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ABSTRACT An Enterprise Architecture Framework,(EAF) maps all of the software development,processes within the enterprise and how they relate and interact to fulfill the enterprise’s mission. It provides organizations with,the,ability to,understand,and,analyze weaknesses,or inconsistencies to be identified and addressed.,There,are,a,number,of,already established,EAF in use,today; some,of these frameworks were developed for very specific areas, whereas others have broader functionality. This study provides a comparison,of several frameworks,that can then be used for guidance in the selection of an EAF that meets the needed criteria. Keywords: Architecture Frameworks, Enterprise
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Volume VII, No. 2, 2006 18 Issues in Information Systems
A COMPARISON OF ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURE FRAMEWORKS
Lise Urbaczewski, Eastern Michigan University, lurbacze@emich.edu
Stevan Mrdalj, Eastern Michigan University, smrdalj@emich.edu
ABSTRACT
An Enterprise Architecture Framework (EAF) maps
all of the software development processes within the
enterprise and how they relate and interact to fulfill
the enterprise’s mission. It provides organizations
with the ability to understand and analyze
weaknesses or inconsistencies to be identified and
addressed. There are a number of already
established EAF in use today; some of these
frameworks were developed for very specific areas,
whereas others have broader functionality. This study
provides a comparison of several frameworks that
can then be used for guidance in the selection of an
EAF that meets the needed criteria.
Keywords: Architecture Frameworks, Enterprise
Architecture, Comparison
INTRODUCTION
Enterprise architecture serves as the blueprint for the
system and the project that develops it. An enterprise
architecture framework can describe the underlying
infrastructure, thus providing the groundwork for the
hardware, software, and networks to work together.
According to the Systems & Software Consortium
[11], “An Enterprise Architecture relates
organizational mission, goals, and objectives to work
processes and to the technical or IT infrastructure
required to execute them.” In addition, a good
architecture and its corresponding documentation
allow for ease of maintenance in order that the
system does not become obsolete before it is even
built. There are a number of architectures and
architectural frameworks in use today. Though they
may overlap or address similar views, frameworks
also have been designed to address specific needs or
concerns. These frameworks differ by the
stakeholders they address and the issues that concern
their *world*. These issues or “building blocks”
represent methods, common vocabulary, standards
[13], and tools that provide a means to implement
and integrate the building blocks. In addition,
government, commercial, and sub-categories of each
of these may require certain protocols to follow.
Goethals [6] and Schekkerman [8] provide
comprehensive overviews of EAF in the literature.
Informal comparisons between specific architectures
have also been made [7]. The Open Group [12] has
drawn comparisons between its architectural
framework, TOGAF, and existing frameworks. Tang
et. al provide an analysis of frameworks at a high
level, based on their “goals, inputs and outcomes”
[10]. The aim of this paper is to provide a direct
comparison of the frameworks, based on their views
and aspects. In order to establish a common ground
for the framework comparison, we studied several
existing enterprise architecture frameworks. Second,
we created a method to compare the frameworks
based on the perspectives of their stakeholders and
abstractions. Third, we then compared the
frameworks. From this, we discuss the ways that such
comparisons can be used in determining a best-fit of
a framework dependent on specific stakeholder needs
for a given project.
OVERVIEW OF EXISTING ENTERPRISE
ARCHITECTURE FRAMEWORKS
The following are concise descriptions of five EAFs
that are used in this comparison.
Zachman Framework for Enterprise
Architecture: John Zachman published the Zachman
Framework for Enterprise Architecture in 1987 [14]
and is considered to be one of the pioneers in this
domain [6]. According to Zachman [15], “the
increased scope of design and levels of complexity of
information systems implementations are forcing the
use of some logical construct (or architecture).” The
Zachman Framework is based around the principles
of classical architecture that establish a common
vocabulary and set of perspectives for describing
complex enterprise systems. The Zachman
Framework has six perspectives or views: Planner,
Owner, Designer, Builder, Subcontractor, and User.
The second dimension of Zachman’s Framework
deals with the six basic questions: what, how, where,
who, when and why [6]. The framework does not
provide guidance on sequence, process, or
implementation, but rather focuses on ensuring that
all views are well established, ensuring a complete
system regardless of the order in which they were
established. The Zachman Framework has no explicit
compliance rules since it is not a standard written by
or for a professional organization. However,
A Comparison of Enterprise Architecture Frameworks
Volume VII, No. 2, 2006 19 Issues in Information Systems
compliance can be assumed if it is used in its entirety
and all the relationship rules are followed [9].
Department of Defense Architecture Framework
(DoDAF): The Department of Defense Architecture
Framework (DoDAF) [2] builds on three sets of
“views”: Operational, System, and Technical
Standards. A fourth view, ‘All View,augments the
other views by providing the linkage between the
views by means of a dictionary to define terms and
by providing context, summary, or overview-level
information [3]. This framework provides
descriptions of final products as well as guidance and
rules for consistency. This ensures a “common
denominator for comparing, and integrating Families
of Systems, Systems of Systems, and interoperating
and interacting architectures” [2].
Federal Enterprise Architecture Framework
(FEAF): The Federal Enterprise Architecture
Framework was developed and published by the US
Federal Chief Information Officers (CIO) Council
[5]. Government was following the industry trend of
defining architectural frameworks to guide in the
development of large, complex systems development.
FEAF was in response to the Clinger-Cohen Act,
1996 [1], which required Federal Agency CIOs to
develop, maintain, and facilitate integrated systems
architectures. The overriding goal of FEAF is to
organize and promote sharing of Federal information
for the entire Federal Government [6]. The
architectural segments are developed individually,
within structured guidelines, with each segment
considered to be its own enterprise within the Federal
Enterprise. We include the Federal Enterprise
Architecture (FEA) - Practical Guide [4] within our
discussion on FEAF because it provides the guidance
to U.S. federal agencies for frameworks. FEA allows
for flexibility in the use of methods, work products,
and tools to be used by the individual federal
agencies.
Treasury Enterprise Architecture Framework
(TEAF): The Department of the Treasury published
the Treasury Enterprise Architecture Framework
(TEAF) in July 2000. The Department of the
Treasury is comprised of a number of offices that
function as individual enterprises. Therefore, its
enterprise architecture needs to map the
interrelationships among the organizations in order to
manage IT resources. The TEAF aims at facilitating
“integration, information sharing, and exploitation of
common requirements across the department” [6].
Similar to DoDAF, TEAF includes descriptions of
work products for documenting and modeling
enterprise architectures. TEAF also explicitly states
that these work products align with FEAF models
and DoDAF products [6].
The Open Group Architectural Framework
(TOGAF): The Open Group Architectural
Framework (TOGAF) was first developed in 1995
and was based on the Department of Defense’s
Technical Architecture Framework for Information
Management [12]. TOGAF focuses on mission-
critical business applications that use open systems
building blocks. “A key element of TOGAF is
Architecture Development Method (ADM) that
specifies a process for developing enterprise
architecture” [10]. TOGAF explains rules for
developing good principles, rather than providing a
set of architecture principles. The three levels of
principles support decision making across the entire
enterprise; provide guidance of IT resources; and
support architecture principles for development and
implementation.
A PROPOSED METHOD
FOR COMPARISON OF EAFs
To compare the existing frameworks, we must first
define what an ‘enterprise architecture framework’ is
for the sake of our comparison. The definition
utilized for this study, as stated earlier, is: A tool that
can be used for developing a broad range of
architectures for capturing the needed information in
an enterprise. The framework also provides a vehicle
for accessing, organizing, and displaying that
information. We also define two key elements of
enterprise architecture as
A definition of the deliverables that the
architecting activity should produce;
A description of the method by which this is
done.
There are many challenges in comparing EAFs. We
will list several of them. Some of the frameworks
have a very specific scope and therefore are
applicable to those applications. There are
frameworks that apply to a specific application or
development methodology, for example object
oriented development or distributed systems. Some
frameworks are truly enterprise oriented and some
are specific to the development of the IT system only.
In order to overcome above challenges, we decided to
compare the frameworks based upon their views,
their abstractions, and their coverage of the Systems
Development Life Cycle.
A Comparison of Enterprise Architecture Frameworks
Volume VII, No. 2, 2006 20 Issues in Information Systems
Comparison by Views and Abstractions
Our study performed both the views and abstractions
comparisons, with the views comparison being more
quantifiable. We found the Zachman’s views to be
the most comprehensive and therefore other EAFs
stakeholder perspectives could be represented using
the Zachman terminology (Table 1). The planner
view includes the concepts for the final product and
may encompass items such as the relative size, shape,
and basic intent of the final structure. The second
view is that of the owner which may represent an
architect’s drawings in which the owner agrees that
the architect has captured what he has in mind. The
designer view is the architect’s final product,
whereby he has detailed and described the plans
including materials needed. This represents the plan
that will be committed to construction. The fourth
view, or that of the ‘builder,’ represents the view in
which the architect’s final plans are modified to
reflect how construction will proceed. The
subcontractor view represents drawings of parts or
subsections of the plans. They are considered “an
‘out-of-context’ specification of what actually will be
fabricated or assembled. The last view represents the
final product, building, or project. It is the physical
result. From the standpoint of an information system,
this would reflect the users’ view and therefore, the
functional enterprise. Though the terminology may
differ somewhat amongst frameworks, the views can
be represented in this manner.
Table 1. Comparison by Views/Perspectives
Framework Planner Owner Designer Builder Subcontractor User
Zachman Scope Business
Model
System
Model
Technology
Model
Detailed
Representations
Functioning
System
DoDAF All View Operational
View
Systems
View
Technical
View
FEAF Objectives/Scope
Planner’s View
Enterprise
Model
Owner’s
View
Information
Systems
Model
Designer’s
View
Technology
Model
Builder’s
View
Detailed
Specifications
Subcontractor’s
View
TEAF Planner Owner Designer Builder
TOGAF Business
Architecture
View
Technical Architecture
Views
As noted, the abstractions comparison is less
quantifiable (see Table 2). Most of the EAFs studied,
provide recommendations for what each of the
abstractions represent, but do not provide methods,
procedures, or deliverables that are required. All of
the EAFs in our study included information in what
data was needed and the functionality of the data and
system. The frameworks started to differ when
comparing the technology and physical aspects of the
system, with some providing detailed architectures
whereas others were not as specific. In the people
abstraction, the frameworks provide the
organizational relationships related to
implementation of the system. Timelines and
justification for the system, as can be represented in
the Time/When and Motivation/Why abstractions
respectively, were only found in Zachman’s
Framework.
DoDAF: The Operations View is the ‘business’
being undertaken by the military. This depicts
activities performed as parts of DoD missions, i.e.,
the exchanges among organizations or personnel, and
reveals the requirements for interoperability and
capabilities. The Systems View describes the actual
existing and future systems that support the DoD and
how they are physically interconnected. The
Technical View or Technical Standards View adds
detail to the Systems View by providing information
on standard system parts or components that are
currently available off the shelf, either commercially
or government, and also provides technical detail and
forecasts of standard technology evolution that may
apply to the architecture. The DoDAF defines 26
different architecture products that are organized into
the four views [3].
A Comparison of Enterprise Architecture Frameworks
Volume VII, No. 2, 2006 21 Issues in Information Systems
Table 2. Comparison by Abstractions
Framework What How Where Who When Why
Zachman Data Function Network People Time Motivation
DoDAF Data (mission)
Logical Data
Model
Function /
Traceability
Functional
effectiveness
Physical
connectivity plus
availability of off-
the-shelf solutions
Organizational
Relationships
FEAF Data
Architecture
(entities=what)
Applications
Architecture
(activities = how)
Technology
Architecture
(locations = where)
TEAF Information
View
Functional View Infrastructure View Organizational
View
TOGAF Decision-making
guidance
IT resource
guidance
FEAF: Currently, the FEAF corresponds to the first
three columns of the Zachman Framework and the
Spewak Enterprise Architecture Planning (EAP)
methodology. The FEAF contains guidance and is
oriented toward enterprise architectures as opposed to
IT architectures. The rows of the FEAF matrix
correspond to the Zachman Framework, but they do
not prescribe the approach for developing the
products for each of the cells.
TEAF: TEAF can be described in terms relative to
the Zachman Framework, i.e., ‘perspectives’ and
‘views.’ The four perspectives are the same as in the
Zachman Framework and FEAF matrix with the
exception that TEAF combines the ‘Builder’ and
‘Subcontractor’ into one, named ‘Builder.’ Also, the
TEAF Information view corresponds to the FEAF
Data Architecture; the TEAF Functional view
corresponds to the FEAF Applications Architecture;
and the TEAF Infrastructure view corresponds to the
FEAF Technology Architecture. FEAF does not
currently reflect the TEAF Organizational view. This
view shows the types of workers and the
organizational structures. TEAF allows the flexibility
to define additional views and perspectives that focus
uniquely on areas important to specific stakeholders.
TOGAF: Strong on the Business Architecture and
Technical Architecture aspects. It does not provide as
much detail from the planning and maintenance
aspects. TOGAF is one of the most comprehensive
with regards to the actual process involved. This
framework provides guidance towards principles for
decision making, guidance of IT resources, and
architecture principles. The framework is gauged
towards open systems development.
Comparison with the Systems Development Life
Cycle
It is very important to address whether or not the
framework encompasses the entire Systems
Development Life Cycle (SDLC). The frameworks
presented can be compared to the 5 phases commonly
used in SDLC models: Planning, Analysis, Design,
Implementation, and Maintenance (see Table 3).
Overall, the frameworks do not specify HOW the
system is to be developed, i.e., tools and work
products, and in general are weighted towards
planning and analysis, ensuring that all views are
addressed. The frameworks provide the guidance that
is then implemented in the SDLC.
One might question how the scope/planner and the
subcontractor views are incorporated into the SDLC?
Those aspects of the framework assist the enterprise
in minimizing those risks as outlined earlier, when
one may not view the enterprise in its entirety, i.e.,
designing a system that doesn’t meet the underlying
objective. The ‘view’ will determine the requirements
necessary in order to be deemed successful. As
discussed previously, the frameworks tend to be
heavy on the planning, since their objective is more
to provide guidance. It was found that most if not all
frameworks were weak in addressing the
maintenance of an information system.
A Comparison of Enterprise Architecture Frameworks
Volume VII, No. 2, 2006 22 Issues in Information Systems
Table 3. Comparison by SDLC Phases
SDLC Phase/
Framework
Planning Analysis Design Implementation Maintenance
Zachman Yes Yes Yes Yes No
DoDAF Yes Yes Yes Describes final products No
FEAF
Yes Yes Yes Yes Detailed
Subcontractor’s View
TEAF
Yes Owner’s
Analysis
Yes Yes No
TOGAF
principles that support decision making across enterprise;
provide guidance of IT resources; support architecture
principles for design and implementation
CONCLUSIONS
Many of the enterprise architecture frameworks differ
in terms of their approach and level of detail. Some
are proposed guidelines, whereas others have specific
methodologies and aspects to follow. The majority of
the frameworks are abstract in that due to their
generality of terms, one might then question the
validity or the ability to work accurately within that
framework. The Zachman framework appears to be
the most comprehensive framework of those studied.
It uses a number of viewpoints related to the different
aspects. Most frameworks only represent a small
number of viewpoints and aspects. In this paper we
report of an effort to compare EAFs based on their
coverage of different viewpoints and aspects. Some
of the frameworks do not clearly ‘map’ to the idea of
‘viewpoints’ and “aspects” e.g., the rows and
columns of the Zachman framework, therefore
making the comparison of the frameworks difficult.
The major contribution of this study is a possibility to
use it as guidelines in selecting an EAF and
determining a best-fit of a framework dependent on
specific stakeholder needs for a given project. This is
important to minimize risk or failure of an
information system development process. Our plan is
to expand this research to include more quantifiable
measures as well as additional frameworks to better
assist in the determination of a framework to meet
specific organization needs.
REFERENCES
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2. DoD Architecture Framework (2004). Version
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3. DoDAF (2005). DoDAF. Systems & Software
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4. FEA (2001). Federal Enterprise Architecture –
Practical Guide, version 1.0, February 2001.
Available:
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Although a variety of specialised formalisms have been proposed specifically for enterprise modelling, the use of existing modelling languages has not received as much attention. In this paper, we demonstrate that the systems modelling formalism SysML is in fact not sufficient to act as a standalone language for enterprise modelling. To demonstrate this claim, we show that there are four key enterprise modelling scenarios that cannot be addressed while adhering to SysML semantics: temporal representation, timing and scheduling, collaborations between two or more teams and decision trees .
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To fit the renewed globalized economic environment, enterprises, and mostly SMEs, have to develop new networked and collaborative strategies, focusing on networked value creation (instead of the classical value chain vision), fitting the blue ocean context for innovative products and service development. Even if collaborative organizations have been studied for decades, the closer connection of information systems involved by the so-called “Industry 4.0” developed by leading industries in Europe, US and Asia requires to set new IT models to support agile and evolving collaborative Business Process (BP) enactment, integrating both traditional Information Systems (IS) and production control processes. By now, these product/service ecosystems are mostly supported by software services, which span multiple organizations and providers, and on multiple cloud-based execution environments, increasing the call for openness, agility, interoperability and trust for both production and Information System organization. These requirements are well supported by SOA, Web 2.0 and XaaS technologies for Information Systems. Taking advantage of IoT, services and Cloud technologies, the development of Cloud of Things (CoT) changes the way control application are engineered and developed moving from a dedicated design and development of control applications to a Control as a Service vision. This vision requires developing a new architecture to connect physical and logical objects as well as integrating basic control patterns to organize a consistent control service orchestration. To fit this challenge, we propose a multi-layer Control as a Service architecture to describe control systems in a holistic way. Our Control service model is built according to an event-driven orchestration strategy. Thanks to the integration of a context manager, analyzing continuously the system environment as well as the control system behavior, these context-aware control services can be deployed
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Many cities are adopting information and communication technologies (ICT) to add value to business process. This has led to the realisation of smart cities making them dependable on ICT. In Namibia, the focus is to transform Windhoek into a smart city. However, it is not easy as Windhoek continues to face many challenges, for example lack of collaboration among stakeholders. The challenges could be attributed by lack of approaches such as enterprise architecture (EA). As a management and design approach, EA provides a system view of all components and their relationship. In the absence of EA, realisation of Windhoek smart city will continue to be challenging, impeding the city from providing smart services. The study's aim was to develop EA framework for Windhoek smart city realisation. A qualitative case study approach was employed. Data was interpretively analysed to enable a deeper understating of the influencing factors. Based on the findings, a conceptual EA framework was developed. The framework aims to guide and govern Windhoek city transformation towards its smart objectives.
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With increasing size and complexity of the implementations of information systems, it is necessary to use some logical construct (or architecture) for defining and controlling the interfaces and the integration of all of the components of the system. This paper defines information systems architecture by creating a descriptive framework from disciplines quite independent of information systems, then by analogy specifies information systems architecture based upon the neutral, objective framework. Also, some preliminary conclusions about the implications of the resultant descriptive framework are drawn. The discussion is limited to architecture and does not include a strategic planning methodology.
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John Zachman introduced a framework for information systems architecture (ISA) that has been widely adopted by systems analysts and database designers. It provides a taxonomy for relating the concepts that describe the real work to the concepts that describe an information system and its implementation. The ISA framework has a simple elegance that makes it easy to remember, yet it draws attention to fundamental distinctions that are often overlooked in systems design. This paper presents the framework and its recent extensions and shows how it can be formalized in the notation of conceptual graphs.
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Managing an enterprise architecture is a challenging task. While careful planning typically goes into its design, an enterprise architecture actually emerges as a result of implementing individual projects. It is this de facto architecture, not the conceptual one, that provides the capabilities for executing business strategies, and understanding this emergent architecture is of paramount importance. In this paper, we present the Four-Domain Architecture (FDA), which integrates business process, information, knowledge, and elements pertaining to infrastructure and organization. The FDA approach can help guide the development of both the conceptual and emergent architecture. The FDA helps an enterprise in the definition, design, and creation of a set of tools and methods to support frameworks such as the Zachman framework.
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