
testing protocol, subjects averaged 25 64 rope undulations
per 15-second work interval. Peak lactate levels were 11.9 6
1.4 mmol, and average EPOC length was 13.4 64.1 minutes.
The average heart rate throughout the 10-minute session
was 163 611 bpm, which was 86% of age-predicted max.
Peak heart rates reached 178 611 b$min
21
, 94% of age-
predicted max, and peak METs averaged 10.1 61.6.
Male subjects demonstrated significantly greater differ-
ences than females with large effect sizes for aerobic energy
expenditure (487.6 664.0 vs. 258.1 630.3 kJ, p,0.001, d=
4.6), total energy expenditure (622.2 685.5 vs. 338.3 644.8
kJ, p,0.001, d= 4.1), kJ$min
21
, (54.9 67.5 vs. 29.9 63.2,
p,0.001, d= 4.3), peak V
_
O
2
(40.2 63 vs. 31.3 62.9
mL$kg
21
$min
21
,p= 0.001, d= 2.9), and peak METs
(11.5 60.9 vs. 9.0 60.8, p= 0.001, d= 3.1).
DISCUSSION
The results of this study suggest that an acute 10-minute
bout of rope training is a vigorous workout, resulting in very
high heart rates (86% of age predicted max heart rate) and
energy expenditure per unit of time (41 kJ$min
21
). Accord-
ing to American College of Sports Medicine standards for
cardiorespiratory fitness, the cardiovascular and metabolic
demands of rope training would be classified as vigorous-
intensity exercise (1,2); therefore, rope training may be most
appropriate for individuals acclimated to high habitual
amounts of vigorous-intensity exercise (1).
Significant differences in aerobic and total energy expen-
diture were observed between genders; however, this may be
accounted for by the 30 kg average difference in weight
between males and females. No significant gender differ-
ences were observed for peak lactate, EPOC length, average
heart rate, or peak heart rate, suggesting that when
controlled for bodyweight, males and females will have
similar responses to the cardiovascular demands of rope
training (20). Nevertheless, due to inherent male and female
strength differences, the fitness professional may want to
consider ropes of a smaller length and diameter when incor-
porating rope training with females.
As mentioned previously, no published research has
examined rope training, making comparisons and conclusions
rather limited at this time. However, the metabolic demands
of rope training are most similar to other upper-body modes
of cardiovascular conditioning, such as training with kettle-
bells. In a population similar to the present study, a 10-minute
kettlebell routine consisting of 35-second swing intervals
followed by 25-second rest intervals resulted in average heart
rates of 180 612 b$min
21
,averageV
_
O
2
of 34.1 6
4.7 mL$kg
21
$min
21
,andkJ$min
21
of 52.3 610.5 (15).
Another similar kettlebell study found that a 12-minute kettle-
bell routine also resulted in similar metabolic demands, with
an average V
_
O
2
of 26.5 64.9 mL$kg
21
$min
21
and average
heart rates of 165 613 b$min
21
(13).
This study is not without limitations. First, the sample size
was small and included only physically active young adults
with an intercollegiate athletic background. Therefore, care
is needed when generalizing the findings to other popula-
tions, particularly those who may be less active. Second,
because no length or diameter of rope is standard when rope
training, our findings may only apply to the use of 15.2-m
length, 3.8-cm diameter rope. Ropes of differing diameter
and length may result in a varied cardiovascular response,
thus smaller sized ropes may be more appropriate dependent
on the activity level and physical strength of the target
population. Additionally, this study examined only a double
arm wave method of rope undulation. Therefore, the results
of this study may only apply to rope training in which the
lower body is static. Third, the results of this study are from
1 acute bout of rope training. Therefore, it is not known at
this time if an improved economy of rope training technique
in latter phases of training would result in reduced cardio-
vascular and metabolic demands. Fourth, maximum heart
rate data was predicted and not objectively determined via
V
_
O
2
max testing, thus percent max values reported are duly
noted as estimates. Furthermore, when compared with
lower-body exercise, upper-body exercises produce greater
physiologic strain (heart rate and blood pressure), thus it has
been recommended that exercise prescriptions based on
lower body cannot be applied to upper-body exercise (20).
Due to the unique upper-body demands, rope training may
place on an individual subjective workload assessments such
as ratings of perceived exertion or talk tests may be more
appropriate than percent max heart rate when initially
assigning workload (1).
Collectively, the results of previous studies assessing
metabolic demands of kettlebells and the current study using
rope training provide evidence that these novel high-
intensity upper-body exercises meet previously established
thresholds known to increase cardiorespiratory fitness (1).
Future research concerning rope training would be well
served to investigate acute responses to various sized ropes
and undulation protocols, along with chronic adaptations for
individuals seeking changes in body composition, cardiovas-
cular conditioning, or performance enhancement.
Rope Training
892
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
the
TM
Copyright © National Strength and Conditioning Association Unauthorized reproduction of this article is prohibited.
PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS
Rope training provides a vigorous-intensity cardiovascular
and metabolic stimulus, as demonstrated by elevated heart
rate and energy expenditure per unit of time. Our results
suggest that rope training can provide a high-intensity
stimulus for strength and conditioning professionals who
seek alternative or reduced impact-conditioning methods for
athletes or clients.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The authors wish to thank Eric Adolph, CSCS, and Chris
Sheckler, CSCS, for their assistance in data collection and
instruction.
REFERENCES
1. American College of Sports Medicine. ACSM’s Guidelines for
Exercise Testing and Prescription. 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott
Williams & Wilkins, 2010.
2. American College of Sports Medicine. Position stand: Quantity and
quality of exercise for developing and maintaining cardiorespiratory,
musculoskeletal, and neuromotor fitness in apparently healthy
adults: Guidance for prescribing exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc 43:
1334–1359, 2011.
3. Amonette, WE, English, KL, Spiering, BA, and Kraemer, WJ.
Evidence-based practice in strength and conditioning. In: TJ
Chandler and LE Brown, eds. Conditioning for Strength and Human
Performance. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams &
Wilkins, 2012. pp. 285–303.
4. Battling RopesÒHomepage [Internet]. Pinehurst, NC: John Brookfield,
2013. Available at: http://www.powerropes.com. Accessed March
22, 2013.
5. Cissik, JM. Strength training tools for the track and field coach: A
brief review. Track Cross Country J 1: 4–8, 2012.
6. Cissik, J. Three heavy rope conditioning exercises. Stack magazine,
back to school issue 2012 [Internet]. [updated May 20, 2012].
Available at: http://www.stack.com/2012/05/20/heavy-rope-
conditioning-workout/. Accessed March 21, 2013.
7. Cook, EG. Movement: Functional Movement Systems: Screening,
Assessment, Corrective Strategies. Santa Cruz, CA: On Target
Publications, 2010.
8. Cramer, JT. Bioenergetics of exercise and training. In: TR Baechle
and RW Earle, eds. Essentials of Strength Training and Conditioning.
3rd ed. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics, 2008. pp. 21–40.
9. Dancey, CP, Reidy, JG, and Rowe, R. Statistics for the Health Sciences:
A Non-Mathematical Introduction. London, United Kingdom: Sage
Publications, 2012.
10. Dos Remedios, R. Cardio Strength Training. New York, NY: Rodale
Inc., 2009.
11. Dudgeon, WD, Aartun, JD, Thomas, DD, Herrin, J, and Scheet, TP.
Effects of suspension training on the growth hormone axis.
J Strength Cond Res 25: S62, 2011.
12. Evans, RK, Scoville, CR, Ito, MA, and Mello, RP. Upper body
fatiguing exercise and shooting performance. Mil Med 168: 451–456,
2003.
13. Farrar, RE, Mayhew, JL, and Koch, AJ. Oxygen cost of kettlebell
swings. J Strength Cond Res 24: 1034–1036, 2010.
14. Halvorson, R. 30 essential pieces of equipment for the successful
personal training studio. IDEA Fitness J 9: 78–89, 2012.
15. Hulsey, CR, Soto, DT, Koch, AJ, and Mayhew, JL. Comparison of
kettlebell swings and treadmill running at equivalent rating of
perceived exertion values. J Strength Cond Res 26: 1203–1207, 2012.
16. Hutchins, A. Excess post-exercise oxygen consumption and peak
blood lactate following a maximal bout with the battling ropes
power wave. Master’s thesis, Georgia College and State University,
Georgia, 2012.
17. LaForgia, J, Withers, RT, and Gore, CJ. Effects of exercise intensity
and duration on the excess post-exercise oxygen consumption.
J Sports Sci 24: 1247–1264, 2006.
18. Leahy, G. Kettlebell training: What does the science say? NSCA
TSAC Rep 27: 3–5, 2013.
19. Martino, M and Dawes, J. Battling ropes: A dynamic training tool
for the tactical athlete. J Aust Strength Cond 20: 52–57, 2012.
20. McArdle, WD, Katch, FI, and Katch, VL. Exercise Physiology:
Nutrition, Energy, and Human Performance. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA:
Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2010.
21. Morton, C. The power of ropes. Train Cond 22: 13–21, 2012.
22. di Prampero, PE and Ferretti, G. The energetics of anaerobic muscle
metabolism: A reappraisal of older and more recent concepts. Respir
Physiol 118: 103–115, 1999.
23. Rooney, M. Warrior Cardio. New York, NY: Harper Collins
Publishers, 2012.
24. Santana, JC and Fukuda, DH. Unconventional methods, techniques,
and equipment for strength and conditioning in combat sports.
Strength Cond J 33: 64–70, 2011.
25. Scheet, TP, Aartun, JD, Thomas, DD, Herrin, J, and Dudgeon, WD.
Anabolic hormone responses to an acute bout of suspension
training. J Strength Cond Res 25: S61–S62, 2011.
26. Schottstall, JE, Titcomb, DA, and Kilbourne, BF. Electromyographic
response of the abdominal musculature to varying abdominal
exercises. J Strength Cond Res 24: 3422–3426, 2010.
27. Scott, CB. Contributions of blood lactate to the energy expenditure
of resistance training. J Strength Cond Res 20: 404–411, 2006.
28. Scott, CB, Croteau, A, and Ravlo, T. Energy expenditure before,
during and after the bench press. J Strength Cond Res 23: 611–618,
2009.
29. Scott, CB, Leighton, BH, Ahearn, KJ, and McManus, JJ. Aerobic,
anaerobic, and excess postexercise oxygen consumption energy
expenditure of muscular endurance and strength: 1-set of bench
press to muscular fatigue. J Strength Cond Res 25: 903–908, 2011.
30. Scott, CB. Quantifying the immediate recovery energy expenditure
of resistance training. J Strength Cond Res 25: 1159–1163, 2011.
31. Williams, C. Keep it fresh: Incorporating multiple modalities. NSCA
Perform Train J 12: 17–18, 2013.
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
the
TM
|
www.nsca.com
VOLUME 29 | NUMBER 4 | APRIL 2015 | 893
Copyright © National Strength and Conditioning Association Unauthorized reproduction of this article is prohibited.
... min -1 , which is similar to values observed in a Crossfit study 25 and corresponding to high intensity, as recommended by the ACSM -exercises performed above 6 METS are considered as intense 26 . Similarly, both the heart rate data of the present study (86.87%) and previous reports 3-5 , as well as in studies with boot camp, naval rope, jumps, and circuit training, all agree that it attains values above those proposed (85% of maximum predicted HR) by ACSM for high-intensity exercise (85% of predicted maximum HR) [28][29][30] . ...
... To our knowledge, few studies have investigated the energy expenditure in exercise sessions that used only bodyweight 17,28 . The total energy expenditure of 251.05 ± 27.26 kcal or 12.63 ± 2.24 kcal.min ...
... The total energy expenditure of 251.05 ± 27.26 kcal or 12.63 ± 2.24 kcal.min -1 found in this study was similar to those in other high-intensity modalities 17,23,[27][28][29][30][31] . Using the burpee exercise, Ratamess, Rosemberg, Klei et al. 17 showed that 10s all-out repetitions, with a 2-minutes interval, resulted in an expenditure of approximately 9.6 ± 1.kcal.min-1. ...
Article
Full-text available
Aim: Several programs using total body weight exercise methods have been applied in several populations especially using HIIT. The present study assessed the oxygen consumption, heart rate, and energy expenditure of a HIIT body work ® session. Methods: Twelve male participants performed 20 minutes of a HIIT body work, consisting of 20 sets of 30 seconds of stimulation in all-out intensity, followed by 30 seconds of passive recovery. Five cycles were performed for each exercise (jumping jack, burpee, mountain climb, and squat jump). Results: The mean VO2 of the session was 34 ± 7 ml.kg.min-1 (80.35% of the VO2 peak obtained in the session). The energy expenditure of the session was 251±27 kcal (13±1 kcal.min-1) and 39 ± 8 kcal (75±1 kcal.min-1) during the recovery time. The heart rate values were 160±18 bpm (91% of the peak HR of the session) and 125±22 bpm (71%) in recovery. In addition, significant differences (p<0.05) in maximal VO2 were found between jumping jack, mountain climber, burpee and squat jump. Conclusion: Based on the present data, a HIIT bodywork ® session presented energy expenditure as a typical high-intensity exercise profile.
... BTR exercises are https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2020.113167 Received 11 April 2020; Received in revised form 3 September 2020; Accepted 3 September 2020 generally used as a mode of high intensity interval training (HIIT), utilizing high speed movements for a brief time interval ranging from 10 to 30 s followed by short rest periods [8,17,27], which leads to short exercise sessions. Despite the popularity of this form of exercise, research regarding the acute cardiovascular responses to a BTR exercise routine is limited. ...
... Despite the popularity of this form of exercise, research regarding the acute cardiovascular responses to a BTR exercise routine is limited. It was previously shown that acute BTR exercise increases HR, rate of oxygen consumption and blood lactate levels, which remained increased for at least 10 min following exercise ( [17,30,37], a; [8]). Furthermore, the elevations in HR and oxygen consumption caused by BTR are greater than those seen after traditional resistance and body weight exercises performed at moderate-high intensity [36]. ...
... It would be noteworthy to evaluate the chronic CA and vascular adaptations to continuous exposure to the acute responses seen in this research. BTR exercise is typically performed as a form of HIIT [8,17,27]; thus, likely chronic adaptations produced by BTR exercise might be analogous to those of HIIT. These adaptations include a decline in resting HR and sympathovagal balance in addition to an enhancement in vascular function, which results in a reduction in resting BP [19]. ...
Article
Background: Battling rope (BTR) exercise has become incredibly popular among not only fitness enthusiasts and athletes but in the general exercising population. Despite its popularity, research regarding the acute cardiovascular responses to BTR exercise is limited. This investigation evaluated the effects of acute BTR exercise on heart rate variability (HRV) and blood pressure (BP) responses in young men with elevated BP. Materials and methods: Eleven young men with elevated BP completed either a BTR or a non-exercise control trial in randomized order. The BTR trial consisted of 10 rounds of BTR exercise. Each round included 30 seconds of exercise followed by 30 seconds of rest. HRV and BP were evaluated at baseline and 3, 10, and 30 minutes following each trial. Results: There were significant elevations (p ˂0.01) in heart rate, markers of sympathetic activity (nLF), and sympathovagal balance (LnLF/LnHF, nLF/nHF) for 30 minutes following the BTR trial, whereas no changes from baseline were detected after control. Additionally, there were significant reductions (p ˂0.01) in markers of vagal tone (RMSSD, LnHF and nHF) and LnLF (both sympathetic and vagal modulations) for 30 minutes; as well as (p ˂0.01) systolic BP and diastolic BP at 10 and 30 minutes after the BTR, but not the control trial. Conclusion: Current findings revealed that BTR exercise elevates sympathovagal balance for 30 minutes post-intervention, which is concurrent with an impressive hypotensive effect. Further investigations are warranted to assess the potential clinical application of BTR exercise not only in cohorts needing BP control but also in populations with limited locomotion that might benefit from post-exercise hypotension.
... Battling ropes (BR) is an innovative modality of low-impact upper-body exercise that has increased in popularity in various populations from the recreationally active to professional athletes [22]. SIE using BR is typically performed at an all-out intensity for a work interval ranging from 10 to 30 s [22,23]. Previous data suggested that BR significantly increases muscular strength and endurance and provides a potent metabolic and cardiovascular stimulus [22,23]. ...
... SIE using BR is typically performed at an all-out intensity for a work interval ranging from 10 to 30 s [22,23]. Previous data suggested that BR significantly increases muscular strength and endurance and provides a potent metabolic and cardiovascular stimulus [22,23]. ...
... Our results indicated that 2 min of upper-body SIE exhibited nearmaximal values of HR (large effect) and perceived exertion (large effect; mean RPE of 17 = "very hard"). These data corroborate a previous study that investigated the cardiometabolic demand of BR using a protocol similar to P15:45 [23]. The data exhibited maximal values of HR, blood lactate concentration, and metabolic rate equal to 86% HRmax, 11.9 mM, and 10.1 METs. ...
Article
This study examined the perceptual responses to various upper-body sprint interval exercise (SIE) protocols matched for total work and work/rest ratio. Fourteen active men (24 ± 4 years, BMI=26.2 ± 2.7 kg/m2, body fat=11.5 ± 4.4%) participated in 3 all-out SIE protocols consisting of battling rope exercise: P10:30 (12×10-s bouts with 30-s recovery); P15:45 (8×15-s bouts with 45 s recovery); and P30:90 (4×30-s bouts with 90-s recovery). During exercise, affective valence (FS +5 to −5), arousal (FAS 1–6), rating of perceived exertion (RPE 6–20), and heart rate (HR) were assessed. Post-exercise, enjoyment, self-efficacy, and intentions were measured. Results revealed a significant decline in FS (p=.02; partial eta squared [η2p]=0.27) and a progressive increase in FAS (p=.001; η2p=0.86), RPE (p=.001; η2p=0.88), and HR (p=.001; η2p=0.94), but no protocol X time interaction. Affective valence reached a nadir at values equal to −0.36 ± 3.41 (Cohen's d=−0.49), −0.43 ± 3.75 (Cohen's d=−0.44), and−0.93 ± 3.49 (Cohen's d=−0.56) in response to P10:30, P15:45, and P30:90, respectively. There were no differences between protocols for enjoyment, intention, or self-efficacy. A negative relationship exhibited between FS and RPE was moderated by participants' tolerance of exercise intensity (β=1.84, p < .05). Further, the association between FS and future intention was mediated by self-efficacy. Overall, upper-body SIE protocols exhibit similar perceptual responses when volume and work to rest ratio (1:3) are matched. Tolerance of exercise intensity may be used to predict changes in FS during SIE.
... However, circuit training for the upper body and core is the most common. Although literature on the topic is limited, few novel studies have reported that battle rope conditioning is considered a high-intensity exercise with a substantial metabolic demand (2,4,10). For example, a 10-minute battle rope protocol, consisting of 15 seconds of double-arm waves followed by 45 seconds of rest, demonstrated an average caloric expenditure of 467.3 6 161 kJ (i.e., 111 6 38 kcals; 1 kJ 5 4.184 kcals) (4). ...
... Although literature on the topic is limited, few novel studies have reported that battle rope conditioning is considered a high-intensity exercise with a substantial metabolic demand (2,4,10). For example, a 10-minute battle rope protocol, consisting of 15 seconds of double-arm waves followed by 45 seconds of rest, demonstrated an average caloric expenditure of 467.3 6 161 kJ (i.e., 111 6 38 kcals; 1 kJ 5 4.184 kcals) (4). Similarly, battle rope protocols using 30 seconds of work (i.e., 10 seconds bouts of single-arm waves, double-arm waves, and rope slams) with 2 minutes of rest found a mean kcal$min 21 of 10.3 6 1.4, which is consistent with the previous study at 41.3 6 14.1 kJ$min 21 (i.e., 9.9 6 3.4 kcal$min 21 ) (4,10). ...
... Although previous research has touted battle ropes as high-to vigorousintensity exercise while using heart rate (4,11), modifications can be made to allow for individuals of all skill levels to benefit from battle rope conditioning. Therefore, when incorporating these types of exercises into an exercise regimen, it is appropriate to consider the goals or sport specificity of the individual. ...
Article
This column is intended to provide a thorough analysis with photographs of the proper technique for battle rope conditioning. Specific musculature involvement, benefits of battle rope training, exercise technique, as well as advanced and beginning progressions will be discussed. This dynamic movement is designed to improve cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength, endurance, and power. Specific variations for battle rope conditioning can provide various benefits to athletes such as enhancing sport specific movements, increasing grip strength, and addressing unilateral deficits. Thus, the implementation of battle rope conditioning for an exercise regimen should be considered.
... 1.73 Kcal. min -1 , HIIT+WB-EMS: 11.76± 1.85 Kcal.min -1 ) herein are not so different from other modalities that use high intensity training [23][24][25][26] with values comprised between 7.5 to 9.7 Kcal.min -1 . 21,22,[23][24][25][26][27] To the best of our knowledge there are few studies available on literature 15,23 evaluating energy expenditure and WB-EMS. ...
... min -1 , HIIT+WB-EMS: 11.76± 1.85 Kcal.min -1 ) herein are not so different from other modalities that use high intensity training [23][24][25][26] with values comprised between 7.5 to 9.7 Kcal.min -1 . 21,22,[23][24][25][26][27] To the best of our knowledge there are few studies available on literature 15,23 evaluating energy expenditure and WB-EMS. BOCCIA et al. 23 performed two training sessions of 15 minutes based on isometric intermittent contraction (6 seconds of contraction interspersed by 4 seconds of rest) and found energy expenditure of 470 ± 71 kcal.h ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: The use of whole body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS) has been shown to be an efficient method for inducing significant improvements in muscle strength and performance outcomes. Hypothetically, WB-EMS had been considered an enhancer of energy expenditure in the session, but this remains unclear. Objective: In view of the lack of information, this study aims to evaluate the energy expenditure of WB-EMS associated with whole body High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT). Methods: Fourteen male participants were submitted into two randomized exercise sessions: HIIT (whole body weight exercises without WB-EMS) and HIIT+WB-EMS (whole body weight exercises associated with WB-EMS). For both exercise conditions, the subjects performed whole body HIIT according to the following protocol: 3 minutes of warm-up followed by 4 exercises (30 seconds of stimulus) organized in 2 blocks, with 3 sets in each exercise, a rest period of 15 seconds between sets, and 180 seconds between blocks. The following exercises were performed: jumping jacks, squat and thrusts, burpees, and spider plank. Results: Significant differences were found in the absolute VO2 (HIIT:2.18±0.34, HIIT+WB-EMS:2.32±0.36 L.min−1) and relative VO2 (HIIT:26.30±3.77, HIIT+WB-EMS:28.02± 3.74 ml.kg.min−1), MET (HIIT:7.51±1.07, HIIT+WB-EMS:8.00±1.07), lactate concentration (HIIT:11.59±2.16, HIIT+WB-EMS: 12.64±1.99 mmol.L−1) and total energy expenditure (HIIT: 249.6± 45.04 Kcal, HIIT+ WB-EMS: 268.9±40.67 Kcal; 7.46 ± 5.31%). Conclusion: Our data indicate that the use of WB-EMS associated with HIIT generated a slightly higher metabolic demand than that of the control. However, the absolute differences do not allow us to indicate the superiority of WB-EMS, and future trials should be designed to determine the long-term effects.
... Mehrere Akutstudien beschreiben die hohen metabolen sowie kardiorespiratorischen Auswirkungen des RT (Chen et al., 2018b;Faigenbaum et al., 2018;Fountaine & Schmidt, 2015;Iskandar, Mohamad, Othman, & Nadzalan, 2017;Ratamess et al., 2015a), die sich laut Ratamess et al. (2015b) bei einer Reduktion des RI noch verstärken. So werden beispielsweise bei einem stehend ausgeführten RT 68 % und bei sitzender Ausführung 72 % derVO2max erreicht (Felder, Hogan, Kovacs, Mitchell, & Brewer, 2018). ...
... Die während der Trainingseinheiten erfassten Herzfrequenzen deuten neben der subjektiven Beanspruchung auf eine hohe kardiovaskuläre Beanspruchung hin. Einige Akutstudien zeigten, dass RT erhebliche metabole und kardiorespiratorische Effekte besitzt (Chen et al., 2018b;Faigenbaum et al., 2018;Felder et al., 2018;Fountaine & Schmidt, 2015;Iskandar et al., 2017;Ratamess et al., 2015aRatamess et al., , 2015b. Auch wenn überwiegend Muskelgruppen (primär Schultermuskulatur) des Oberkörpers zum Bewegen des Rope genutzt werden, muss die Beinmuskulatur stabilisierend arbeiten. ...
Article
Full-text available
Das Ziel war, ein achtwöchiges, progressives Rope-Training (RT) auf die Leistungsfähigkeit der oberen Extremität zu untersuchen. Dabei wurden 34 gesunde, trainierte Probanden einer Interventionsgruppe (IG; n = 17; Alter: 25,2 ± 2,3 Jahre; BMI: 23,8 ± 2,3 kg ∙ m–2) und einer Kontrollgruppe (KG; n = 17; Alter: 23,4 ± 2,8 Jahre; BMI: 22,9 ± 3,0 kg ∙ m–2) randomisiert zugeordnet. Die IG absolvierte ein achtwöchiges, progressives RT mit drei TE (Trainingseinheiten) pro Woche, wohingegen die KG das individuelle Training fortsetzte. Die Prä- und Posttests bestanden aus einem isokinetischen Krafttest der Armbeuger und -strecker sowie einem maximalen Stufentest mittels Oberarmergometer (OBE). Während der OBE wurden die Herzfrequenz (HF); die Atemgaswerte- sowie die Blutlaktatkonzentration erfasst. Zur Auswertung der OBE wurden die maximale Leistung (Pmax), Leistung bei 2 mmol ∙ l⁻¹ (P2) sowie 4 mmol ∙ l⁻¹ (P4), \(\dot{V}\)O2peak sowie die maximale Laktatkonzentration (LamaxBel) und im isokinetischen Krafttest die mittlere maximale Leistung (isoPmax) und der Fatigue Index (FI) herangezogen. Während des RT wurden die HF sowie nach jeder TE die RPE (BORG-Skala: 6–20) erhoben. Nach dem RT zeigte die IG signifikante Steigerungen bei P2, P4, Pmax, rel. \(\dot{V}\)O2peak, isoPmax der Extensoren (pkorr <0,05) sowie des LamaxBel (pkorr < 0,01). Die KG zeigte eine signifikante Erhöhung bei P4 (pkorr < 0,01). Signifikante Gruppenunterschiede der Prä-Post-Differenzen wurden bei allen Parametern außer beim FI festgestellt (pkorr < 0,05). Die IG trainierte bei 98 ± 8 %HFpeak. Die subjektive Beanspruchung der IG lag über den Interventionszeitraum bei RPE 18 ± 1. Die Ergebnisse zeigten, dass ein achtwöchiges, progressives RT bei gesunden, trainierten Probanden zu einer signifikanten Steigerung der Leistungsfähigkeit der oberen Extremitäten führt.
... These behaviors are similar to those of previous studies, showing higher VO 2 and HR in response to BRP exercise. Fountaine and Schmidt (2015) analyzed the mean HR peak and VO 2 peak during a sprint session of battling rope with simultaneous movements (10x15 s all out, 45 s recovery). They found peak HR as a percentage of 94% HR peak (178 bpm) and average VO 2 peak of 35.4 ml.kg -1 .min ...
Article
Full-text available
ntroduction: High-intensity interval exercise is a training method that has been popular according to the American College of Sports Medicine. Traditionally, we verified the predominant usage of ergometers (treadmills and cycle ergometer) during interval exercise sessions. However, battle ropes exercise are a alternative to other exercise modalities. Purpose: The aim of the study was to compare heart rate (HR) peak and oxygen consumption (VO2) peak during a sprint interval exercise (SIE) with a battling rope (BRP), using different execution strategies (simultaneous and alternate oscillations). Materials and Methods: Eight college men (24.9 ± 7.0 years, 25.2 ± 3.6 kg/m2, and 38.9 ± 3.4 ml·kg-1.min-1) having no experience with battling rope exercises completed two different experimental sessions: simultaneous and alternating arms in a random order, and a 4 × 30 s all out (4 min of passive recovery). We used two-way analysis of variance with a significance of p < .05 for the analysis between groups. Results: The average oxygen consumption peak (VO2 peak), obtained during the four bouts of alternating and simultaneous arms was 76.52 ± 12.71 % and 79.58 ± 15.58 %, respectively. The average HR peak reached during the four high-intensity bouts was 85.15 ± 7.10 % and 88.29 ± 5.14%, respectively. Conclusion: These data show that there is no difference in the acute cardiovascular response of battling rope protocol exercise involving different modes (alternate or simultaneous). These results suggest that the intensity generated during BRP exercise can be sufficient to improve and maintain maximal oxygen uptake in healthy people.
... These methods usually incorporate elements that fit under the term of functional training, and within these new methods of work under this modality are but are not limited to: Flywheel (de Hoyo et al., 2016;Onambélé et al., 2008), elastic bands (Gaedtke & Morat, 2016), muscular belt (Álvarez et al., 2005), sled training machine (Alcaraz et al., 2018), kettlebell swing (Jay et al., 2011), battle ropes (Fountaine & Schmidt, 2015), harness resistance training, among others with a rising popularity. ...
Article
Full-text available
The strap suspension training is a well-known and practiced resistance training methods. Despite its frequent use, there is lack of methods of control and prescription of the loads (e.g. intensity and volume) during exercising with this device and method. The aim of the present study was to propose a new practical approach in the control and prescription of physical load during resistance suspension strap training considering basic terminology. In suspension training with straps, setting the exercise using different subjection point height, rope length, distance from subjection point and attack angle could change both the intensity and the volume of the load. Considering the above, this information should be addressed by human science professionals, athletes and coaches in the designing and execution of conditioning and training programs using this method of suspension training, in order to make an optimal approach to a more individualized prescription. Likewise, the calculation and the use of attack angles and their variations together with the Suspension Training Total Resistance Load values give the possibility of making a more objective approach for the determination of an adequate training load, which based on the client's perception, could allow practitioners to generate a beneficial overload and obtain greater physical and physiological improvements.
Thesis
Full-text available
MANGONA, Lucília Bernardino. Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Programa de Pós- Graduação em Ciências do Exercício e Esporte. Tese de Doutorado. Dispêndio Energético em Sessões de Treino Funcional em Praticantes Recreativos Residentes na Cidade de Maputo – Moçambique. 97 pp, 2020. Objetivos: Poucos estudos estimaram o dispêndio energético (DE) de sessões de treinamento funcional (TF), nenhum deles envolvendo praticantes recreativos da modalidade. Essas informações seriam úteis para o melhor entendimento do potencial do TF como estratégia para alcançar níveis de atividades físicas adequados para promover saúde e bem-estar. O objetivo da presente Tese de Doutoramento foi quantificar o DE durante sessões de TF por meio de acelerometria triaxial, em adultos sem experiência prévia com a modalidade, em ginásio comercial na Cidade de Maputo (Moçambique). Além do DE, a intensidade (relativa e absoluta) e percepção subjetiva do esforço (PSE) nas sessões de TF foram aferidas. Os resultados em TF foram comparados com sessões de caminhada contínua (CAM). Métodos: Inicialmente, estimativas do DE com acelerômetros utilizados no punho, perna e cintura foram comparadas com o gasto calórico fornecido por calorimetria indireta aferida por telemetria (n = 10 homens, 25 ± 3 anos, 173,0 ± 4,1 cm, 83,5 ± 15,7 Kg). Os resultados desse estudo piloto indicaram que o local ideal para a estimativa do DE com acelerômetro triaxial ActiGraph GT3X® seria a cintura (r=0,84, P = 0,005; diferença média de acelerometria vs. calorimetria = -0,445 kcal). A amostra do estudo principal foi composta por 25 voluntários (11 homens, 16 com sobrepeso/obesidade, 38,8 ± 9,3 anos, 168,5 ± 8,5 cm, 73,9 ± 13,8 Kg), que realizaram três sessões de TF separadas por intervalos de 48 h, as duas primeiras consistindo em sessões de familiarização. O protocolo de TF incluiu quatro passagens em circuito com 12 exercícios executados em máxima intensidade durante 20 s, com 10 s de intervalo entre cada estação. O DE (kcal derivado dos counts) e intensidade absoluta das atividades (counts/min) foram calculados por meio da acelerometria. A intensidade relativa foi estimada pelo percentual da frequência cardíaca de reserva (%FCR) registrado em cardiofrequencímetro e a PSE através da Escala de Borg CR-10. As sessões de CAM tiveram duração de 25 min, sendo DE, intensidade e PSE estimados pelas mesmas técnicas aplicadas em TF. Resultados: As sessões de TF duraram em média 24 min e o DE situou-se entre 124-292 kcal (188 ± 41 kcal), correspondendo a intensidades de 5-8 METs (6,1 ± 0,6 METs) e 70-80% (74 ± 8%) da FCR. Tanto DE quanto %FCR mantiveram-se estáveis na maior parte do TF. Já a PSE elevou-se ao longo das passagens no circuito, evoluindo de valores compatíveis com intensidade moderada para vigorosa. O DE foi similar em TF e CAM, mas a intensidade relativa média foi maior em TF (74% vs.55% FCR, respectivamente; P = 0.0001). Atividades vigorosas predominaram vs. moderadas nas sessões de TF e CAM. Todavia, a PSE foi sempre maior em TF (Borg 5 a 8) do que em CAM (Borg 3 a 5). Conclusão: Sessões de TF aplicadas em ginásio na cidade de Maputo foram capazes de elicitar DE e intensidade compatíveis com o recomendado para reduzir o risco cardiometabólico e melhorar a capacidade cardiorrespiratória em participantes recreativos normoponderais e com sobrepeso. Palavras-chave: treinamento em circuito; acelerometria; atividade física; caminhada; saúde.
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this Position Stand is to provide guidance to professionals who counsel and prescribe individualized exercise to apparently healthy adults of all ages. These recommendations also may apply to adults with certain chronic diseases or disabilities, when appropriately evaluated and advised by a health professional. This document supersedes the 1998 American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) Position Stand, "The Recommended Quantity and Quality of Exercise for Developing and Maintaining Cardiorespiratory and Muscular Fitness, and Flexibility in Healthy Adults." The scientific evidence demonstrating the beneficial effects of exercise is indisputable, and the benefits of exercise far outweigh the risks in most adults. A program of regular exercise that includes cardiorespiratory, resistance, flexibility, and neuromotor exercise training beyond activities of daily living to improve and maintain physical fitness and health is essential for most adults. The ACSM recommends that most adults engage in moderate-intensity cardiorespiratory exercise training for ≥30 min·d on ≥5 d·wk for a total of ≥150 min·wk, vigorous-intensity cardiorespiratory exercise training for ≥20 min·d on ≥3 d·wk (≥75 min·wk), or a combination of moderate- and vigorous-intensity exercise to achieve a total energy expenditure of ≥500-1000 MET·min·wk. On 2-3 d·wk, adults should also perform resistance exercises for each of the major muscle groups, and neuromotor exercise involving balance, agility, and coordination. Crucial to maintaining joint range of movement, completing a series of flexibility exercises for each the major muscle-tendon groups (a total of 60 s per exercise) on ≥2 d·wk is recommended. The exercise program should be modified according to an individual's habitual physical activity, physical function, health status, exercise responses, and stated goals. Adults who are unable or unwilling to meet the exercise targets outlined here still can benefit from engaging in amounts of exercise less than recommended. In addition to exercising regularly, there are health benefits in concurrently reducing total time engaged in sedentary pursuits and also by interspersing frequent, short bouts of standing and physical activity between periods of sedentary activity, even in physically active adults. Behaviorally based exercise interventions, the use of behavior change strategies, supervision by an experienced fitness instructor, and exercise that is pleasant and enjoyable can improve adoption and adherence to prescribed exercise programs. Educating adults about and screening for signs and symptoms of CHD and gradual progression of exercise intensity and volume may reduce the risks of exercise. Consultations with a medical professional and diagnostic exercise testing for CHD are useful when clinically indicated but are not recommended for universal screening to enhance the safety of exercise.
Book
Since publication of its First Edition in 1981, Exercise Physiology has helped more than 350,000 students build a solid foundation of the scientific principles underlying modern exercise physiology. This Seventh Edition has been thoroughly updated with all the most recent findings, guiding you to the latest understanding of nutrition, energy transfer, and exercise training and their relationship to human performance. This Seventh Edition maintains its popular seven-section structure. It begins with an exploration of the origins of exercise physiology and concludes with an examination of the most recent efforts to apply principles of molecular biology. The book provides excellent coverage of exercise physiology, uniting the topics of energy expenditure and capacity, molecular biology, physical conditioning, sports nutrition, body composition, weight control, and more. Every chapter has been fully revised and updated to reflect the latest information in the field. The updated full-color art program adds visual appeal and improves understanding of key topics. A companion website includes over 30 animations of key exercise physiology concepts; the full text online; a quiz bank; references; appendices; information about microscope technologies; a timeline of notable events in genetics; a list of Nobel Prizes in research related to cell and molecular biology; the scientific contributions of thirteen outstanding female scientists; an image bank; a Brownstone test generator; PowerPoint® lecture outlines; and image-only PowerPoint® slides.
Article
THROUGHOUT THE LAST DECADE, VARIOUS FORMS OF TRAINING HAVE COME TO THE FOREFRONT OF FITNESS, STRENGTH, AND CONDITIONING. EXERCISES FROM STRONGMAN COMPETITIONS, FUNCTIONAL TRAINING, AND OTHER GENRES HAVE BEEN COMBINED INTO A UNIQUE STYLE OF TRAINING. THIS STYLE OF TRAINING OFFERS A DIVERSE COLLECTION OF METHODS THAT, IF PROPERLY APPLIED, CAN SERVE AS AN EXCELLENT TOOL FOR PERSONAL TRAINERS AND STRENGTH AND CONDITIONING COACHES TO APPLY WITH ATHLETES.
Article
The purpose of this study was to compare metabolic demand of a kettlebell (KB) swing routine with treadmill (TM) running at equivalent rating of perceived exertion (RPE). Thirteen subjects (11 male, 2 female, age = 21.4 ± 2.1 years, weight = 73.0 ± 9.2 kg) completed a 10-minute KB swing routine consisting of 35-second swing intervals followed by 25-second rest intervals. Men used a 16-kg KB, and women used an 8-kg KB. After 48 hours of rest, the subjects completed a 10-minute TM run at equivalent RPEs as measured during the swing workout. Metabolic data were monitored each minute during each exercise using an automated cart, with the final 7 minutes used for analysis. The RPE and heart rate (HR) recorded at minutes 5, 7, 9, and 10 increased by 2-3 and 7-9%, respectively, for each exercise, producing a significantly increasing pattern but no significant difference between exercises. Average HR and RPE were not significantly different between KB and TM and averaged 90 and 89%, respectively, of age-predicted HRmax. Oxygen consumption, METS, pulmonary ventilation, and calorie expenditure were significantly higher for TM (25-39%) than for KB. Respiratory exchange ratio (TM = 0.94 ± 0.04, KB = 0.95 ± 0.05) and respiratory rate (TM = 38 ± 7, KB = 36 ± 4 b·min) were not significantly different between the exercises at any time point. During TM and KB exercises matched for RPE, the subjects are likely to have higher oxygen consumption, work at a higher MET level, and burn more kilocalories per minute during TM running than during KB swings. However, according to the American College of Sports Medicine standards, this KB drill could provide sufficient exercise stress to produce gains in aerobic capacity.
Article
This study examined the electromyographic (EMG) response of the upper rectus abdominis (URA), lower rectus abdominis (LRA), internal obliques (IOs), external obliques (EOs), and the rectus femoris (RF) during various abdominal exercises (crunch, supine V-up, prone V-up on ball, prone V-up on slide board, prone V-up on TRX, and prone V-up on Power Wheel). The subjects (n = 21) performed an isometric contraction of the abdominal musculature while performing these exercises. Testing revealed no statistically significant differences between any of the exercises with respect to the EOs, the URA, or the LRA. However, when examining the IO muscle, the supine V-up exercise displayed significantly greater muscle activity than did the slide exercise. In addition, EMG activity of the RF during the crunch was significantly less than in any of the other 5 exercises. These results indicate that when performing isometric abdominal exercises, non-equipment-based exercises stressed the abdominal muscles similarly to equipment-based exercises. Based on the findings of the current study, the benefit of training the abdominal musculature in an isometric fashion using commercial equipment could be called into question.