Avian Medicine and Surgery

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    • "The observed lymphocytosis with monocytosis in treated group (2) and treated and vaccinated group (4) may be due to the antigenic stimulation of GL through its stimulation to the mononuclear cells [32]. Moreover, lymphocytosis in ducklings may be secondary to antigenic stimulation by the virus [9], and also monocytosis may be observed in association with antigenic agent (infection) as it has phagocytic function [33]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The present study aimed to investigate the protective effect of glycyrrhizin (locally isolated and purified from licorice root) against duck hepatitis virus through the assessment of some hematological and biochemical parameters. One hundred and sixty white Pekin ducklings-one day old-were randomly divided into four equal groups. Group (1) was kept as normal control. Group (2) was inoculated I/P with 10 mg glycyrrhizin/kg BW, three times per week for four weeks. Group (3) was inoculated I/M with 0.5 ml of live attenuated DHV vaccine. Group (4) was inoculated with both glycyrrhizin (10 mg/kg BW I/P, three times per week for four weeks) and live attenuated DHV vaccine (0.5 ml, I/M). Then, all groups of treatment were challenged using virulent DHV except for 20 ducklings from the normal control group which were continued to be kept as negative control. The results revealed that duck hepatitis virus (DHV) caused macrocytic hypochromic anemia, leukopenia, hypoproteinemia, hypoalbuminemia, hyperglycemia, hypercholesterolemia, and marked elevation of liver enzymes and renal parameters. In conclusion, glycyrrhizin injected alone or in combination with DHV vaccine protected or ameliorated the deteriorating effects induced by DHV vaccine and/or duck hepatitis virus infection by improvement of erythrogram and leukogram, as well as liver and kidney functions.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2013
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    • "Uric acid contributes around 60% to the plasma value [23]. Uric acid, formed in the liver and eliminated by kidneys, represents the primary route of excretion of nitrogenous waste in birds [41]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Lead, a serious threat for raptors, can hamper the success of their conservation. This study reports on experience with accidental lead intoxication and responses to chelation therapy in captive Cinereous (Aegypius monachus) and Egyptian (Neophron percnopterus) Vultures. Results Soil contamination by lead-based paint sanded off the steel aviary resulted in poisoning of eight Cinereous and two Egyptian Vultures. A male Egyptian Vulture developed signs of apathy, polydipsia, polyuria, regurgitation, and stupor, and died on the next day. Liver, kidney and blood lead concentrations were 12.2, 8.16 and 2.66 μg/g, respectively. Laboratory analyses confirmed severe liver and kidney damage and anaemia. Blood Pb levels of Pb-exposed Cinereous Vultures were 1.571 ± 0.510 μg/g shortly after intoxication, decreased to 0.530 ± 0.165 μg/g without any therapy in a month and to 0.254 ± 0.097 μg/g one month after CaNa2EDTA administration. Eight months later, blood lead levels decreased to close to the background of the control group. Blood parameters of healthy Pb-non-exposed Cinereous Vultures were compared with those of the exposed group prior to and after chelation therapy. Iron levels in the lead-exposed pre-treatment birds significantly decreased after chelation. Haematocrit levels in Pb-exposed birds were significantly lower than those of the controls and improved one month after chelation. Creatine kinase was higher in pre-treatment birds than in the controls but normalised after therapy. Alkaline phosphatase increased after chelation. A marked increase in the level of lipid peroxidation measured as thiobarbituric acid reactive species was demonstrated in birds both prior to and after chelation. The ferric reducing antioxidant power was significantly lower in pre-treatment vultures and returned to normal following chelation therapy. Blood metallothionein levels in lead-exposed birds were higher than in controls. Reduced glutathione dropped after CaNa2EDTA therapy, while oxidised glutathione was significantly lower in both pre- and post-treatment birds. A chick in an egg produced by a Cinereous Vulture female two months after lead toxicosis died on day 40 of artificial incubation. Lead concentrations in foetal tissues were consistent with levels causing avian mortality. Conclusions The reported blood parameters and reproduction impairment in captive birds may have implications for professionals dealing with lead exposure in wild birds.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2013 · BMC Veterinary Research
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    • "Birds are an integral part of virtually every ecosystem and it is not surprising that they are commonly found in households and zoos all over the world. Birds can be parasitized by a wide variety of endoparasites, that is, nematodes, trematodes, cestodes, acanthocephalans, and protozoa [1–3]. Although parasites usually cause little or no distress to healthy individuals in the wild, parasitic infections are among the most common sanitary problems affecting captive birds, especially in high-density populations [4]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Faecal samples were individually collected from pet (n = 63) and zoo (n = 83) birds representing 14 orders and 63 species. All the samples were examined by faecal flotation technique. In a subgroup of samples (n = 75), molecular assays were also used to detect Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia duodenalis cysts. Overall, 35.6% of the birds harboured parasites (42.2% of zoo birds and 27% of pet birds), including Strongyles-Capillarids (8.9%), Ascaridia (6.8%), Strongyles (5.5%), G. duodenalis Assemblage A (5.3%), Coccidia (4.1%), Cryptosporidium (4%), Porrocaecum (2.7%), Porrocaecum-Capillarids (2%), and Syngamus-Capillarids (0.7%). The zoonotic G. duodenalis Assemblage A and Cryptosporidium were exclusively found in Psittaciformes, with prevalences of 10.3% and 7.7% within this bird group. Zoo birds were more likely to harbor mixed infections (OR = 14.81) and symptomatic birds to be parasitized (OR = 4.72). Clinicians should be aware of the public health implications posed by zoonotic G. duodenalis Assemblages and Cryptosporidium species in captive birds.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2012 · The Scientific World Journal
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