Article

THE-FAME: THreshold based Energy-efficient FAtigue MEasurment for Wireless Body Area Sensor Networks using Multiple Sinks

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Abstract

Wireless Body Area Sensor Network (WBASN) is a technology employed mainly for patient health monitoring. New research is being done to take the technology to the next level i.e. player's fatigue monitoring in sports. Muscle fatigue is the main cause of player's performance degradation. This type of fatigue can be measured by sensing the accumulation of lactic acid in muscles. Excess of lactic acid makes muscles feel lethargic. Keeping this in mind we propose a protocol \underline{TH}reshold based \underline{E}nergy-efficient \underline{FA}tigue \underline{ME}asurement (THE-FAME) for soccer players using WBASN. In THE-FAME protocol, a composite parameter has been used that consists of a threshold parameter for lactic acid accumulation and a parameter for measuring distance covered by a particular player. When any parameters's value in this composite parameter shows an increase beyond threshold, the players is declared to be in a fatigue state. The size of battery and sensor should be very small for the sake of players' best performance. These sensor nodes, implanted inside player's body, are made energy efficient by using multiple sinks instead of a single sink. Matlab simulation results show the effectiveness of THE-FAME.

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... Primarily, WBANs were established for providing healthcare services to serious patients at hospital or at home. Later on, WBANs were extended to continuously and also remotely monitor human body, for example, a player during sports, a soldier during war, and so on [10,[13][14][15]. ...
... According to [25], during the last few years, indoor and outdoor Ultra-Wide-Band (UWB) radio broadcasting and characterization have been utilized for WBAN. Wireless communication technologies, i.e., ZigBee and Bluetooth, are most commonly used in WBANs [13]. ZigBee which has low power consumption has basically been developed for tiny-sized sensor nodes. ...
... Measuring the muscular fatigue of a player and monitoring team fitness [13,33] used multiple sinks around the ground and in vivo sensor nodes in a hockey/soccer player's body. Whenever it reaches the threshold value, the sensors forward its data to the nearest sink located at the boundary of the ground. ...
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Wearable computing has a great prospect in smart healthcare applications. The emergence of the internet of things, Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs), and big data processing open numerous challenges and opportunities. In healthcare, the monitoring is done by placing/implanting sensor nodes (resource-constrained devices) on a patient’s body to communicate data to a resource-rich node called a sink. The data transmission energy consumption is directly proportional to the distance between the sensor and the sink node. Therefore, it is vital to reduce the energy consumption of the sensor node due to data transmission. In this article, a new \emph{Dual Forwarder Selection Technique (DFST)} has been proposed to prolong the network lifetime by reducing energy consumption and ultimately improving the stability period and throughput of the network. The DFST works by grouping sensor nodes on a body where both forwarder nodes have been selected through a cost function for relaying data to the sink. The proposed scheme’s efficiency has been evaluated using simulation results in terms of network stability, lifetime, and throughput. Energy consumption of sensor nodes minimized, which, as a result, increased residual network energy. The number of dead nodes of the DFST is about 50\% less than that of its counterparts RE-ATTEMPT and iM-SIMPLE. The average throughput of the proposed scheme is 51\% and 8\% higher than the methods. Similarly, the residual energy of the DFST is approximately 200\% and 120\% more than iM-SIMPLE and RE-ATTEMPT, respectively.
... The main purpose of this network is to create a communication link with human body. Before it was just developed for the health-care services but now it can also be used in many fields where distant health-care monitoring is necessary such as astronauts in space, motion detection of animals, players in sports, environmental conditions, security etc. [4] [5]. ...
... In [5], researchers present THE-FAME (Threshold based Energy-efficient Fatigue Measurement) protocol to find out fatigues of a player in Soccer game. Each player is surrounded with sensor nodes to sense fatigues parameter of a player. ...
... Energy consumption in direct (ED) communication is [5]: ...
... Initially it was developed for the purpose of providing health-care services to serious patient. After the successful development in health-care services now WBASNs is also being used in other fields where continuous and distant health-care monitoring is necessary, like, players in sports, astronaut in space, environmental condition, motion detection of animals, security, etc. [4], [5]. ...
... Nodes lose enery in short span of time therfore, to balance energy level and stability period of the network a mathematical formula is suggested to select cluster head/forwarder in a cluster. In paper [5], authors present a protocol; THE-FAME (Threshold based Energy-efficient Fatigue MEasurment) to find fatigues of a player in a Soccer game. Each player is implanted a sensor node to sense fatigue's parameter of the player. ...
... ER t-m (k, d) = n × (ER cr + ER amp ) × k × d 2 ………… (3) ER r-m (k) = (n-1) × (ER cr + ER amp ) × k…………….. (4) ER total-m = ERt-m + ER r-m ………………………….... (5) Energy consumption in direct (E D ) communication is [5]: ...
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After successful development in health-care services, WBASN is also being used in other fields where continuous and distant health-care monitoring is required. Various suggested protocols presented in literature work to enhance the performance of WBASN by focusing on delay, energy efficiency and routing. In this research we focus to increase the stability period and throughput, while decreasing end-to-delay. Two sink nodes are utilized and concept of AnyCasting is introduced. In this research, we have presented a scheme AnyCasting In Dual Sink (ACIDS) for WBASN and compared it with existing protocols LAEEBA and DARE. The performance of ACIDS is found to be 51% and 13% efficient than LAEEBA and DARE respectively in throughput. Results show that, the stability period of ACIDS is much greater than LAEEBA and DARE with minimum delay. Energy parameter in ACIDS is in tradeoff with the improved parameters, due to the computation of RSSI which does more processing and utilizes more energy.
... Advancement in WBAN for the better care of patient, decreases the expenses much more for the patient inside the hospital. Data sensed by the deployed nodes and forward to medical specialist, base station or hospital staff server [1]. General environment of WBAN is shown in figure 1. ...
... All the nodes have informed by the sink about cost function of forwarder node. If n is representing nodes of the body, then cost function of n nodes has computed as √ …………………………….....…………... (1) Sink and node n distance here is , remaining energy of node n is R.E and it is the difference between initial energy and the current energy state of the nodes. Less cost function node has selected for forwarder node. ...
... Furthermore, we use a vibration pad for the relaxation of fatigued muscles, and then utilize the vibrational energy by means of vibration detection circuit to recharge the in-vivo sensors. Motivated by our preliminary work in this area [4], our contribution in this paper is to propose a fatigue measuring protocol for soldiers and a mathematical model for recharging the implanted sensors. ...
Article
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As players and soldiers preform strenuous exercises and do difficult and tiring duties, they are usually the common victims of muscular fatigue. Keeping this in mind, we propose FAtigue MEasurement (FAME) protocol for soccer players and soldiers using in-vivo sensors for Wireless Body Area Sensor Networks (WBASNs). In FAME, we introduce a composite parameter for fatigue measurement by setting a threshold level for each sensor. Whenever, any sensed data exceeds its threshold level, the players or soldiers are declared to be in a state of fatigue. Moreover, we use a vibration pad for the relaxation of fatigued muscles, and then utilize the vibrational energy by means of vibration detection circuit to recharge the in-vivo sensors. The induction circuit achieves about 68% link efficiency. Simulation results show better perormance of the proposed FAME protocol, in the chosen scenarios, as compared to an existing Wireless Soccer Team Monitoring (WSTM) protocol in terms of the selected metrics.
... The fatigue level can be measured by sensing the accumulation of lactic acid in muscle. In [59] authors proposed a protocol Threshold based Energy-efficient Fatigue Measurement (THE-FAME) for soccer player using BASN. To achieve minimum delay and less energy consumption direct transmission is used to send data to the base station by using multiple sinks along the border of the ground. ...
... It uses a relay placed on the chest of each patient to route data to the sink. THE-FAME [13] measure fatigue level of soccer players. It uses a threshold to determine the critical nature of data. ...
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Approaches of using Wireless Body Area Sensor Network (WBASN) in health care applications are getting much popularity. WBASN is a hot topic among the research community. Our proposed Horizontal moveable Energy-efficient Adaptive Threshold-based (HEAT) protocol is well suited for horizontally moving (walking) human body. The on body nodes attached at arms and legs of human body move forward and backward to sink during horizontal movement. We use direct communication for emergency data and multi-hop communication strategy for normal data transmission. Simulation results show that our proposed protocol performs better in terms of stability period and network lifetime. The stability period of HEAT is comparative with direct communication, while it outperforms direct commu-nication in term of network lifetime.
... The body relay aggregates the received data and routs it to the sink. S. Akram et al. [13] give THE-FAME to measure the fatigue in the soccer players. They employ a composite parameter for fatigue measurement which consists of a threshold parameter for lactic acid and distance covered. ...
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Chapter
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