Article

Trait and State Curiosity in the Genesis of Intimacy: Differentiation From Related Constructs

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Abstract

We examined the roles of curiosity, social anxiety, and positive affect (PA) and neg- ative affect (NA) in the development of interpersonal closeness. A reciprocal self-disclosure task was used wherein participants and trained confederates asked and answered questions escalating in personal and emotional depth (mimicking closeness-development). Relationships between curiosity and relationship out- comes were examined using regression analyses. Controlling for trait measures of social anxiety, PA, and NA, trait curiosity predicted greater partner ratings of attrac- tion and closeness. Social anxiety moderated the relationship between trait curios- ity and self-ratings of attraction such that curiosity was associated with greater attraction among those low in social anxiety compared to those high in social anxi- ety. In contrast, trait PA was related to greater self-ratings of attraction but had no relationship with partners' ratings. Trait curiosity predicted positive relationship outcomes as a function of state curiosity generated during the interaction, even after controlling for state PA.

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... Curiosity also plays a significant role in personal relations. Kashdan and Roberts (2004) posit that trait curiosity can be used as a positive predictor of intimate relationship outcome. ...
... It therefore fills a gap in the theory. Given the impact of curiosity in relationships (Kashdan & Roberts, 2004) and the outcomes associated with positive TSR (Barile et al., 2012;Sandilos et al., 2018), it is important to explore the idea that teachers with high levels of curiosity are more likely to engage in positive TSR. ...
... It is possible that students are also more open to socially curious teachers, who are therefore more responsive and willing to engage with them. According to Kashdan and Roberts (2004), people who interact with curious individuals are more likely to feel validated. Feeling valued by an adult in a position of authority, such as a teacher, is especially important in the development of young individuals as it may foster their confidence and resilience (den Brok, Levy, Brekelmans, & Wubbels, 2005;Johnson, 2008). ...
... Interestingly, curious individuals tend to seek closeness and build connections (Foster, 2004;Kashdan et al., 2018;Renner, 2006). Not only that, curiosity has also been associated with positive relationships (Kashdan & Roberts, 2004). This leads one to wonder if curiosity can help to foster positive teacher-student relationships in the field of education. ...
... Berlyne (1954) explored curiosity as a psychological state and built much of the intellectual foundation for the study of state curiosity (Boyle, 1983). State curiosity, which is activated by external stimuli, varies over time in response to environmental changes and emotional states (Goodwin, 2014;Kashdan & Roberts, 2004). ...
... It has also been shown that curiosity plays a significant role in personal relations. For example, Kashdan and Roberts (2004) posit that trait curiosity can be used as a positive predictor of intimate relationship outcome. In addition, individuals with high trait and daily curiosity have shown to exhibit less aggression toward people who have hurt them psychologically (Kashdan et al., 2013). ...
Article
The goals of this study were (a) to assess the unique contributions of curiosity and demographics to the teacher–student relationship and (b) to identify the most common barriers teachers experience when attempting to build positive relationships with students. A sample of 518 public school teachers from across the United States completed an online survey. The results show that curiosity and grade level predict teacher–student relationships. Students’ negative behavior, time constraints, large class sizes, family issues, and truancy were among the most common barriers to positive teacher–student relationships. The discussion includes theoretical and practical implications for educators and school leaders.
... Should 'trait curiosity', which is a stable and enduring propensity to experience curiosity more readily and frequently, be added to the list of non-cognitive traits that we search for in the admissions process? 16 In order to better identify students most likely to succeed in a rapidly changing healthcare environment, health professions educators have already begun to modify recruitment and selection processes to include a broader set of characteristics beyond just academic success and good interviewing skills. 17 Finding students who show the capacity to optimize their learning behaviors and skills is one of the reasons why many have begun to explore a host of non-cognitive attributes of students such as grit 18 and metacognition. ...
... Whether or not that is the case, it does not relinquish faculty from the responsibility of fostering curiosity in the classroom through actions that promote "state curiosity," which is a function of enabling conditions. 16 The pharmacy Academy has many faculty who regularly implement and study innovative educational practices. When designing these innovations, we have a good opportunity to purposefully promote curiosity by helping students focus not only on knowledge acquisition, but also on encouraging curiosity about that knowledge. ...
Article
Introduction Educators sometimes become frustrated when students appear interested only in learning the “right answers for the exam” versus being truly engaged and taking initiative to develop their own questions that add to the learning process. Some have suggested that because information is so readily accessible in today's digital environment that the desire to undertake scholarly inquiry may gradually be lost. Commentary Curiosity is a trait that drives people to ask exploratory questions and find creative ways to solve problems. It has been linked with a variety of desired academic and professional outcomes, but is a construct rarely addressed within educational literature. This commentary suggests that curiosity is a characteristic to which pharmacy educators should pay more attention. A series of questions are posed for pharmacy educators to consider with regard to screening for, promoting, and developing curiosity within our student population. Implications Pharmacy educators need to be intentional about designing programs and instructional practices in ways that promote and incentivize student curiosity. The questions posed to the Academy are intended to evoke discussion and further study of curiosity within pharmacy education.
... Four broad themes emerged from a review of the literature on curiosity. The first theme deals with the very nature or concept of curiosity (Ainley, 1987;Kashdan et al., 2004;Maw & Maw, 1966;Schulz, 2012). The second theme deals with the types of curiosity, based on the drives that result in specific behaviours that humans exhibit to satiate their curiosity ( ...
... Indeed, studies have found that trait and state curiosity are related Thomas & Callahan, 2004). Trait curiosity may only manifest in response to certain situations and may involve experiencing state curiosity more frequently, across a greater variety of situations and for a longer duration (Beswick & Tallmadge, 1971;Kashdan & Roberts, 2004;. ...
... Curiosity in learning is an action that is very important and useful for the students' social and cognitive development. The development of curiosity can help students regulate themselves in a positive emotional motivational system (Kashdan and Roberts, 2004), learn to solve problems (Shor I, 1992), acquired knowledge and skills (Zuss, M. 2012), find joy and pleasure, and develop their attention (Ainley, 1998;Kashdan dan Roberts, 2002) through the learning process. ...
... The development of curiosity is an important component in achieving educational goals because it is considered as a form of student appreciation for knowledge that is in demand and is a basic effort so that students can learn to take action, learn to live together and learn to be themselves (Jacques Delors, 2013 ) Efforts to develop curiosity in the learning process need to be carried out to broaden the horizons of the students and facilitate their activities while undergoing the educational process. Curiosity can be cultivated in a social environment (Bergin, 1999;Engel, 2011;Hidi & Harackiewicz, 2000;Kashdan, 2004;Ritchhart, 2002) by discussing something interesting with others (Thoman, Sansone, and Pasupathi, 2007), having a dialogue about the relationship between theory and practice (Lewis, 2012), participating in group work (Mitchell, 1993), and conducting inquiry-based learning (Zion and Sadeh, 2007), so that it can help students open their minds and think critically in finding truth (Shor, 1992) Hartini, H. et.all. ...
Article
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This research is designed to expose the level of curiosity of students in learning in the aspects of interest, novelty seeking, openness of experience, and exploration. In particular, we will measure the differences in curiosity assessed from the points of semester level and gender. The study involved 234 students in their third, fifth, and seventh semesters in nine study programs at the University. Data was collected from the curiosity questionnaire in learning, consisting of 48 items on the Likert scale with a reliability of 0.886. The results showed the level of curiosity of students in the aspects of interest, novelty seeking, and openness of experience to be in the medium category and in the exploration aspect, in the low category. On the other hand, students in the third semester a had higher curiosity in learning compared to students in semesters five and seven, while studies on the gender aspect did not find substantial differences in students' curiosity in learning.
... The strengths encompassed by this factor emphasize mental abilities, like curiosity, love of learning, and creativity, that are important to the relationship. Curiosity, for example, could increase the attention paid to the interlocutor and to the topics of conversation during an interpersonal interaction (Kashdan & Roberts, 2004). A person characterized by curiosity is likely to be more responsive, showing interest and asking questions, than a person with low levels of curiosity, thus making the interlocutor feel understood, important, and valued. ...
... A person characterized by curiosity is likely to be more responsive, showing interest and asking questions, than a person with low levels of curiosity, thus making the interlocutor feel understood, important, and valued. Consequently, as studies show, the feeling of closeness between the two interlocutors will increase (Kashdan & Roberts, 2004;Kashdan et al., 2012). Moreover, it is possible that a person with intellectual strengths like creativity could find new ways to reinvigorate the relationship, preserve the passion, and settle conflicts. ...
Article
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Numerous studies examined the association between character strengths—positive traits that comprise a good personality—and satisfaction with different aspects of life. However, few studies explored the connection between character strengths and marital satisfaction. The present study, conducted on a sample of 177 married couples, aims to examine this connection. Given the findings of previous studies, showing that both spouses’ personality traits contribute to relationship quality, we expect to find a connection between the spouses’ strengths and their marital quality. Using actor-partner interdependence model analyses, we examined the effects of three strengths factors (caring, self-control, and inquisitiveness) of both the individual and the partner on marital quality, evaluated by indices measuring marital satisfaction, intimacy, and burnout. Our findings revealed that the individual’s three strengths factors were related to all of his or her marital quality indices (actor effects). Moreover, women’s caring, inquisitiveness and self-control factors were associated with men’s marital quality, and men’s inquisitiveness and self-control factors were associated with women’s marital quality (partner effects). Our findings join the efforts of previous studies to understand the association between character strengths and the various elements of mental well-being, especially romantic relationships.
... Certains utilisateurs indiquent également que consommer de la pornographie leur permet de gérer leurs émotions, d'éviter des expériences stressantes ou des émotions qu'ils jugent désagréables comme la culpabilité, la honte, la solitude, la frustration, l'ennui ou le stress Paul et Shim, 2008 ;Reid et al., 2011). Ainsi, les principaux motifs évoqués par les utilisateurs et utilisatrices de pornographie s'articulent autour de trois grandes catégories, soit le plaisir sexuel ; la curiosité sexuelle, et l'évitement émotionnel Grubbs, Volk et al., 2015 ;Kashdan et Roberts, 2004 ;Reid et al., 2011). ...
Article
Résumé Objectifs Cette recherche a pour but l’étude des facteurs individuels liés à l’utilisation problématique de pornographie en ligne (UPPL) sur un échantillon d’hommes et de femmes. Spécifiquement, il s’agira (1) de déterminer si la fréquence de consommation, les motifs de consommation ou l’historique sexuel permettent de discriminer les hommes et les femmes présentant une UPPL des hommes et des femmes sans UPPL, et (2) de vérifier si ces mêmes variables permettent de prédire l’UPPL chez les hommes et les femmes. Méthodes Au total, 614 utilisateurs et utilisatrices de pornographie en ligne âgés de 16 à 69 ans ont complété un questionnaire en ligne sur leur historique sexuel ainsi que les versions françaises du Short Internet Sex Addiction Test, du Pornography Consumption Inventory et du Sexual Experiences Survey-Perpetration – Tactics first. Résultats Les résultats suggèrent que (1) les hommes présentant une UPPL ont des scores significativement plus élevés que les utilisateurs sans UPPL au niveau de la fréquence d’utilisation, des trois motifs de consommations (évitement émotionnel, curiosité sexuelle et plaisir sexuel) et des antécédents de coercition sexuelle ; (2) les femmes présentant une UPPL ont obtenu des scores plus élevés que les utilisatrices sans UPPL sur ces mêmes variables ; (3) lorsque les hommes et les femmes présentant une UPPL ont été comparés entre eux, aucune différence significative n’a été décelée, à l’exception de la fréquence de consommation des hommes qui était significativement plus élevée que celle des femmes; et (4) que les variables à l’étude permettent d’expliquer 39,8 % de l’UPPL chez les hommes et 31,7 % chez les femmes. Conclusions Ces résultats suggèrent que les motifs d’utilisation ainsi que les antécédents de coercition sexuelle présentent à la fois une capacité discriminante et prédictive de l’UPPL chez les femmes et les hommes.
... Research evidence generally indicates that individuals with IA have dysfunctional interpersonal and cognitive styles that impair their social performance and increase the rejection possibility (Clark & Wells, 1995;Kashdan & Roberts, 2004a;Rapee & Heimberg, 1997). Specifically, during social interactions, they tend to focus extensively on making a positive impression. ...
... As important and common as it may be, however, curiosity has received relatively little attention in psychological science. Although it can be both a state and a trait (Kashdan & Roberts, 2004;Silvia, 2008), theorists largely approach curiosity as "a positive emotional-motivational system associated with the recognition, pursuit, and selfregulation of novel and challenging opportunities" (Kashdan, Rose, & Fincham, 2004, p. 291). The curious pursue many ventures. ...
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Music is a phenomenon enjoyed by almost all people. Although music fans may believe that music is an important part of their lives, not every music appreciator decides to venture further by making music themselves. The purpose of this research was to investigate potential variables that may be associated with whether one plays a musical instrument. Specifically, I investigated the role of four individual difference variables that have previously been correlated with a number of factors related to music: openness to experience, self–music overlap (SMO), curiosity, and need for cognition (NFC). Results from two cross-sectional investigations (ns = 369 and 295) revealed that all four variables were positively related to whether one plays a musical instrument. SMO mediated the relation between openness and whether one plays a musical instrument in all studies. Unlike hypothesized, curiosity and NFC did not serve as mediators to the openness–music link. Collectively, this research sheds light on the underexplored question of who plays musical instruments.
... Pendapat lain oleh Berlyne (1971) bahwa rasa ingin tahu akan mengakomodasikan pemikiran dan keterlibatan seseorang diperoleh dari stimulus kebaruan, kompleksitas, ketidakpastian, dan konflik. Hal ini sesuai dengan penelitian oleh Kashdan & Roberts (2004) bahwa rasa ingin tahu merupakan dorongan emosi positif untuk mengejar, menuju, dan memperoleh pengalaman yang mengesankan. Beberapa stimulus yang diberikan memiliki manfaat bahwa seseorang yang memiliki rasa ingin tahu yang tinggi akan lebih mudah untuk aktif dan berpartisipasi untuk memperoleh pengalaman baru di sepanjang kehidupannya. ...
Article
Abstrak Rasa ingin tahu diprediksi membantu remaja terus belajar dan tumbuh kembang didalam kehidupan. Rasa ingin tahu dapat digambarkan melalui sikap antusias remaja dengan mengamati, mendengar, mencari, dan menggali informasi untuk memperoleh kepastian akan kebenaran. Keingintahuan mengakibatkan remaja mendapatkan informasi baru yang memungkin remaja memiliki keyakinan dan termotivasi untuk mengeksplorasi lebih jauh perihal keingintahuannya. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui perbedaan rasa ingin tahu remaja ditinjau berdasarkan jenis kelamin. Metode yang digunakan adalah pendekatan kuantitatif komparatif dengan menggunakan uji beda dengan penentuan sampel yang digunakan pada penelitian ini harus disesuaikan dengan tujuan peneliti yakni termasuk dalam kategori remaja akhir dengan jumlah partisipan sebanyak 50 remaja laki-laki dan 50 remaja perempuan. Pengumpulan data dalam penelitian ini adalah menggunakan Curiosity and Exploration Inventory yang diadaptasi oleh Kashdan, Rose & Finchan (2004) dengan model skala Likert yang dianalisa menggunakan uji hipotesis independent sample t-test. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa nilai t 2,088 dan uji signifikansi menunjukkan 0,004 < 0,05 artinya ada perbedaan rasa ingin tahu yang signifikan antara remaja laki-laki dan perempuan. __________________________________________________________ Abstract Curiosity is predicted, helping teenagers continue to learn and grow in life. Curiosity can be illustrated through the enthusiasm of teenagers by observing, listening, searching, and digging for information to obtain certainty about the truth. Curiosity causes teenagers to get new information that allows them to have confidence and be motivated to explore further about their curiosity. The purpose of this study was to determine differences in curiosity of teenagers by gender. The method used is a comparative quantitative approach using a different test with the determination of the sample used in this study must be adjusted to the objectives of the researcher that is included in the category of late teenagers with the number of participants is 50 boys and 50 girls. The data collection in this study was using the Curiosity and Exploration Inventory which was adapted by Kashdan, Rose & Finchan (2004) with a Likert scale model analyzed using hypothesis testing independent sample t-test. The results showed that the value of t was 2.088 and the significance test showed 0.004 <0.05, meaning there is a significant difference in curiosity between boys and girls.
... Studies of (Bandura, 1997;Kuijer & Ridder, 2003;Bisschop et al. ,2004) found that high self-efficacy is related to positive well-being, high self-esteem, better adaptation and stress regulation. Furthermore, high self-efficacy can be the reason for young adult's high activity level and happiness (Cakar, 2012), while people with high degree of self-efficacy can increase their believes in their capability in controlling events in their environment which may increase their psychological well-being, people with low self-efficacy are related to more symptoms of anxiety and depression (Faure & Loxton, 2003;Kashdan & Roberts, 2004), as well as to lower levels of psychological well-being (Barlow et al., 2002;Caprara, 2002;Bandura et al. , 2003;Ersöz, 2017;Rasool &Zubair, 2019) Another variable that affect psychological well-being is positive thinking, researchers found that in order to reach happiness the individual has to have some abilities such as optimism, hope and a pattern of thinking such as positive thinking which means that the expectation of good events, feeling will be realized by our endeavors and future planning and can Produce stable happiness and purposeful life. (Sligman, 2002). ...
Article
The current study aimed to investigate the relationship between psychological well-being, self-efficacy and positive thinking, among Prince Sattam Bin Abdul Aziz University’s students in Saudi Arabia. To answer the study questions, three questionnaires were administrated, two were submitted by the researcher (psychological well-being and self-efficacy), positive thinking scale by (Radi & Metib, 2017) to 350 university students with range age of 18 to 36 years old. The study adopted a descriptive design to measure the degree of correlation between variables, Results of the study showed that students have moderate psychological well-being level, and that there was a positive relationship between psychological well-being; self-efficacy and positive thinking, also research results indicated that there was a positive relationship between self-efficacy and positive thinking, but the results showed that (gender, faculty, acedamic level) had no impact on psychological well-being or positive thinking. The impact was within (academic level) on self-efficacy in benefit of master degree group.
... Las personas felices tienen mejores trabajos (con mayor autonomía, significado y variedad de tareas) , están más satisfechas con estos (Connolly y Viswesvaran, 2000), tienen más iniciativa y curiosidad para explorar nuevas opciones (Kashdan y Roberts, 2004), están más abiertas al cambio (Bilbao, Techio y Páez, 2007), pasan menos tiempo desempleadas (Diener, Nickerson, Lucas y Sandvik, 2002), obtienen mejores calificaciones de sus supervisores y reciben mejores puntajes en calidad en el trabajo, productividad y creatividad (Cropanzano y Wright, 1999;Wright y Staw, 1999), por lo que ocupan más puestos de supervisión ( Graen, 1976) y reciben mayores ingresos (Diener y Biswas--Diener, 2002) que otros trabajadores. ...
Article
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The present work deals with the study of happiness on university students, and the possible differences depending on their gender, age and choice of studies that may arise in their subjective perception, derived from an intervention in the classroom based on positive emotions and creativity. We use a quasi-experimental design with pretest and posttest. The sample consisted in 83 university students and Higher Technical Degrees, who were evaluated with the “Subjective Happiness scale of Lyubomirsky and Lepper” (1999) and the “Oxford Happiness Questionnaire of Hills and Argyle” (2002). The results show that there are no significant differences in the perception of happiness depending on gender, age and choice of studies, however, the intervention in positive emotions program was effective and the subjective happiness of the students in the experimental group increased significantly compared to the control group. Happiness has been positively associated to academic success; encourages coping with stressful situations of university life; has positive effects on health and on personal and social well-being, also contributes improving people quality of life. Given the importance of preparing the student for working life and the benefits that positive emotions provide, we support their integrated use in university classrooms.
... Epistemic curiosity, an emotional-motivational state, is defined as a human desire to acquire intellectual information due to the specific gaps in one's knowledge (Berlyne, 1954;Loewenstein, 1994). It has been documented that students' psychological characteristics of epistemic curiosity drive their intellectual development (Jirout & Klahr, 2012;Kashdan & Roberts, 2004), as well as linked to their learning behaviors (Cheng, 2019;Litman, 2005). According to Litman (2008), epistemic curiosity involves two types of personality trait including inclination to explore knowledge for intrinsic pleasure (interest-type) and intention to eliminate feelings of informational deprivation (deprivation-type). ...
Article
Research has addressed the benefits of immersive virtual reality (IVR) for affective learning rather than cognitive performance, indicating the necessity to explore what factors may influence learners’ attitudinal learning, defined as the result of instruction for changing learners’ attitudes, when engaging in immersive instructional mediums. This study proposes an affection-oriented model to understand the roles of young learners’ epistemic curiosity traits and triggered situational interest in their attitudinal learning from the affective, cognitive, and behavioral dimensions in IVR learning contexts. Through a series of PLS-SEM analyses with 90 elementary school students, the results of the measurement model test have verified the reliability and validity of the instruments employed in this study. The structural relationships among epistemic curiosity, situational interest, and attitudinal learning were also confirmed. The triggered situational interests of novelty and exploration intention during the IVR learning process were further identified as the mediators in the research model. While the students’ senses of novelty mediated the relationship between curiosity and cognitive attitudinal learning, their senses of interest in exploration intention mediated both the relationships between curiosity and affective attitudinal learning and between curiosity and behavioral attitudinal learning. This study contributed to establishing the theoretical framework for affection-oriented IVR learning.
... Previous findings show that people are more likely to become explorative when facing challenging and novel stimuli (Kashdan, Rose, & Fincham, 2004). In turn, activated curiosity leads to approach behaviors (Litman, 2010;Kashdan & Roberts, 2004), including exploration (e.g., touch) and responsiveness (e.g., interact), and promotes viral behaviors such as sharing experiences on social media and engaging in positive word-of-mouth (Caridà & Colurcio, 2013). Shiota et al. (2007) found that awe-inspiring experiences are generally interpreted as positive and can make people seek out similar situations to relive emotional uplift. ...
Article
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In this study, we propose a new concept, brand awe, and explore its nature, underlying dimensions, and roles in relation to consumer responses. Brand awe is a specific mixture of emotions that consumers feel when they encounter a luxury or premium brand that they perceive to be vast and, thus, requires a schematic accommodation. Exploratory Factor Analysis (N = 205) and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (N = 256) of the survey data based on fourteen brands yielded three dimensions of brand awe: Euphoria, Enthrallment, and Vastness. Results support the reliability and validity of the brand awe construct and the important mediating roles of brand awe between its triggers (i.e., prestige, luxuriousness, excellence, and innovation) and consumer responses.
... Alongside this inquisitive thinking and behavior, a sense of motivation, enjoyment, and excitement is considerably aroused, which not only makes the learning process fun for individuals but also affects their educational performance (see for example, Freeman et al. 2014;Hon-Keung et al. 2012;Litman 2005;Von Stumm et al. 2011). As for research on curiosity in educational psychology, some researchers (Kashdan and Roberts 2004;Litman and Spielberger 2003;Spielberger and Starr 1994) have found a negative correlation between anxiety and curiosity. According to such findings, it is likely that anxiety is a factor interfering with individuals' curiosity during the learning process. ...
Article
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Why do some students frequently ask questions and actively seek out answers in the classroom, while others avoid this? Many language teachers might have commonly asked themselves this question. The present study is an empirical investigation of the concept of curiosity in the field of second language acquisition (SLA). Using a mixed-methods design, we aim to conceptualize language learning curiosity (LLC) within the framework of interest/deprivation (I/D) model of curiosity (Litman & Jimerson, 2004) and see how it may be recognizably distinct from L2 psychological constructs, as well as how it connects with related constructs such as willingness to communicate (WTC), enjoyment, and anxiety. To measure LLC and depict its underlying dimensions, a new curiosity scale was developed and validated in this study. Overall, our results suggest that LLC can be conceived as an affective-cognitive variable reflecting an inquiry-driven interest and desire to learn and use a foreign language.
... Previous researchers have identified motives for pornography consumption which include sexual pleasure or excitement (Hald and Malamuth, 2008;Reid et al., 2011;Tripodi et al., 2015); sexual curiosity or sensation seeking (Kashdan and Roberts, 2004;Litman et al., 2005;Tripodi et al., 2015) and emotional avoidance or regulation Grubbs et al., 2015;Laier and Brand, 2017;Paul and Shim, 2008;Wéry and Billieux, 2016). ...
Article
Objectives: Online pornography use is a common sexual practice and it is relevant to understand the motivations underlying its consumption to better identify the causes of its problematic use. The purpose of this study was to translate the Pornography Consumption Inventory (PCI) into French and to validate the version thus obtained (FR-PCI), on a large heterogeneous sample. Material and methods: The PCI was first submitted to a rigorous four-step back-translation procedure for cross-cultural research performed by six different bilingual individuals (French and English). Then, 651 French-Canadian online pornography users aged 16 to 69 from varied genders, sexual orientations and occupations, completed an online questionnaire on sexual behaviors, including the FR-PCI. Results: Results from factorial analysis indicate a three-factor structure explaining 64.6% of the total variance. Results also reveal good internal consistency for the FR-PCI total score (α = .85), and subscales: Emotional Avoidance (α = .86), Sexual Curiosity (α = .86), and Sexual Pleasure (α = .81). Scores produced by the FR-PCI were able to discriminate high-frequency pornography users from low-frequency pornography users, indicating good discriminant validity. Results also confirm the expected theoretical associations between the concepts measured by the FR-PCI and the Short Internet sex Addiction Test, indicating good convergence validity. Conclusion: Results support the psychometric qualities of the FR-PCI and its use to assess motives for pornography consumption in French-speaking individuals.
... Curiosity has been touted as beneficial for improving social relationships and reducing group conflict (Gino, 2018). Generally, social psychological research results have confirmed these claims, even when controlling for positive affect or physical attraction (Kashdan, McKnight, Fincham, & Rose, 2011;Kashdan & Roberts, 2004). Curiosity has been found to facilitate building close and intimate relationships because curious people engage in behaviors (e.g., being more responsive, seeking more self-disclosures among interaction partners) that are particularly relevant for increasing the likelihood of positive social outcomes and healthy social relationships. ...
Article
This paper focuses on the emergent importance of curiosity at work for individuals and organizations by reviewing management research on curiosity at work. We start by leveraging prior reviews on early and contemporary foundations of the curiosity construct in the larger psychological literature, with a focus on definitional clarity, dimen-sionality, and differences with other constructs in its nomological network. Next, we review different streams of management research on curiosity at work (i.e., broad generative and nongenerative effects, curiosity as a catalyst for personal action, curiosity as a catalyst for interpersonal action, curiosity as a catalyst for leadership, curiosity as an organizational or professional norm, and curiosity as a catalyst for organizing). Inter-weaving these diverse literatures and research streams gives us the wherewithal to provide conceptual clarity to curiosity research and highlight how curiosity not only has generative effects at the individual level but also acts as a more dynamic, interpersonal, and organizational property. In addition, our review brings attention to the potential dark side of curiosity. We end by outlining how the more nuanced insights of the role of curiosity at work generated by our review provide an impetus for future research.
... This assertion is consistent with more recent literature, such as the Broadenand-Build theory of positive emotions (Fredrickson, 2001), where positive emotions can lead to upward spirals of performance. There are some additional indicators within the literature suggesting that arousal level does influence factors related to performance (Lyubomirsky et al., 2005), such as curiosity and exploration (Kashdan et al., 2004), intentions to quit, and conflict with coworkers (Van Katwyk et al., 2000). Past findings from the health arena also suggest that high arousal PA might not be as beneficial as low arousal (Pressman & Cohen, 2005). ...
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We examined the prediction of affective well-being to work performance in the United States Army. We found that high positive affect (PA), low negative affect (NA), and high optimism predicted awards for performance and heroism in a sample of 908,096 U.S. Army soldiers (mean age 29.60 years old, SD = 9.16 years; with over ¼ of a million ethnic minorities and over 150,000 women). Baseline high PA, low NA, and high optimism predicted awards over a four-year follow up window, in which 114,443 soldiers (12.60%) received an award. Each well-being variable predicted future awards for both women and men, for enlisted soldiers as well as officers, for several ethnicities, for varying levels of education, and controlling for a number of other potential explanatory variables. The effects of high positive and low negative affect were additive, with each predicting significantly beyond the other. Comparing the soldiers highest vs. lowest in well-being predicted an almost fourfold greater award recognition in the high group. Awards were predicted by both high and low arousal positive emotions, as well as low sadness and low anger. The relations between PA, NA, and optimism with award attainment were curvilinear, with the greatest difference in award attainment occurring between low and moderate levels of affective well-being, with little effect between moderate and high well-being.
... After a period of being relatively ignored as a research topic, curiosity is once more of great interest to psychologists and neuroscientists (see Kidd and Hayden, 2015 for a review). Among these groups, the importance of curiosity in knowledge acquisition and decision making (Gruber, Gelman, & Ranganath, 2014;Gruber & Raganath, 2019;Calhoun & Hayden, 2015), as well as its role in a range of positive life outcomes (Kashdan & Roberts, 2004;von Stumm, Hell, & Chamorro-Premuzic, 2011;Sakaki, Yagi & Murayama, 2018), is increasingly recognized. ...
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Music offers a useful opportunity to consider the factors contributing to the experience of curiosity in the context of dynamically changing stimuli. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the perception of change in music triggers curiosity as to how the heard music will unfold. Participants were presented with unfamiliar musical excerpts and asked to provide continuous ratings of their subjective experience of curiosity and calm, and their perception of change, as the music unfolded. As hypothesized, we found that for all musical pieces, the perceptual experience of change Granger-caused feelings of curiosity but not feelings of calm. Our results suggest music is a powerful tool with which to examine the factors contributing to curiosity induction. Accordingly, we outline ways in which extensions to the approach taken here may be useful: both in elucidating our information-seeking drive more generally, and in elucidating the manifestation of this drive during music listening.
... Moreover, they described two basic dimensions of curiosity: epistemic (that stimulates exploratory behaviors aimed at information seeking) and perceptual (stimulating exploratory behaviors aimed at sensation seeking). Kashdan and Roberts (2004) construed curiosity as a positive emotional-motivational system oriented towards recognition, pursuit and self-regulation of new experience and challenge. The system is responsible for proactive and intentional behaviors in response to stimuli characterized by novelty, uncertainty and discrepancy. ...
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This study is a continuation of the work of Professor Kazimierz Wrześniewski. It concerns the role of curiositytrait in the dynamics of changes in coping and quality of life after a heart attack. The study was attended by 222 people after a heart attack (73% men), of whom 140 participated in the three stages of the study: at the beginning and at the end of cardiac rehabilitation and a year after leaving the resort. The participants aged 24-64 years (M = 54.19; SD = 6.51). Curiosity-trait was measured by Spielberger and Wrześniewski’s STPI questionnaire. To assess coping strategies a modified version of the COPE by Carver et al., was used. The specific and general quality of life were measured by the Polish adaptations of MacNew and NHP questionnaires. The level of curiosity-trait significantly differentiated changes in the dynamics of positive reinterpretation, problem solving and resignation, but did not affect the change in quality of life within the year after a heart attack.
... Berlyne'ın ayrıştırıcı ve özgün merak arasında yapmış olduğu ayrımda dikkati çeken diğer kavramlar ise durum (state) ve kişilik özelliği (trait) dir. Berlyne meraklılığı motivasyonel bir durum (state) olarak,Day (1968) ise merakı bir kişilik özelliği (trait) olarak incelemiştir.Durumsal merakın, dışsal olaylar sonucu ortaya çıkan merak, kişisel merakın ise bireyin doğası gereği oluşan merak türleri olarak ortaya çıktıkları görüşü ileri sürülmektedir(Kashdan and Roberts, 2004).Bilgiye yönelik merak ve algısal merak birbirlerinden tamamen farklı merak türleri olmaktan çok, bilişsel becerilerin kullanılması yönüyle birbirlerinden farklılaşmaktadırlar. Algısal merak daha çok çevre-uyaran etkileşiminden kaynaklanan bir merak türü olması sebebi ile daha düşük düzeyde bilişsel yapıların kullanılmasını gerektiren bir merak türü; bilgiye yönelik merak ise, daha çok bilişsel düzeyde öğrenmelerden veya karmaşık durumlardan kaynaklanan bir yapı içermesi sebebi ile daha fazla ve üst düzeyde bilişsel ve motivasyona yönelik yapıları içeren bir merak türü olarak ortaya çıkmaktadır. Diğer taraftan, bilgiye yönelik merakın sadece karmaşık durumlardan veya problemlerden kaynaklanmadığı, aynı zamanda ilgi ve yoksunluk gibi duyuşsal özellikleri içeren yapılarla da ilişkili olduğu belirtilmektedir(Loewenstein, 1994; Litman ve Jimerson, 2004). ...
Thesis
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Bu araştırmanın amacı, lise öğrencilerinin İngilizce dersleriyle ilgili öz-yeterlik inançlarının, algıladıkları araçsallığın, biliş-ötesi öğrenme stratejilerinin, bilgiye yönelik meraklarının, başarı amaçlarının ve tutumlarının, İngilizce ders başarıları üzerindeki olası etkilerinin bir öğretim yılı süresince incelenmesiydi. Araştırmada, boylamsal tarama yöntemi ile panel deseni kullanılmıştır. Araştırmanın verileri bir öğretim yılının dört ayrı zaman kesitinde (güz dönemi başı, güz dönemi sonu, bahar dönemi başı ve bahar dönemi sonu) ve aynı öğrencilerden elde edilmiştir. Araştırmanın örneklemi, 2015-2016 eğitimöğretim yılında Zonguldak ilinin dört ilçesinde yer alan beş ayrı Anadolu Lisesi’nde öğrenim gören 1357 öğrenciden oluşmuştur. Öğrencilerin İngilizce derslerine yönelik tutumları, öz-yeterlik inançları, algıladıkları araçsallık, başarı amaçları, biliş-ötesi öğrenme stratejileri ve bilgiye yönelik merakları sırasıyla, “İngilizceye Yönelik Tutum Ölçeği”, “Yabancı Dil Öz Yeterlik Ölçeği”, “Algılanan Araçsallık Ölçeği”, “2x2 Başarı Amaçları Ölçeği”, “Biliş-ötesi Öğrenme Stratejileri Ölçeği” ve “Bilgiye Yönelik Merak Ölçeği” aracılığıyla belirlenmiştir. Öğrencilerin İngilizce ders başarıları ise 2015-2016 eğitim öğretim yılının güz dönemi ve bahar dönemi sonunda elde edilen not ortalamaları temel alınarak tanımlanmıştır. Veri analizleri SPSS 21 ve AMOS 21 istatistik yazılım programları kullanılarak gerçekleştirilmiştir. Araştırmanın bulguları, İngilizce derslerine yönelik tutumun ders başarısını, İngilizce ders başarısının da tutumu etkilediğini göstermiş ve İngilizceye yönelik tutum ile İngilizce ders başarısı arasında nedenselliğe dayalı bir ilişki olduğunu ortaya koymuştur. Bununla birlikte bulgular, İngilizceye yönelik tutumun ders başarısı üzerinde, diğer değişkenlerin etkileriyle kıyaslandığında, güçlü bir etkisi olduğunu ve bu etkinin, diğer değişkenlerin ders başarısı üzerindeki etkilerini baskıladığını da göstermiştir. Önemli olarak, araştırmada, güz dönemi başındaki İngilizce derslerine yönelik tutumun bahar dönemi sonu ders başarısı üzerindeki doğrudan etkisinin anlamlı düzeyde ve olumsuz yönde olduğu, ancak güz dönemi sonu ders başarısı ile bahar dönemi başındaki tutum aracılığıyla sağlanan dolaylı etkisinin, anlamlı düzeyde ve olumlu yönde olduğu da saptanmıştır. Araştırmanın diğer önemli bir bulgusu ise, yüksek düzeyde bilgiye yönelik meraka ve algılanan araçsallığa sahip olmayla bazı başarı amaçlarını (performansa yaklaşma) ve biliş-ötesi öğrenme stratejilerini (örgütleme ve değerlendirme stratejileri) benimsemenin, İngilizce ders başarısına bağlı olduğudur. Öğrencilerin, öğretim yılı başındaki gerçekçi olmayan İngilizce yazma öz-yeterlik algılarının ders başarıları üzerindeki olumsuz etkisi araştırmanın bir diğer önemli bulgusudur. Araştırmada, İngilizce öğretimiyle gelecekte yapılabilecek araştırmalara ilişkin öneriler de tartışılmıştır.
... Este traço de personalidade humano tem sido estudado por alguns autores como sendo uma variável associada ao sucesso psicoterapêutico, como por exemplo, quando os terapeutas são interessados (Ackerman & Hilsenroth, 2003), estão cientes das caraterísticas específicas e do contexto sociocultural de cada cliente sabendo gerir a sua diversidade (Wampold, 2001;Goh, 2005;Lai & McDowall, 2014) ou estando informados sobre as evidências da investigação relacionadas com clientes específicos (Wampold, 2001). (Ryan & Frederick, 1997;Ainley, 1998;Kashdan & Roberts, 2004). Por outro lado, a Curiosidade desempenha um papel central na motivação humana e na perceção de bem-estar subjetivo (Peterson, Ruch, Beerman, Park, & Seligman, 2007), já que, ao estarem curiosos, os indivíduos ficam com mais atenção, processam a informação de uma forma mais profunda, retendo-a mais eficazmente, e são mais persistentes para com o alcançar de objetivos, o que é fundamental para o progresso da psicoterapia (Silvia, 2006). ...
Thesis
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Objetivos: (1) Aferir se existe um padrão de forças de caráter (FC) através da VIA-IS (Values In Action – Inventory of Strengths; Peterson & Seligman, 2004), autopercecionado por psicoterapeutas de quatro países, que contribua para que alguns psicoterapeutas tenham mais sucesso do que outros; e (2) aferir se existem outras qualidades humanas (para além das aferidas com a VIA-IS) que distingam os psicoterapeutas com maior sucesso (PTS) dos com menor sucesso (PTMS). Métodos: Para o primeiro objetivo foram usados métodos quantitativos (para analisar os resultados da VIA-IS, uma escala do tipo Likert de concordância com 5 pontos) e para o segundo objetivo foram usados métodos qualitativos (a análise de conteúdo dedutiva e indutiva) seguidos de uma análise quantitativa. Resultados: Obteve-se um padrão de FC (autopercecionadas pelos psicoterapeutas), que distingue a eficiência dos PTS face aos PTMS, bem como um conjunto de qualidades humanas (comunicabilidade, reflexividade, contenção e presença) associadas ao sucesso clínico dos psicoterapeutas, mas que não os diferencia na autoperceção de eficiência. Conclusões: Os psicoterapeutas amorosos, perseverantes, curiosos, entusiastas, honestos e com uma boa perspetiva, poderão obter mais sucesso no seu trabalho clínico. Porém são necessários mais estudos que validem também esta conclusão a fim de que se criem formações específicas que fomentem estas FC, para ampliar a quantidade de terapeutas de topo e a qualidade dos serviços de saúde mental. Sugere-se ainda a criação de um Inventário de Forças de Caráter dos Psicoterapeutas para aprofundar o conhecimento sobre as qualidades humanas que contribuem para o sucesso das psicoterapias. Objectives: (1) To verify if there is a pattern of character strengths (CS), through VIA-IS (Values In Action – Inventory of Strengths; Peterson & Seligman, 2004), self-perceived by psychotherapists from four countries, that contributes for some psychotherapists to have more success than others; and (2) gauge if there are other human qualities (beyond those captured by VIA-IS) that distinguish the most successful psychotherapists (MSP) from the least successful psychotherapists (LSP). Methods: For the first objective, quantitative methods were used (to analyze the results of the VIA-IS, a 5-point Likert scale of agreement) and for the second objective qualitative methods (deductive and inductive content analysis) were used followed by a quantitative analysis. Results: A CS pattern (self-identified by psychotherapists) was obtained, which distinguishes the efficiency of the MSP from the LSP, as well as a set of human qualities (communicability, reflexivity, containment and presence) associated with the clinical success of psychotherapists, but that doesn't differentiate them in their self-perception of efficiency. Conclusions: The psychotherapists that are loving, persevering, curious, enthusiastic, honest, and with a good perspective, may be more successful in their clinical work. Yet, further studies are needed to validate this conclusion in order to create specific trainings that promote these CS, to increase the quantity of top therapists and the quality of mental health services. It is also suggested the creation of an Inventory of Character Strengths of Psychotherapists to deepen the knowledge about the human qualities that contribute to the success of psychotherapies.
... Based on the low levels of curiosity, it may seem impossible to spark new learning in the students, difficult for the students to develop new skills, knowledge, and attitudes that teachers are obliged to nurture in them. The low levels of curiosity established among students could affect their psychological, emotional, social, and even health benefits that are related to curiosity (Campbell, 2015;Kashdan & Roberts, 2004;Kashdan, Rose, & Fincham, 2004). ...
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Curiosity and academic self-concept as psychological constructs are often mentioned in education and psychology. These constructs are elusive in terms of how they are exhibited or portrayed and measured. Despite their elusive nature, they are highly significant to the success or otherwise of learners. Therefore, the current study explored curiosity and academic self-concept among students of category "A" Senior High schools in the Central Region of Ghana. Using a descriptive-quantitative method, a sample of 400 students was selected through proportionate-stratified and systematic sampling techniques. Adapted curiosity (Kashdan et al., 2018) and academic self-concept (Liu & Wang, 2005) scales were used for the data collection. The data collected were analysed using frequencies, percentages, and structural equation modelling (SEM). The study revealed that the majority of the students possessed low curious abilities and low academic self-concepts. The study further revealed that curiosity of deprivation sensitivity (b=.577, p<.001), the curiosity of stress tolerance (b=.248, p=.007), and curiosity of thrill-seeking (b=.544, p<.001) positively and significantly predicted academic self-concept of students but the curiosity of joyful exploration and social curiosity did not predict academic self-concept of students. It was concluded that students' curious abilities were precursors to their academic self-concept. Thereupon, teachers need to devise new approaches by allowing students to engage in other learning opportunities without much restrictions so that they could hone their natural potentials.
... Positive affective experiences, in contrast, are important contributors to mental health (Taylor & Brown, 1988). Not surprisingly, happy people are more likely to be mentally healthy than their less happy peers (Diener & Seligman, 2002), and people who are high in trait positive affect are less likely to suffer from anxiety or social phobia (Kashdan & Roberts, 2004). Meaning is related to mental health because meaning is related to well-being, which is related to mental health. ...
... Besides, individuals reporting high trait positive affect also present a lower chance of suffering depression [20] as well as social phobia or anxiety [32]. In turn, individuals with greater dispositional optimism show higher levels of self-reported vitality and mental health [33] and lower levels of depression [20,34]. ...
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Despite the considerable amount of research evidence on the significant role of subjective happiness on mental health, there is no psychometric study of the Subjective Happiness Scale (SHS) in psychiatric samples. This study was aimed at exploring the psychometric properties of the SHS in a Spanish sample of patients with depressive disorders. Participants were 174 patients with a depressive disorder (70% diagnosed as major depressive disorder) who completed the SHS, the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology-Self Report (QIDS-SR16), and the EQ-5D Visual Analogue Scale (EQ-5D VAS). Depressive symptoms were also assessed by means of the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS17) and the Clinical Global Impression-Severity (CGI-S) Scale. Dimensionality, internal consistency reliability, construct validity, and responsiveness to change of the SHS were examined. Confirmatory factor analysis replicated the original one-factor structure of the scale. The SHS exhibited good-to-excellent results for internal consistency (α = 0.83) and for convergent [EQ-5D VAS (r = 0.71)] and divergent [QIDS-SR16 (r = −0.72), HDRS17 (r = −0.60) and CGI-S (r = −0.61)] construct validity. The ability of the SHS to differentiate between depression severity levels as well as its responsiveness to clinical change were both highly satisfactory (p < 0.001 in both cases). The SHS retained the soundness of psychometric properties showed in non-clinical samples in a sample of patients with depressive disorders, which supports its use as a reliable and valid outcome measure in the treatment of such disorders.
... Studies have shown an influential relationship between trait and state curiosity [29,40,57]. Most work on quantifying curiosity has been concerned with measuring trait curiosity [38,41] or related personality traits, such as intrinsic motivation [13,14,45] or sensation seeking [78]. ...
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Video games frequently feature 'open world' environments, designed to motivate exploration. Level design patterns are implemented to invoke curiosity and to guide player behavior. However, evidence of the efficacy of such patterns has remained theoretical. This study presents an empirical study of how level design patterns impact curiosity-driven exploration in a 3D open-world video game. 254 participants played a game in an empirical study using a between-subjects factorial design, testing 4 variables: presence or absence of patterns, goal or open-ended, nature and alien aesthetic, and assured or unassured compensation. Data collection consisted of in-game metrics and emotion word prompts as well as post-game questionnaires. Results show that design patterns invoke heightened exploration, but this effect is influenced by the presence of an explicit goal or monetary compensation. There appear to be many motivations behind exploratory behavior in games, with patterns raising expectations in players. A disposition for curiosity (i.e. 'trait curiosity') was not found to influence exploration. We interpret and discuss the impact of the conditions, individual patterns, and player motivations.
... Prior reviews highlight the role of interest in encouraging people to think deeply and use good meta-cognitive skills [6,9,70]. Most studies concerning curiosity discuss curiosity in relation to overarching themes of information-seeking and gaining knowledge, e.g., epistemic curiosity [24], interest-deprivation type curiosity [27], and state-trait curiosity [71,72]. Our results therefore also corroborate existing theories of curiosity, such as those that refer to it as the "cognitive appetite" [73], a "thirst for knowledge" [70] and/or an "appetite for knowledge" [74]. ...
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The purpose of this study was to critically examine how people perceive the definitions, differences and similarities of interest and curiosity, and address the subjective boundaries between interest and curiosity. We used a qualitative research approach given the research questions and the goal to develop an in-depth understanding of people’s meaning of interest and curiosity. We used data from a sample of 126 U.S. adults (48.5% male) recruited through Amazon’s Mechanical Turk ( M age = 40.7, SD age = 11.7). Semi-structured questions were used and thematic analysis was applied. The results showed two themes relating to differences between curiosity and interest; active/stable feelings and certainty/uncertainty. Curiosity was defined as an active feeling (more specifically a first, fleeting feeling) and a child-like emotion that often involves a strong urge to think actively and differently, whereas interest was described as stable and sustainable feeling, which is characterized as involved engagement and personal preferences (e.g., hobbies). In addition, participants related curiosity to uncertainty, e.g., trying new things and risk-taking behaviour. Certainty, on the other hand, was deemed as an important component in the definition of interest, which helps individuals acquire deep knowledge. Both curiosity and interest were reported to be innate and positive feelings that support motivation and knowledge-seeking during the learning process.
... For them curiosity and exploration is what enables one to reach one's own potential and lead a mature, coherent life. Perhaps all of those people are right and curiosity is sometimes positively correlated with better academic, job and sociopersonal performance (Hardy et al., 2017;Grass et al., 2017, Hassan et al., 2015, Kashdan and Roberts, 2004 . I argue however that if it happens, this is a mere side effect. ...
Conference Paper
Curiosity is an important motivator to facilitate learning in all aspects of life, including formal education. Digital games stand out among the methods that can be used to invoke curiosity by providing an interactive, yet controlled environment. In this paper we present the conceptual design for CURIO, a multi-user classroom game that seeks to invoke curiosity through its gameplay. We describe a series of three focus groups with educators, conducted with the purpose of determining what requirements such a game needs to fulfill. On this basis we have developed a conceptual game design that will be further evaluated and modified through future test sessions.
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Objectives. The purpose of this study was to verify the factor structure of the Czech translation ofin Self-CuriosityCzech grammarAttitude-Interestschools, studentsScaleand(SCAI)to explore reliability of the scale. Curiosity about self was initially conceptualized as the desire that people have to explore and understand themselves and their psychological functioning beyond what they already know about themselves. Sample and setting. A total of 2356 Czech adolescents, aged 15–19, who studied grammar school participated in the study. The research sample consisted of 1406 female students and 950 male students. The sample covered 2,75% of the Czech adolescent population at grammar schools. Statistical analysis. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to verify the factor structure of the Self-Curiosity Attitude-Interest Scale. Omega coefficients were used as the estimates of reliability. Results. CFA confirmed two-factor structure of the Czech version of Self-Curiosity Attitude-Interest Scale. Reliability reaches a value of 0.72. Study limitation. The construct validity of the SCAI-CZ was taken over from the study published by the authors of the scale. © 2019, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic. All rights reserved.
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This study aims to know the level of EFL students' Perceptual Curiosity . The level of EFL students' language proficiency. The correlational relationship between Iraqi EFL student's perceptual curiosity and their Language proficiency. To achieve the aims of this study, the researcher adapted Berlyne’s questionnaire to measure the level of perceptual curiosity for the students of the University of Mosul, the Department of English Language 3rd stage and the researcher adapting proficiency test from Kattab's study. After analyzing the data statistically, the study was found that the students of the University of Mosul, the Department of English, have a level of perceptual curiosity in addition to a level of language proficiency. Also this study found that there is correlation between students’ perceptual curiosity and their Language proficiency.
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Background and objectives Avoidance and sleep have been identified as mechanisms involved in the development and maintenance of many mental health disorders. However, there has been little research into the relation between sleep and avoidance. Methods To address this, a randomized controlled experiment using behavioral and self-report measures of affect and avoidance was conducted. Compared to a control group, we hypothesized that sleep-deprived individuals would demonstrate increased negative, and decreased positive, affectivity, more avoidance behavior toward a negatively valenced stimulus, as well as increased self-reported avoidance. Fifty-two healthy individuals ages 18–30 years old were randomly assigned to a full night of sleep deprivation or normal sleep. They completed a baseline and post-manipulation behavioral avoidance task (BAT) using a disgusting stimulus and self-reports of avoidance and state affect. Results Repeated measures ANOVAs demonstrated negative affectivity and self-reported avoidance increased, and positive affectivity decreased, from pre-to post-manipulation in the sleep loss condition as expected. However, there were no effects of sleep deprivation on avoidance behaviors. Limitations This study emphasized internal validity over generalizability. Additionally, the at-home sleep deprivation limited researcher control over the overnight activities of participants. Conclusions Results replicate prior work on the affective consequences of sleep deprivation and highlight a discrepancy between the effect of sleep deprivation on behavioral avoidance toward a specific stimulus compared to self-reported cognitive and social avoidance behaviors.
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Adult participants recruited from the community, one half of whom met criteria for clinical depression, described their day-to-day social interactions using a variant of the Rochester Interaction Record. Compared with the nondepressed participants, depressed participants found their interactions to be less enjoyable and less intimate, and they felt less influence over their interactions. Differences between the two groups in intimacy occurred only in interactions with close relations and not in interactions with nonintimates, and differences in influence were more pronounced for those who were cohabiting than for those who were not. There were no differences in how socially active depressed and nondepressed people were or in the amount of contact they had with different relational partners.
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In this article, we attempt to distinguish between the properties of moderator and mediator variables at a number of levels. First, we seek to make theorists and researchers aware of the importance of not using the terms moderator and mediator interchangeably by carefully elaborating, both conceptually and strategically, the many ways in which moderators and mediators differ. We then go beyond this largely pedagogical function and delineate the conceptual and strategic implications of making use of such distinctions with regard to a wide range of phenomena, including control and stress, attitudes, and personality traits. We also provide a specific compendium of analytic procedures appropriate for making the most effective use of the moderator and mediator distinction, both separately and in terms of a broader causal system that includes both moderators and mediators. (46 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Past research has found that trait positive affect as measured by the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) and extraversion as measured by the NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) are highly correlated. We examined the relation between these two measures within the context of three social behaviors. Approximately 4 months before graduation, college seniors entering the job market completed the PANAS and the NEO-FFI and reported on their social activities during college. Three months later, these students were contacted again and described their job search strategies and success at obtaining follow-up job interviews. Trait positive affect scores and extraversion scores were highly correlated and both predicted behavior in each of the three areas investigated. Regression analyses indicated that trait positive affect predicted behavior in all three areas after the effects of extraversion were removed. However, extraversion did not add significantly to predicting behavior in any of the three areas after the effects of trait positive affect were removed. The findings have implications for the conceptual relation between extraversion and trait positive affect.
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Recent scientific work has established both a theoretical basis and strong empirical evidence for a causal impact of social relationships on health. Prospective studies, which control for baseline health status, consistently show increased risk of death among persons with a low quantity, and sometimes low quality, of social relationships. Experimental and quasi-experimental studies of humans and animals also suggest that social isolation is a major risk factor for mortality from widely varying causes. The mechanisms through which social relationships affect health and the factors that promote or inhibit the development and maintenance of social relationships remain to be explored.
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A hypothesized need to form and maintain strong, stable interpersonal relationships is evaluated in light of the empirical literature. The need is for frequent, nonaversive interactions within an ongoing relational bond. Consistent with the belongingness hypothesis, people form social attachments readily under most conditions and resist the dissolution of existing bonds. Belongingness appears to have multiple and strong effects on emotional patterns and on cognitive processes. Lack of attachments is linked to a variety of ill effects on health, adjustment, and well-being. Other evidence, such as that concerning satiation, substitution, and behavioral consequences, is likewise consistent with the hypothesized motivation. Several seeming counterexamples turned out not to disconfirm the hypothesis. Existing evidence supports the hypothesis that the need to belong is a powerful, fundamental, and extremely pervasive motivation.
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Adult participants recruited from the community, one half of whom met criteria for clinical depression, described their day-to-day social interactions using a variant of the Rochester Interaction Record. Compared with the nondepressed participants, depressed participants found their interactions to be less enjoyable and less intimate, and they felt less influence over their interactions. Differences between the two groups in intimacy occurred only in interactions with close relations and not in interactions with nonintimates, and differences in influence were more pronounced for those who were cohabiting than for those who were not. There were no differences in how socially active depressed and nondepressed people were or in the amount of contact they had with different relational partners.
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Emotional processes influence a wide range of mental and physical systems, which makes them difficult to understand from a single perspective. In this special issue of the Review of General Psychology, contributing authors present 4 articles that draw from several areas within psychology in the service of understanding a topic relevant to emotion. In this overview, the authors argue that the long neglect of the scientific study of complex processes such as emotion might be linked, in part, to the fractionation of the field into specialized subdisciplines. Just as emotions were of central concern in the early years of psychology (which was a generalist's era), as psychology moves toward more integration in the late 20th century broad phenomena such as emotions are once again central interests. The 4 articles of this special issue are briefly reviewed as exemplars of an integrated approach to understanding emotional phenomena.
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In this article, the author describes a new theoretical perspective on positive emotions and situates this new perspective within the emerging field of positive psychology. The broaden-and-build theory posits that experiences of positive emotions broaden people's momentary thought-action repertoires, which in turn serves to build their enduring personal resources, ranging from physical and intellectual resources to social and psychological resources. Preliminary empirical evidence supporting the broaden-and-build theory is reviewed, and open empirical questions that remain to be tested are identified. The theory and findings suggest that the capacity to experience positive emotions may be a fundamental human strength central to the study of human flourishing.
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The development and validation of the Social Phobia Scale (SPS) and the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS) two companion measures for assessing social phobia fears is described. The SPS assesses fears of being scrutinised during routine activities (eating, drinking, writing, etc.), while the SIAS assesses fears of more general social interaction, the scales corresponding to the DSM-III-R descriptions of Social Phobia—Circumscribed and Generalised types, respectively. Both scales were shown to possess high levels of internal consistency and test–retest reliability. They discriminated between social phobia, agoraphobia and simple phobia samples, and between social phobia and normal samples. The scales correlated well with established measures of social anxiety, but were found to have low or non-significant (partial) correlations with established measures of depression, state and trait anxiety, locus of control, and social desirability. The scales were found to change with treatment and to remain stable in the face of no-treatment. It appears that these scales are valid, useful, and easily scored measures for clinical and research applications, and that they represent an improvement over existing measures of social phobia.
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In recent studies of the structure of affect, positive and negative affect have consistently emerged as two dominant and relatively independent dimensions. A number of mood scales have been created to measure these factors; however, many existing measures are inadequate, showing low reliability or poor convergent or discriminant validity. To fill the need for reliable and valid Positive Affect and Negative Affect scales that are also brief and easy to administer, we developed two 10-item mood scales that comprise the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). The scales are shown to be highly internally consistent, largely uncorrelated, and stable at appropriate levels over a 2-month time period. Normative data and factorial and external evidence of convergent and discriminant validity for the scales are also presented. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Examined the effects of 2 induced social interactions (getting acquainted and lunching together) on positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) with the use of the 20-item positive and negative affect schedule (PANAS) in 2 experiments with a total of 60 undergraduates. Three sets of 3 PANASs were completed during successive class periods: One set each was completed during the class period preceding, including, and following the social interaction. Analyses revealed that PA increased significantly after social interaction and returned to normal by the beginning of the next class period and that NA was not changed by social interaction. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
In 2 studies, the Inclusion of Other in the Self (IOS) Scale, a single-item, pictorial measure of closeness, demonstrated alternate-form and test–retest reliability; convergent validity with the Relationship Closeness Inventory (E. Berscheid et al, 1989), the R. J. Sternberg (1988) Intimacy Scale, and other measures; discriminant validity; minimal social desirability correlations; and predictive validity for whether romantic relationships were intact 3 mo later. Also identified and cross-validated were (1) a 2-factor closeness model (Feeling Close and Behaving Close) and (2) longevity–closeness correlations that were small for women vs moderately positive for men. Five supplementary studies showed convergent and construct validity with marital satisfaction and commitment and with a reaction-time (RT)-based cognitive measure of closeness in married couples; and with intimacy and attraction measures in stranger dyads following laboratory closeness-generating tasks. In 3 final studies most Ss interpreted IOS Scale diagrams as depicting interconnectedness. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Examined relations between social activity and state and trait measures of Positive and Negative Affect. In Study 1, Ss completed scales relevant to 3-factor models of personality and a weekly mood and social activity questionnaire for 13 wks. In Study 2, Ss completed measures of the 5-factor model of personality and a daily mood and social activity survey for 6–7 wks. In within- and between-Ss analyses, socializing correlated significantly with state measures of Positive Affect and with trait measures of Extraversion/Positive Emotionality. These relations were relatively general across various types of positive affect and social events; however, specific types of social events also were differentially related to affect. In contrast, social activity had no consistent association with measures of Negative Affect or the other personality dimensions. The results support a temperamental view of Extraversion. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The nature of a personal relationship depends in part on the characteristics of the participating individuals. Yet the relations between individual characteristics and relationships are complex because (i) there are difficulties in specifying the dimensions along which individuals differ; (ii) the characteristics that an individual displays vary with the situation; (iii) relationships have properties that result from interaction between the participants; and (iv) the mechanisms whereby individual Characteristics affect relationships are diverse. In this paper the first three of these issues are discussed briefly and a number of examples of the fourth are provided.
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Socially anxious and nonanxious college students provided detailed personal information and were led to believe that they would soon interact with a person of the opposite sex who was either similar or dissimilar to them in terms of background, experience, and other attributes. In accord with the social psychological literature, nonanxious students greatly preferred similar to dissimilar partners. Socially anxious students showed no difference between their ratings of similar and dissimilar partners and assigned much less extreme ratings to both partners than did nonanxious subjects. Subjects' predictions about partners' likely anxiety and how partners would evaluate subjects' anxiety also differed according to subjects' anxiety levels, but these differences did not parallel attraction scores. Results are compared with other research on social anxiety and contrasted to past research on social anxiety, attitude similarity, and attraction. Directions for future research are addressed, and questions about the validity of the thought-listing technique are discussed.
Article
Upon being exposed to a high self-focus, potentially socially threatening situation, excessively socially anxious (SA) individuals were posited to experience amplified negative emotional states, as well as diminished positive emotional, cognitive, and intimacy-related outcomes. Ninety-one college students engaged in a reciprocal self-disclosure task with a trained confederate. Participants and confederates took turns answering (while a camera was directed at them) and asking questions that gradually increased in personal content. The results indicated that high SA individuals experienced more intense negative affect, less intense positive affect, and poorer social self-efficacy compared to low SA individuals in both conditions. However, differences between high and low SA individuals were larger in the social threat/self-focus condition, and self-focused attention partially accounted for these effects. In terms of specificity, nearly all findings remained after statistically controlling for depressive symptoms. In contrast, social anxiety effects were generally absent on measures of observed behavior and intimacy outcomes. These findings implicate the role of social threat and self-focused attention in contributing to affective and cognitive disturbances among SA individuals.
Article
Although decades of research have examined relationships between social anxiety and negative outcomes, this study examined relations with indices of positive psychological functioning. In college students (n = 204), a factor analysis on self-report measures of positive psychological functioning derived 3 conceptually meaningful broad domains: Positive Subjective Experiences, Curiosity, and Appetitive Motivations. Analyses were conducted to test whether social interaction anxiety demonstrated unique relationships with positive psychological domains after controlling for shared variance with social observation anxiety (e.g., eating in public, public speaking) and neuroticism. Social interaction anxiety explained unique variance in all 3 domains after separately controlling for social observation anxiety and neuroticism. In contrast, social observation anxiety demonstrated near-zero relationships with all 3 domains, and neuroticism predicted Positive Subjective Experiences, and to a lesser degree, Curiosity. These data provide evidence for the unique association between social interaction anxiety and positive psychological functioning, with implications for future basic and applied research.
Article
This article elaborates a view of anxiety as deriving from a basic human need to belong to social groups. Anxiety is seen as a pervasive and possibly innately prepare form of distress that arises in response to actual or threatened exclusion from important social groups. The reasons groups exclude individuals (incompetence, deviance or immorality, and unattractiveness) therefore should all be linked to anxiety, and events that implicate the self as incompetent, guilty, or unattractive should create anxiety. This "exclusion theory" of anxiety can be considered a broader revision of separation anxiety theory and is distinguished from theories that base anxiety on fear of death, fear of castration, and perception of uncertainty. Current evidence from multiple sources is reviewed to show the explanatory power and utility of exclusion theory, and implications of this theory are developed in relation to culturally changing standards of sexual behaviour, the motivations underlying the Oedipus complex, and the formation and functions of the self.
Article
This article opens by noting that positive emotions do not fit existing models of emotions. Consequently, a new model is advanced to describe the form and function of a subset of positive emotions, including joy, interest, contentment, and love. This new model posits that these positive emotions serve to broaden an individual's momentary thought-action repertoire, which in turn has the effect of building that individual's physical, intellectual, and social resources. Empirical evidence to support this broaden-and-build model of positive emotions is reviewed, and implications for emotion regulation and health promotion are discussed.
Article
Green, Goldman, and Salovey (1993) challenged the view that "positive affect" and "negative affect" are largely uncorrelated dimensions. On the basis of factor analytic studies of happiness and sadness, and of positive and negative emotional activation (PA and NA), they claimed that a "largely bipolar structure of affect" (p. 1029) emerges when random and nonrandom error are taken into account. A reappraisal of their own findings and confirmatory analysis of additional data do not support this claim. Happiness and sadness form a largely unidimensional bipolar structure, but PA and NA are relatively independent. However, exploratory analyses yield a three-level hierarchy incorporating in one structure a general bipolar Happiness-Versus-Unhappiness dimension, the relatively independent PA and NA dimensions at the level below it, and discrete emotions at the base. We emphasize the heuristic value of a hierarchical perspective.
Article
Reliability coefficients often take the form of intraclass correlation coefficients. In this article, guidelines are given for choosing among 6 different forms of the intraclass correlation for reliability studies in which n targets are rated by k judges. Relevant to the choice of the coefficient are the appropriate statistical model for the reliability study and the applications to be made of the reliability results. Confidence intervals for each of the forms are reviewed. (23 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).
Article
Three studies examined the psychometric characteristics of short Positive Affect (PA) and Negative Affect (NA) scales as a function of varying descriptors, time frames and rating formats. The stability of affective structure across time periods and response modes was also evaluated. Study 1 examined the effect of six specified time periods on mood ratings. Both orthogonal and oblique factor analyses indicated that highly convergent PA and NA dimensions emerged in each solution; moreover, in the oblique solutions the correlation between the factors did not systematically vary across the different time periods. Correlations between brief NA and PA scales were also unaffected by the specified time frame but were consistently influenced by the descriptors comprising the scales. Study 2 investigated the psychometric properties of several short PA and NA scales. Most showed reasonable internal consistency reliability and convergent correlations; however, the discriminant correlations between PA and NA scales varied as a function of their component terms. Study 3 investigated the effects of different response formats. Analyses indicated that highly similar factors emerged regardless of format but that the response mode did affect the discriminant correlations.
Article
Interpersonal aspects of depression have received considerable research attention in the past 2 decades. This work often has been guided by J. C. Coyne's (1976b) interactional model of depression or P. M. Lewinsohn's (1974) social skill deficit theory of depression. A review of this research indicates that depressed people reliably experience rejection from those in their social environment and that depression generally is associated with impairments in social behavior. However, this research does not explain exactly what depressed people do to elicit rejection, or exactly why others react negatively to them. Research derived from communication theories on responsiveness, politeness, and expectations for nonverbal involvement illuminates the interpersonal cycle in depression. The role of these impairments in the cause, symptoms, course, subtypes, and therapy of depression is discussed.
Article
The current paper presents a model of the experience of anxiety in social/evaluative situations in people with social phobia. The model describes the manner in which people with social phobia perceive and process information related to potential evaluation and the way in which these processes differ between people high and low in social anxiety. It is argued that distortions and biases in the processing of social/evaluative information lead to heightened anxiety in social situations and, in turn, help to maintain social phobia. Potential etiological factors as well as treatment implications are also discussed.
Article
The development and validation of the Social Phobia Scale (SPS) and the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS) two companion measures for assessing social phobia fears is described. The SPS assesses fear of being scrutinised during routine activities (eating, drinking, writing, etc.), while the SIAS assesses fear of more general social interaction, the scales corresponding to the DSM-III-R descriptions of Social Phobia--Circumscribed and Generalised types, respectively. Both scales were shown to possess high levels of internal consistency and test-retest reliability. They discriminated between social phobia, agoraphobia and simple phobia samples, and between social phobia and normal samples. The scales correlated well with established measures of social anxiety, but were found to have low or non-significant (partial) correlations with established measures of depression, state and trait anxiety, locus of control, and social desirability. The scales were found to change with treatment and to remain stable in the face of no-treatment. It appears that these scales are valid, useful, and easily scored measures for clinical and research applications, and that they represent an improvement over existing measures of social phobia.
Article
In an effort to expand research on curiosity, we elaborate on a theoretical model that informs research on the design of a new measure and the nomological network of curiosity. Curiosity was conceptualized as a positive emotional-motivational system associated with the recognition, pursuit, and self-regulation of novelty and challenge. Using 5 independent samples, we developed the Curiosity and Exploration Inventory (CEI) comprising 2 dimensions: exploration (appetitive strivings for novelty and challenge) and absorption (full engagement in specific activities). The CEI has good psychometric properties, is relatively unaffected by socially desirable responding, is relatively independent from positive affect, and has a nomological network consistent with our theoretical framework. Predicated on our personal growth facilitation model, we discuss the potential role of curiosity in advancing understanding of various psychological phenomena.
Article
The broaden-and-build theory describes the form and function of a subset of positive emotions, including joy, interest, contentment and love. A key proposition is that these positive emotions broaden an individual's momentary thought-action repertoire: joy sparks the urge to play, interest sparks the urge to explore, contentment sparks the urge to savour and integrate, and love sparks a recurring cycle of each of these urges within safe, close relationships. The broadened mindsets arising from these positive emotions are contrasted to the narrowed mindsets sparked by many negative emotions (i.e. specific action tendencies, such as attack or flee). A second key proposition concerns the consequences of these broadened mindsets: by broadening an individual's momentary thought-action repertoire--whether through play, exploration or similar activities--positive emotions promote discovery of novel and creative actions, ideas and social bonds, which in turn build that individual's personal resources; ranging from physical and intellectual resources, to social and psychological resources. Importantly, these resources function as reserves that can be drawn on later to improve the odds of successful coping and survival. This chapter reviews the latest empirical evidence supporting the broaden-and-build theory and draws out implications the theory holds for optimizing health and well-being.
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