Taxonomic revision of Eurotium and transfer of species to Aspergillus

Botany, Faculty of Science, Charles University in Prague, Benátská 2, 128 01, Praha 2, Benátská 2, Prague 2, 12801, Czech Republic.
Mycologia (Impact Factor: 2.47). 07/2013; 105(4):912-937. DOI: 10.3852/12-151
Source: PubMed


Aspergillus section Aspergillus contains economically important, xerophilic fungi that are widely distributed in nature and the human environ-ment and are known for their ability to grow on substrates with low water activity. The taxa were revised based on sequence data from four loci, PCR fingerprinting, micro-and macromorphology, and physiology. The number of taxa was reduced to 17 species, all of which can be distinguished with sequence data from either the caM or RPB2 locus. The original description of A. proliferans was supple-mented by a description of its teleomorph. This species seems to be relatively common and often has been confused with A. glaucus. In addition, green sporulating isolates of A. niveoglaucus isolated from food and several other substrates are indistinguish-able in phenotype from A. glaucus. A dichotomous key based on ascospore size and ornamentation and the ability to grow at specific combinations of temperature and water activity is provided for identification of species. In response to recent changes in the botanical code, we transferred the Eurotium species to Aspergillus and selected one name for each species.

    • "Morphological and cultural observations were performed for isolates whose DNA sequences were uninformative. Particularly, the keys developed by Frisvad and Samson (2004) were used for Penicillium isolates, whereas identication of isolates belonging to genus Aspergillus was performed according to the keys developed by Hubka et al. (2013). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The distribution of mould species was examined at several points of the processing chain in a Manchego cheese plant and associated dairy farms. Geotrichum and Fusarium were the genera most frequently isolated from milk samples as well as in cheeses ripened for one month, evidencing a direct transfer from raw milk. Conversely, the mycobiota of long-ripened cheeses consisted mainly of Penicillium species, which gained entry to the cheese through the air of ripening rooms. This study contributes to the understanding of the dynamics of fungal populations in semihard and hard cheeses, highlighting that airborne transfer from the stables could have a direct impact on their quality.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · International Journal of Dairy Technology
  • Source
    • "Genomic DNA was extracted from 4-weeks-old cultures using the ArchivePure DNA yeast and Gram2 ? kit (5PRIME Inc., Gaithersburg, MD, U.S.A.) with modifications described by Hubka et al. (2013). The ITS region of rDNA was amplified with primers ITS1 and ITS4 (White et al. 1990); nuc28S with primers NL1 (5 0 -GCATATCAATAAGCGGAG- GAAAAG) and LR6 (Vilgalys and Hester 1990); nuc18S with primers with primers NS1 (White et al. 1990) and NS24 (Gargas and Taylor 1992); and partial b-tubulin gene with primers Ben2f (Hubka and Kolařík 2012) and Bt2b (Glass and Donaldson 1995). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Three slow growing, melanized and morphologically poorly differentiated fungal strains were isolated from a hyperaemic focus near the enlarged spleen of a farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and from a rock collected at 3,200 m a. s. l. (Alps, Italy). Two phylogenetic analyses of the combined nuc18S and nuc28S rDNA and ITS rDNA and β-tubulin sequences showed that these isolates belong to the Trichomeriaceae, a family of the ascomycete order Chaetothyriales containing black yeasts that cause infections in humans and animals. The strains form a well-supported monophyletic clade. The new genus Bradymyces, with two new species, Bradymyces oncorhynchi and Bradymyces alpinus, is proposed based on phylogenetic, ecophysiological and morphological data. It is characterized by the presence of moniliform hyphae, blastic proliferation, endoconidia, multicellular and muriform bodies, and bodies with dark fragmented incrustations on the surface. Bradymyces most closely resembles members of Knufia. The ex-type isolate of B. oncorhynchi CCF 4369(T) ( = CBS 133066(T) = CCFEE 6134(T)) represents the first case of a Trichomeriaceae member isolated from cold-blooded water vertebrates. B. alpinus [ex-type strain CCFEE 5493(T) ( = CBS 138368(T) = CCF 4803(T))] is represented by two isolates from a single locality in the Alps and in contrast to B. oncorhynchi shows overall slower growth parameters and does not grow at 25 °C.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
  • Source
    • "Eurotium species are xerophiles and are commercially important because many species are associated with spoilage, not only of food commodities but also of art and artefacts, paper, leather goods, textiles, timber, even lens of cameras, microscopes and binoculars. Eurotium is widely accepted among user groups, such that reintroduction of Aspergillus would cause widespread confusion, especially because many names would have to changed, as shown in Hubka et al. (2013). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The newly adopted International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants (ICN) demands that dimorphic fungi, in particular those with both sexual and asexual names, now bear a single name. Although priority is no longer associated with the mode of reproduction, the ICN requires justification for choosing an asexual name over an existing sexual one. The phylogenetic approach that made dual nomenclature for fungi obsolete can be used to help choose names for large groups of fungi that are best known by asexual names. Here we apply this approach to one of the largest and most diverse asexual genera, the genus Aspergillus. We find that existing sexual names may be given to well-supported clades of fungi with distinct phenotypes, which include sexual morphology as well as physiological attributes associated with xerophily, thermophily and mycotoxin production. One group of species important to food production and food safety, Aspergillus Subgen. Circumdati, lacks a well-supported clade; here we propose that the name Aspergillus be retained for this group. Recognizing that nomenclature has economic and social implications, particularly for old, important genera, we discuss the consequences of various scenarios to implement the new "one name for one fungus" Article in the ICN, showing that our approach requires the fewest appeals to the ICN while retaining the name Aspergillus for many of the most economically and socially important species.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Mycologia
Show more