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M-GEAR: Gateway-Based Energy-Aware Multi-hop Routing Protocol for WSNs

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M-GEAR: Gateway-Based Energy-Aware Multi-hop Routing Protocol for WSNs

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In this research work, we advise gateway based energy-efficient routing protocol (M-GEAR) for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). We divide the sensor nodes into four logical regions on the basis of their location in the sensing field. We install Base Station (BS) out of the sensing area and a gateway node at the centre of the sensing area. If the distance of a sensor node from BS or gateway is less than predefined distance threshold, the node uses direct communication. We divide the rest of nodes into two equal regions whose distance is beyond the threshold distance. We select cluster heads (CHs)in each region which are independent of the other region. These CHs are selected on the basis of a probability. We compare performance of our protocol with LEACH (Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy). Performance analysis and compared statistic results show that our proposed protocol perform well in terms of energy consumption and network lifetime.
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arXiv:1307.7105v1 [cs.NI] 26 Jul 2013
M-GEAR: Gateway-Based Energy-Aware
Multi-Hop Routing Protocol for WSNs
Q. Nadeem
1
, M. B. Rasheed
1
, N. Javaid
1
, Z. A. Khan
2
, Y. Maqsood
2
, A. Din
2
1
COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan.
2
Faculty of Engineering, Dalhaousie University, Halifax, Canada.
3
Abasyn University, Peshawar, Pakistan.
Abstract—In this research work, we advise gateway based
energy-efficient routing protocol (M-GEAR) for Wireless Sensor
Networks (WSNs). We divide the sensor nodes into four logical
regions on the basis of their location in the sensing field. We
install Base Station (BS) out of the sensing area and a gateway
node at the centre of the sensing area. If the distance of a
sensor node from BS or gateway is less than predefined distance
threshold, the node uses direct communication. We divide the
rest of nodes into two equal regions whose distance is beyond
the threshold distance. We select cluster heads (CHs)in each
region which are independent of the other region. These CHs are
selected on the basis of a probability. We compare performance
of our protocol with LEACH (Low Energy Adaptive Clustering
Hierarchy). Performance analysis and compared statistic results
show that our proposed protocol perform well in terms of energy
consumption and network lifetime.
Keywords: Wireless Sensor Networks; clustering; Gateway.
I. INTRODUCTION
A key concern in WSN technology is to enhance the
network lifetime and to reduce the energy consumption of the
sensor network. Wireless sensor nodes are dispersed typically
in sensing area to monitor earthquake, battle field, industrial
environment, habitant monitoring [1], agriculture field [2],
physical atmosphere conditions and smart homes. Sensor
nodes sense the environment, gather information and transmit
to BS through wireless link.
Due to escalating in Micro-Electro-Mechanical System
technology, now it is possible to set up thousands or millions
of sensor nodes. The intense deployment of WSN makes it
quite difficult to recharge node batteries. Therefore, a key
subject for WSNs is to curtail power expenditure of sensor
nodes to prolong network lifetime. Many clustering based
algorithms [3] [4] are proposed. Clustering is a technique
in which network energy consumption is well managed by
minimizing the transmission range of the sensors. In this
modus operandi, CH manages the group communication with
the BS. Sensor nodes no longer transmit data directly to the
BS instead CHs receive the whole group messages, aggregates
and forwards to the BS.
All nodes in cluster transmit their data to corresponding
CH. The CH issues a Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA)
schedule for its member nodes to avoid collision. Each mem-
ber node transmits its data to CH only in defined allocated
time slot therefore, sensor nodes turn off their transceivers
otherwise. TDMA scheduling encourages saving energy of
sensor nodes and these nodes stay alive for longer period.
As a rule, each member node transmits its data to nearby
CH therefore; sensor nodes require minimum energy for data
transmission. CHs perform computation on collected data and
filter out the redundant bits, it reduces the amount of data that
has to forward to the BS. Consequently, transmission energy
of sensors reduce to significant amount. In this research work,
we design a gateway based energy-aware multi-hop routing
protocol.
The impulse behind this work is to trim down the energy
consumption of sensor nodes by logically dividing the network
into four regions. We use different communication hierarchy in
different regions. Nodes in one region communicate directly to
BS while nodes in region 2 communicate directly to gateway
node. Nodes in other two regions use clustering hierarchy and
sensor nodes transmit their data to gateway node through their
CHs. Gateway node assists in defining clusters and issues a
TDMA schedule for CHs. Each CH issues its own TDMA
schedule for its member nodes.
The rest of the paper is ordered as follows: section 2 briefly
review the related work. In section 3, we describe motivation
for this work. Section 4 describes the network model. Proposed
algorithm is explained in section 5. In section 6, we define
the performance parameters and show the performance of
our proposed protocol by simulations and compare it with
LEACH. Finally, section 7 gives conclusion.
II. RELATED WORK
Energy consumption and network lifetime are the most
important features in the design of the wireless sensor net-
work. This study present clustering based routing for WSNs.
Many clustering based protocols are homogeneous, such as
LEACH [5] PEGASIS [6] and HEED [7]. CHs collect data
from its members or slave nodes, aggregate and than forward
to faraway located BS. This process overloads the CH and
it consumes lot of energy. In LEACH, the CHs are selected
periodically and consume uniform energy by selecting a new
CH in each round. A node become CH in current round on the
basis of probability p. LEACH performs well in homogenous
network however, this protocol is not considered good for
heterogeneous networks as shown in [8].
In [9] author presented another clustering protocol(TL-
LEACH). This protocol describes two level clustering scheme
which performs well in terms of minimum energy consump-
tion of network. There are two levels of CHs, level one
CHs and level two CHs. Level one CHs connect with their
corresponding member sensor nodes. CHs at second level
create clusters from CHs of level one. TL-LEACH scheme is
potentially more dispense therefore; the load of the network
on the sensors is well shared which results in long lived sensor
network.
In PEGASIS [6] nodes form a chain to transfer data from
source to sink. In chain formation process each node connect
with next node. The chain formation process require global
knowledge of sensor nodes, hence, it is very difficult to
implement this topology.
Another clustering based protocol is HEED in which CHs
are selected on the base of a probability. The probability of
a node to become CH is related to the residual energy of the
node. In HEED, it is possible that the nodes with minimum
residual energy acquire larger probability to become CH.
A PEGASIS based mobile sink scheme is proposed in [10].
The sink moves along its trajectory and stays for a sojourn
time at sojourn location to guarantee complete data collection.
A similar sink mobile based technique is proposed in [11].
SEP protocol is designed for heterogeneous nodes. Nodes
in SEP are heterogenous in terms of their initial energy, called
normal nodes and advance nodes. The probability to become
CH depends on the initial energy of the node. Performance of
SEP in multi level Heterogeneous networks is not good.
An Energy Efficient Unequal Clustering (EEUC) protocol
is presented which tries to balance the energy consumption
of the network. EEUC divide the network field into unequal
clusters. In EEUC, there are some nodes in network that are
not associated with any cluster, therefore, they are isolated
inside the network.
On adaptive energy-efficient scheme for transmission
(EAST) is proposed in [12]. This scheme use open-looping
feedback process for temperature-aware link quality estima-
tion, whereas closed-loop feedback process divides network
into three logical regions to minimize overhead of control
packets. In [13] Quadrature-LEACH (Q-LEACH) for ho-
mogenous networks is proposed. This scheme maximize the
throughput, lifetime of network and stability period of the
network.
Latif et al. [14] presented Divide-and-Rule (DR) scheme.
DR technique used for static clustering also for the selection
of CH. This scheme avoids probabilistic selection of CH
instead it elects fixed number of CH. Away Cluster Head
(ACH) prtocol for WSN is proposed in [15]. This protocol
efficiently maximize the stability period and throughput. J.
Kulik et al. [16] proposed sensor Protocols for Information
Via Negotiation (SPIN). In SPIN, a node advertise its sensed
data to its neighbors about the kind of the data it sensed. An
interested neighboring node will send a request for a copy
of data to originating node. In this way, the entire nodes in
the network acquire this data. The drawback of this approach
is that, there is no guarantee of data delivery to each node
in the network because if the node is interested in data from
distant source node then data will not deliver to interested
node. This protocol is not suited for applications where reliable
data delivery priority is on top.
A hybrid protocol Hybrid Energy Efficient Reactive Protocol
for WSN is proposed in [17]. In this protocol, CH is selected
based on the residual energy of node and average energy of
network.
III. MOTIVATION
Due to the fact that clustering protocols consume less
energy, these protocols for WSNs have gained extensive
acceptance in many applications. Many state of the art WSN
protocols exploit cluster based scheme at manifold levels
to minimize energy expenditures. CH in most cluster based
protocols is selected on the base of probability. It is not
obvious that CHs are distributed uniformly throughout the
sensor field. Therefore, it is quite possible that the selected
CHs concentrate in one region of the network. Hence, a
number of nodes will not get any CHs in their environs.
Similarly some protocols used unequal clustering and try to
use recourses proficiently.
Multiple level clustering hierarchy has following major
drawbacks.
In multiple level schemes, one CH forward data to other
CH which relays data to BS. If relay CH is faraway,
than it is necessary for forwarder CH to transmit data
with high power.
In clustering protocols, a member node decides itself
whether to become CH or not. It is possible that some
distant nodes are selected as CHs. Therefore, these nodes
consume lot of energy to forward data to BS. Hence,
these nodes will die early
In this article, our goal is to design a gateway based energy
aware multi-hop routing protocol. This approach meets the
following points.
Network is divided into regions and aid of gateway
node reduces the average transmission distance. Hence,
it saves network energy and prolong network lifetime.
CH selection in each region is independent of other
regions so, there is definitely a CH exist in each region.
IV. NETWORK MODEL
In this article, we assume S sensors which are deployed
randomly in a field to monitor environment. We represent
the i-th sensor by s
i
and consequent sensor node set S= s
1
,
s
2
,....., s
n
.We assume the network model shown in fig 1.
x
100
Y
100
Sink
Sensor Nodes
Gateway node
Fig. 1: Network Model
We deploy the BS faraway from the sensing field. Sensor
nodes and the BS are stationary after deployment.
A gateway node is deployed in the same network field at
the centre of the network.
Gateway node is stationary after deployment and
rechargeable.
We use homogeneous sensor nodes with same computa-
tional and sensing capabilities.
Each sensor node is assigned with a distinctive identifier
(ID).
We use first order radio model as used in [5] and [18]. This
model represents the energy dissipation of sensor nodes for
transmitting, receiving and aggregating data. The transmitter
dissipates more energy then receiver as it requires more energy
for the transmitter electronics and amplifier. On the other hand,
in receiver, only electronic circuit dissipate energy, as shown
in fig 2.
Fig. 2: Radio Model
The energy required to transmit a data packet of k bits to a
distance d and to receive a data packet of k bits, is given as:
E
T x
(k, d) = E
T xelec
(k) + E
T xamp
(k, d)
E
T x
(k, d) = E
elec
× k + E
amp
× k × d
2
(1)
E
Rx
(k) = E
Rxelec
(k)E
Rx
(k) = E
elec
× k
E
Rx
(k) = E
elec
× k (2)
V. THE M-GEAR PROTOCOL
In this section, we present detail of our proposed protocol.
Sensor nodes have too much sensed data for BS to process.
Therefore, an automatic method of combining or Aggregating
the data into a small set of momentous information is
required [19] [20]. The process of data aggregation also
termed as data fusion. In order to improve network lifetime
and throughput, we deploy a gateway node at the centre of
the network field. Function of gateway node is to collect data
from CHs and from nodes near gateway, aggregation and
sending to BS. Our results ensure that network lifetime and
energy consumption improved with the expense of adding
gateway node. We add rechargeable gateway node because
it is on ground fact that the recharging of gateway node is
much cheaper than the price of sensor node.
A. Initial Phase
In M-GEAR, we use homogenous sensor nodes that are
dispersed randomly in network area. The BS broadcast a
HELLO packet. In response, the sensor nodes forward their
location to BS. The BS calculates the distance of each node
and save all information of the sensor nodes into the node
data table. The node data table consists of distinctive node
ID, residual energy of node, location of node and its distance
to the BS and gateway node.
B. Setup Phase
In this section, we divide the network field into logical
regions based on the location of the node in the network. BS
divide the nodes into four different logical regions. Nodes
in region-one use direct communication and transmit their
data directly to BS as the distance of these nodes from BS
is very short. Similarly nodes near gateway form region-two
and send their data directly to gateway which aggregates
data and forward to BS. These two regions are referred to as
non clustered regions. All the nodes away from the gateway
node and BS are divided into two equal half regions. We call
them clustered regions. Sensor nodes in each clustered region
organize themselves into small groups known as clusters.
C. CH Selection
Initially BS divides the network into regions. CHs are
elected in each region separately. Let r
i
represent the number
of rounds to be a CH for the node S
i
. Each node elect itself
as a CH once every r
i
= 1/p rounds. At the start of first
round all nodes in both regions has equal energy level and
has equal chance to become CH. After that CH is selected
on the basis of the remaining energy of sensor node and with
a probability p alike LEACH. in each round, it is required to
have n x p CHs. A node can become CH only once in an
epoch and the nodes not elected as CH in the current round
feel right to the set C. The probability of a node to (belongs
to set C) elect as CH increases in each round. It is required to
uphold balanced number of CHs. At the start of each round,
a node S
i
belongs to set C autonomously choose a random
number between 0 to 1. If the generated random number for
node S
i
is less than a predefined threshold T(s) value then
the node becomes CH in the current round.
The threshold value can be found as:
T (S) =
(
p
1p×(rmod(1/p))
if s C
0 otherwise
(3)
where P = the desired percentage of CHs and r = the current
round, C = set of nodes not elected as CH in current round.
After electing CHs in each region, CHs inform their role
to neighbor nodes. CHs broadcast a control packet using a
CSMA MAC protocol. Upon received control packet from
CH, each node transmits acknowledge packet. Node who find
nearest CH, becomes member of that CH.
D. Scheduling
When all the sensor nodes are structured into clusters, each
CH creates TDMA based time slots for its member nodes.
All the associated nodes transmit their sensed data to CH in
its own scheduled time slot. Otherwise nodes switch to idle
mode. Nodes turn on their transmitters at time of transmission.
Hence, energy dissipation of individual sensor node decreases.
E. Steady-State Phase
In steady state phase, all sensor nodes transmit their sensed
data to CH. The CH collects data from member nodes,
aggregates and forwards to gateway node. Gateway node
receives data from CHs, aggregates and forwards to BS.
VI. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION
We assess the performance of our proposed protocol and
compare it with existing protocol in WSN, known as LEACH.
A. Simulation Setting
In order to appraise the performance of our proposed proto-
col, we simulated our protocol using MATLAB. We consider a
wireless sensor network with 100 nodes distributed randomly
in 100m X 100m field. A gateway node is deployed at the
centre of the sensing field. The BS is located faraway from the
sensing field. Both gateway node and BS are stationary after
deployment. We consider packet size of 4000 bits. We compare
our protocol with LEACH protocol. To assess performance of
our protocol with LEACH, we ignore the effects caused by
signal collision and interference in the wireless channel. Table
1 presents the radio parameters.
B. Performance Parameters
In this subsection, we present performance metrics. In this
work, we evaluated three performance parameters given below.
1) Network lifetime: It is the time interval from the start
of the network operation till the last node die.
2) Throughput: To evaluate the performance of throughput,
the numbers of packets received by BS are compared with
the number of packets sent by the nodes in each round.
3) Residual Energy: The residual battery energy of network
is considered in order to analyze the energy consumption
of nodes in each round. Residual energy ensures graceful
degradation of network life.
C. Simulation Results and Analysis
In this subsection, we show the simulation results. We run
extensive simulations and compare our results with LEACH.
Next subsections give detail of each metric.
1) Network Lifetime: In fig 3, we show the results of the
network lifetime. Nodes are considered dead after consum-
ing 0.5 joule energy. M-GEAR protocol obtains the longest
network lifetime. This is because the energy consumption
is well distributed among nodes. Network is divided into
logical regions and two of them are further sub divided
into clusters. M-GEAR topology balance energy consumption
among sensor nodes. On the other hand, in LEACH, nodes die
quickly as stability period of network ends. It is not evident
that predestined CHs in LEACH are distributed uniformly
throughout the network field. Therefore, there is a possibility
that the selected CHs will be concentrated in one region of the
network. Hence, some nodes will not have any CHs in their
environs. Fig 3 shows interval plot of network lifetime with
99% confidence interval. we note that, the results of M-GEAR
protocol are statically different and perform well.
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Rounds
Percent of allive nodes
M−GEAR
Leach
Fig. 3: Interval plot- Analysis of network lifetime
2) Throughput: Average packets sent to BS are assessed
through extensive simulations. Simulation results of M-GEAR
protocol illustrate increased throughput. Interval plots of M-
GEAR and LEACH in fig 4 clearly depicts performance of
both protocols. To calculate throughput, we assume that CHs
can communicate freely with gateway node. Simulation results
show an increase throughput of 5 times then LEACH. Sensor
nodes near gateway send their data directly to gateway; simi-
larly nodes near BS transmit data directly to BS. Sensor nodes
in both regions consume less transmission energy therefore,
nodes stay alive for longer period. More alive nodes contribute
to transmit more packets to BS.
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Rounds
Throughput
M−GEAR
Leach
Fig. 4: Interval plot- Analysis of Throughput
3) Residual Energy: Fig 5 shows average residual energy
of network per round. We assume that a node has 0.5 joule
energy. The total energy of 100 node network is 50 joule.
M-GEAR protocol yields minimum energy consumption than
LEACH. Fig 5 clearly depicts that our protocol outperforms
LEACH routing protocol in terms of energy consumption per
round. Deployment of gateway node at the centre and high
probability of CHs in all regions ensures minimum energy
consumption.
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
Rounds
Remainig energy
M−GEAR
Leach
Fig. 5: Interval plot- Analysis of remaining energy
Parameter Value
Eo 0.5j
Eelec 5nJ/bit
Efs 10pJ/bit/m2
Emp 0.0013 pJ/bit/m4
Eda 5pJ/ bit
Message size 4000 bits
TABLE I: Network parameter
VII. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK
We describe an energy-efficient multi-hop routing protocol
using gateway node to minimize energy consumption of sensor
network. In this work, we divide the network into logical
regions. Each region use different communication hierarchy.
Two regions use direct communication topology and two
regions are further sub-divided into clusters and use multi-hop
communication hierarchy. Each node in a region elects itself
as a CH independent of other region. This technique encourges
better distribution of CHs in the network. Simulation results
shows that our proposed protocol performs well compared
to LEACH. In this work, we study the three performance
metrics: Network lifetime , Residual energy and throughput. In
future, we will study ETX link metrics and we will implement
this metric in our scheme as implemented and demonstrated
in [21] [22] [23].
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... In this section, the proposed heterogeneous protocol called HMGEAR is explained. This scheme builds on the homogeneous routing protocol suggested in [34]. ...
... This session is similar to the setup phase suggested by the authors in [34]. The authors here divided the homogeneous sensor nodes into four logical regions on the basis of their location in the sensing field. ...
... This is to reduce the energy consumption of nodes in Region 4, which may be far from the region. Finally, the Energy-efficient HOle Removing Mechanism (E-HORM) technique proposed in [34] is implemented. This technique finds the maximum distance nodes to calculate the maximum energy before data transmission. ...
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Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) continue to provide essential services for various applications such as surveillance, data gathering, and data transmission from hazardous environments to safer destinations. This has been enhanced by the energy-efficient routing protocols that are mostly designed for such purposes. Gateway-based Energy-Aware Multi-hop Routing protocol (MGEAR) is one of the homogenous routing schemes that was recently designed to more efficiently reduce the energy consumption of distant nodes. However, it has been found that the protocol has a high energy consumption rate, lower stability period, and poorer data transmission to the Base station (BS) when it was deployed for a longer period of time. In this paper, an enhanced Heterogeneous Gateway-based Energy-Aware multi-hop routing protocol (HMGEAR) is proposed. The proposed routing scheme is based on the introduction of heterogeneous nodes in the existing scheme, selection of the head based on the residual energy, introduction of multi-hop communication strategy in all the regions of the network, and implementation of energy hole elimination technique. All these strategies are aiming at reducing energy consumption and extend the life of the network. Results show that the proposed routing scheme outperforms two existing ones in terms of stability period, throughputs, residual energy, and the lifetime of the network.
... A senor node has limited radio range [11,15] so it is typical to cover the total area so it is needed to deploy large number of sensor nodes to cover the area and monitoring could be done in well manner and all associated nodes send the sense data to cluster heads than base station. The example of sensor network is shown in figure 1. [17][18][19][20][21] have been rigorously reviewed on the anvil of their findings and prominent features.In DEEC [17] clustered heads are formed on the basis of residual energy of each node as well as average energy of whole network. Those nodes that have much residual energy got high chances become cluster heads than lower energy nodes. ...
... Gateway node collects data from cluster heads, aggregated data and sends to the base station, using the gateway node energy consumption is reduced and network lifetime increases. The gateway node is rechargeable due the cost of sensor node.M-GEAR [19] works on different phase such as initial phase, setup phase, cluster head selection, scheduling and steady state phase. ...
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Alot of routing protocols have been developed for Wireless sensor networks on different parameters but few parameters are not considered yet for homogeneous network scenario where each node have same capability in terms of processing power, storage, energy etc. A sensor network worksuntil the nodes do not drain their batteries. Further, it is very difficult to replenish the batteries of the nodes, once they are being deployed to some hostile environment. In this paper, five well accepted WSN routing protocols namely DEEC, EESAA, M-GEAR, M-LEACH and Z-SEP have been benchmarked for their energy pattern in homogeneous scenario. All simulations are done in MATLAB. Different parameters are used for checking the efficiency of the considered routing protocol for WSN. Simulation results shows that there is no clear winner for all situations but most of the time DEEC and M-GEAR protocol provide better results in terms of packets transferred to base station and cluster heads. EESAA and Z-SEP protocols performs well in terms of clusters and cluster heads formation than other protocols, on the other hand all protocols perform well in terms total number of alive and dead nodes.
... Using the fitness function that can define according to the application specification Nadeem et al. (2013) It is scalable due to the use of multi-hop communications Using gateway node to reduce energy consumption Not considering the application Not considering the proper parameters for CH selection The proposed protocol can solve these disadvantages by: ...
... The probability of the nodes is calculated based on their distance from the BS. Nadeem et al. (2013) have presented Gateway-based Energy-Aware multi-hop Routing (M-GEAR) protocol, which divides the network into four logical regions by the BS. Two regions use direct communication topology, and other regions divide into clusters and CHs are selected in each region separately. ...
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... Routing location-based protocols need location information of all the WSN nodes in the network to calculate the distance between each pair of nodes. GEAR [64] is a locationbased routing protocol that aims to locate nodes in the WSN. Each node stores two costs to reach the destination in this protocol: the estimated cost and learned cost. ...
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... Furthermore, Mod-LEACH distinguishes two level of power to amplify the signal of transmissions depending on whether it is an intar-cluster or inter-clusters transmission. It minimizes the energy transmission for the inter-clusters and CH to BS transmissions than that of the node The M-GEAR protocol uses a special rechargeable node, called gateway node, placed at the center of the sensing area [38]. This node is used to collect and aggregate data from CHs and close nodes, and to send them to the BS. ...
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