Conference PaperPDF Available

Novel volumetric cave mapping process utilizing existing technologies

Authors:

Figures

3D Compass export to Google Earth, of Shredder Cave, Atacama Desert, Chile. Discussion: This method offers some distinct ad- vantages over existing methods, but also presents some challenges when considering planetary and lunar ap- plications. Advantages. The short regular intervals offer a higher resolution of data than traditional methods. A 1-meter elevated centerline buffers instruments from magnetic anomalies in cave walls. Taking eight radial measurements at each station gains accuracy over the standard four directional measurements (LRUD). This method does not depend on atmospheric flow monitor- ing, which has been previously proposed to estimate volume [7]. Finally, this method offers the opportunity for near-realtime field data analysis. Disadvantages. This method relies currently on magnetic sensors for azimuth collection, which prohib- its planetary or lunar implementation. This method is best suited for horizontal cave sites (e.g. lava tubes). Proposed Modifications: Future improvements in- clude developing an AutoCAD-based system for 3D map generation through assembly of cross-sectional profiles along the survey plot, applying interpolation algorithims between sampling stations to estimate cave volume with higher accuracy, and incorporating digital instrument platforms with limited automation. Conclusion: This technique for measuring cave volume and creating 3D models is useful for terrestrial cave studies of thermal behavior and habitability of micro-environments, and provides considerations for future automation and planetary cave exploration as an inexpensive and reliable basis for instrument design. Acknowledgements : Special thanks to J. DeDeck- er and K. Petersen for assistance in developing and field testing these techniques, and G. Cushing and R. Hayward for providing comments on previous versions of this abstract. This study was supported by NASA Exobiology grant EXOB07-0040 and a National Speleological Society International Exploration grant. References: [1] Dasher G. R (1994) On Station, National Speleological Society Press . [2] Steinke T. R. (1971) National Speleological Society Bulletin, Vol. 33, No. 4, 127-134. [3] Sellers W. I. and Chamberlain A. T. (1998) Journal of Archeological Science, 25, 867-873. [4] Robson Brown K. A. et al. (2001) Journal of Archeological Science, 28, 283-289. [5] Jakopin P. (1981) Journal of Archeological Science, 25, 867-873. [6] Breisch R. L. (1969) Cave Pearls, Cave Science, 132 . [7] Schnute, J. T. (1963) Cave Volume from Breathing Phenomenon at Wind Cave National Park, A Proposed Study, Physical Science office files, Wind Cave National Park.
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NOVEL VOLUMETRIC CAVE MAPPING PROCESS UTILIZING EXISTING TECHNOLOGIES. D. W.
Ruby
1
, J. J. Wynne
2
, T. N. Titus
3
,
1
University of Nevada, Reno, 1664 N. Virgina St., Reno, NV 89557, danru-
by@unr.edu,
2
Colorado Plateau Research Station and Department of Biological Sciences, Northern Arizona Univer-
sity, Box 5614, Building 56, Suite 150, Flagstaff, Arizona 86011, jut.wynne@nau.edu,
3
USGS Astrogeology Sci-
ence Center, 2255 N. Gemini Dr., Flagstaff, AZ 86001, ttitus@usgs.gov
Introduction: Traditional cave survey techniques
using mechanical instruments and hand-drawn maps
are not designed to capture accurate measurement of
cave volume or three-dimensional shape [1], and at-
tempts to interpolate 3D data from existing surveys are
cumbersome and incomplete [2]. Experimental uses of
LIDAR or SONAR workflows are expensive and unre-
liable in their current prototypical stages [3, 4]. A
novel technique for mapping caves was developed
specifically with volume assessment and 3D visualiza-
tion in mind, using “off-the-shelf” hardware and soft-
ware, adapted for field work in harsh environments,
and requiring minimal training. This simplified tech-
nique, building on earlier attempts [5, 6], has immedi-
ate potential for terrestrial cave studies and implica-
tions for planetary and lunar in-cave survey by future
astronauts and/or robots.
Materials and Methods: Standard cave survey in-
struments, e.g. compass and inclinometer, are aug-
mented with laser distometers, a protractor plate
mounted on a collapsible meter pole, and specially-
designed survey notebook page templates.
Figure 1: Laser disto and protractor plate.
Survey readings are taken radially, capturing cross-
section shape, at regular intervals along the cave
length, by teams of two to three technicians.
Figure 2: Sample cross-section and line plot.
Data is entered into Compass cave survey software
and/or custom Excel spreadsheets for volume calcula-
tion and 3D shapefile creation. Compass data can then
be exported to other GIS programs and 2D drawing
programs to create maps placed geospatially.
Figure 3: 2D map generated from Compass data of
Shredder Cave, Atacama Desert, Chile.
8031.pdfFirst International Planetary Cave Research Workshop (2011)
Figure 4: 3D Compass export to Google Earth, of
Shredder Cave, Atacama Desert, Chile.
Discussion: This method offers some distinct ad-
vantages over existing methods, but also presents some
challenges when considering planetary and lunar ap-
plications.
Advantages. The short regular intervals offer a
higher resolution of data than traditional methods. A
1-meter elevated centerline buffers instruments from
magnetic anomalies in cave walls. Taking eight radial
measurements at each station gains accuracy over the
standard four directional measurements (LRUD). This
method does not depend on atmospheric flow monitor-
ing, which has been previously proposed to estimate
volume [7]. Finally, this method offers the opportunity
for near-realtime field data analysis.
Disadvantages. This method relies currently on
magnetic sensors for azimuth collection, which prohib-
its planetary or lunar implementation. This method is
best suited for horizontal cave sites (e.g. lava tubes).
Proposed Modifications: Future improvements in-
clude developing an AutoCAD-based system for 3D
map generation through assembly of cross-sectional
profiles along the survey plot, applying interpolation
algorithims between sampling stations to estimate cave
volume with higher accuracy, and incorporating digital
instrument platforms with limited automation.
Conclusion: This technique for measuring cave
volume and creating 3D models is useful for terrestrial
cave studies of thermal behavior and habitability of
micro-environments, and provides considerations for
future automation and planetary cave exploration as an
inexpensive and reliable basis for instrument design.
Acknowledgements: Special thanks to J. DeDeck-
er and K. Petersen for assistance in developing and
field testing these techniques, and G. Cushing and R.
Hayward for providing comments on previous versions
of this abstract. This study was supported by NASA
Exobiology grant EXOB07-0040 and a National Spe-
leological Society International Exploration grant.
References:
[1] Dasher G. R (1994) On Station, National Spe-
leological Society Press. [2] Steinke T. R. (1971) Na-
tional Speleological Society Bulletin, Vol. 33, No. 4,
127-134. [3] Sellers W. I. and Chamberlain A. T.
(1998) Journal of Archeological Science, 25, 867-873.
[4] Robson Brown K. A. et al. (2001) Journal of Ar-
cheological Science, 28, 283-289. [5] Jakopin P.
(1981) Journal of Archeological Science, 25, 867-873.
[6] Breisch R. L. (1969) Cave Pearls, Cave Science,
132. [7] Schnute, J. T. (1963) Cave Volume from
Breathing Phenomenon at Wind Cave National Park,
A Proposed Study, Physical Science office files, Wind
Cave National Park.
8031.pdfFirst International Planetary Cave Research Workshop (2011)
... In April 2011, we collected 3D cartography data of the largest hibernacula (PARA--0901 Cave) and a non--hibernacula cave (PARA--1001 Cave) using techniques developed by Ruby et al. (2011). This was done to facilitate a one to one comparison of habitat and microclimate characteristics of hibernacula to non--hibernacula sites. ...
... For bats hibernating within PARA--0901 Cave, we collected data to plot the locations of both individual and clusters of hibernating bats using the same techniques for collecting 3D map data (refer to Ruby et al. 2011) during January and February 2012. Each location containing individual or a cluster of hibernating bats was tied into the closest cave survey station. ...
... Each location containing individual or a cluster of hibernating bats was tied into the closest cave survey station. These stations were established using techniques discussed in Ruby et al. (2011) during the June 2011 research trip. Distance from the station was determined using a Leica DISTO D3 laser distance finder. ...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Addressing a knowledge gap concerning the winter ecology of bats on Grand Canyon-‐Parashant National Monument in preparation for the western advance of white-‐nose syndrome (WNS), this paper provides a summary of a three‐year study to estimate population trends of two known cave-roosting bat hibernacula (PARA-0901 and PARA-1401 Caves). Beginning in 2011, we sampled all caves (total 11) likely to support hibernating bats on both Parashant and adjacent BLM lands. Through this effort, colleagues and I identified two hibernacula and three torpor roosts. All but one torpor roost was located on Parashant. The two hibernacula caves became the focus of work in subsequent years (2012 and 2013). Total numbers of hibernating bats ranged from 44 to 51 in PARA­‐0901 Cave, and four to 17 in PARA-­1401 Cave. Most of the bats detected were Corynorhinus townsendii with Myotis sp. infrequently detected in both caves. No visible signs of white­‐nose syndrome (WNS) were observed during the three-year period on either hibernating bats visually examined or in post-­field examination of photographs. Analysis of six sediment samples (with 1 control on surface) from PARA-­0901 Cave tested negative for Pseudogymnoascus destructans (the fungus that causes WNS). In PARA-0901 Cave, the largest hibernaculum, we deployed 41 data loggers and in PARA-­1001 Cave, a non-­hibernaculum cave, we deployed 42 to collect rock surface temperature, ambient temperature, relative humidity and barometric pressure data for two years. For both PARA-0901 and PARA-­1001, we collected 3D cartography data, 3D geospatial data of all microclimatic instrument locations, and 3D geospatial data of all observed hibernating bats. These data will be used to develop models to characterize how microhabitats are selected for hibernation. I will use these models to (a) parameterize habitat requirements of bat hibernacula for at least one cave and (b) simulate climate change effects on this cave to predict whether this roost will become unsuitable for bats at some point in the future. PARA-­1401 Cave was gated in 2009; as a result, the roost is now protected. Presently, PARA-­0901 Cave lacks any safeguards. This cave is the largest known hibernacula on the monument (and in northern Arizona, in general) and is located within one mile of a frequently used cattle tank and corral and is within 300 feet of a single-­track road. To best protect this roost, we recommend this cave be closed to recreational use and the lower chamber ultimately gated. Recommendations are also provided for the establishment of a Western states comprehensive sampling and monitoring strategy of hibernacula for early detection of WNS.
... If the magnetometer is not being used for magnetic feature detection it must be used in some other way to increase the accuracy of the IPS overall. It is possible that some type of "Cave Surveying" techniques are being used [22]. In cave surveying, various fixed reference points are used. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Infrastructure-free Indoor Positioning Systems (IPS) are a relatively new advancement in the indoor localisation area. Traditionally, IPS's require a certain amount of dedicated infrastructure within a building to position a device accurately. There are now companies offering infrastructure-free IPS that claim they can obtain sub-metre accuracy. Some IPS's also claim to use geomagnetic positioning to achieve this accuracy. The aim here is to investigate the accuracy of an infrastructure-free IPS which offers geomagnetic positioning techniques. We explain its accuracy, what may negatively affect the accuracy of the system and to what extent are geomagnetic positioning techniques being used. An Android mobile application was developed with the primary purpose of investigating the accuracy of the IPS under various conditions. We found that the IPS at the beginning was three times more accurate than GPS and ten times more accurate at the end. The IPS was more responsive and more accurate on a device that had a magnetometer but accuracy dropped considerably when the internet connection is lost. Also, wet weather specifically impacted negatively on the accuracy.
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