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DREEM-ME: Distributed Regional Energy Efficient Multi-hop Routing Protocol based on Maximum Energy in WSNs

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Abstract

Wireless distributed sensor network consists of randomly deployed sensors having low energy assets. These networks can be used for monitoring a variety of environments. Major problems of these networks are energy constraints and their finite lifetimes. To overcome these problems different routing protocols and clustering techniques are introduced. We propose DREEM-ME which uses a unique technique for clustering to overcome these two problems efficiently. DREEM-ME elects a fix number of cluster heads (CHs) in each round instead of probabilistic selection of CHs. Packet Drop Technique is also implemented in our protocol to make it more comprehensive and practical. In DREEM-ME confidence interval is also shown in each graph which helps in visualising the maximum deviation from original course. Our simulations and results show that DREEM-ME is much better than existing protocols of the same nature.

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... The design of routing protocols for WSNs is challenging because of several network constraints. WSNs suffer from the limitations of several network resources, for example, energy, bandwidth, central processing unit, and storage [33,34]. The design challenges in sensor networks involve the following main aspects [22][23][24][25][26] ...
... For this purpose, a weight is assigned for individual probabilities for election of CHs for advance and normal nodes; Fig.5. Therefore, SEP gives two different threshold formulae given in Eq.3 and Eq.5 [32][33][34][35]: ...
... DEEC [32][33][34][35] is another enhancement of LEACH for multi- level heterogeneous environment with respect to level of energies in WSNs. In SEP, energy distribution for two levels, advance nodes and normal nodes, whereas, DEEC introduces multi-level heterogeneity for maximizing K. ...
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Wireless sensor networks (WSNs)consist of a large number of power constrained inexpensive sensor nodes, which aggregate data from the environment and transmit to sink node or base station, saving energy; lifetime; energy efficiency; fault tolerance; deployment of nodes, and latency have become the main great challenges in WSNs due to its wide range of applications. Clustering in routing protocols is a key technique optimize energy consumption in WSNs. In this paper, we propose routing protocol prolong stability and life time of the network. Hence, with the increased complexity of the application, WSN heterogeneity and energy level are also increased. Simulation of 100 sensor node in a field of 100×100m, nodes are deployed random, base station is centered in the field and have unlimited power, hence ignoring the effect caused by interference and signal collision in the wireless channel was carried out. Simulation results show that the proposed routing protocol performs better performance measures than all presented traditional techniques: LEACH, SEP, TEEN, DEEC and DDEEC with more stability and effective messages.
... The design of routing protocols for WSNs is challenging because of several network constraints. WSNs suffer from the limitations of several network resources, for example, energy, bandwidth, central processing unit, and storage [33,34]. The design challenges in sensor networks involve the following main aspects [22][23][24][25][26] ...
... For this purpose, a weight is assigned for individual probabilities for election of CHs for advance and normal nodes; Fig.5. Therefore, SEP gives two different threshold formulae given in Eq.3 and Eq.5 [32][33][34][35]: ...
... DEEC [32][33][34][35] is another enhancement of LEACH for multi- level heterogeneous environment with respect to level of energies in WSNs. In SEP, energy distribution for two levels, advance nodes and normal nodes, whereas, DEEC introduces multi-level heterogeneity for maximizing K. ...
Article
Wireless sensor networks (WSNs)consist of a large number of power constrained inexpensive sensor nodes, which aggregate data from the environment and transmit to sink node or base station, saving energy; lifetime; energy efficiency; fault tolerance; deployment of nodes, and latency have become the main great challenges in WSNs due to its wide range of applications. Clustering in routing protocols is a key technique optimize energy consumption in WSNs. In this paper, we propose routing protocol prolong stability and life time of the network. Hence, with the increased complexity of the application, WSN heterogeneity and energy level are also increased. Simulation of 100 sensor node in a field of 100×100m, nodes are deployed random, base station is centered in the field and have unlimited power, hence ignoring the effect caused by interference and signal collision in the wireless channel was carried out. Simulation results show that the proposed routing protocol performs better performance measures than all presented traditional techniques: LEACH, SEP, TEEN, DEEC and DDEEC with more stability and effective messages.
... In REECH-ME [5] and DREEM-ME [6], static clustering technique is implemented. Authors in [5] proposed a Regional Energy Efficient Cluster Heads based on Maximum Energy (REECH-ME) by using static clustering technique. ...
... However, energy holes may be created due to unequal areas of static clusters. Static clustering [6] is proposed to prolong network lifespan by dividing the circular network into different regions. However, both REECH-ME and DREEM-ME fail to uniformly distribute the nodes in divided regions. ...
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... Whole network is divided into subnetworks (clusters). In [3], authors propose a static clustering scheme in which the entire network is logically divided into circular ring shaped clusters. Each cluster has its own Cluster Head (CH) with associated member nodes. ...
... Amjad et al. [3] proposed a routing protocol DREEM-ME, in which square area is divided into concentric circles and each ring is further subdivided into four regions, whereas central circle remains the same. Eight outer regions are considered as clusters (four clusters are present in each central and outer circle). ...
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Mobile Sink (MS) based routing strategies have been widely investigated to prolongs the lifetime of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). In this paper, we propose two schemes for data gathering in WSNs: (i) MS moves on Random paths in the network (RMS), and (ii) the trajectory of MS is Defined (DMS). In both the schemes, the network field is logically divided into small squares. The center point of each partitioned area is the sojourn location of the MS. We present three linear programming based models: (i) to maximize network lifetime , (ii) to minimize path loss and (iii) to minimize end-to-end delay. Moreover, a geometric model is proposed to avoid redundancy while collecting information from the network nodes. Simulation results show that our proposed schemes perform better than the selected existing schemes in terms of the selected performance metrics.
... In another notable work, N. Amjad,et.al.,[40] introduced a new clustering technique, DREEM-ME in WSNs. In this work, authors succeeded to balance energy consumption of nodes to some extent, by dividing the circular field into sub fields. ...
Thesis
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Revolutionary development in integrated circuit miniaturisation facilitates the in-volvement of electronic sensors in every aspect of our life. This involvement results in a wide range of Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) applications in terrestrial, underwater and health care. However, small size poses power limitation on these sensors. In order to conserve their energy, energy efficient strategies are needed at all layers of network model. However, this dissertation focuses on energy hole analysis and proposition of energy efficient solutions in WSNs (terrestrial, underwater, and body area) at the network layer only. In terrestrial WSNs, we identify that uneven number of Cluster Heads (CHs) selection is the major cause of uneven cluster size. This uneven cluster size leads to imbalanced energy consumption of sensors (nodes) in the network, which ultimately leads to creation of energy hole. In order to cope with this issue, we propose two energy efficient routing techniques; Density Controlled Divide-and- Rule (DDR) and Divide-and-Rule (DR). These techniques logically divide the network area into static clusters (regions) and nodes are randomly distributed in these regions. The two techniques differ in terms of regions’ formation and nodes’ association with CH(s). In Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs), limited number of nodes are placed on the human body, and typically, three communication modes are used; direct, intermediate node based, and cluster based. In this regard, our contribution factors in a detailed energy consumption analysis. Analytical and experimental analysis reveals important results regarding energy consumption of these techniques. In UWSNs, we propose two techniques; Delay Intolerant Energy Efficient Routing (DIEER) with sink mobility and Spherical Hole Repair Technique (SHORT). In DIEER, we analyze energy consumption of nodes in Depth Based Routing (DBR) techniques and devise an optimised way of forwarder node selection. On the other hand, SHORT’s energy hole analysis reveals that knowl- edge acquisition phase of DBR, and static transmission power level are the major contributors in nodes’ energy consumption. We devise a solution to repair the coverage holes which are created due to regular death of nodes. The simulation results show that our newly proposed techniques perform better than the selected existing ones in terms of the selected performance metrics.
... Simulation results revealed that the modified protocol significantly outperforms EAP when it comes to packet loss percentage by an average of 93.4%.N.N. Javaid [17] planned a new clustering method, Distributed Regional Energy Efficient Multi-hop routing protocol based on maximum energy for wsn which used for the CHs at cross country to sink. A valuable thing about Distributed Regional Energy Efficient Multi-hop –Maximum Energy was that network region separated into circles and sectors to decrease the space between Cluster Heads and Base Station. ...
... In DREEM-ME [7], authors divide the circular network field into sub fields by first dividing into coronas and then further dividing the coronas into sectors. This logical division of network field helped in achieving balanced energy consumption, however, within subfields, nodes suffer long distance communication when their CHs are at the other end. ...
... It succeeds in enhanced communication throughout the network; however, the energy hole issue is not addressed in this paper. Authors give Distributed Regional Energy Efficient Multi-hop Routing Protocol based on Maximum Energy (DREEM-ME) [3] . This is better than LEACH as it focuses on dividing the randomly deployed nodes into different circular regions. ...
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Energy Hole is the major problem in the effi-ciency of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). A routing protocol MASEHA : Multi-hop communication using Active and Sleep nodes for Energy Hole Avoidance is proposed in this research paper to overcome the energy hole problem. Taking the concept of Active and sleep mode of nodes, we propose that the network is divided into active and sleep nodes. Half of the sleep nodes are turned on when the first node dies and remaining sleep nodes are activated after the death of tenth node. We have achieved balanced stability, increased sensing period of nodes and balanced energy consumption. Further, MASEHA uses dynamic clustering, divides the network into small sub-areas and uses uniform number of CHs throughout the network. Selection of CHs is done on the basis of maximum energy and minimum distance multi-hop communication is utilized in our paper. Simulation results show that these aspects help in out performing our proposed protocol with the existing protocols.
... Distributed Regional Energy Efficient Multi-hop-Maximum Energy (DREEM-ME) [103] is a routing protocol for homogeneous WSNs that uses a fixed number of cluster heads in each round and ensures that these cluster heads have the maximum energy. DREEM-ME separates the network into concentric circles, forming four equal sectors that divide the area in regions, excluding the first, which is in the center of the area containing the base station. ...
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Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are among the most emerging technologies, thanks to their great capabilities and their ever growing range of applications. However, the lifetime of WSNs is extremely restricted due to the delimited energy capacity of their sensor nodes. This is why energy conservation is considered as the most important research concern for WSNs. Radio communication is the utmost energy consuming function in a WSN. Thus, energy efficient routing is necessitated to save energy and thus prolong the lifetime of WSNs. For this reason, numerous protocols for energy efficient routing in WSNs have been proposed. This article offers an analytical and up to date survey on the protocols of this kind. The classic and modern protocols presented are categorized, depending on i) how the network is structured, ii) how data are exchanged, iii) whether location information is or not used, and iv) whether Quality of Service (QoS) or multiple paths are or not supported. In each distinct category, protocols are both described and compared in terms of specific performance metrics, while their advantages and disadvantages are discussed. Finally, the study findings are discussed, concluding remarks are drawn, and open research issues are indicated.
... In [29], a circular network is divided into several annuluses at first, and then each annulus is divided into smaller sectors. The authors proved that this logical partition method can reduce the probability of energy-holes. ...
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... In [29], a circular network is divided into several annuluses 33 at first, and then each annulus is divided into smaller sectors. ...
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In the era of Big Data and Mobile Internet, how to ensure the terminal devices (e.g., sensor nodes) work steadily for a long time is one of the key issues to improve the efficiency of the whole network. However, a lot of facts have shown that the unattended equipments are prone to failure due to energy exhaustion, physical damage and other reasons. This may result in the emergence of energy-hole, seriously affecting network performance and shortening its lifetime. To reduce data redundancy and avoid the generation of sensing blind areas, a type of Virtual Force based Energy-hole Mitigation strategy (VFEM) is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the virtual force (gravitation and repulsion) between nodes is introduced that makes nodes distribute as uniformly as possible. Secondly, in order to alleviate the “energy-hole problem”, the network is divided into several annuluses with the same width. Then, another type of virtual force, named “virtual gravity generated by annulus”, is proposed to further optimize the positions of nodes in each annulus. Finally, with the help of the “data forwarding area”, the optimal paths for data uploading can be selected out, which effectively balances energy consumption of nodes. Experiment results show that, VFEM has a relatively good performance on postponing the generation time of energy-holes as well as prolonging the network lifetime compared with other typical energy-hole mitigation methods.
... In [8] N. Amjad et al. propose Distributed Regional Energy Efficient Multi hop routing protocol based on Maximum Energy (DREEM ME); a static cluster routing protocol including multi hop data forwarding strategy. Authors in DREEM ME divided the whole network area into fix regions. ...
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... In this work, we use the first-order radio model as utilized by many works proposed in the literature [23, 24]. The amount of energy consumed during send and receive operations is given below: í µí°¸sndµí°¸snd (í µí±™, í µí±‘) = í µí°¸sndµí°¸snd-elec (í µí±™) + í µí°¸sndµí°¸snd-amp (í µí±™, í µí±‘) , ...
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... Amjad et al., in [5], introduced a new clustering technique, Distributed Regional Energy Efficient Multihop Routing Protocol based on Maximum Energy (DREEM-ME), in WSNs. Authors succeeded in balancing energy consumption of nodes to some extent by dividing the circular field into subfields. ...
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... In static clustering, clusters sizes are fixed to ensure that the node forwards its data to cluster head (CH) throughout the operation of the network. Also, static clustering provides a balance load during data transmission to overcome the energy hole creation drawback [5,6]. However, if the energy hole problem takes place in any of the particular region, the WSN energy will be depleted rapidly due to creation of an unbalanced loading in data processing [7,8]. ...
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... However, it also ignores the network coverage problem. In [28], the circular network is International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks 3 divided into subfields by first dividing the network into coronas and then further dividing the coronas into sectors. This logical division of network could reduce the probability of emergence of energy hole. ...
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Chapter
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Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) consist of large number of randomly deployed energy constrained sensor nodes. Sensor nodes have ability to sense and send sensed data to Base Station (BS). Sensing as well as transmitting data towards BS require high energy. In WSNs, saving energy and extending network lifetime are great challenges. Clustering is a key technique used to optimize energy consumption in WSNs. In this paper, we propose a novel clustering based routing technique: Enhanced Developed Distributed Energy Efficient Clustering scheme (EDDEEC) for heterogeneous WSNs. Our technique is based on changing dynamically and with more efficiency the Cluster Head (CH) election probability. Simulation results show that our proposed protocol achieves longer lifetime, stability period and more effective messages to BS than Distributed Energy Efficient Clustering (DEEC), Developed DEEC (DDEEC) and Enhanced DEEC (EDEEC) in heterogeneous environments.
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Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are comprised of thousands of sensor nodes, with restricted energy, that co-operate to accomplish a sensing task. Various routing Protocols are designed for transmission in WSNs. In this paper, we proposed a hybrid routing protocol: Zonal-Stable Election Protocol (Z-SEP) for heterogeneous WSNs. In this protocol, some nodes transmit data directly to base station while some use clustering technique to send data to base station as in SEP. We implemented Z-SEP and compared it with traditional Low Energy adaptive clustering hierarchy (LEACH) and SEP. Simulation results showed that Z-SEP enhanced the stability period and throughput than existing protocols like LEACH and SEP.
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Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) consist of numerous sensors which send sensed data to base station. Energy conservation is an important issue for sensor nodes as they have limited power.Many routing protocols have been proposed earlier for energy efficiency of both homogeneous and heterogeneous environments. We can prolong our stability and network lifetime by reducing our energy consumption. In this research paper, we propose a protocol designed for the characteristics of a reactive homogeneous WSNs, HEER (Hybrid Energy Efficient Reactive) protocol. In HEER, Cluster Head(CH) selection is based on the ratio of residual energy of node and average energy of network. Moreover, to conserve more energy, we introduce Hard Threshold (HT) and Soft Threshold (ST). Finally, simulations show that our protocol has not only prolonged the network lifetime but also significantly increased stability period.
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compared with the traditional wireless networks, wireless sensor networks have energy constraints, low-data-rate of high redundant and data flow of high-to-one, and so on. Energy effectiveness is the key performance indicators of wireless sensor networks. Based on the analysis of energy management strategy in the wireless sensor networks, the main factors affecting energy consumption are: perceptual data, data processing and radio communications, the radio communication is the main part of energy consumption. In the wireless sensor networks, the realization of energy-efficiency could be improved while in the different layers of communication protocol stack. However, as the basis of the limitations of the physical layer, the improvement is focus on design and implementation of network-layer protocol. The researchers agreed that the clustering of nodes in wireless sensor networks is an effective program of energy conservation. This article dedicated to research the clustering routing algorithm in wireless sensor networks.
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Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) has progressed quickly and found its wide applications recently because of mobility, flexibility, extensible and low cost. WLAN has become very important part of future communication. Quality of Service is a hot-point of research about wireless network. Two wireless network loss models, namely random uniformed model and Gilbert-Elliott model, are analyzed. The theoretic results were verified by simulation empirical results. The applications of both models are therefore proved.
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In this paper, we compare problems of cluster formation and cluster-head selection between different protocols for data aggregation and transmission. We focus on two aspects of the problem: (i) how to guess number of clusters required to proficiently consume available sources for a sensor network, and (ii) how to select number of cluster-heads to cover up sensor networks more proficiently. A sensor in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) can communicate directly only with other sensors that are within a radio range in a cluster. However, in order to enable communication between sensors not within communication range, they must form new clusters in distributed sensors. Several clustering algorithms such as LEACH, DEEC, and SEP have been proposed with the objectives of energy minimization, route-path selection, increased connectivity and network longevity. LEACH protocol and the similar ones assume an energy homogeneous system where a node is not likely to fail due to failure in connectivity and packet dropping. More recent protocols like SEP and TEEN considered the reverse that is energy heterogeneity which is more applicable to case of WSNs. We developed a bi-dimensional chain model to select average number of for DEEC. Simulation results are used to compare performance of different protocols to found optimal solutions of above mentioned problems.
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Energy efficient routing protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) is one of the most challenging task for researcher. Hierarchical routing protocols have been proved more energy efficient routing protocols, as compare to flat and location based routing protocols. Heterogeneity of nodes with respect to their energy level, has also added extra lifespan for sensor network. In this paper, we propose a Centralized Energy Efficient Clustering (CEEC) routing protocol. We design the CEEC for three level heterogeneous network. CEEC can also be implemented in multi-level heterogeneity of networks. For initial practical, we design and analyze CEEC for three level advance heterogeneous network. In CEEC, whole network area is divided into three equal regions, in which nodes with same energy are spread in same region.
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Wireless distributed microsensor systems will enable the reliable monitoring of a variety of environments for both civil and military applications. In this paper, we look at communication protocols, which can have significant impact on the overall energy dissipation of these networks. Based on our findings that the conventional protocols of direct transmission, minimum-transmission-energy, multi-hop routing, and static clustering may not be optimal for sensor networks, we propose LEACH (Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy), a clustering-based protocol that utilizes randomized rotation of local cluster based station (cluster-heads) to evenly distribute the energy load among the sensors in the network. LEACH uses localized coordination to enable scalability and robustness for dynamic networks, and incorporates data fusion into the routing protocol to reduce the amount of information that must be transmitted to the base station. Simulations show the LEACH can achieve as much as a factor of 8 reduction in energy dissipation compared with conventional outing protocols. In addition, LEACH is able to distribute energy dissipation evenly throughout the sensors, doubling the useful system lifetime for the networks we simulated.
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The clustering Algorithm is a kind of key technique used to reduce energy consumption. It can increase the scalability and lifetime of the network. Energy-efficient clustering protocols should be designed for the characteristic of heterogeneous wireless sensor networks. We propose and evaluate a new distributed energy-efficient clustering scheme for heterogeneous wireless sensor networks, which is called DEEC. In DEEC, the cluster-heads are elected by a probability based on the ratio between residual energy of each node and the average energy of the network. The epochs of being cluster-heads for nodes are different according to their initial and residual energy. The nodes with high initial and residual energy will have more chances to be the cluster-heads than the nodes with low energy. Finally, the simulation results show that DEEC achieves longer lifetime and more effective messages than current important clustering protocols in heterogeneous environments.
Conference Paper
In recent years there has been a growing interest in wireless sensor networks (WSN) applications. Such sensor networks can be used to control temperature, humidity, contamination, pollution etc. Self-organization and routing algorithms dedicated to wireless sensor networks usually assume that sensors absolute positions are unknown and all decisions are based on sensor's own local information. This assumption makes wireless sensor networks more flexible and energy conserve because making decisions locally is faster and energy efficient. But sooner or later sensors positions have to be found (when sensor sends a message about some event we of course would like to know where this event takes place). In this paper we describe different solutions of finding transceivers positions in wireless networks and we discuss localization in wireless sensor networks. We propose to transfer localization function from base stations to every sensor. We evaluate presented method using simulations
TEEN: A Routing Protocol for Enhanced Efficiency in
  • Arati Manjeshwar
  • D P Agrawal
Arati Manjeshwar, Agrawal, D.P. " TEEN: A Routing Protocol for Enhanced Efficiency in Wireless Sensor Networks " Proceedings 15th International on Parallel and Distributed Processing Symposium, 2000.