Article

Incidence, Prevention, and Treatment of Parenteral Nutrition-Associated Cholestasis and Intestinal Failure-Associated Liver Disease in Infants and Children: A Systematic Review

Department of Surgery, UCL Institute of Child Health, London, UK.
Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (Impact Factor: 3.15). 07/2013; 38(1). DOI: 10.1177/0148607113496280
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Background:
Cholestasis is a significant life-threatening complication in children on parenteral nutrition (PN). Strategies to prevent/treat PN-associated cholestasis (PNAC) and intestinal failure-associated liver disease (IFALD) have reached moderate success with little supporting evidence. Aims of this systematic review were (1) to determine the incidence of PNAC/IFALD in children receiving PN for ≥ 14 days and (2) to review the efficacy of measures to prevent/treat PNAC/IFALD.

Methods:
Of 4696 abstracts screened, 406 relevant articles were reviewed, and studies on children with PN ≥ 14 days and cholestasis (conjugated bilirubin ≥ 2 mg/dL) were included. Analyzed parameters were (1) PNAC/IFALD incidence by decade and by PN length and (2) PNAC/IFALD prevention and treatment (prospective studies).

Results:
Twenty-three articles (3280 patients) showed an incidence of 28.2% and 49.8% of PNAC and IFALD, respectively, with no evident alteration over the last decades. The incidence of PNAC was directly proportional to the length of PN (from 15.7% for PN ≤ 1 month up to 60.9% for PN ≥ 2 months; P < .0001). Ten studies on PNAC met inclusion criteria. High or intermediate-dose of oral erythromycin and aminoacid-free PN with enteral whey protein gained significant benefits in preterm neonates (P < .05, P = .003, and P < .001, respectively). None of the studies reviewed met inclusion criteria for treatment.

Conclusions:
The incidence of PNAC/IFALD in children has no obvious decrease over time. PNAC is directly correlated to the length of PN. Erythromycin and aminoacid-free PN with enteral whey protein have shown to prevent PNAC in preterm neonates. There is a lack of high-quality prospective studies, especially on IFALD.

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Available from: Giuseppe Lauriti, Feb 14, 2015
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    • "However, several hepatic complications are associated with this mode of nutrition. In adults, parenteral nutrition (PN) induces hepatic steatosis [1] [2] whereas the intra-hepatic cholestasis is frequent in premature infants [3] [4]. Animal data suggest that peroxides, H 2 O 2 and ascorbylperoxide (2,3-diketo-4-hydro- xyperoxyl-5,6-dihydroxyhexanoic acid), that contaminating parenteral nutrition [5] [6] are involved in these disorders [7] [8]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The oxidation of the methionine adenosyltransferase (MAT) by the combined impact of peroxides contaminating parenteral nutrition (PN) and oxidized redox potential of glutathione is suspected to explain its inhibition observed in animals. A modification of MAT activity is suspected to be at origin of the PN-associated liver disease as observed in newborns. We hypothesized that the correction of redox potential of glutathione by adding glutathione in PN protects the MAT activity. Aim: To investigate whether the addition of glutathione to PN can reverse the inhibition of MAT observed in animal on PN. Methods: Three days old guinea pigs received through a jugular vein catheter 2 series of solutions. First with methionine supplement, (1) Sham (no infusion); (2) PN: amino acids, dextrose, lipids and vitamins; (3) PN-GSSG: PN+10μM GSSG. Second without methionine, (4) D: dextrose; (5) D+180μM ascorbylperoxide; (6) D+350μM H2O2. Four days later, liver was sampled for determination of redox potential of glutathione and MAT activity in the presence or absence of 1mM DTT. Data were compared by ANOVA, p<0.05. Results: MAT activity was 45±4% lower in animal infused with PN and 23±7% with peroxides generated in PN. The inhibition by peroxides was associated with oxidized redox potential and was reversible by DTT. Correction of redox potential (PN+GSSG) or DTT was without effect on the inhibition of MAT by PN. The slope of the linear relation between MAT activity and redox potential was two fold lower in animal infused with PN than in others groups. Conclusion: The present study suggests that prevention of peroxide generation in PN and/or correction of the redox potential by adding glutathione in PN are not sufficient, at least in newborn guinea pigs, to restore normal MAT activity.
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    ABSTRACT: Prolonged parenteral nutrition (PN) leads to liver damage. Recent interest has focused on the lipid component of PN. A lipid emulsion based on w-3 fatty acids decrease conjugated bilirubin. A mixed lipid emulsion derived from soybean, coconut, olive, and fish oils reverses jaundice. Here we report the reversal of cholestasis and the improvement of enteral feeding tolerance in 1 infant with intestinal failure-associated liver disease. Treatment involved the substitution of a mixed lipid emulsion with one containing primarily omega-3 fatty acids during 37 days. Growth and biochemical tests of liver function improved significantly. This suggests that fat emulsions made from fish oils may be more effective means of treating this condition compared with an intravenous lipid emulsion containing soybean oil, medium -chain triglycerides, olive oil, and fish oil. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2014 · Nutricion hospitalaria: organo oficial de la Sociedad Espanola de Nutricion Parenteral y Enteral
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