The Tactical Topography of Stalking Victimization and Management
A meta-analysis of 108 samples across 103 studies of stalking related phenomena, representing more than 70,000 participants, reveals an average prevalence across studies of 23.5% for women and 10.5% for men, with an average duration of al- most 2 years. The average proportion of female victims across studies was 75%, and 77% of stalking emerged from some form of prior acquaintance, with 49% originating from romantic relationships. New typologies of stalking behavior, cop- ing responses to stalking, and symptomology due to stalking victimization are re- ported. Across 42 studies, the average physical violence incidence was 33%, and 17 studies produced an average sexual violence incidence of slightly greater than 10%. A summary of 32 studies of restraining orders indicated that they are vio- lated an average of 40% of the time and are perceived as followed by worse events almost 21% of the time.