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A Review on the Impact of the Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR) on the Human’s Health


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In recent years, due to technology advances human life are subjected to high level of Electromagnetic emission, Effects of the Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR) on the humans health is one most significant concern in the world. The present paper recognize of the possible health hazard on the humanity by exposure of Electromagnetic radiations (EMR). Potential of electromagnetic radiation can radiate through transmission lines which are very close to human’s life. The effects of the radiations are classified to two main categories that are known as ionization and non-ionization radiation may have ionization radiations have high energy that impact on the atoms in the cells, and lead to change their natural status, however they can be too dangerous and lethal, and they will lead to cancer and other diseases. On the other hand non-ionization radiations that consist of electromagnetic radiation such as communication waves, microwaves, electrical waves. This kind of radiation cannot change structure of atom; they just impact on their manner that it can lead to irreparable hurts.
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Proceedings National Graduate Conference 2012 (NatGrad2012),
Universiti Tenaga Nasional, Putrajaya Campus, 8-10 Nov 2012
A Review on the Impact of the Electromagnetic
Radiation (EMR) on the Human’s Health
Mohammadreza Aghaei
, Yasmin Hanum Md Thayoob
Sara Mahdaviasl
, Soodabeh Darzi
Mohammadnoor Imamzai
Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Tenaga Nasional
Programme Head Electrical Engineering Postgraduate Programmes, Universiti Tenaga Nasional
Abstract: In recent years, due to technology advances
human life are subjected to high level of
Electromagnetic emission, Effects of the
Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR) on the humans health
is one most significant concern in the world. The
present paper recognize of the possible health hazard on
the humanity by exposure of Electromagnetic radiations
(EMR). Potential of electromagnetic radiation can
radiate through transmission lines which are very close
to human’s life. The effects of the radiations are
classified to two main categories that are known as
ionization and non-ionization radiation may have
ionization radiations have high energy that impact on
the atoms in the cells, and lead to change their natural
status, however they can be too dangerous and lethal,
and they will lead to cancer and other diseases. On the
other hand non-ionization radiations that consist of
electromagnetic radiation such as communication
waves, microwaves, electrical waves. This kind of
radiation cannot change structure of atom; they just
impact on their manner that it can lead to irreparable
Keywords Electromagnetic radiation (EMR);
transmission lines, ionization, non-ionization, Human
Several publications in the scientific literature have
raised concern about the individual and public health
impact of adverse non-ionizing radiation from
electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure emanating from
certain power, electrical and wireless devices
commonly found in the home, workplace, school and
community [1]. Despite the many challenges in
establishing irrefutable scientific proof of harm and the
various gaps in elucidating the precise mechanisms of
harm, epidemiological analyses continue to suggest
considerable potential for injury and affliction as a
result of non-ionizing radiation exposure [2]. As
environmental health has not been emphasized in
medical education, [3] some clinicians are not fully
aware of possible EMF-related health problems and, as
a result, manifestations of non-ionizing radiation may
remain misdiagnosed and ineffectually managed. there
is recognition of the potential cellular and tissue
damage associated with exposure to ionizing radiation
from X-rays, electromagnetic radiation (EMR)
emanating from power lines, mobile phones, common
electrical devices and some types of machinery has also
begun to attract recent attention as a potential health
hazard [4]. The main objective of the current paper is a
review concerning to possible effect of Electromagnetic
radiation (EMR) on the human’s health in various
situation [5].
Non-ionizing radiation refers to a type of energy that is
given off or radiates’ away from the source of that
energy. There are different forms of energy, each with
distinct physical properties that can be measured and
expressed in terms of frequency and wavelengths. Some
waves have a high frequency, some medium and some
low. The electromagnetic spectrum is a name used to
describe a group of distinct energy forms that emanate
from various sources. The energies released are referred
to as types of EMR. Exhibiting high frequencies are
gamma rays, X-rays and ultraviolet light; lower
frequencies of the spectrum include microwaves and
radio waves [6]. Light wave emission, which occurs at
medium frequencies, provides for normal vision and the
light we perceive; infra-red energy allows for the
perception of heat. Most energy forms such as X-rays,
ultraviolet energy and radio waves are invisible and
imperceptible to the human. Without specialized
instrumentation, most frequencies cannot be detected
and, as a result, people generally do not appreciate their
Proceedings National Graduate Conference 2012 (NatGrad2012),
Universiti Tenaga Nasional, Putrajaya Campus, 8-10 Nov 2012
exposure to energy fields in these ranges. Despite the
lack of perception, exposure to high-frequency energy
including X-rays is termed ionizing radiation and is
potentially damaging to human cells. By altering the
atomic composition of cell structures, by breaking
chemical bonds and by inducing free radical formation,
sufficient exposure to ionizing radiation may inflict
DNA damage or mutation, thus increasing the risk of
malignancy or cell death [7, 8].
Non-ionizing’ radiation, generally referring to energy
forms with lower frequencies, has been considered safe
by many scientists and without adverse effects at
common exposure levels. Recently, however, increasing
evidence suggests that some frequencies of Non-
ionizing radiation may have potential to cause
biological harm. Most of the research on the health
effects of adverse Non-ionizing radiation has been done
that consisting of three general types of anthropogenic
non-ionizing EMR as the following:
First, there are extremely low frequency EMR from
power lines, electrical appliances and electronic
equipment [9].
Second is the electrical pollution: the operation of some
electronic equipment (such as plasma televisions, some
energy efficient appliances, variable speed motors, etc.)
has the ability to manufacture frequency signals
generally in the 3150 kHz range which then flows
along and radiates from wiring in affected homes and
other buildings [10].
Third, there are microwave and radiofrequency
emissions from wireless telecommunication devices
such as wireless telephones, cell towers, antennas as
well as broadcast transmission towers [11]. Ground
current, sometimes referred to as stray current is
electricity that is not confined to electrical wiring.
Electrical current follows the path of least resistance
and can flow through any and all available paths
including earth, wires and various objects. Accordingly,
electrical voltage can transmit through the ground and
into building structures through such devices as metal
pipes or rods in plumbing equipment, resulting in Non-
ionizing radiation scattering into the adjacent
environment [12].
Figure1. Classification of various types of Ionization and
Non-Ionization Radiations [13]
A. EMFs and Human Health
While medical studies correlating EMF with adverse
health outcomes have sometimes yielded apparently
contradictory results, Studies looking at reproductive
dysfunction, cancer potential appear to support previous
suspicions that EMF exposure may present a health
risk. Adverse pregnancy outcomes including
miscarriage, stillbirth, preterm delivery, altered gender
ratio and congenital anomalies have all been linked to
maternal EMF exposure. A large prospective study
published in Epidemiology, for example, is reported on
peak EMF exposure in 1063 pregnant women around
the San Francisco area. After participants wore a
magnetic field detector, the researchers found that rates
of pregnancy loss grew significantly with increasing
levels of maximum magnetic field exposure in routine
day-to-day life.
B. EMFs and Cancer
Numerous studies have investigated the allegation that
intense exposure to some frequencies of EMR may be
carcinogenic. For example, International Journal of
Cancer recently published an important population-
based casecontrol study on the link between childhood
leukemia and magnetic fields in Japan. By assessing
magnetic field levels in children‘s bedrooms, the
researchers confirmed that high EMF exposure was
associated with a significantly higher risk of childhood
C. Physical and psychological impact
People with EHS frequently experience debilitating
symptoms which can affect any body system including
the central nervous system, musculoskeletal system,
gastrointestinal tract, and endocrine system. Symptoms
often lead to ongoing psychological stress and intense
fear of being hit by EMR wherever they go. Many
patients become incapacitated by such fear knowing
that an invisible wireless signal may incite major
Proceedings National Graduate Conference 2012 (NatGrad2012),
Universiti Tenaga Nasional, Putrajaya Campus, 8-10 Nov 2012
symptoms in their body at any time and any place. This
unremitting fear and preoccupation with health issues
can have a major impact on well-being, to the point
where EHS individuals develop a phobia and disdain of
electricity, with some desiring to escape civilization.
D. EMF Effects of The Mobile Phones And
Mobile phones transmit and receive signals via
electromagnetic fields (EMFs) that are partly absorbed
by the MP user. As MPs are commonly used in close
proximity to the head, this feature has led to concerns
about possible adverse effects on human health [8].
One problem in translating exposure sources for
humans to experimental studies in rodents is that the
frequency of maximum RF energy absorption depends
on body size, shape, orientation and composition.
Maximum resonant absorption in rats at lies in the
frequency range of microwave and mobile phone
exposure used in researches (0.5 to 3 GHz), but would
scale to about 100 MHz in humans. This factor can in
principle be taken into account in SAR calculations, but
presents a problem for those studies that only use the
external field strength to set exposure levels.
Penetration depth relative to head size is also expected
to be greater in laboratory rodents than in humans and
their tissue parameters, heat redistribution and
dissipation mechanisms differ. Another potential source
of inaccuracies in exposure level is the RF exposure
cell. Exposure cells that resonance signal in the body
E. High Voltage Radiation Impacts On Humanity
And Environment
The transmission lines with voltage above of 100 kV
are the most powerful source of electro-magnetic non-
ionizing radiation. The investigations of radiation effect
on technical personnel are begun, when initiated
construction of first 220 kV transmission lines, when
the first signals of health worsening of workers
appeared. Putting into operation transmission lines with
voltage of 400kV led to many works in this field which
afterwards became the foundation for the development
of first in the world standard acts limiting the influence
of 50 Hz electric field [15].
Transmission lines with voltage above of 500 kV
influence on the environment in forms of:
a) Electric field with industrial frequency 50 Hz
which apart from its harmful effect causes a
number of undesirable effects.
b) Magnetic field with industrial frequency
c) Corona discharge radiation
F. EMFs and Nervous System (BloodBrain
The mammalian bloodbrain barrier consists of
endothelial cells, linked by tight junctions, and the
adjoining pericytes and extracellular matrix. It helps
maintain a highly stable extracellular environment
necessary for accurate synaptic transmission and
protects nervous tissue from injury. An increase in its
normally low permeability for hydrophilic and charged
molecules could potentially be detrimental [16].
Environmental heat in excess of the mammalian
thermoregulatory capacity can increase the permeability
of the bloodbrain barrier to macromolecules. Neuronal
albumin uptake in various brain regions was recently
shown to be dose-dependently related to brain
temperature, with effects becoming apparent with
temperature increases of 1°C or more. Since sufficiently
strong RF fields can lead to tissue heating, it seems
logical to ask whether this could be a mechanism
leading to increased bloodbrain barrier permeability.
G. EMFs Effects on Sleep
There are some effects of high-frequency EMF
exposure on sleep. This appears as a relevant topic for
several reasons. Amongst other symptoms, complaints
regarding sleep disturbances have been noted in
anecdotal reports of people who believe to be affected
by radiofrequency EMF, and this has led to speculations
that EMF may interfere with normal sleep pattern, thus
possibly mediating other health consequences.
The potential risk of sleep disturbances has to be judged
against the physiological background that sleep is a
very complex biological process controlled by the
central nervous system. And although the exact
neurobiological mechanisms are not yet known in
detail, the regular sequences of waking and sleeping
states are necessary requirements for correct
information processing of the brain, metabolic
homeostasis and intact immune function.
Moreover, sleep appears to be an appropriate
physiological system to be studied with the aim of
elucidating the interaction between high-frequency
EMF and the human organism as sleep is a well defined
biological condition, reacting very sensitively to
external influences. Exposure can be there is increasing
evidence that weak high frequency EMF, at intensities
well below those necessary to cause any significant
heating, can also induce biological effects [6, 17].
Nowadays the strive to resolve the impacts of non-
ionizing high-frequency EMF clearly is focused on
cancer risk, which may possibly be explained by an
adoption of the anxiety about carcinogenic effects of
ionizing radiation.[18]
Proceedings National Graduate Conference 2012 (NatGrad2012),
Universiti Tenaga Nasional, Putrajaya Campus, 8-10 Nov 2012
The present study was discussed the exposure of EMF
radiations and their effects on the human health and
wildlife. Especially, electromagnetic field impacts of
the high voltage that is exposuring from high voltage
transmissions and corona effects. In current literature
considered to some main impacts on the social
humanity. The purpose of the current study was to give
more knowledge about Electromagnetic radiations
effect on our life, because many people don’t know
about hazards due to radiations that already discussed
about some fatal problems in variety categories in ion
and non-ion radiation [19].
One of the more significant findings to emerge from
this report is that we recognize whole radiation ways
that may mention, such as microwave radiation that can
produce effects especially on nervous, cardiovascular,
immune and reproductive systems including: damage to
the nervous system by altering electroencephalogram,
changes in neural response or changes of the blood
brain barrier, disruption of circadian rhythms (sleep
wake) by interfering with the pineal gland and
hormonal imbalances, Changes in heart rate and blood
pressure, Impairment of health and immunity towards
pathogens, weakness, exhaustion, deterioration of
plumage and growth problems, DNA damage, Cancer
decease and Impact on the pregnant women.
At last, recommended, all the buildings construct out of
radiation defines, and as well, must used of good
protection for all high voltage transmission lines. In
urban, most of transmission lines must mount from
underground, because high voltage radiation impacts
will reduce, also there is some equipment that neutralize
radiation effects and prevent to scattering of harms of
electromagnetic radiation effects, when electrical and
communications companies want to mount their
radiation devices, they must attend to all above outlines
that mentioned.
According results of the correlation analysis, based on
the experimental data, it was concluded that the
sufficient influence on the value of electric field
intensity under the transmission line belongs to the
factors which are able to change the conductors sag
greatly and consequently change the distance between
the conductive lines and the measured point.
Besides the considered above factors, the change of the
relief under the transmission lines influences on the
distance between the conductive parts line and the
ground surface. If there are local ground rises and falls,
in reference to the horizon, it can lead to substantial
increase and decrease values of the electric field
intensity, lead to the displacement of the maximal
intensity zone aside from the line centre, and lead to
distortion of the symmetrical field distribution [19, 20].
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Universiti Tenaga Nasional, Putrajaya Campus, 8-10 Nov 2012
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... Shields are used either to isolate a space (a room, an apparatus, a circuit, etc.) from outside sources of electromagnetic radiation, or to prevent the unwanted emission of electromagnetic energy radiated by internal sources. It is well known that exposure to long-term or acute electromagnetic radiation can have harmful effects on human tissue [1][2][3][4][5], and furthermore, electromagnetic radiation can interfere with certain bio-electronic devices, such as pacemakers [6], and affect the lives of people. The recent proliferation of electronic devices, such as cell phones, and computer equipment, that emit low levels of electromagnetic radiation, or interference, has significantly increased the problem and created a need for everyday shielding garments. ...
This article reviews the preparation, development and characteristics of conductive polymer-based electro-conductive textile composites for electromagnetic interference shielding. Modification of ordinary textile materials in the form of electro-conductive composites makes them suitable for this purpose. Various metallic and non-metallic electro-conductive textiles have been explored here as the material for electromagnetic shielding. Different approaches of preparing textile electromagnetic shield have been described here. Recent advancements of application of conductive polymers in the field of textile electromagnetic shielding are described. Conductive polymer-coated textile materials showed superior electrical property as electromagnetic shield. Different methods of applications of conductive polymers onto textile surface are described here with their relative merits and demerits. Different conductive polymer-coated woven and nonwoven fabrics prepared by various researchers for electromagnetic shielding are taken into account. The effects of different process parameters of polymer processing on electromagnetic shielding are described.
This chapter presents an overview of different types of composite reinforcements (fibres, textiles, nanofibres, nanotubes, particles, etc.) with special properties like piezoresistivity, self-sensing property, self-healing capability, conductivity, electromagnetic shielding, heat generation, and so on. The properties of reinforced polymers and composites have also been discussed in detail. Additionally, fundamental aspects behind these special properties are also presented in this chapter. The last section of this chapter is dedicated to novel multi-scale reinforcements and composite materials, and their properties.
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In the present study, the alteration in the sleep EEG in rats due to chronic exposure to low-level non-thermal electromagnetic radiation was investigated. Two types of radiation fields were used; 900 MHz unmodulated wave and 900 MHz modulated at 8 and 16 Hz waves. Animals has exposed to radiation fields for 1 month (1 h/day). EEG power spectral analyses of exposed and control animals during slow wave sleep (SWS) and rapid eye movement sleep (REM sleep) revealed that the REM sleep is more susceptible to modulated radiofrequency radiation fields (RFR) than the SWS. The latency of REM sleep increased due to radiation exposure indicating a change in the ultradian rhythm of normal sleep cycles. The cumulative and irreversible effect of radiation exposure was proposed and the interaction of the extremely low frequency radiation with the similar EEG frequencies was suggested.
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Children are more vulnerable to the late somatic effects and genetic effects of radiation than adults; therefore, every effort should be made to keep the dose as low as reasonably achievable, trying to retrieve the best possible information when performing indicated diagnostic tests. Minimizing radiation doses should be a concept applied in a chain of actions, starting from the appropriate choice of modern equipment in the Radiology Department. Pediatric-oriented protocols, especially with regard to CT protocols, regular quality assurance tests, and continuous training of staff involved, are important parts of this chain. Radiation protection rules should be meticulously applied in neonates and children. Justification of requested examinations, vetting of referrals for complex examinations, standardization of techniques and procedures, as well as optimization of protection measures are crucial components for ensuring minimization of radiation exposure. Special considerations include shielding of gonads, thyroid and lens, appropriate collimation, posteroanterior projections in females, added filtration, and grid removal. In addition, short exposure times, immobilization or sedation, entertainment, or distracting devices should be applied to eliminate patient motion. Departments can benefit from self-audits and re-evaluation of their procedures. The learning objectives of this review article comprise becoming familiar with the doses and risks associated with typical X-ray diagnostic examinations carried out in pediatric patients and getting accustomed to radiation protection methods and techniques that may be used to minimize exposure to pediatric patients during diagnostic X-ray examinations.
Mobile phones produce radio frequency signal that is transferred as Electromagnetic radiation (EMR). EMR has the ability to penetrate through semi solid substances especially human body's tissues and caused dielectric heating. This effect can be classified as thermal and non thermal radiation. The skin near ear skull region is very thin compare to other part of human body. When using mobile phone for a longer period of time, this area absorbs EMR easily that can affects human immune systems. This effect resulted the increased of temperature near the ear skull region. Experimental study was conducted by using a volunteer to examine the effect of EMR produced by two different mobile phones with serving frequency of 900MHz and 1800MHz. This study was done in a laboratory for average of 45 minutes of talking time. Data is collected every 5 minutes using thermal imaging camera and thermal couples' probes. It is shown that temperature near the ear-skull region increased rapidly at the average of 2-4°C differences compare to before the used of mobile phone. When using adds in tools, the temperature rose more gradually and minimally. It is proven that the EMR would not cause any adverse effect towards human health such as cancer or tumor.
Objective To understand electromagnetic radiation field strength and its influencing factors of certain 110KV high-voltage lines in one urban area of Chongqing by measuring110KV high-voltage line's electromagnetic radiation level. Methods According to the methodology as determined by the National Hygienic Standards, we selected certain adjacent residential buildings, high-voltage lines along a specific street and selected different distances around its vertical projection point as monitoring points. The levels of electromagnetic radiations were measured respectively. Results In this investigation within the frequency of 5Hz~1000Hz both the electric field strength, and magnetic field strength of each monitoring sites was lower than the public exposure standards as determined by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP); However, the electrical field strength on the roof adjacent to the high-voltage lines was significantly higher than that as measured on the other floors in the same buildings (P
The issue of possible neurobiological effects of the electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure is highly controversial. To determine whether electromagnetic field exposure could act as an environmental stimulus capable of producing stress responses, we employed the hippocampus, a sensitive target of electromagnetic radiation, to assess the changes in its stress-related gene and protein expression after EMF exposure. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats with body restrained were exposed to a 2.45 GHz EMF at a specific absorption rate (SAR) of 6 W/kg or sham conditions. cDNA microarray was performed to examine the changes of gene expression involved in the biological effects of electromagnetic radiation. Of 2048 candidate genes, 23 upregulated and 18 downregulated genes were identified. Of these differential expression genes, two heat shock proteins (HSP), HSP27 and HSP70, are notable because expression levels of both proteins are increased in the rat hippocampus. Result from immunocytochemistry revealed that EMF caused intensive staining for HSP27 and HSP70 in the hippocampus, especially in the pyramidal neurons of cornu ammonis 3 (CA3) and granular cells of dentate gyrus (DG). The gene and protein expression profiles of HSP27 and HSP70 were further confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot. Our data provide direct evidence that exposure to electromagnetic fields elicits a stress response in the rat hippocampus.
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Studies show that exposure to the electromagnetic wave for a certain period of time will leads to health problem such as headaches, or even worse, brain cancer. Scientist have known that this radiation might cause human biological damage through heating effects since human body is made up of approximately 65-70% water, electrolytes and ions. Radio frequency radiation emitted from mobile phone will interact with human body and interfere with human body's natural healing resulted displacement of electrolytes and ions within the body. This paper discussed on the analysis conducted to study the effect of electromagnetic radiation (thermal radiation) of mobile phones with different frequencies via experimental works. The experiment was conducted in a laboratory using a volunteer (human). The period of operation is 45 minutes as the talking time on the phone. Thermal imaging technique is used to monitor and capture the temperature distribution during the experimental analysis for every 5 minutes interval. Images will be collected and analyzed using graphical plot. Devices such as Bluetooth headset and earphone are also used to study either this equipment are effective to reduce the effect of thermal radiation toward human head or not. The result shows that mobile phone serving GSM 900 MHz has the highest temperature increment compare to mobile phone serving GSM 1800 MHz. It is also shown that GSM 900 MHz has greater thermal radiation effect or heating effect. By using Bluetooth headset and earphone device when talking via mobile phone, the result shows lower radiation since direct radiations from the mobile phone antenna was reduced.
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We teach electromagnetics as part of a general education course in physics (for non science majors) in which we relate physics to societal issues. The course covers the effects of electromagnetic radiation on human beings. This discussion is limited to at most one class room period (about 50 minutes) usually less. There are several important conceptual issues that must be covered before such a presentation can be meaningful. The paper presents the arguments we use in this course
In the present study, carrot juice was used as the experimental material and stored in a 100 kV/m high-voltage electrostatic field (HVEF; E-group) which was used as a freshness-retention system. The changes in the biological properties were investigated relative to those juices which were stored in a common refrigerator (R-group) and controlled at the same temperature (4 °C). The results showed that the extent of color difference (ΔE), amount of total phenolics, tannins, and total plate counts of carrot juice were increased during the storage period, whereas the turbidity and amount of total carotenoids decreased under all treatment conditions. These factors remained relatively constant during storage in the E-group, whereas a significant difference (p < 0.05) was observed in the R-group. The HVEF treatment yielded better physicochemical properties and prolonged the shelf-life of the carrot juice. The application of HVEF at low temperature has the potential of imparting freshness and a high nutritional value to the products.
High voltage power lines produce corona ions which can create disturbances in the Earth's vertical potential gradient. It has been hypothesised that these ions mediate adverse health effects such as the observed increase in leukaemia near to power lines. A fixed site monitoring station has been installed near two high voltage power lines which measures the vertical potential gradient throughout the year in all conditions. Ten minute samples of time varying potential gradient are sorted by wind direction to indicate whether the monitoring station is downwind of a power line and assessed for its variability by calculating mean, inter-quartile range and the number of turning points. Mean and inter-quartile range are related to wind direction, showing higher values when the wind is coming from the power lines.