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The Science of Low Energy Nuclear Reaction

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Abstract

The large literature describing the anomalous behavior attributed to cold fusion or low energy nuclear reactions has been critically described in a recently published book. Over 950 publications are evaluated allowing the phenomenon to be understood. A new class of nuclear reactions has been discovered that are able to generate practical energy without significant radiation or radioactivity. Edmund K Storms, The Science of Low Energy Nuclear Reactions, in press (2006). Also see: http://www.lenr-canr.org/StudentsGuide.htm .
The Science of Low Energy
Nuclear Reaction
Edmund Storms
LANL Retired
Energy K. Systems
What is Cold Fusion?
Cold Fusion
Occurs in a special solid materials
at low applied energy.
Produces mainly helium-4 and heat
Small, simple devices can make
useful power
Involves fusion of deuterium and
many other nuclear reactions.
Has been studied for 18 years and
is not understood.
Is a clean energy source.
Is difficult to replicate.
Hot Fusion
Occurs in a plasma or upon
application of high energy.
Produces neutrons, tritium and
heat.
A very large reactor is required to
make useful power.
Involves fusion of tritium and
deuterium.
Has been studied for 60 years and
is well understood.
Is a dirty energy source.
Is difficult to make useful.
How is Cold Fusion Initiated?
Ambient Gas
Electrolysis
Liquid Plasma
Gas Plasma
Proton Conductor
Sonic Implantation
Laser Light
Ion Bombardment
How Much Power is Produced?
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
0 40 80 120 160 200
WATT
COUNT
All 157 values, 0.005-183 W, 12.7 W mean
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
B
A
COUNT
WATT
All Values
Electrolytic Values
Power based on 157 reported studies
What is the Main Source of Energy?
Helium production is the main source of energy
What Reactions Occur?
Detected
d + d >
4
He + (23.5 MeV)
d + d > p(3.02 MeV) + t(1.01 MeV)
n*d + M = fusion, fission, He
d + d >
3
He(0.82 MeV) + n(2.45 MeV)
Not Detected
d + t > n(14.01MeV) +
4
He(3.5 MeV)
d + p >
3
He + gamma (5.5 MeV)
Conclusions
The nuclear reactions occur in a special
environment (NAE).
Once this NAE is created, the effects are
reproducible.
When the NAE can be made in large
amounts, this will be an ideal energy
source.
More information at www.LENR.org
... Nevertheless recently, the excess power effect during a heavy water electrolysis was confirmed by investigators from a number of well-known scientific centers of the world: Energetic Technologies (ET-Omer, Israel), SRI Int. (Menlo Park, CA), ENEA (Frascati, Italy), etc. [7][8][9][10][11]. This is why if to analyze all the investigations on the Fleischmann-Pons effect (F-P), one can come to the following conclusions. ...
... Secondly, until now, any well-founded experimental proves do not exist that this effect is due to the reaction of the deuterons fusion, i.e. the "cold fusion". This fact is recognized even by the most passionate proponents of the F-P effect [11]. ...
... Nevertheless, in the F-P effect process, no high-energy irradiations were found, at least ones sufficient for an explanation of the excess power effect. Besides, until now no reliable theory was suggested, which could explain, how the releasing at two nuclei fusion energy could be transited to a metal crystal lattice without a high-energy external radiation [11]. ...
Article
Starting from papers by Fleischmann and Pons, many investigators have found the excess power effect during a heavy water electrolysis. They connected this effect with the deuterons “cold fusion”. A significantly larger number of investigators did not have found this effect, so they do not agree with the proposed explanation and consider the results of Fleischmann and Pons being a mistake or an instrumental artifact. In this paper experimentally proved that the Fleischmann-Pons effect (of burst type) is caused by an exothermic reaction of a recombination of the atomic deuterium accumulated in electrodes during electrolysis of the electrolyte. This reaction is similar to the reaction of thermal runaway in electrochemical batteries with aqueous electrolyte. Thus experimentally proved that the Fleischmann-Pons effect is not associated with cold fusion of deuterium nuclei. While the Fleischmann-Pons effect (of the weak type) is due to a partial recombination of the deuterium and the oxygen, i.e. in this case the excess power is apparent or imaginary. It is shown that the established mechanism of Fleischmann-Pons effect explains all the currently known experimental facts. The recommendations are given allowing a reproduction of this effect without a failure.
... [Kozima 2019c]) and books (e.g. [Kozima 1998, 2006, Storms 2007) characterized by the catalytic action of electrodics [Bockris 1970a[Bockris , 2000]. ...
... 135)] (Italicized partly at citation. The references[180] -[183] are those of the references in the original book[Storms 2007]) ...
Full-text available
Preprint
Using the TNCF (trapped neutron catalyzed fusion) and ND (neutron drop) models, which were successful to give a unified explanation of various kinds of experimental data sets obtained in a great variety of CF materials hitherto, we explained various features of the cold fusion phenomenon (CFP) observed in the composite (multi-component) CF materials, CF materials composed of host elements (alloys, ceramics, and polymers) and hydrogen isotopes (H or/and D). We take up in this paper following CF materials: (1) Alloys, (2) Ceramics, and (3) Polymers including XLPE and biological systems in addition to (4) the case where used a mixture of hydrogen isotopes, H and D. Despite of the rather complex host materials of various compositions and structures in the composite CF materials, we could give a consistent explanation of the specific experimental data obtained in them. We have proposed a tentative criterion for a minor element added to a major element (Pd or Ni) to make the alloy to be a composite CF material. Because of the importance of the composite CF materials used frequently in recent works with many interesting results especially on the improved qualitative reproducibility and the elevated amount of excess heat generation, it is useful to understand the physics of the nuclear reactions occurring there. The fundamental problems related to the premises of our models in relation to the composite CF materials will be discussed in another paper presented in this Conference.
... Fleischmann and Pons [1,2] reported electrochemically induced excess heat in palladium- Despite the rejection of mainstream science many laboratory continued the research on cold fusion, and in the past three decades many hundreds of successful experiments, producing electrochemically induced excess heat in palladium-deuterium system, have been reported [5,6]. ...
... Thus 3 He or neutrons have not been produced or the quantities were below the detection limits [8]. In sixty-one independent experiments the production of tritium above the background value has also been reported [5]. The quantity of Tritium was always too small to generate detectable heat, but sufficient to demonstrate an unexpected nuclear process [17]. ...
Full-text available
Conference Paper
Atomic scale description of the electrochemically induced cold fusion is presented. The model consistent with the experiments, offers physical explanation for the occurrence of nuclear fusion at low energies, and answer the theoretical objections rose against LANR. The fusion occurs in vacancies and triggered by the resonance frequency of the D 2 molecules. It is shown that the fundamental frequency of the vibrating Deuterium molecule in cavity is different from its diatomic frequency. The calculated value is 21.65 THz, which is almost identical with the observed "sweet spot" in the two lasers experiments at 20.8 THz, indicating that this previously unidentified peak represents the self-frequency of the Deuterium molecule in vacancy. The fundamental frequencies in vacancies for HD and H 2 molecules are also calculated. It is predicted that these frequencies in HD or H 2 systems should also activate the reaction and that these fundamental frequencies in cavities should remain unchanged regardless of the hosting lattice.-2
... It is, however, not determined what kind of the nuclear-force interaction is effective for and how does it work to realize the nuclear reaction, yet. There are very many experimental data sets showing nuclear reactions in the CF materials compiled in several books [3,4,5] and papers published in Proceedings of ICCF's and JCF's and many Journals (e.g., [6,7,8]). ...
Full-text available
Article
Since the discovery of nuclear reactions in PdDx alloys in 1989, there have been accumulated very many experimental data sets showing existence of nuclear reactions in materials composed of lattice nuclei of transition metals and occluded hydrogen isotopes (let us call them the CF materials, for short) resulting in various nuclear products such as transmuted nuclei, tritium, neutrons, and others accompanied with large excess energies at relatively low temperatures up to 1000 ºC (let us call these whole events the cold fusion phenomenon (CFP), for short). As the cause of these nuclear reactions in the CFP, we have to accept the existence of the interactions between nucleons in the CF material through the nuclear force, i.e. the weak interaction (let us call this interaction the nuclear-force interaction, for short) recognized in the nuclear physics. Before the discovery of the CFP, existence of the nuclear-force interaction in solid state physics had been known only in limited phenomena as the neutron diffraction and the Moessbauer effect. Even if the nuclear force has recognized as the cause of nuclear reactions observed in the CFP since its discovery in 1989, there should be its fingerprints in other phenomena in solid state physics and chemistry occurring in materials with similar compositions to the CF material (let us call these materials the nuclear-solid materials, for short). Since the Graham's discovery of the absorption of hydrogen by palladium and palladium-silver alloys in 1866, the physics of the transition metal hydrides has shown a great development revealing various characteristics of the physics in them especially the extremely high 2 diffusivity of hydrogen in metals and alloys (let us call this phenomenon as the super-diffusivity, for short). We have noticed the relation between the CFP and the super-diffusivity and explained some characteristics of the CFP using the data of the super-diffusivity. Thus, we may be able to expect that the nuclear-force interaction between lattice nuclei and occluded hydrogen isotopes will give explanations for some of the unsolved problems in the super-diffusivity in the solid state-nuclear physics. On the other hand in the electrochemistry, there have been observed such wonderful events closely related to the interaction between the transition metals and the hydrogen at the electrode surface as the hydrogen electrode reaction (HER) and the underpotential deposition (UPD). There are many characteristics of the HER and UPD remaining unexplained for more than 80 years after the formulation of the problem in 1933 by A.N. Frumkin. In relation to the nuclear-force interaction recognized in the CFP, we can apply the same new concept to investigate the unsolved problems in the HER and UPD in the solid state-nuclear chemistry. Furthermore, there have been discovered the exotic nuclei with a large unbalance of the numbers of protons and neutrons in the isolated nucleus in these 20 years. The halos observed in these exotic nuclei have shed light on the new features of the nucleon interaction in the isolated nucleus. We may expect existence of new features of exotic nuclei in the nuclear-solid materials where the lattice nuclei and the occluded hydrogen isotopes interact through the nuclear-force interaction. These themes in the nuclear-solid materials pointed out above may be only a little examples in our knowledge in the solid state-nuclear sciences where the nuclear-force interaction between the occluded hydrogen isotopes and the lattice nuclei plays decisive roles. We want to throw light on the physics and chemistry of the nuclear-solid materials composed of specific elements (including transition metals) and occluded hydrogen isotopes by taking up the possible participation of the nuclear-force interaction which has not noticed its importance seriously until now. In this paper, we point out several characteristic events in the super-diffusivity, HER, UPD, and the exotic nucleus in the nuclear-solid materials which seems to have close relations to the nuclear-force interaction noticed in the CFP.
... It is, however, not determined what kind of the nuclear-force interaction is effective for and how does it work to realize the nuclear reaction, yet. There are very many experimental data sets showing nuclear reactions in the CF materials compiled in several books [3,4,5] and papers published in Proceedings of ICCF's and JCF's and many Journals (e.g., [6,7,8]). ...
Full-text available
Preprint
Since the discovery of nuclear reactions in PdDx alloys in 1989, there have been accumulated very many experimental data sets showing existence of nuclear reactions in materials composed of lattice nuclei of transition metals and occluded hydrogen isotopes (let us call them the CF materials, for short) resulting in various nuclear products such as transmuted nuclei, tritium, neutrons, and others accompanied with large excess energies at relatively low temperatures up to 1000 ºC (let us call these whole events the cold fusion phenomenon (CFP), for short). As the cause of these nuclear reactions in the CFP, we have to accept the existence of the interactions between nucleons in the CF material through the nuclear force (let us call this interaction the nuclear-force interaction, for short) recognized in the nuclear physics. Before the discovery of the CFP, existence of the nuclear-force interaction in solid state physics had been known only in limited phenomena as the neutron diffraction and the Moessbauer effect. Even if the nuclear force has recognized as the cause of nuclear reactions observed in the CFP since its discovery in 1989, there should be its fingerprints in other phenomena in solid state physics and chemistry occurring in materials with similar compositions to the CF material (let us call these materials the nuclear-solid materials, for short). Since the Graham's discovery of the absorption of hydrogen by palladium and palladium-silver alloys in 1866, the physics of the transition metal hydrides has shown a great development revealing various characteristics of the physics in them especially the extremely high diffusivity of hydrogen in metals and alloys (let us call this phenomenon as the super-diffusivity, for short). We have noticed the relation between the CFP and the super-diffusivity and explained some characteristics of the CFP using the data of the super-diffusivity. Thus, we may be able to expect that the nuclear-force interaction between 2 lattice nuclei and occluded hydrogen isotopes will give explanations for some of the unsolved problems in the super-diffusivity in the solid state-nuclear physics. On the other hand in the electrochemistry, there have been observed such wonderful events closely related to the interaction between the transition metals and the hydrogen at the electrode surface as the hydrogen electrode reaction (HER) and the underpotential deposition (UPD). There are many characteristics of the HER and UPD remaining unexplained for more than 80 years after the formulation of the problem in 1933 by A.N. Frumkin. In relation to the nuclear-force interaction recognized in the CFP, we can apply the same new concept to investigate the unsolved problems in the HER and UPD in the solid state-nuclear chemistry. Furthermore, there have been discovered the exotic nuclei with a large unbalance of the numbers of protons and neutrons in the isolated nucleus in these 20 years. The halos observed in these exotic nuclei have shed light on the new features of the nucleon interaction in the isolated nucleus. We may expect existence of new features of exotic nuclei in the nuclear-solid materials where the lattice nuclei and the occluded hydrogen isotopes interact through the nuclear-force interaction. These themes in the nuclear-solid materials pointed out above may be only a little examples in our knowledge in the solid state-nuclear sciences where the nuclear-force interaction between the occluded hydrogen isotopes and the lattice nuclei plays decisive roles. We want to throw light on the physics and chemistry of the nuclear-solid materials composed of specific elements (including transition metals) and occluded hydrogen isotopes by taking up the possible participation of the nuclear-force interaction which has not noticed its importance seriously until now. In this paper, we point out several characteristic events in the super-diffusivity, HER, UPD, and the exotic nucleus in the nuclear-solid materials which seems to have close relations to the nuclear-force interaction noticed in the CFP.
... [Kozima 2019c]) and books (e.g. [Kozima 1998, 2006, Storms 2007) characterized by the catalytic action of electrodics [Bockris 1970a[Bockris , 2000. ...
Full-text available
Conference Paper
Using the TNCF (trapped neutron catalyzed fusion) and ND (neutron drop) models, which were successful to give a unified explanation of various kinds of experimental data sets obtained in a great variety of CF materials hitherto, we explained various features of the cold fusion phenomenon (CFP) observed in the composite (multi-component) CF materials, CF materials composed of host elements (alloys, ceramics, and polymers) and hydrogen isotopes (H or/and D). We take up in this paper following CF materials: (1) Alloys, (2) Ceramics, and (3) Polymers including XLPE and biological systems in addition to (4) the case where used a mixture of hydrogen isotopes, H and D. Despite of the rather complex host materials of various compositions and structures in the composite CF materials, we could give a consistent explanation of the specific experimental data obtained in them. We have proposed a tentative criterion for a minor element added to a major element (Pd or Ni) to make the alloy to be a composite CF material. Because of the importance of the composite CF materials used frequently in recent works with many interesting results especially on the improved qualitative reproducibility and the elevated amount of excess heat generation, it is useful to understand the physics of the nuclear reactions occurring there. The fundamental problems related to the premises of our models in relation to the composite CF materials will be discussed in another paper presented in this Conference.
... As is well documented by Storms [10], there are many researchers who have documented similar anomalous heat effects and the presence of anomalous material when cycling deuterium with Pd, Ti, and other base materials. These researchers found interesting and similar effects when cycling deuterium gas through thin-film Pd [11,12] or Pd/CaO/Pd layers [13e15], such as producing heat [2e4, 13,16] and/or transmutation of Pd into elements such as Cu. ...
Full-text available
Article
Hydrogen, deuterium, and helium gases were separately cycled through a Johnson-Matthey purifier containing coiled palladium silver alloy tubing: Pd25Ag (75 wt% Pd and 25 wt% Ag). During the cycling of D2 gas, evidence of anomalous heat production was observed. However, during the cycling of H2 and He, very little (H2) or no (He) unusual heat events were observed. After cycling the D2 gas through the coiled tubing for several months, Pd25Ag samples showed an increase in Cu and Fe compared with the amounts in unexposed Pd25Ag. Chromium, manganese, and zinc were detected in gas-cycled Pd25Ag samples, whereas they were not detected in unexposed Pd25Ag samples. In particular, Zn was present in the gas-cycled Pd25Ag material in larger quantities than either Cr or Mn. Although a small amount of Cu was present in the Pd25Ag coil before the D2 gas cycling, 7 times more was present after the cycling. Multiple material characterization techniques were used to obtain both pre-test and post-test elemental composition. The results indicate that novel post-test elements, primarily on the surface, were created by unknown nuclear mechanisms at low energy.
Full-text available
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A large data base now exists to support the claim for nuclear reactions, including fusion, being initiated in solid environments at modest temperatures. This phenomenon is called Chemically Assisted Nuclear Reactions (CANR) or Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR) or "cold fusion". Detailed information supporting the claims can be obtained from the website (http://home.netcom.com/~storms2/index.html) as well as from any scientific data base. These claims provide the incentive for this study. In this work, methods to produce anomalous energy are studied using electrolytic loading in D 2O of various materials (the Pons-Fleischmann method). Past work has concentrated on using palladium as the active material. This paper will demonstrate that energy-producing reactions can be made to occur in materials other than palladium. A unique method is proposed to explore many of the variables associated with the phenomenon.
Full-text available
Article
A dual calorimeter is described which can be used to study electrolytic processes. Experience with this instrument has revealed several deficiencies inherent in the isoperibolic calorimeter design that apply to all calorimeters of this type when used to study the cold fusion effect. I. BACKGROUND A calorimeter has been designed to measure heat energy produced in a Pons-Fleischmann type electrolytic cell. Two independent methods to determine heat production are used. This redundancy increases the reliability of the results as well as providing a method to study possible errors associated with conventional isoperibolic calorimetry. The design was constrained by the need for a small time constant, the ability to make changes easily, and limited resources. Provisions are made for computer control of the instrument. This is a first generation design, pictures of which can be seen at http://home.netcom.com/~storms2/index.html. A third generation design is presently being used and will be described in future articles. Unfortunately, the design of the isoperibolic mode is not similar to that used in a stand-alone isoperibolic calorimeter. Normally, the reference temperature outside of the cell is constant and uniform in a stand-alone device. In the dual mode, the reference temperature is variable because the jacket temperature is used as the reference temperature. In addition, this reference temperature has a gradient between the top and bottom of the jacket. These differences make the isoperibolic mode more unstable than a stand-alone device. Nevertheless, this calorimeter can be used to study several limitations of the general isoperibolic design, limitation which workers in the cold fusion field need to understand.