Article

From the Editors: What Grounded Theory Is Not

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the author.

Abstract

Editor's Note. Three years ago, I invited Robert (Bob) Gephart to write a "From the Editors" column designed to help authors improve their chances of success when submitting qualitative research to AMJ. Judging from the increasing number of quali- tative studies that have been accepted and pub- lished in AMJ since that time, I would like to think that his article, "Qualitative Research and the Academy of Management Journal," has had a pos- itive impact. Continuing in this tradition, I asked Roy Sud- daby—an excellent reviewer (and author) of quali- tative research—to tackle another "big issue" that the editorial team has noticed with respect to qual- itative submissions to AMJ: overly generic use of the term "grounded theory" and confusion regard- ing alternative epistemological approaches to qual- itative research. Like Bob before him, Roy has, I believe, produced an analysis that will greatly ben- efit those who are relatively new to qualitative re- search or who have not yet had much success in getting their qualitative research published. Hope- fully, Roy's analysis will help even more authors to succeed, thus allowing AMJ and other journals to continue to increase the quality of insights pro- vided by rich qualitative studies of individual, or- ganizational, and institutional phenomena. Sara L. Rynes

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the author.

... The abductive method, in which deductive and inductive reasoning are practiced in parallel (Dey, 2003;Suddaby, 2006), was used. Unlike in deductive analysis, in the abductive method, the role of the theory is not tested by the data. ...
... The data were then organized and coded using the qualitative analysis software Atlas.ti. The actual analysis process was iterative, drawn from the tradition of constant comparison (Boeije, 2002;Fram, 2013)-a common feature of the abductive analysis method (Dey, 2003;Suddaby, 2006). The different phases of the analysis process are explained in more detail in Table 3, and the types of comparisons are outlined in Table 4. Table 5 provides an example of the codes and the logic used during the analysis process. ...
Article
Full-text available
In the present paper, we report the findings of a qualitative survey study of 195 Finnish 5th and 6th grade students' pre-instructional conceptions of artificial intelligence (AI). An exploration of these initial conceptions provides insight into students' preliminary understanding of the topic and informs curriculum designers and teachers about misconceptions that might jeopardize student learning. The findings suggest that students' initial conceptions of AI are varied and often uninformed. For instance, references to the role of data in training AI applications were practically nonexistent. Instead, AI was often described as an anthropomorphic technology that possesses cognitive qualities equivalent to those of humans––a conception that notably resembles how AI is portrayed in the media. As a pedagogical implication, our findings suggest that it would be valuable to “demystify” AI by exploring its technical principles (i.e., the role of data) of the “human-like” AI solutions students encounter in their everyday lives.
... The initial qualitative analysis will involve open coding, where, based on the review of the whole news item (e.g., the title and news content), each article will be placed into its own category. Placing a whole news item in a coding category in Nvivo is achieved based on the inductive principles of grounded theory, whereas during the data collection, there will already be interplay between coding and data review (Charmaz, 2006;Haddaway et al., 2015;Maher et al., 2018;Suddaby, 2006). Line-by-line coding (Charmaz, 2006) will also be employed to analyze each sentence when descriptive labels will be linked to each sentence or paragraph. ...
... In effect, during the final review and subsequent uploading of the news items, there could be 'constant simultaneous comparison between items that belong to specific coding categories and whether a new coding category needs to be constructed (Suddaby, 2006). Codes will be developed in an iterative process, as emergent news items and themes will be identified in accordance with grounded theory principles (Strauss & Corbin, 1990). ...
Article
Full-text available
Background We are currently witnessing an ongoing drug overdose death epidemic in many nations linked to the distribution of illegally manufactured potent synthetic opioids. While many health policy makers and researchers have focused on the root causes and possible solutions to the current crisis, there has been little focus on the power of advocacy and community action by people who use drugs (PWUDs). Specifically, there has been no research on the role of PWUDs in engaging and influencing mass media opinion. Methods By relying on one of the longest and largest peer-run drug user advocacy groups in the world, the Vancouver Area Network of Drug Users (VANDU), newspaper articles, television reports, and magazines that VANDU or its members have been directly involved in will be identified via two data bases (the Canadian Newsstream & Google News). The news articles and videos related to the health of PWUDs and issues affecting PWUDs from 1997 to the end of 2020 will be analyzed qualitatively using Nvivo software. Discussion As our communities are entering another phase of the drug overdose epidemic, acknowledging and partnering with PWUDs could play an integral part in advancing the goals of harm reduction, treatment, and human rights.
... Use of these interpretations and theoretical connections can hijack inductive concept emergence if they are not relevant or do not fit the data. Suddaby (2006) suggests that this will force the researcher into testing hypotheses, rather than directly observing. Thornberg and Dunne (2020), on the other hand, warn that when researchers view an extant theory as correct or superior, they will become "data resistant, disregarding or overlooking data that do not support that particular theory, and their theory will act as a self-fulfilling prophecy" (p. ...
... Abduction involves an open-ended process of endless looping, self-questioning, and recapitulation (Shepherd & Sutcliffe, 2011) with the ultimate goal of matching theory with reality (Dubois & Gadde, 2002). It moves back (from theory to data) and forth (from data to theory) to combine both deduction and induction (Dubois & Gadde, 2002;Suddaby, 2006). ...
Thesis
This research focuses on anger and sunk cost effects as sources of cognitive bias and also portfolio interactions in relation to the retention/termination decisions on projects. Departing from a traditionally narrow and quantitative perspective of traditional project appraisal, this study investigates a wider psychological view of investment project decisions within four project management groups. The thesis emphasises that the role of the specific emotion of anger is influenced by the past sunk cost of projects and the effects of a portfolio of projects across the whole firm. In the sense that project retention is perceived to be a positive outcome of anger, it has arguably been neglected in empirical entrepreneurship and strategic decision-making research, but this study claims that the retention and termination of projects may be analysed using psychological theories of emotions. A case study based on a Palestinian holding company, therefore, investigates the influence of anger, the sunk cost effect and portfolio considerations on project retention and termination. The holding company under study operates in an uncertain political context likely to be a rich laboratory eliciting high levels of anger, thus highlighting their role. This study conducts fifteen emotion assessment surveys using a STAXI-2 inventory and content and thematic analyses of fifteen interviews, adopting multi-levels of analysis, and claims to make contributions to the entrepreneurship, strategic decision-making and psychology literatures. The analysis reports that anger has an important emotional influence on decisions. It demonstrates three main findings, i.e. mostly positive associations between anger, the sunk cost effect and portfolio considerations and project retention. It also presents four subsidiary findings. Hope emerged as the second most important emotion and is claimed to be associated with project retention. Other emotions also co-exist with anger and may have influenced retention decisions, and findings reveal an association between corporate identity (i.e. a factor emerged from data) and project retention. Finally, in an atypical case, anger is found to encourage project termination.
... In summary, the theoretical conceptualization of the constructivist grounded theory method, although challenging, provides the researcher with an ability to trust the unique process and the resultant constructed theory, through the depth of their engagement with the construction process (Suddaby, 2006). ...
Thesis
Full-text available
This thesis presents an original contribution to knowledge in the form of the Differential Emotional Processing Theory of Maladaptive Daydreaming. This theory provides new theoretical understanding of the maladaptive daydreaming experience. maladaptive daydreaming is a widely researched topic, but research into daydreaming, that is not maladaptive, but absorptive and vividly experienced, is newly emerging, with a need for more research to be conducted. Uncertainty is evident in how to theoretically explain maladaptive daydreaming beyond psychopathological suggestions. A constructivist grounded theory methodology enabled the researcher and 16 participants to co-construct a theory that provides a theoretical understanding of maladaptive daydreaming. In line with human research requirements, ethical approval was obtained from the Charles Sturt University Human Research Ethics Board (study one: case studies approval number: H17118) and (study two: forum approval number: H18078). The research data was derived from two research stages. These were two case study interviews and an online forum that involved 16 adult participants. Extensive coding was carried out across both research stages involving memo writing and a simultaneous literature review, along with an updated literature review in 2019 to 2022. The theory presented in this thesis relates to maladaptive daydreaming, positing that maladaptive daydreaming is one pathway of a wider construct ‘absorptive daydreaming’, with features that are maladaptive, whilst the other pathway is one that relates to emotional growth that is adaptive, through emotional processing factors. Key contributions of this thesis include: a move towards seeing maladaptive daydreaming as a potential emotional processing mechanism; ideas for meeting emotional processing needs in other ways than maladaptive daydreaming; and, moving treatment towards emotional processing rather than focusing on psychopathology. In conclusion, this thesis presents the first constructed grounded theory of maladaptive daydreaming. The theory provides a new theoretical understanding that may be able to be tested and extended into other populations in order to develop interventions that may assist the worldwide maladaptive daydreaming community. This thesis’s theory of maladaptive daydreaming and the wider construct of ‘absorptive daydreaming’ suggests that maladaptive daydreaming research would benefit from adopting broader understandings of maladaptive daydreaming, to include further areas of daydreaming experience, such as immersive daydreaming, which may be the emotional growth pathway within the current theory, that was found within this current study.
... In adopting purposeful sampling in order to generate theoretical insight, our final selection of this organization was highly motivated by the site access that was afforded to us. Thus, we followed the arguments of grounded theory regarding considerable exposure to the empirical context, or the subject area being researched (Strauss and Corbin 1998;Suddaby 2006). Basing case selection on the potential to provide an understanding of leadership processes as socially-, relationally-, and contextually embedded, is further supported by various leadership scholars (e.g., Blom and Alvesson 2014;Alvesson and Spicer 2011;Fairhurst 2008), highlighting the difficulty of gaining access to organizations for research purposes (Alvesson and Deetz 2000). ...
Article
Full-text available
While leadership is one of the most discussed concepts in the social sciences, there is a need for more scholarly research that examines the ambiguous leadership position of middle managers, and how their leadership work is perceived in practice. In this article, we follow the recent research turn of adopting a social constructionist view of leadership, and make use of metaphors to answer the following research question: how are middle managers in the public sector managing the expectations and demands from both top management and subordinates, and what are some of its consequences? We study this in the public sector, a context of particular importance but one that has often been neglected in previous research. Through a qualitative in-depth case study, based on observations, interviews, and organizational documents, our findings show that middle managers were trapped in the way they moved between being constructed as a leader and a follower, along what we call a leader-follower pendulum, and in the way they enacted two different leadership metaphors: the buddy and the commander. These aspects jointly contribute to a complex and ambiguous situation for middle managers, which in turn gives rise to alienation and the constant strive to fit in, something that we metaphorically refer to as “karma chameleon.”
... Consistent with Eisenhardt's (1989) case selection procedure, instead of statistical sampling, we selected our cases for theoretical reasons (Landoni et al., 2020;Suddaby, 2006) and explanatory relevance. Since ROs are often anchor tenants for TTNs, we contend they are an appropriate starting point for this study. ...
Article
This paper examines brokerage dynamics in technology transfer networks (TTNs), i.e., hybrid networks of different actors operating in the transitional area between knowledge and business ecosystems (i.e., innovation ecotones), with research organizations as anchor tenants. This particular type of network is gaining increasing attention. However, despite evidence of the importance of brokerage dynamics for knowledge mobility anchored in science and technology research, three main questions remain open: Who acts as network broker in TTNs? What are their specific functions? What mechanisms do they adopt to support these functions? To answer these questions, we conducted an in-depth multi-case study focusing on three European centers of excellence in scientific research, namely the University of Cambridge (UK), the École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (Switzerland), and the Italian Institute of Technology (Italy). We find that institutional actors as well as individuals act as network brokers in TTNs, and that brokerage manifests with varying degrees of formalization related to the TTN's level of maturity. We also identify six network brokerage functions, namely conflict resolution, spreading knowledge, linking idea fragments, connecting problems to solutions, expanding the network, and strengthening the network, and five mechanisms, namely endorsement, mediation, events, antennas, and digital support systems, that support these functions.
... We built our theory by systematically collecting and analyzing data in order to understand how our respondents interpreted their realities, and how they defined different agents in their lives. Following the suggestions by Suddaby [70], we analyzed these interviews by utilizing two main concepts: 1) constant comparison (in which we collect data and analyze them in parallel); and 2) theoretical sampling (in which decisions surrounding what issues to probe in subsequent interviews are determined by the theory that is being constructed). ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper examines the experiences of refugees in a developing country during its first COVID-19 lockdown by utilizing a two-stage qualitative data analysis of 39 interviews with refugees and asylum-seekers. We find that their experiences during the lockdown are shaped by identity, trauma and help from external parties-such as community leaders and local non-governmental organizations (NGOs). Experiences during the pandemic in turn moderate the relationship between policy changes and trust in domestic authority figures, which consequently affects attitudes towards and compliance with public health measures put in place to contain the pandemic. We then explore the role of identity in refugees' pandemic experiences by comparing the differences between two refugee groups (Syrians and Rohingyas), validating them by utilizing comparative thematic analysis. Finally, the paper presents policy implications for crisis response in developing countries by suggesting improvements that can be made on the ground regarding the delivery of aid and assistance to vulnerable groups.
... Analysis utilised the constant comparative method and theoretical sampling whereby data collection (observation and interview data) and analysis are interrelated (Corbin & Strauss, 1990;Glaser & Strauss, 1967) and were carried out concurrently (Green, 1998;Suddaby, 2006). To optimise the generalisability of our findings (Herriott & Firestone, 1983), our approach emphasised the importance of comparisons across sites (Vogt, 2002), with theoretical saturation achieved following the search for negative cases, and on exploring a diverse and wide range of data (Glaser & Strauss, 1967;Saunders et al., 2017). ...
Article
Full-text available
Background There is little research examining how continence care is organised and delivered to people living with dementia across an acute hospital admission, despite the prevalence of this patient population and their vulnerability within these settings. Objective To explore how continence care is delivered to people living with dementia during an acute hospital admission. Design Ethnographic. Setting(s) Acute medical units and wards within three hospitals across England and Wales. Participants People living with dementia and ward staff (registered nurses and care assistants) on participating wards. Methods Ethnographic fieldwork collected over a period of 12 months (180 days of non-participant observation) focussing on the organisation and delivery of continence care to people living with dementia. Observations were supported with in situ ethnographic interviews ( n = 562) with patients, visitors and staff within the six observed wards. Data collection and analysis drew on the theoretical sampling and constant comparison techniques of grounded theory. Results The findings comprised of five overall themes: (1) visibility of continence; (2) rationales of continence care; (3) containment and contagion; (4) consequences of continence care and (5) supporting continence. Conclusions We introduce the term ‘pad cultures’ to refer to the established routine use of continence pads in the care of a wider group of people living with dementia (regardless of continence status and independence), with the rationale to provide safeguards, ensure containment and prevent ‘accidents’ or incontinent episodes. There was an expectation within acute wards that people living with dementia not only wear continence pads but that they also use them.
... There were two major reasons for this approach as in Abednia's study (2012) whose aim was to explore the process of professional identity formation and to overcome researcher bias. First, grounded theory contributes insights into self, as well as into the way people interpret different phenomena ( Suddaby, 2006 ), in line with the main objective of this study, to explore the process of EFL teachers' identity reconstruction. While analysing the data, the following steps were followed: a) the recordings were transcribed verbatim by the first author, and corrective listening was used to pinpoint any inaccuracies. ...
Article
This study examines the impact of a translanguaging-driven in-service training on English as a Foreign Language (EFL) teachers’ professional identity re-construction. Grounded in complexity theory, the study is based on pre-, while- and post-training interviews with twelve teachers, their reflective journals, online discussions on LMS CANVAS, video-enhanced observations and the trainer first author's reflective journals. The data sets were analysed adopting grounded theory to induce emerging identities. It was found that each participating teacher developed one of three new identities: a) Translanguaging-Romanticised User, b) Translanguaging-Aware User, and c) Translanguaging-Inspired User. Implications for in-service teacher training are discussed.
... Abduction involves an open-ended process of endless looping, self-questioning, and recapitulation (Shepherd & Sutcliffe, 2011) with the ultimate goal of matching theory with reality (Dubois & Gadde, 2002). It moves back (from theory to data) and forth (from data to theory) to combine both deduction and induction (Dubois & Gadde, 2002;Suddaby, 2006). ...
... Transcripts of the 30 interviews and field notes were analysed following a grounded theory approach (Strauss and Corbin 1990;Suddaby 2006) using NVivo 12 software. We applied two rounds of iterative coding (open and axial) within each of the seven aforementioned sections of the interviews. ...
Article
Full-text available
Respecting connections between the diversity of values and forms of knowledge is essential to support a decision-making that fosters relationships between ecosystems and people. However, little theory has been developed for clarifying interactions between values and knowledge, and their relevance for environmental policy. We surfaced the overlooked relationship between values and knowledge by studying individual cognitive and emotional processes during a guided visioning exercise in the context of the multifunctional landscapes of Östergötland, Sweden. We investigated these cognitive processes using 30 semi-structured interviews and questionnaires organized around three types of relationships: vision ⇔ values, vision ⇔ knowledge, and especially values ⇔ knowledge. The analysis of the relationship between vision and values reveals that all types of values including core human values, relational, and intrinsic values are important in shaping the decision-making context in which landscape management visions arise. The relationship between vision and knowledge uncovers the mix of experiential and theoretical knowledge that informs the decision-making context. Interviews unfold three modalities in terms of how values and knowledge relate: i) linked and not necessarily connected (e.g. when individuals perceive a high conflict between their knowledge and their values leading to one construct silencing the other); ii) mutually reinforcing (e.g. when values and knowledge are seen as feeding into one another); and iii) intertwined (e.g. when individuals perceive that values and knowledge can co-exist). We discuss our findings in the context of their relevance for a collaborative decision-making process for balancing consensus and dissensus in multifunctional landscapes.
... During our analysis, we iterated between our emerging findings and the literature, to move from initial fuzzy categories to clearer conceptual structures (Gioia et al., 2012;Suddaby, 2006). In line with Gioia (2021), we started from the informants' experience to identify important themes, after which we identified theory-centered concepts and interrelationships to describe and explain our phenomenon. ...
Article
Intermediary actors have been recognized for their role in facilitating collaborations to achieve sustainability goals. Yet how voluntary sustainability collaborations, guided by intermediary actors, unfold in practice remains underdeveloped. Building on empirical data from the Principles for Responsible Management Education (PRME) network and using a network brokerage lens, we unfold dynamics of voluntary sustainability collaboration in the presence of an intermediary actor. We find that intermediaries act as sustained iungens brokers in voluntary sustainability collaborations, by connecting other actors and coordinating new collaborations in a multi-level network. Their activities are affected by tensions inherent to iungens brokerage in a voluntary setting, and factors influencing the success of the network collaborations. We contribute to the sustainability literature by offering a firsthand view on the dynamics of sustainability collaborations through an autoethnographic approach. We provide implications for sustainability collaborations in voluntary settings and recommendations for advancing responsible management education through collaboration.
... As a new qualitative research method, grounded theory overcomes the defects of general qualitative research, such as a lack of normative methodological support, difficulty tracing and testing the research process, and weak persuasion of the conclusions [59], so it is known as the precursor of the "qualitative revolution" [60]. Grounded theory is based on the collation and analysis of the collected practical information, using systematic procedures to refine the concepts that reflect a certain phenomenon and find the relationship between categories, and then promote it to a theory [61]. Compared with quantitative empirical research, researchers generally do not build theoretical assumptions before the start of research. ...
Article
Full-text available
As a major part of the global manufacturing industry attaining technological upgrades, the adoption and application of advanced manufacturing technology (AMT) plays a vital role in the development of enterprises. Thus, it is of the utmost significance to examine the driving factors that affect AMT application levels in equipment manufacturing enterprises. Through extensive interviews, the use of the qualitative research method of grounded theory, and the three-stage coding of the interview data from intelligent manufacturing pilot demonstration enterprises and projects, this study identified the key influencing factors for the AMT application levels of equipment manufacturing enterprises. We obtained 46 concepts and extracted 18 key categories and 6 main categories. Then, the logical relationships between the main categories were established. Finally, a driving factor model for the AMT application levels of equipment manufacturing enterprises was constructed. The results reveal that the driving factors that affect the AMT application levels of equipment manufacturing enterprises can be summarized as capability factors (technical capability, market capability, and management capability), motivation factors (material incentives and development incentives), and opportunity factors (external stakeholders). Overall, this study proposed a mechanism from the three aspects of ability, motivation, and opportunity.
... These are analyzed via Grounded Theory as it helps in identifying concepts and categories in the open coding process, which undergo re-examining those categories, their properties, and relationships during axial coding, and eventually determining core categories during selective coding (Corbin and Strauss, 1990). Then the authenticity cum credibility of the data is diligently checked (Suddaby, 2006). The themes discovered via grounded theory are illustrated on the next page in Figure 1, and the broad categories consist of the environment of shopping malls, entertainment, accessibility, brands and products' availability, and consumers' loyalty towards shopping malls. ...
Article
Full-text available
Shopping malls in Pakistan consist of a billion-dollar market that provides a wide variety, of choices, convenience, and an environment containing entertainment as well. There occurs a tug of war among the significant mall players, who strive hard to snatch market share from each other in the era of survival of the fittest. Consumer loyalty plays a pivotal role in consumer buying decisions and purchase choices from shopping malls. This probe critically examines the variables affecting shopping malls and dimensions of consumer loyalty. In this inquiry, pragmatism research philosophy is applied with inductive cum deductive approaches to ascertain this context by conducting mixed methods' research with multi-method of data collection, which includes in-depth interviews followed by survey questionnaires. The purposive sampling method is used to take input from consumers in shopping malls, and 200 survey forms are filled from consumers of three leading malls in Karachi: Ocean Mall, Park Towers, and Dolmen Mall Clifton, Karachi-Pakistan. The data is analyzed via many techniques, including Grounded Theory for interviews and Cron Bach Alpha, Factor Analysis, One-way ANOVA, Correlation Matrix, and Multiple Regression for survey analysis. First, the qualitative results explored essential factors and then, the quantitative results explicated positive cum significant relationship among pertinent variables including Environment (of the Shopping Malls), Brands Diversity, Entertainment, and Accessibility and Convenience as having a substantial impact on consumer loyalty towards the shopping malls. The findings of this research have practical implications as they appear beneficial for the shopping mall owners, business people, and brands to increase consumers' attraction leading to their loyalty cum patronage.
... During this process, as is common with the incremental, iterative process of collecting and analyzing data in GT, the data collection and analysis constantly evolved over time and the themes and categories were modified accordingly. This resulted in "lifting" the participant's responses to themes, categories, and their properties and dimensional ranges into an overall theoretical explanatory scheme showing their relationships and interactions (Suddaby, 2006). The unit of analysis was the perceptions and experiences of the buyers as they worked with suppliers from different countries. ...
Article
Research points to sustainable supply chain management as a core strategic goal for most global firms. However, managers continue to struggle with implementing successful sustainability initiatives both internally and throughout their globally dispersed supply chains. Using grounded theory, our findings uncover a potential explanation for how firms manage sustainability initiatives in the context of global supply chain management, from a buyer's perspective. Institutional theory of the firm is applied to help explain the challenges of developing and implementing global supply chain sustainability-related initiatives within buyer-supplier relationships. Analysis of the data from qualitative interviews show that institutional distance is an influential factor that produces mixed effects on the global buyer-supplier relationships in our sample in the context of buyer and supplier strategic orientation toward sustainability. The findings can help guide managers when approaching sustainability-related initiatives in the context of global supply chains. Theoretical and managerial implications are discussed as well as areas for future research.
... A bottom-up or inductive thematic analysis approach was applied to derive the participant's experience rather than seeking a view based on assumption and bias from the pre-existing coding frame or researcher's pre-existing analytic beliefs (Braun & Clarke, 2006). Open and focussed coding using the traditional approach of paper, colour markers and visual mapping was done to ensure constant interaction and immersion in the data (Maher et al., 2018;Suddaby, 2006). The rigour of the study is established based on the criterion of trustworthiness which rests on the parameters of credibility, transferability, dependability and confirmability (Maher et al., 2018). ...
Article
Full-text available
COVID-19 pandemic has turned the lives of people upside down across all walks of life. The COVID-19 driven partial/full lockdowns across the globe confined millions behind the walls restricting their movement. The confinement of people has led to various disruptions in their social, economic and psychological well-being. The fear of catching the virus coupled with financial strain and social distancing has proliferated the anxiety and stress among the masses. COVID-19 has adversely impacted the progression of women’s empowerment. It is reported that a greater number of women compared to male counterparts have lost their jobs during the pandemic, especially those working in the industrial mix. Women since long have been facing the brunt of inequalities across different spheres and sectors. They have always assumed the role of primary caregivers, be it in the present context or the various outbreaks in the past. Theoretical background establishes the conspicuous impact of various outbreaks in the past leading to economic and social disruptions. Further, few have addressed the psychological aspects of such outbreaks or crises on the people, and the invidious impact on women-specific studies is limited, especially in the Indian context. Therefore, the present study explains the major changes and issues women face during COVID-19, especially during the lockdown phase. The study highlights the significant roles assumed by women during the lockdown period and throws light on the precarious situation wherein they have faced intimate partner violence. The exploratory study delves deeper into the primary subjects using interpretative phenomenological analysis.
... Amir-madenci ilişkisinde kurumsal bir pratik haline gelmiş üretim odaklı işleyiş vurgulanmakta ve güvenlik göz ardı edilmektedir. Bu ilişkiyi daha iyi anlamak için, ilişkiden bahsedilen tüm veri parçaları derlenmiş ve ayrıntılı çözümlemeye tabi tutulmuştur (Gephart, 1993;Gephart ve Pitter, 1995;Suddaby, 2006). Madencilerin ifadelerinde, üretim odaklı amirlerle daha fazla üretim baskısı nedeniyle artan kaza riski altında çalışan ve dolayısıyla güvenliklerinden sürekli kaygı duyan madenciler arasında kimi zaman örtük kimi zaman açık bir çatışma ilişkisi gözlemlenmektedir (Gephart, 1997;Gephart ve Pitter, 1995). ...
... We shared our list with five representatives of trade associations to identify the most relevant artisan family firms, each of whom listed six family firms (for a total 30 firms). We consulted websites, social media, and newspapers articles to identify the most suitable firms until the sample was adequate and additional cases provided no further knowledge, thus reaching saturation (Suddaby, 2006). This led us to 10 small family artisan firms that appeared to be rich in information, and we again met with the trade association representatives to confirm the appropriateness of our final selection. ...
Article
Studies analyzing the entrepreneurial orientation of family businesses compared to their nonfamily counterparts have contributed to spreading the myth that family firms are less entrepreneurially oriented. However, the distinctive aspects characterizing the entrepreneurial orientation of family firms have received less scholarly attention. Aiming to advance this literature stream, this study postulates that family businesses are neither more nor less entrepreneurially oriented than nonfamily firms but express their entrepreneurial orientation differently, even when manifesting a similar level of entrepreneurial orientation. Building on entrepreneurial orientation studies and adopting a family embeddedness perspective, our multi-case study of 10 small artisan family firms with a high entrepreneurial orientation shows that family firms express their entrepreneurial orientation according to a set of interplaying firm- and family-level factors. The relationship among these factors leads to three different entrepreneurial orientation configurations: generational clash, family mirroring, and evolutionary adaptation. Our study of these configurations and the underlying nuances provide novel contributions to the literature and several implications for practice.
... Our first round of analysis did reveal a surprising element: Many entrepreneurs spontaneously expressed their emotional reactions to the job loss, and how it significantly affected them in self-employment. We further investigated this applying a grounded theory approach Glaser and Strauss (1967) Round 2 We explored how the entrepreneurs constructed meaning out of their intersubjective experiences Suddaby (2006). We examined the extant literature on emotions and coping with job loss Glaser and Strauss (1967). ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose - This paper investigates how a new entrepreneurial identity forms in conjunction with prior work-related identities during sponsored self-employment after an emotional job loss. Design/methodology/approach - We empirically examine why some dismissed employees failed and others succeeded in transitioning from a wage-earner career via corporate sponsorship to a career as an entrepreneur, investigating how they meaningfully constructed (or did not) an entrepreneurial identity. Findings - Our findings show that it is the simultaneous preservation of central attributes of prior work-related identities and the engenderment of new entrepreneurial attributes that support the formation of an entrepreneurial identity and that a liminal state, in which people practice entrepreneurship at work, may facilitate identity transition. Originality - This paper demonstrates that the initial entrepreneurial endeavour is based on prior work-related identity and identity congruence between prior work-related identities and a projected entrepreneurial identity is of great importance for the identity transition. However, we also show that incongruence may in some cases turn into congruence if entrepreneurs are given the opportunity to experiment with provisional entrepreneurial selves in a risk-free environment (so-called liminal states). Link: https://www.emerald.com/insight/content/doi/10.1108/IJEBR-09-2021-0757/full/html
... Both Grounded Theory and Factor Analysis (both exploratory and confirmatory) were employed in order to analyze the data at different phases. The data analysis for the first and second phases was Grounded Theory which is a more humanistic alternative to grand theories Glaser as cited in Abednia (2010), which according to Suddaby (2006), Mjoset (2005), and Canagarajah & Press (1999) are characterized by extreme positivism and somewhat absolute regularities and highly abstract nature. Grounded Theory, according to Glaser and Strauss (1967) , consists of three main stages of open, axial, and selective coding (as cited Abednia (2010). ...
Article
Full-text available
Some critics mention the definition variety problem, or a lack of definitional precision, as a major problem with Critical Pedagogy (CP). One who has just been familiar with CP may not have enough information regarding its roots and its multidisciplinary nature. S/he may not know about the historical development of CP and thus may not even be acquainted with the possibility of the existence of different definitions and versions for CP. Therefore, a newly-arrived researcher may get confused encountering the different definitions of CP. On the other hand, the literature on CP does not seem to be directed at the new researchers. By having five phases, the present mixed-methods study offered a simple definition of CP encompassing all the common grounds in the literature using an extensive literature review, the Grounded Theory approach, and Factor Analysis. Ten Iranian EFL professionals in CP, besides 306 Iranian EFL teachers, participated in the present work. The results of the present work may be helpful in developing CP-based curricula and courses which look into the real needs of the learners and teachers in order to have a more fruitful educational system.
... Meso-visions then become the basis for a new theory. Hence, the grounded-theory approach is unlike conventional approaches where researchers select pre-existing theoretical frameworks, develop hypotheses derived from these frameworks and collect data with the aim of checking the validity of these hypotheses [21]. Echoing this reasoning, the collected data were analysed methodically and systematically, guided by the parameters of the grounded-theory approach (see Figure 1). ...
Article
Full-text available
This research scrutinises the fear-driven management of Arabs. It conceptualises fear as a structural component of Arab society through a sociological lens and, by drawing upon the reflections of 28 Arab experts, philosophises on the potential of fear to develop into a well-configured managerial system (‘feararchy’) that regulates public and private lives. This research finds this system to rest upon a foundation of three forms of fear: ontological (the normalisation of fear), epistemological (the utilisation of fear to shape knowledge) and axiological (the influence of fear on acceptability). This article makes five contributions. First, it shows how, through turning fear into a collective status, Arab managers exploit fear for social control. Second, it demonstrates the institutional nature of Arabs’ fear, making it worthy of attention from the field of management. Third, it investigates fear as an individually internalised, socially constructed feeling that is psychologically manipulative. Fourth, it presents fear as not merely a natural psychological sensation but a managerially distorted contextual frame within which current (and future) members think and operate. Fifth and finally, it exposes the contextuality of fear: sources of fear in one context may not be sources of fear in another.
... Data analysis was performed within the framework of applied thematic analysis, as developed by Guest et al. (2011). Although this method can be compared to grounded theory in many respects, it maintains a rather phenomenological approach, and is primarily concerned with the characterization and organization of lived experiences, and social reality, applying the results to 'practical' research problems, rather than building theoretical models (Guest et al., 2011;Suddaby, 2006). Once the first round of interviews had been collected, a detailed description of each case study was written down, in order to acquire a comprehensive view of the phenomenon. ...
... After each interview, we summarized key thoughts and conceptually classified them into an initial set of categories. Constant comparisons between existing theory and data allowed reflection, while avoiding simply copying already existing literature (Glaser and Strauss, 1967;Suddaby, 2006). To structure the collected data as we moved from conceptualisation to categorisation, we adopted an open coding technique and conducted the labelling process exhaustively. ...
Article
Ensuring that innovations are implemented organisation-wide remains a critical business challenge for organisations. This study identifies how organisations can improve the effectiveness of innovations and specifies the effects of innovation implementation antecedents and capabilities. By applying a mixed method approach, using data from 42 semi-structured interviews and 125 questionnaire participants, we develop a new framework for understanding the mechanisms that underlie and enhance effective innovation implementation. The results emphasise that achieving high and consistent use of innovations requires organisations to focus on organisational members and their individual characteristics, rather than on organisational design. Additionally, implementation leadership serves as a central mediator to explain the framework’s relationships. Furthermore, a middle management-driven approach that combines implementation leadership and dialogue facilitates effective implementation of innovation. In conclusion, our study contributes to innovation implementation research by presenting a framework to guide future research, while helping practitioners to implement innovations more effectively.
... Methodologically, given the lack of understanding of how ethical behaviour develops and is enacted, we rely upon grounded theory (Glaser and Strauss 1967;Suddaby 2006), derived from narratives around sustainable consumption, moral obstacles and the good life. We adopt an exploratory qualitative approach and ethnographically-inspired interviews (Spradley 1979) with charity shop customers regarding which goods they (would (not)) buy from charity shops, whether they include second-hand clothes, and why (not). ...
Conference Paper
Overview Unhealthy eating is a societal challenge around the world provoking diseases such as obesity, heart diseases, and some cancers, which are among the biggest cause of death (Ritchie & Roser, 2018). With mitigation and behavior change as a goal, risk communication has been pointed out as a tool to transfer knowledge about Public Health decisions between different stakeholders (Adekola et al., 2019; Zhang et al., 2020). While communication has been proposed early on as a strategy to address public health topics (Hallahan et al., 2007; Werder, 2015; Zerfass et al., 2018), it has been suggested the desired level of knowledge is to be achieved, both in society and in the academy (Bernadas, 2021; Diepeveen et al., 2013; Wise, 2001). Risk perception does not impact only the general public, but all stakeholders involved in the process, such as Experts and Govern (Adekola et al., 2019; Funk et al., 2022; Zhang et al., 2020). The Health Belief Model (Rosenstock, 1974; Rosenstock et al., 1988) suggests that a number of variables influence the likelihood of engaging in a different behavior, but how risk communication can influence said variables are not yet fully understood. This is of high importance, as policymakers' perception of risk and decisions influence the population as a whole. Objectives Our study aims to identify variables policymakers consider when evaluating the perceived benefits, efficacy, and threats, before acting on a topic. We also intended to identify strategies that have previously been used. 81 Methodology To go in deep into the topic, we’ve conducted a case study exploratory analysis, as it is the preferred methodology to explore a contemporary event (Yin, 2009). Portugal was chosen as the object of analysis as the country has a very specific context regarding public policies to address healthy eating (Graça et al., 2018). Portugal’s first approach to the topic was in the ’70s and formally creating a sectoral strategy and a decision entity in 2012 the National Program of Healthy Eating (NPHE) (Graça, & Gregório, 2012). The strategy implemented was able to intervene successfully in reducing sugar intake (Goiana-da-Silva et al., 2018), and still achieve positive feedback from the public, even regarding taxes increment (Prada et al., 2020). The same result could not be replicated regarding policies to reduce salt intake. Hence, we’ve chosen to interview the current and the former first leaders of the NPHE, as they conducted the intervention strategy development of both cases. Their point of view on the chain of events is considered to be valuable, as they fall in the category of privileged witnesses who occupy a position with acting power and responsibilities (Quivy & Campenhoudt, 1995).To collect data, we’ve proceeded with exploratory interviews, as these help the researcher probe topics and points of view not thought by himself (Quivy & Campenhoudt, 1995). Topics such as how policymakers gather information for a decision process (Funk et al., 2022), the use of strategic communication as a tool to promote health knowledge (Adekola et al., 2019; Ihlen, 2020; Schiavo, 2013) and risk communications (Fischbacher;-Smith, 2012; Irwin, 2014) were the main topics explored. Findings: When implementing both strategies, the NPHE focused on five pilar topics: (1) Making clear reference regarding where the money collected with special taxes would be used – the National Healthcare System; (2) Stating that it was a policy developed to address a Public Health issue and not as a strategy to raise the state’s revenue; (3) When referring to the reason why this was needed, it would be addressed that the main goal was to protect children, as obesity levels within that specific population had been increasing drastically; (4) Stating that all these efforts were aligned with the World Health Organization strategy and insights; (5) Clearly stating that only non-essential products would be affected by this and that it would not affect small and medium national companies – being clear that it was aimed to affect big corporations. The same strategy and methods did not work when they intended to address the salt intake topic. The Portuguese Parliament rejected the intervention, not making it to the policy development 82 and implementation stage. Regarding this topic, the interviewed explained that two of the political parties with parliamentary seats at the time evoked (1) that taxation on salt products would impact the national industry and this would reflect on the job positions, causing unemployment; The cultural values, habits, and traditions were also referred to (2) as a reason not to intervene. Regarding this topic, it's been addressed that, overall, the idea that sugar is bad for you is well received, but salt is often identified as an essential ingredient. Discussion Regarding the reasons for not approving the interventions to address salt intake, it’s important to highlight that political parties evoke cultural values and traditions, aligned with what has been proposed regarding the impact of social norms and our decision process (Bicchieri, 2010; Cialdini, 2007; Fekadu & Kraft, 2002; Perkins & Berkowitz, 1986). While further research is needed to validate the topic, it seems imperative to analyze the trade-off between social norms, tradition, and culture in despite of public health risk, much like has been proposed in the Health Belief Model (Rosenstock, 1974; Rosenstock et al., 1988). When divided between public health and tradition, a trade-off takes place. Risk communication might lead to the needed risk perception. Social norms and the impact of interventions on the workforce seem to be topics that concern those with executive power. While it might have not been fully intentional, as the strategic program does not have a communication advisor, the strategy seems to be aligned with the Seven Models of Framing proposed by Hallahan (1999), to establish a common perspective on a topic. This exploratory study allowed us to identify variables that influence a policy intervention. These should be considered when planning a risk communication strategy to achieve the desired result – an accurate transfer of knowledge and impact. Further research is needed to understand if risk perception can influence the decision process, overruling the previously mentioned constructs – if needed. 83 References Adekola, J., Fischbacher-Smith, D., & Fischbacher-Smith, M. (2019). Light me up: Power and expertise in risk communication and policy-making in the e-cigarette health debates. Journal of Risk Research, 22(10), 1294–1308. Scopus. https://doi.org/10.1080/13669877.2018.1473463 Bernadas, J. M. A. C. (2021). Reimagining the “public” in public health: Exploring the challenges of and opportunities for public relations research in public health in the Philippines. Public Relations Review, 47(3), 102043. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pubrev.2021.102043 Bicchieri, C. (2010). Norms, preferences, and conditional behavior. Politics, Philosophy & Economics, 9(3), 297–313. https://doi.org/10.1177/1470594X10369276 Cialdini, R. B. (2007). Descriptive Social Norms as Underappreciated Sources of Social Control. Psychometrika, 72(2), 263–268. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11336-006-1560-6 Diepeveen, S., Ling, T., Suhrcke, M., Roland, M., & Marteau, T. M. (2013). Public acceptability of government intervention to change health-related behaviours: A systematic review and narrative synthesis. BMC Public Health, 13(1), 756. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471- 2458-13-756 Fekadu, Z., & Kraft, P. (2002). Expanding the Theory of Planned Behaviour: The Role of Social Norms and Group Identification. Journal of Health Psychology, 7(1), 33–43. https://doi.org/10.1177/1359105302007001650 Funk, T., Sharma, T., Chapman, E., & Kuchenmüller, T. (2022). Translating health information into policy-making: A pragmatic framework. Health Policy, 126(1), 16–23. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.healthpol.2021.10.001 Goiana-da-Silva, F., Nunes, A. M., Miraldo, M., Bento, A., Breda, J., & Araújo, F. F. (2018). Fiscalidade ao Serviço da Saúde Pública: A Experiência na Tributação das Bebidas Açucaradas em Portugal. Acta Médica Portuguesa, 31(4), 191. https://doi.org/10.20344/amp.10222 Graça, P., & Gregório, M. J. (2012). EVOLUÇÃO DA POLÍTICA ALIMENTAR E DE NUTRIÇÃO EM PORTUGAL E SUAS RELAÇÕES COM O CONTEXTO INTERNACIONAL. Alimentação Humana, 18(3), 79–96. Graça, P., Gregório, M. J., de Sousa, S. M., Brás, S., Penedo, T., Carvalho, T., Bandarra, N. M., Lima, R. M., Simão, A. P., Goiana-da-Silva, F., Freitas, M. G., & Araújo, F. F. (2018). A new interministerial strategy for the promotion of healthy eating in Portugal: Implementation and initial results. Health Research Policy and Systems, 16(1), 102. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12961-018-0380-3 84 Hallahan, K. (1999). Seven Models of Framing: Implications for Public Relations. Journal of Public Relations Research, 11(3), 205–242. https://doi.org/10.1207/s1532754xjprr1103_02 Hallahan, K., Holtzhausen, D., van Ruler, B., Verčič, D., & Sriramesh, K. (2007). Defining Strategic Communication. International Journal of Strategic Communication, 1(1), 3–35. https://doi.org/10.1080/15531180701285244 Ihlen, Ø. (2020). Science communication, strategic communication and rhetoric: The case of health authorities, vaccine hesitancy, trust and credibility. Journal of Communication Management, 24(3), 163–167. https://doi.org/10.1108/JCOM-03-2020-0017 Perkins, H. W., & Berkowitz, A. D. (1986). Perceiving the Community Norms of Alcohol Use among Students: Some Research Implications for Campus Alcohol Education Programming *. International Journal of the Addictions, 21(9–10), 961–976. https://doi.org/10.3109/10826088609077249 Prada, M., Rodrigues, D. L., Godinho, C. A., Lopes, D., & Garrido, M. V. (2020). Knowledge and acceptance of interventions aimed at reducing sugar intake in Portugal. Public Health Nutrition, 23(18), 3423–3434. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1368980020002165 Quivy, R., & Campenhoudt, L. V. (1995). Manual de Investigação em Ciências Sociais. Gradiva. Ritchie, H., & Roser, M. (2018). Causes of death. https://ourworldindata.org/causes-of-death Rosenstock, I. M. (1974). The Health Belief Model and Preventive Health Behavior. Health Education Monographs, 2(4), 354–386. https://doi.org/10.1177/109019817400200405 Rosenstock, I. M., Strecher, V. J., & Becker, M. H. (1988). Social Learning Theory and the Health Belief Model. Health Education Quarterly, 15(2), 175–183. https://doi.org/10.1177/109019818801500203 Schiavo, R. (2013). Health Communication: From Theory to Practice. John Wiley & Sons. Werder, K. P. (2015). The Integration of Domains: Multidisciplinary Approaches to Strategic Communication Campaigns. International Journal of Strategic Communication, 9(2), 79–86. https://doi.org/10.1080/1553118X.2015.1010829 Wise, K. (2001). Opportunities for public relations research in public health. Public Relations Review, 27(4), 475–487. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0363-8111(01)00102-3 Yin, R. K. (2009). Case Study Research: Design and Methods. SAGE. Zerfass, A., Verčič, D., Nothhaft, H., & Werder, K. P. (2018). Strategic Communication: Defining the Field and its Contribution to Research and Practice. International Journal of Strategic Communication, 12(4), 487–505. https://doi.org/10.1080/1553118X.2018.1493485 Zhang, L., Li, H., & Chen, K. (2020). Effective Risk Communication for Public Health 85 Emergency: Reflection on the COVID-19 (2019-nCoV) Outbreak in Wuhan, China. Healthcare, 8(1), 64. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare8010064
... In this way, credibility checking entailed a process of triangulating, or comparing data across several sources, including the written communications from the yearlong group, the focus group and ensuing breakout room interactions, as well as researcher notes and analysis. In terms of reflexivity, or acknowledgment of the role of the researcher, careful review of the analytic memos, as well as a robust member-checking process revealed a consistent data-driven thematic analysis (Hycner, 1985;Suddaby, 2006). ...
Article
Due to social distancing mandates during COVID-19 pandemic, school-based staff no longer shared physical spaces, necessitating resilience and resourcefulness in recruitment of unique models to engage school community (Baker et al., 2021 Baker, C. N., Peele, H., Daniels, M., Saybe, M., Whalen, K., Overstreet, S., & The New Orleans, T. I. S. L. C. (2021). The experience of COVID-19 and its impact on teachers’ mental Health, coping, and teaching. School Psychology Review, 50(4), 491–504. https://doi.org/10.1080/2372966X.2020.1855473[Taylor & Francis Online], [Web of Science ®] , [Google Scholar]; Brown, 2021 Brown, T. (2021). The response to COVID-19: Occupational resilience and the resilience of daily occupations in action. Australian Occupational Therapy Journal, 68(2), 103–105. https://doi.org/10.1111/1440-1630.12721[PubMed] , [Google Scholar]). In a northeastern public elementary school, related service and classroom staff sustained engagement remotely through a novel yearlong interprofessional initiative known as “Breakfast Club.” Objective of this research was to explore, via phenomenological approach, lived experiences of three educators and two therapists who participated in the yearlong interprofessional initiative. Upon qualitative thematic analysis, five themes emerged: (1) Technological Literacy (2) Consistency (3) Role-Blurring (4) Social-Emotional Benefits (5) Challenges/Advantages of Scheduling. Findings of this study support an intentional approach to sustained tele-therapeutic interprofessional efforts for school-based educational teams.
... The study sample comprised 28 participants (15 Graduates from 2008 and 13 Graduates from 2020). The sample size was determined by saturation as the primary means of verification for thematic analysis (Suddaby, 2006). Category saturation occurred at 13 Graduates from 2008 and 11 Graduates from 2020. ...
Chapter
This chapter aims to understand how graduates believe the future of work will evolve concerning demands and resources from early career talent and organizations and what steps can be taken to enhance the career readiness of individuals undertaking the university-to-work transition. Twenty-eight university graduates participated in semi-structured interviews, whereby 15 graduated in 2008 during the Global Financial Crisis and thirteen in 2020 during the COVID-19 pandemic. The findings identified four future of work themes: 'Skill Development', 'Motivation', 'Career Ownership', and 'Wellbeing'. Additionally, four themes were identified for how university graduates can be best prepared for sustainable careers: 'Career Awareness', 'Tailored Career Support', 'Industry Partnerships' and 'Additional Career Support'. The theoretical contribution comes from empirically validating conceptual links between chance events, career shocks, sustainable career theory, and the Job Demands-Resources model. Practical implications come from empirically informed strategies to prepare university graduates for sustainable careers based on graduates' views with lived experience in university and workplace settings.
... Some of the articles in the field of management based on grounded theory are: Suddaby (2006) discussing common misconceptions of what grounded theory is not: a presentation of raw data, or perfect or routine application of formulaic techniques to data, easy or an excuse for the absence of methodology, theory testing, content or word counts; Jones and Noble (2007) make three suggestions for increasing the discipline into grounded theory studies; O'Reilly, Paper and Marx (2012) demystify the key tenets of GT, argue the problematic impacts of adopting an a la carte approach to GT, draw attention to GT as a rigorous method for business research, and advocate for the increased use of GT by more researchers where appropriate; Cepellos and Tonelli (2020) presents how methodological issues not foreseen in the research design proposed by the GT were overcome during the data collection and analysis phases. ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper aims at closing a gap in literature referring to academic publications that approach grounded theory, considering that little advance has been noticed in discussions that encompass the application of situational analysis (SA) proposed by Clarke (2003, 2005) and Clarke, Friese and Washburn (2018) in management studies. Thus, this conceptual paper seeks to address situational analysis considering its ontological and epistemological aspects, to investigate its operationalization forms, and, finally, to indicate relevant situational analysis issues for management studies. Our discussion sheds light on relevant situational analysis aspects, which helps prioritizing research methods that may contribute to create fairer and more effective social policies in several fields and meeting daily demands of the management field. As a conclusion, situational analysis seems to bring new guidance to grounded theory after the interpretive turn: cartographic method, consideration of human and non-human actors, and social commitments; in addition, situational analysis gathers discourse and agency studies, action and structure, image, text and context, history, and the present moment to analyze complex investigations.
Article
There is concern within education research about the rigor of research conducted and published. Grounded theory is a qualitative research methodology about which there appears to be many misconceptions. To respond to these concerns, this article proposes six methodological attributes that rigorous grounded theory research shares: developing theory, generating concepts from data not existing theory, using the constant comparative method, collecting and analyzing data concurrently, conducting theoretical sampling and saturation, and composing memos. These attributes are presented with illustrative examples from a grounded theory study of adolescent creativity. The attributes are used to analyze “grounded theory” education research. This article emphasizes the importance of explicit discussion of research methodology in presenting rigorous research.
Article
Background The acute hospital setting has become a key site of care for people living with dementia. People living with dementia are one of the largest populations in our hospitals, with the Department of Health and Social Care recognising that 25–50% of all acute hospital admissions are people who are also living with dementia. However, people living with dementia are a highly vulnerable group in the hospital setting and, following an acute admission, their functional abilities can deteriorate quickly and significantly. Detailed research is required to explore what constitutes ‘good care’. Objectives This study’s focus was a common, but poorly understood, aspect of everyday care for people living with dementia during an acute admission, that is continence care. We asked the following questions: what caring practices are observable when interacting with this patient group? How do ward teams respond to and manage continence needs? What informs these approaches? What are staff doing and why? Design This ethnography was informed by the symbolic interactionist research tradition, focusing on understanding how action and meaning are constructed within a setting. In-depth evidence-based analysis of everyday care enabled us to examine how ward staff responded to the continence care needs of people living with dementia and to follow the consequences of their actions. We carried out a mixed-methods systematic narrative review to refine our approach to fieldwork and analysis. Setting This ethnography was carried out for 180 days, across 12 months, in six wards in three hospitals across England and Wales that were purposefully selected to represent a range of hospital types, geographies and socioeconomic catchments. Participants In addition to general observations, 108 individuals participated directly in this study, contributing to 562 ethnographic interviews. Ten detailed case studies were also undertaken with people living with dementia. Results This study identified ‘pad cultures’ as an embedded practice on these acute wards. The routine use of continence pads among people living with dementia (regardless of continence and independence) was widespread. The use of continence pads was viewed as a precautionary strategy, the rationale being to provide safeguards, ensure containment and prevent ‘accidents’ or incontinence episodes, with an expectation that patients living with dementia not only will wear pads, but will use them. Conclusions These ‘pad cultures’ enabled the number of unscheduled interruptions to the institutionally mandated timetabled work of these wards to be reduced, but had significant impacts on people living with dementia and, in turn, wider consequences for these individuals and their identities. Ward staff described feeling abandoned with the responsibility of caring for large numbers of people living with dementia, believing that it was impossible to work in other ways to support their patient’s continence. Limitations The limitations identified included the potential for the Hawthorne effect to influence data collection. Future work In collaboration with a specialist dementia care and continence teams, the findings are informing the development of education and training at the interactional and organisational level. Study registration This study is registered as PROSPERO CRD42018119495. Funding This project was funded by the National Institute for Health and Care Research (NIHR) Health and Social Care Delivery Research programme and will be published in full in Health and Social Care Delivery Research ; Vol. 10, No. 14. See the NIHR Journals Library website for further project information.
Article
Military veterans often transition into the civilian workforce after serving in a nation’s armed forces. The process of integrating this unique class into organizations is directly affected by the social exchanges and interactions in the organization. Utilizing an in-depth interviews-based qualitative study of 40 veterans across 12 different organizations, and integrating social identity theory, we use template analysis to identify a paradox existent in social exchanges with other organizational members where veterans are simultaneously stigmatized and socially aggrandized. These paradoxical experiences interact with veterans’ self-conceptualization and social identities to reinforce expectations, cause culture shock and eventual turnover. We present a model of this tension, contributing to literatures on veterans in the workforce, paradox, and social identity theory as well as offering HR perspectives on this phenomenon.
Article
Providers' access to customer data (e.g., data related to products' use, location, and condition) is essential for digital servitization. However, customers are often reluctant to grant data access. Although prior research has identified lack of data access as an inhibitor of digital servitization, the peculiarities of data exchange in digital servitization have not been considered until now. Therefore, it remains unclear which intra- and interorganizational challenges emerge within and between providers and customers that lead to lack of data access. This study uses paradox theory to address the complex and multi-faceted phenomenon of data access in digital servitization. Specifically, 40 in-depth interviews with managers across a wide range of industries revealed four paradoxes inhibiting data access and comprising one overarching interorganizational paradox in the form of (1) the need for access vs. the need for shielding, and three intra-organizational paradoxes in the form of (2) product-focused identity vs. digital-focused identity, (3) data appreciation vs. data depreciation, and (4) goodwill perception vs. opportunism perception. To address each paradox, this study also provides a comprehensive set of coping strategies. The findings may help providers facilitate their digital servitization efforts by addressing the identified data access paradoxes that they and their customers face.
Article
The implementation of circular initiatives requires certain capabilities and knowledge that traditional business models often lack, requiring new perspectives and external collaborations. While it is understood that partnerships can aid in innovation and provide knowledge and capabilities to firms, the dynamics of collaboration for the transition towards circular business models (CBMs) need to be explored to understand why and how collaboration works between partners. A qualitative and in-depth case study of a gap exploiter business model and three of its partners was conducted to gain insight into collaborative relationships for circular-oriented innovation (COI). The research builds upon the theoretical foundations of the resource-based view and organizational learning by extending them to collaboration for COI, and expands the understanding of a gap exploiter business model by connecting it to research on innovation intermediaries—highlighting how particular competences and aspects of a gap exploiter business model enable collaboration with partners. The research found that motivations for collaboration for COI for B2C linear companies are derived from a need to fill competency gaps, although some companies perceive the need to fill competency gaps as temporary before building their own, while others use collaboration to build long-term relationships. Competences needed for COI include a combination of tangible and intangible aspects, such as space, tools, storage for repair and reconditioning, but also governance and managerial structures to formalize the COI as well as knowledge, skills, shared values and vision to operationalize the COI. The competences that contribute the most to enabling collaboration mechanisms are based on the skills and knowledge needed to operationalize circular strategies, as well as company values of collaboration and building partner relations. This research provides several practical resources for companies that include business model blueprints of successful gap exploiter models, competence for COI categories for companies to map out where they will need specific competences, and how these competences along with the business model blueprints enable collaboration. Future research could further examine and evaluate the criticality, volatility, and dependency of the competences for both COI and collaboration.
Article
Resumo O presente artigo foi motivado por uma lacuna no campo das publicações baseadas na abordagem da Grounded Theory (GT), uma vez que pouco se avançou nas discussões referentes à aplicação da Análise Situacional (AS), proposta por Adele Clarke (2003, 2005) e Adele Clarke e outros (2018) nos estudos de gestão. Assim, neste artigo conceitual, buscamos situar a AS tanto nos aspectos ontológicos quanto epistemológicos, comentar suas formas de operacionalização e, por fim, apontar questões da AS que parecem relevantes para estudos de gestão. Nossa discussão jogou luz sobre aspectos relevantes da AS, os quais a colocam em uma posição que avança no sentido de priorizar métodos de pesquisa que contribuam para gerar políticas sociais mais justas e equitativas em diversos campos, além de atender demandas cotidianas da área de gestão. Como conclusão, a AS parece ter trazido novos direcionamentos para a GT depois da virada interpretativa, a saber: abordagens da cartografia, consideração de atores humanos e não-humanos e compromissos sociais, além de ter reunido estudos de discurso e agência, de ação e estrutura, de imagem, de texto e contexto, de história e do momento presente para analisar situações complexas de investigação.
Article
Management scholars' understanding of occupational stress and coping is predominantly based on experiences of workers in standard employment relationships with organizations. Interviewing 64 app-based taxi drivers in Tehran, we examined stressors and coping strategies embedded in a growing occupational context—low-skilled app-based jobs—in an understudied non-Western developing Islamic country. Our findings revealed six stressors embedded in our participants' occupational and country contexts. The drivers coped with these stressors with six strategies that comprised (a) hiding their job, (b) adjusting at work, (c) rationalizing, (d) self-sacrificing, (e) trusting God, and (f) looking for another job. Our paper responds to the call for contextual and international perspectives in careers research, and informs career scholars and practitioners interested in examining and addressing the needs of similar groups of workers in similar occupational and country contexts.
Article
Full-text available
Background Diverse measures have been carried out worldwide to establish Alternative Care Facilities (ACFs) for different ends, such as receiving, curing or isolating patients, aiming to cope with tremendous shock in the urban medical system during the early passage of the COVID-19 epidemic. Healthcare workers always felt anxious and stressed during multiple major public health emergencies in medical facilities. Some active measures to improve healthcare workers' perceptions, such as temporary training, workflow improvement, and supplementary facilities, were proved insufficient in several past public health emergencies. Therefore, this study aims to analyze the contributing factors of the healthcare workers' perceptions of the ACFs in this pandemic, which can help find an innovative path to ensure their health, well-being and work efficiency. Method This paper conducted semi-structured in-depth interviews with the world's first batch of healthcare workers who have worked in ACFs through a qualitative study based on Grounded Theory. The healthcare workers interviewed from Heilongjiang, Shandong, Fujian, and Hubei provinces, have worked in one of the four different ACFs built in Wuhan. The results are obtained through the three-level codes and analyses of the interview recordings. Results The factors affecting the perception of healthcare workers in ACFs during the epidemic situation can be summarized into five major categories: individual characteristics, organization management, facilities and equipment, space design, and internal environment. The five major categories affecting the composition of perception can be further divided into endogenous and exogenous factors, which jointly affect the perception of healthcare workers in ACFs. Among them, individual characteristics belong to endogenous factors, which are the primary conditions, while other categories belong to exogenous factors, which are the decisive conditions. Conclusion This paper clarifies factors affecting the perception of healthcare workers in ACFs and analyzes the mechanism of each factor. It is posited that the passive strategies are a promising solution to protect healthcare workers' health, improve their work efficiency, and help reduce the operation stress of ACFs. We should train multidisciplinary professionals for future healthcare and enhance collaborations between healthcare workers and engineers. To sum up, this paper broadens new horizons for future research on the optimization of ACFs and finds new paths for alleviating healthcare workers' adverse perceptions of ACFs.
Article
Background: Birthing individuals experience various postpartum symptoms which have been associated with adverse health outcomes. Previous systematic reviews have focused on the examination of individual symptoms and their impact on health, which have limited our understanding of postpartum symptom clusters. Objective: To examine the compositions of symptom clusters, analytic methodologies and predictors of symptom clusters in birthing individuals up to 1 year postpartum. Design: Systematic review. Methods: This systematic review was reported following the PRISMA. Five databases were searched: PubMed, Embase, CINAHL Complete, PsycINFO and Scopus. Two reviewers performed title and abstract and full-text screening independently. Standard Quality Assessment Criteria were used to assess the articles' qualities. Key information was extracted into evidence table, which was checked for accuracy and completeness. A narrative synthesis was conducted. Results: A total of 30 articles were included. Studies were conducted in 16 countries, mostly in Europe (n = 9) and North America (n = 7). The majority were quantitative (n = 27) and cross-sectional (n = 27). Factor analysis was the most frequently used analytic methodology (n = 21). All three qualitative studies used grounded theory. Taking into consideration the variations among the studies, stress (n = 15, infant or partner-related and from other sources), depression (n = 12), somatic (n = 12) and anxiety clusters (n = 10) were most frequently identified. Symptom cluster predictors were examined in less than half of the included studies (n = 13). Among these, most were focused on how individual postpartum symptoms influence symptom clusters. Conclusions: Stress, depression, somatic and anxiety clusters are the most frequently identified postpartum symptom clusters. Future studies should examine the consistency, stability and clinical meaningfulness of these four symptom clusters. Relevance to clinical practice: The identification and management of the four symptom clusters should be of particular interest to clinicians and researchers. No patient or public contribution: This systematic review did not directly involve patient or public contribution to the manuscript.
Thesis
Full-text available
Objectives: The objective of this thesis is to understand the effects of the application of flow-based management systems on medium-size sites (€2-50 million work turnover) made by medium-sized companies (20-200 employees). The purpose of this research is to develop and evaluate a pull scheduling system based on the Last Planner™ System (LPS) to improve production flow stability of real estate developments made by SMEs. The research investigates the application of pull systems from manufacturing industries and those that have not been fully tested in the construction industry. Method: A three-block real estate development project in Brussels was used to ground the context where action research was chosen to initiate the research. Action research follows an ascending spiral that consists of 4 phases described in 1991 by Zuber-Skerrit: 1) planning, 2) acting, 3) observing and 4) reflecting. Once the first circle is initiated, the four activities lead to the next cycle. The reflections phase of circle (n) then leads to the planning phase of circle (n+1). These loops can be derived indefinitely or at least while the research has not met its objectives. Passing from action to critical reflection and back and vice versa in a cyclical process helps build a wider view and a greater understanding. In this context, three action circles were conducted. In this way, the methods, data and interpretation were continuously refined (Dick, 2002). The sequential development of the three blocks made by the same teams eased the process of capturing insights from a phase and building an optimal scheduling process. A lack of works planning, and progress understanding was found to be a major issue when the research started on the ongoing works of the first block. 5S and LPS were tested as a means of improving construction works planning at both the physical and managerial levels. The application of the first three Ss (sort, set, shine) yielded an impact on respect for the work site but were not sufficient to significantly affect the planning. The application of the first two steps of the LPS (master planning, phase planning and make ready) showed improvement but were also limited in their impact in the search for planning reliability. On-site measurements showed that despite a high percentage plan completion (PPC) score in the LPS, analysis of the progress of each apartment showed high volatility from one week to the next. This volatility came from a lack of visibility in the scheduling system. Although the progress of each week was determined by what was and should have been done based on the LPS, more structure in the scheduling system and more reliability in the forecasts of the works were needed to increase the works stability. Given that takt time has been successfully used in the manufacturing industry to address variability in the demand, and that significant similarities exist between a construction site and a manufacturing line, it was decided to test this as a complement to the LPS in the research action taken on the second block of the building development. Encouraging results were measured, and on-site work in this block was improved. Findings: it was found that the discipline needed to respect the system, the rules and sequence of the work demanded high-level and constant surveillance from site management. In the long run, this could put the whole system at risk. In order to be as efficient, sustainable and duplicable as possible, the scheduling system should be visual, need no interpretation and lead works in a pull flow. Manufacturing has successfully used a simple but efficient system named kanban to achieve level production and ensure a fully pulled system in a variable demand environment while limiting the sources of errors. The third block proved that such a method can work in conjunction with takt time and LPS and improve the works stability by favouring a self-pull system. Impact: following the scheduling system developed by the action circles in Block 2, there has been a reduction of nearly 20% of the lead time measured and a significant increase in quality (the number of snagging works decreased by 95%). Therefore, the stress on the site management team decreased (captured by interviews). The early findings and encouraging results are signs of the importance of the research undertaken. Limitations: The research has been conducted on traditional sites regarding typology, size, techniques, management structure, and contractors, so the findings are addressed to a wide audience across the construction industry. The limitation of the research comes from the domain of the construction observed: real estate in Belgium. Although it is highly probable that the issues detected on site by the research and the mechanisms used to address those issues are duplicable in other domains of the construction industry, there is, at this point of the research, no clear evidence.
Article
How does faith matter in today's business world? Family businesses are the dominant organizational form globally. Yet, religion in family firms has been under-researched for many years, with only limited articles published in the past two decades. While our study focused on the Christian faith, we recognize the contributions of other religions to family businesses. The significant influence of faith needs to be better understood by Christians and others alike to promote harmonious relationships within and between faith groups. In a qualitative study, we examine the utilization of faith-led values among the owners of 15 U.S. multigenerational family firms, using a grounded theory approach and the theoretical lens of family systems theory. We analyzed the reported perceptions of 33 family firm owner-manager and family-manager respondents, focusing on the impact of faith on relationships with stakeholders, including, but not limited to family members, employees, and customers. These perceptions were based on the respondents' faith, their practice of prayer at work, prayer for the business, and the acknowledgment of God's power. Therefore, we propose that a faith system is central for such family firm leaders in addition to the family, business, and ownership systems. We depict the faith system as the hub of a wheel with spokes representing the family, business, and ownership systems driving the family firm. We summarize our findings with six propositions.
Article
Drawing on 62 interviews with 23 family businesses in Cyprus concerning the 2013-2018 (Eurozone) debt crisis and the Covid-19 pandemic, this study offers new knowledge on why and how family social capital reconfigures during external crises to support survivability. The findings reveal new psychological and situational mechanisms motivating structural and relational changes in family social capital during crises. However, we find nuances and complexities acting on the motives and content of these changes, attuned to the type of external crisis that the family business faces. We contribute a context-sensitive theory of family social capital’s reconfiguration during external crises.
Article
This research explores the underlying roles of effectuation and causation logic as they impact upon firm resilience in Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs) in the unprecedented disruption caused by Covid-19. Because Covid-19 provides a unique and powerful discontinuance to internal and external environments, it requires firm adaptation in a wide variety of areas, as they seek to find a new “normal”. Our study contributes to the literature by applying effectuation to understand how an SME can experiment and learn in the face of disruption, and then subsequently causally adapt their resources and networks to achieve resilient outcomes. It adds to knowledge about the interaction between effectual and causal logic, leading to a more nuanced explanation of how and why an SME might apply each logic when responding to disruption caused by Covid-19.
Article
Grounded theory as a term and as a methodology has received increasing attention from public administration scholars since the mid-2000s. Unfortunately, the application of grounded theory methodology across social science research—including public and nonprofit administration—is often shrouded in vagueness; however, rigorously conducted grounded theory research, particularly classic ground theory, holds great potential to develop theory that is relevant to practice. This article seeks to provide clarity on grounded theory methodology by detailing it through the lens of classic grounded theory methodology (i.e., the foundational methodology). Additionally, the authors examine the interpretation and application of grounded theory methodology through a conceptual content analysis of top public administration journals. The analysis reveals scholars either do not have a clear understanding of grounded theory methodology or needs to improve their reporting of such, as the theory development process is not clearly reported. Insight on directions forward to improve the rigor of grounded theory research in the field is offered, including adhering to established methodology.
Chapter
The matter of sustainable food production is a convoluted one; it is inexorably linked with ethics, ideology, economic and political arguments, corporate power contrasted with sole enterprises, traditional ways of life and so on. This includes widely publicised issues, such as those of vegetarian and vegan ethics, discourses and realities of animal cruelty, environmental protection, access to clean water and unpolluted land—and by extension, mining, mass exploitation, industrialisation and land ownership by powerful groups and individuals. Among the latter, weighty stakeholder groups, including state actors, justifications of post/industrial, quasi/scientific experimentation and the spectre of genetic modification are used as arguments for progress, eradication of hunger, reach/supply, distribution, cost-effectiveness and access to sustenance among the poor.At the heart of the ideological discourses underpinning all this are the notions of freedom, utility and choice, as axiomatically inherent concepts of neoliberal thought so deeply embedded in the past 40 years of state and supra-state policies that the neoliberal brand of policymaking, business strategy and their very logos as thought, seems discerned only by those initiated in the breach between multiple parties involved, and thus seldom questioned.Food, land, water and air as the most fundamental needs—and rights—of human and non-human life are the subjects that arouse passion in many—including advocates, activists, farmers and producers—and the detached, utilitarian elaborations of those currently holding dominant positions that cross geographical, organisational and economic strata.This text explores contemporary practices and positions concerning traditional, sustainable and health-promoting food production in Serbia against the backdrop of international, national and local contexts of socio-political, environmental, economic and industrial significance. Fieldwork, conducted online during the pandemic finds that food production in Serbia largely fits within the forceful global patterns, with health food producers displaying a traditional/reflective slant but are by no means backward in their ethically driven stance.Indeed, a critical rethink of agriculture and health priorities appears to permeate Serbian discourse across ideological and socioeconomic spectrums. Young professional families appear to be embracing health food lifestyles and village life. Arguably though, this relates to the wealthier minority able to make such choices. Scarred by the turbulent century behind it and civil strife awarded by unremitting structural transition, Serbians redefine their sense of Self by either embracing or angrily rejecting tradition and family values.Such patterns are not unfamiliar to the affluent West. Yet, here they tend to define everyday life in a different way, impacting on health, community and civic duty. Discursive drives range from mining to re-industrialisation, enduring impact of the tumultuous Nineties, ‘modernising’ regulatory frameworks, imported anticompetitive practices and from resistance to the extinction of inherited egalitarian notions to the capillary attempts to reclaim communal prerogatives. Organisational, regulatory and policy challenges surface, and this essay contextualises those recounted by practitioners, the public and key scholars in such complex circumstances.KeywordsEthicsDiscourseDiscourse and practiceDiscourses of nowHealth food discourseTraditionalist discourseAgricultureIdeologyEnterpriseZadruga[Agricultural] cooperative/sHouseholder/sCommunityGMOWaterWaterwaysMiningActivist/sDirect activismFarmersProducersUtilitarianismIndustrial food productionVillage lifeRegulationRegulatory frameworksAnticompetitive practicesImportsExportsCertificationPolicyPolicy frameworksGallant peasantryBelgradisationGlobal factorsPolitical economysocioculturalRural societyRural communityEuropeanEUEmpirePostcolonialNonaligned movementNAMRural communitiesIndustrialisationEconomic tensionsPeasant societyAuto-chauvinismReflexive negationIdentity-ladenSelf-revulsionTraditionTraditional belief systemsFirst World WarThe Great WarOrganic food produceUnadulterated food produceAgrarian reform10 hectare limitAgricultural landThe new landownersLandlordsPost-communist ‘transition’7% growth[Former-socialist-] Yugoslavia‘Yugoslavian industrial miracle’International debtThe 1965 reform[Yugoslav workers’] self-management modelCorruptionNew elitesFederal stateCivil societyBrain drainDepopulated villagesPrivatisationNeoliberalismAgeing societyPost-transitional periodMismanagementCultural shiftCultural changeCritical terminologyInfrastructureOverpopulation‘Public intellectuals’Internal migrantsDisplaced refugeesFieldworkRespondents [as] practitionersThematic contextualisationHealth food productionMarketingCultural conditionsReflexionTransparent declaration of interestHorticultureBiodynamic agricultureBiodynamic farming practicesLivestockTraceabilityTraceability of originSupply chainsSrpska MagazaGoodwillStrategic impactHealthNature and traditionImplementationEuroscepticVisegrad GroupTraditional rightIndependent producers [and] farmersPeasant farmerBanjska MonasteryCraft beerIFOAMOrganically certified food productionWhat constitutes foodCritical taxonomyNanoelementsInorganic originMycoprotein and algaeLong-term health effects3D-printed ‘meats’Unconventional sources of proteinTraditional stance on healthThe origin of foodInorganicExperimental importsInterpretive gapVillage communityOrganic status‘Certification houses’Certification organisations[Land] lease agreementCannibalismSoylent GreenDeontological vs utilitarianPesticidesGMO soyaBusiness cultureInternational retail chainsIn-house brands‘Post socialist tycoons’Quality control [of food imports]VAT exempt“Kobasicijada”“Kulenijada”“Slaninijada”“Kupusijada”“Projada”HospitalityVillage tourismAuthenticityNational heritageNative-produced foods (USA)AjvarEducate through flavourDonkey stockDonkey cheese‘Ecocide’herbicidesAgricultural pharmacy productsTrustSubsidising [organic]Trade blocGlobalisationIncentivesState actorsCell-cultivationFood [from] synthesised nanomaterialsModification [of foods]Direct [local] representationExploitation of lithiumRio TintoKolhozHeisenbergian uncertainty modelOrthodox ChurchNatural veganismSpiritualMindfulnessStructural forcesStrategic shiftsPostmodernThe new glocalPrivilege
Article
Purpose League expansion involves a significant investment of time, money and resources. Therefore, ensuring the success of new franchises is imperative to the commercial health of a competition; however, there is an absence of studies examining the establishment process of franchises. In 2020, Super Rugby announced that it would expand in 2022 with the inclusion of two new franchises, Fijian Drua and Moana Pasifika. The article explores what implementation challenges Drua and Pasifika faced during franchise establishment. Design/methodology/approach Following a qualitative case study methodology, data were collected via newspaper, website and document repository ‘Nexis’, and triangulated against interviews with five expert individuals involved in franchise establishment. Applying mixed-coding, thematic analysis using Redmond's franchise expansion factors framework, six deductive and two inductive themes were generated. Findings In accordance with Redmond's franchise expansion factors framework, financial sustainability, competitive balance and labour market challenges were identified as internal challenges, whilst media relationships, market competition and community engagement were highlighted as external challenges. Additionally, two new factors, infrastructure and business operations and youth development, were inductively identified as issues during franchise establishment extending Redmond's model. Originality/value The study offers strategic guidance to practitioners on franchise establishment and provides insight into cross-border expansion processes. Theoretically, the research supports and extends the applicability of Redmond's expansion factors framework for future research.
Article
This book observes a growing humanisation of global politics relating to the appearance of individual human beings in discourses of global politics. It identifies a mismatch concerning International Relations theory and International Law and the study of the humanisation of global politics. To overcome this mismatch, Sassan Gholiagha proposes a novel theoretical framework based on feminist and constructivist International Relations theory and non-statist theories of International Law scholarship. The book applies this interdisciplinary framework together with an interpretative analytical framework to three cases: the discourse on prosecution, studying international criminal law and the work of the International Criminal Court; the discourse on protection, focusing on the Responsibility to Protect; and the use of drones in targeted killing operations. Drawing on these case studies and the frameworks, the book identifies how individual human beings as participants in global politics position themselves and are positioned by others in these various discourses.
Article
This study aims to analyze the role of cross‐cultural differences between Indigenous communities and extractive organizations with regard to the sustainability measures these organizations employ. Although Indigenous communities are important stakeholders, especially in remote areas where extractive organizations are mainly located, these organizations' relationships with Indigenous communities have been overlooked in the literature on sustainability management. Drawing on a qualitative study based on 25 semi‐structured interviews with Canadian respondents, the findings show how cross‐cultural issues tend to create misunderstandings that can seriously undermine organizations' social license to operate and their initiatives for sustainability. Those issues—which include cultural differences in terms of connectedness with nature, spiritual and historical attachment to a specific territory, reliance on written documents, and conception of time—are analyzed through the lenses of practitioners with significant experience in the relationships between extractive organizations and Indigenous communities. This paper proposes measures to better manage this cross‐cultural gap. The study contributes to the literature on corporate sustainability by going back to the roots of this concept and by shedding more light on the importance of a specific category of stakeholders that tends to be overlooked in the managerial literature.
Article
Full-text available
Grounded theory is an inductive, theory discovery methodology that allows the researcher to develop a theoretical account of the general features of a topic while simultaneously grounding the account in empirical observations or data (Glaser & Strauss, 1967). This article explicates the utility of a grounded theory approach to research on work organizations. Following a general introduction to the grounded theory method, the authors'review of the organizational literature using grounded theory illustrates the variety of issues and topics studied through this approach. The authors describe and explain specific strategies for conducting grounded theory research in and on organizations, including note taking and note writing, concept discovery, and concept definition and preliminary elaboration of theory. Throughout the article emphasis is placed on grounded theory's ability to facilitate understanding and to identify desirable improvements in work contexts.
Article
Full-text available
This article discusses management research and what makes it interesting. In a well-known paper, “That’s Interesting!” Murray Davis argued that what most makes scholarly work interesting is that it disconfirms some (but not all) of the assumptions held by its audience. Davis’ arguments about what constitutes interesting research are summarized, including something that engages readers’ attention, something that stands out for readers “in contrast to the web of routinely taken-for-granted propositions which make up the structure of their everyday life.” Some perspectives from a Brazilian scholarly journal, “Revisita de Administracao de Empresas,” are also presented.
Article
Full-text available
This article presents the results of a grounded theory analysis of observation, interview, and archival data collected at SEMATECH, a research, development, and testing consortium in the semiconductor manufacturing industry. Three core categories of events and behaviors are described: (1) the factors underlying the consortium's early disorder and ambiguity, (2) the development of a moral community in which individuals and firms made contributions to the industry without regard for immediate and specific payback, and (3) the structuring that emerged from changing practices and norms as consortium founders and others devised ways to foster cooperation. We interpret results in terms of complexity theory, a framework for understanding change that has not been previously explored with detailed empirical data from organizations.
Article
Full-text available
This study of the complete life-spans of eight naturally-occurring teams began with the unexpected finding that several project groups, studied for another purpose, did not accomplish their work by progressing gradually through a universal series of stages, as traditional group development models would predict. Instead, teams progressed in a pattern of "punctuated equilibrium" through alternating inertia and revolution in the behaviors and themes through which they approached their work. The findings also suggested that groups' progress was triggered more by members' awareness of time and deadlines than by completion of an absolute amount of work in a specific developmental stage. The paper proposes a new model of group development that encompasses the timing and mechanisms of change as well as groups' dynamic relations with their contexts. Implications for theory, research, and practice are drawn.
Article
A qualitative and inductive study of eight organizational death is used to develop a model of how some dying organizations make the transition to death. The model focuses on the relationship between a dying organization and its members and on how leaders help orchestrate changes in the socially defined reality that members share about the organization's viability. The paper shows how the announcement that organizational death will occur encourages members to begin dismantling their organization. A key finding is that, contrary to leaders' predictions, members' efforts will often remain constant or increase after a closing is announced. A model to explain this phenomenon is created. The process of organizational death proposed here seems to best describe unambiguous organizational deaths that are announced in advance, those in which the organizations are dismantled through the efforts of their members, and those not characterized by severe conflict over the distribution of resources and obligations.
Article
Dramatic advances have recently marked the study of international joint ventures (IJVs). The progress has been mixed, however. Although several theoretical dimensions have been emphasized in the literature, researchers have not addressed certain crucial questions at the heart of the IJV relationship. Consequently, individually useful IJV studies have not coalesced into a collectively coherent body of work with an underlying theoretical structure. This weakness in theory development, I argue, may stem from the convergence of "hard" methodological approaches with "soft" behavioral variables. In proposing and justifying a research program toward deeper understanding of voluntary interfirm cooperation, I offer a theoretical framework for IJVs, develop a typology of theory-development approaches, and apply this framework and typology to demonstrate how a near-term shift in foci can accelerate rigorous IJV theory development.
Article
In this article I describe and compare ct number of alternative generic strategies for the analysis of process data, looking at the consequences of these strategies for emerging theories. I evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the strategies in terms of their capacity to generate theory that is accurate, parsimonious, general, and useful and suggest that method and theory are inextricably intertwined, that multiple strategies are often advisable, and that no analysis strategy will produce theory without an uncodifiable creative leap, however small. Finally, I argue that there is room in the organizational research literature for more openness within the academic community toward a variety of forms of coupling between theory and data.
Article
Although many opinions have been expressed about the potential merits and pitfalls of conducting academic research inside organizations, empirical research on the question is nearly nonexistent. Consequently, the present study examined the origins, processes, and outcomes of 141 academic research projects that were conducted in (nonacademic) organizations and published in 4 top-tier industria organizational psychology and management journals over a 3-year period. Three outcomes were assessed: implementation of research findings, academic organizational relationship continuation, and research impact (as measured by other-author citations). Results suggested a number of relationships between the way projects began, the relative contributions of organizations and authors to the research process, and eventual outcomes. Suggestions for future research are offered.
Article
Interviewing in phenomenology and grounded theory: is there a difference? This paper explores the differences and similarities that may exist in respect of using the interview method in phenomenological and grounded theory methodologies. Baker et al. set out to differentiate between method in grounded theory and phenomenology and concluded that it was essential to ensure that the method matches the research question being asked. However, the paper, whilst clear in intent to differentiate between the methodologies of phenomenology and grounded theory, does little to help the researcher in the differences that may exist in carrying out such research using the same method, that is, interviewing. Interviewing has become synonymous with qualitative research and may become the accepted method of data collection irrespective of methodology. We postulate that the interview as a method of data collection may be inconsistent with the underlying principles of the methodology (phenomenology or grounded theory). Should this be the case then the interview as a means of collecting data may be viewed as generic and lack a clear connection to the methodological framework. Such a position could be consistent with a critique of qualitative nursing research on the grounds of rigour.
Article
This paper has presented practical details of a tested and tried procedure which it is hoped will be of use to researchers facing the problem of analysing qualitative data, and particularly to those interested in the use of grounded theory. Behind the presentation of this procedure lies a concern that the processes of research should be as open as possible, so that neither the processes of research nor their findings are subjected to mystifications which conceal their true nature from other researchers, from the subjects of research, or from those seeking to understand the research findings when they are reported. There is, of course, an element of risk in advocating such frankness, for the researcher who lays his procedures open to public scrutiny may suddenly discover that, like the emperor, he has no clothes. But it would seem, in general, that the interests of social research can only be furthered by more discussion of the details of research procedures, particularly those which are close to the creative centre of theory building.
Book
Most writing on sociological method has been concerned with how accurate facts can be obtained and how theory can thereby be more rigorously tested. In The Discovery of Grounded Theory, Barney Glaser and Anselm Strauss address the equally Important enterprise of how the discovery of theory from data--systematically obtained and analyzed in social research--can be furthered. The discovery of theory from data--grounded theory--is a major task confronting sociology, for such a theory fits empirical situations, and is understandable to sociologists and laymen alike. Most important, it provides relevant predictions, explanations, interpretations, and applications. In Part I of the book, "Generation Theory by Comparative Analysis," the authors present a strategy whereby sociologists can facilitate the discovery of grounded theory, both substantive and formal. This strategy involves the systematic choice and study of several comparison groups. In Part II, The Flexible Use of Data," the generation of theory from qualitative, especially documentary, and quantitative data Is considered. In Part III, "Implications of Grounded Theory," Glaser and Strauss examine the credibility of grounded theory. The Discovery of Grounded Theory is directed toward improving social scientists' capacity for generating theory that will be relevant to their research. While aimed primarily at sociologists, it will be useful to anyone Interested In studying social phenomena--political, educational, economic, industrial-- especially If their studies are based on qualitative data.
Article
Few other economists have been read and cited as often as R.H. Coase has been, even though, as he admits, "most economists have a different way of looking at economic problems and do not share my conception of the nature of our subject." Coase's particular interest has been that part of economic theory that deals with firms, industries, and markets—what is known as price theory or microeconomics. He has always urged his fellow economists to examine the foundations on which their theory exists, and this volume collects some of his classic articles probing those very foundations. "The Nature of the Firm" (1937) introduced the then-revolutionary concept of transaction costs into economic theory. "The Problem of Social Cost" (1960) further developed this concept, emphasizing the effect of the law on the working of the economic system. The remaining papers and new introductory essay clarify and extend Coarse's arguments and address his critics. "These essays bear rereading. Coase's careful attention to actual institutions not only offers deep insight into economics but also provides the best argument for Coase's methodological position. The clarity of the exposition and the elegance of the style also make them a pleasure to read and a model worthy of emulation."—Lewis A. Kornhauser, Journal of Economic Literature Ronald H. Coase was awarded the Nobel Prize in Economic Science in 1991.
Article
Using grounded theory as an example, this paper examines three methodological questions that are generally applicable to all qualitative methods. How should the usual scientific canons be reinterpreted for qualitative research? How should researchers report the procedures and canons used in their research? What evaluative criteria should be used in judging the research products? We propose that the criteria should be adapted to fit the procedures of the method. We demonstrate how this can be done for grounded theory and suggest criteria for evaluating studies following this approach. We argue that other qualitative researchers might be similarly specific about their procedures and evaluative criteria.
Article
This paper outlines a role-based approach for conceptualizing and investigating the contention in some previous research that technologies change organizational and occupational structures by transforming patterns of action and interaction. Building on Nadel's theory of social structure, the paper argues that the microsocial dynamics occasioned by new technologies reverberate up levels of analysis in an orderly manner. Specifically, a technology's material attributes are said to have an immediate impact on the nonrelational elements of one or more work roles. These changes, in turn, influence the role's relational elements, which eventually affect the structure of an organization's social networks. Consequently, roles and social networks are held to mediate a technology's structural effects. The theory is illustrated by ethnographic and sociometric data drawn from a comparative field study of the use of traditional and computerized imaging devices in two radiology departments.
Article
New medical imaging devices, such as the CT scanner, have begun to challenge traditional role relations among radiologists and radiological technologists. Under some conditions, these technologies may actually alter the organizational and occupational structure of radiological work. However, current theories of technology and organizational form are insensitive to the potential number of structural variations implicit in role-based change. This paper expands recent sociological thought on the link between institution and action to outline a theory of how technology might occasion different organizational structures by altering institutionalized roles and patterns of interaction. In so doing, technology is treated as a social rather than a physical object, and structure is conceptualized as a process rather than an entity. The implications of the theory are illustrated by showing how identical CT scanners occasioned similar structuring processes in two radiology departments and yet led to divergent forms of organization. The data suggest that to understand how technologies alter organizational structures researchers may need to integrate the study of social action and the study of social form.
Cartesian meditations: An introduction to phenomenology [D. Cairsn, trans.]. The Hague: Martinus-Nijhoff
  • E Husserl
Husserl, E. 1969. Cartesian meditations: An introduction to phenomenology [D. Cairsn, trans.]. The Hague: Martinus-Nijhoff.
From the familiar to the strange and back
  • Suddaby Schonhausen
Suddaby Schonhausen: From the familiar to the strange and back. In G. Spindler (Ed.), Doing the anthropology of schooling: 21– 46. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
Grounded theory: A practical guide for management, business and market researchers
  • C Goulding
Goulding, C. 2002. Grounded theory: A practical guide for management, business and market researchers. London: Sage.