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This paper discusses 16 important trends that are predicted to affect the planning and manage- ment of parks and protected areas in the medium term. While there are many trends visible, the ones chosen are mostly likely to require a management response. There are both challenges and opportunities for tourism-related benefits in parks and protected areas.
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... According to Eagles (2007) and confirmed by other authors on tourism, such as Balmford et al. (2012), or Prouza (2019, the number of visitors to protected areas is increasing. This is especially true for the most attractive locations. ...
... The quality of the experience and visitors' satisfaction with the services provided in protected areas should form the basis of visitor management. These two factors should systematically be surveyed as part of visitor monitoring (Eagles, 2007;Tonge & Moore, 2007;Huang et al., 2008;Samuel et al., 2008;Musa et al., 2017;Oviedo-Garcia et al., 2019). ...
... This number, however, included 195 secondary school students (9 of the total respondents), who can be expected to continue with their education. The results of our research show that visitors to the surveyed pla are mostly well educated, which confirms the trend of tourism in protected areas as published by Eagles (2007) and confirmed by Zelenka et al. (2013, p. 70), as well as Newsome and Moore (2017, p. 261). These authors suggest that protected areas are exploited mainly by educated people expecting an experience full of interesting information and things to do, but who also expect sophisticated services and management of the area. ...
... Personal benefits obtained from park visitation are a key element in society's acceptance and approval of protected areas and reserves (Eagles 2007). With globally increasing and diversifying populations, outdoor recreation opportunities face corresponding changes to community expectations to remain socially relevant. ...
... Researchers and park agencies have studied a number of key population and recreation trends that they expect parks will need to adapt to in order to provide socially relevant outdoor recreational experiences. For example, two articles by Eagles (2007Eagles ( , 2014 proposed research agendas for park tourism based on global trends. In each article, Eagles referred to several political, socio-demographic, and technological trends such as park funding, higher education levels, improved technology, ageing population, alternative travel expectations and demands, new funding structures, and climate change that he contended would require future research leading to improved managerial responses over the medium term. ...
... Other societal trends reflect factors that may influence people's choice of leisure options such as 'independence and convenience' or 'health awareness'. One trend reflects the global environmental phenomena of 'climate change', which is likely to significantly affect outdoor recreation (Eagles 2007;Fisichelli et al. 2015;Wilkins et al. 2017). ...
This study empirically examines how future park recreation is related to enduring societal trends. An online panel of 927 participants was surveyed regarding anticipated park recreation participation in ten years’ time in terms of intended park activities and expected barriers, adapted from the Theory of Planned Behaviour, the Recreation Experience Preference scales and Leisure Constraints theory. Anticipated changes were then linked by participants to the particular societal trends impacting them. The results suggest increased activities are expected from the ‘health awareness’ and ‘independence and convenience’ societal trends, while increased barriers are expected from ‘climate change’, ‘perceived safety’ and ‘population and urban growth’. Overall, the percentage of participants reporting future increased activities at parks is equal to those reporting future barriers; which suggests potentially that there will be no net participation change over time. The management implications, limitations and potential future research agenda stemming from the study are discussed.
... The first is captive animals as in zoos and aviaries, while the second group is semi-captive animals as is the case with wildlife parks, including national parks and reserves. It has become clear through research done by Eagles (2007) that a trend is forming whereby more and more people prefer to visit these natural areas. Research shows that accurate forecasting of tourism demand is of paramount importance (Witt & Witt, 1995). ...
... The results furthermore indicated that visitors regarded travelling to the Park as a primary need instead of a luxury, thus also showing the irrelevance of the economic constraints (economic recession 2008/2009) and also making nature tourism a Giffen good (Runde, Faulkner, Taylor & Aidt, 2007). The increase in visitor numbers to the KNP during the recession also supports the findings of Eagles (2007), who stated that visits to nature areas such as national parks would continue to increase as more people are turning to nature tourism. ...
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The aim of this study was to identify the determinants of demand of visitors for the Kruger National Park (KNP) during a recession. From 355 questionnaires, the results revealed the following determinants that influenced visitors’ demand for the Park: behavioural determinants as well as socio-demographic determinants. The results indicated that visitors to the KNP found that visiting the Park is a great way of getting away from their busy lifestyles (Gauteng Province), while visitors from Mpumalanga indicated that many of them considered visiting other tourism attractions. It was also found that visitors adapted their spending behaviour at the Park in order to afford a visit. This was the first time that the influence of determinants of tourism demand during a recession was determined. This information is important for SANParks, because it provides management with valuable insights into what strategic planning should be conducted in the event of a future recession. It was also found that the demand for visiting the KNP was not greatly influenced by the recession, because visitors could adapt their spending behaviour at the KNP. Furthermore, the study shows that visiting natural areas may have become a primary need or part of a lifestyle, especially during the 2008/2009 recessionary period.
... In some places, such a disturbance may serve as a hypothetical substitute for considering impacts to landscapes that may normally occur over a scale of several years to decades. For example, increased visitation as a result of the pandemic may be a proxy for the overall global rise in tourism in parks and protected areas over the past 100 years, partly attributed to aging and fitter populations in some countries (Eagles, 2004). ...
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1. Envisioning processes enable protected area managers to chart a course for future management to reach desired goals, but unexpected changes that could affect future visions are not usually considered. The global COVID-19 pandemic provided an opportunity to explore changes in stakeholder visions, the values that underpin the visions, and their perceptions of landscape changes and the underlying drivers (e.g. climate change, mass tourism and demographic trends). 2. Through a mixed-methods approach in this post-evaluation study, we gathered comparative data on these issues from stakeholders in the Sierra de Guadarrama National Park, Spain, between July 2019 (pre-pandemic) and October 2020 (mid-pandemic). 3. Our qualitative analysis demonstrates that pre-pandemic, differences in visions for protected area management were largely spurred by different perceptions of drivers of change, rather than differences in values or perceived landscape changes, which were similar across different vision themes. 4. One year later, in the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic, the majority of stakeholders reported that their values, visions and perceptions of drivers did not change despite this large-scale disturbance. Of the 20%–30% of stakeholders that did report changes, visions generally shifted towards greater prioritization of biodiversity and nature conservation as a result of heightened perceptions of the impacts of drivers of change associated with an increase in the numbers of park visitors. These drivers included mass tourism, mountain recreation, lack of environmental awareness, and change in values and traditions. 5. Our findings reinforce the importance of adaptive and inclusive management of protected areas, including enhancing transparency and communications regarding factors driving change in the landscape, and integration of local and traditional knowledge and stakeholder perceptions of changes and drivers. Furthermore, management plans integrating stakeholder values have the potential to stay relevant even in the face of wildcard events such as a pandemic. 6. To enhance the relevancy of visions and scenarios in conservation and land-use planning, scenario planning methodologies should more strongly consider different potential disturbances and how drivers of change in the near and far future can be affected by wildcard events such as a pandemic.
... In order to ascertain how to best administer tourism in protected areas, especially in national parks, the main trends in tourism demand and supply must be determined. According to Eagles (2007), park visitation will continue to increase in the future and tourism in national parks will lead to increased public participation and collaboration, while increasing education levels in society will lead to increased sophistication in park administration and park services. ...
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This collection of research is the result of fruitful collaboration between the Department of Geography of the University of Zagreb in Croatia, and the Department of Geography of the University of Primorska in Slovenia, which was implemented within the framework of a bilateral research pro-ject entitled “Comparative analysis of spatial development of tourism in protected areas of Croatia and Slovenia”, in 2018 and 2019. The authors found a background for their research in the fact that Croatia and Slovenia are interesting cases for examining the spatial development of tourism in protected areas of nature, as they shared the same socio-economic context of development in the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. After their independence and the period of transition, they faced different development dynamics and adopted various approaches for management and development of protected areas. Today, both countries are members of the European Union and are confronted with many similar challenges regarding the implementation of the concept of sustainable tourism in protected areas.
... Seventy-three percent of the respondents think that they do not have any influence on the management of the NP, and forty-nine percent of them see no (personal, economic or other) positive effect on their life related to the NP. Eagles (2007) [100] already pointed out that there is a need for sufficient communication between local people, stakeholders and park and protected area managers. Open communication is seen as one opportunity to foster trust between multiple actors and generate more flexible modes of governance [28,101]. ...
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Park-people relationships are crucial for the effective operation of national parks (NPs). According to this new paradigm, protected areas are increasingly considered as instruments for regional development, particularly in marginal regions. However, park-people relationships often comprise conflicts. We tried to understand park-people relationships through the views and attitudes of local people living in or around the area of the Slovak Karst NP, which is found in a marginal, less developed region within Slovakia. We carried out a questionnaire survey and applied multidimensional statistical methods for the results. We identified four attitude dimensions and six local people clusters. Clusters were compared in terms of socio-demographic characteristics, views on NP tasks, attitudes towards the NP, tourism and nature, as well as migration intentions. We found that 45% of the sampled population had positive attitudes towards the NP and nature, 29.5% were neutral and 25.5% had somewhat negative feelings. Results showed that the personal economic situation, the relationship with tourism, age, education level and profession all influence the attitude of local people towards the NP. As for the socioeconomic development of the region, we found that till now, the Slovak Karst NP had only a limited role. Nonetheless, understanding the views and attitudes of local people may help to refine the NP strategy. Results suggest that NP management should strengthen the interaction with local communities and improve resource efficiency through a participatory approach to preserve natural values, improve the quality of life and stop outward migration from the region.
... In order to ascertain how to best administer tourism in protected areas, especially in national parks, the main trends in tourism demand and supply must be determined. According to Eagles (2007), park visitation will continue to increase in the future and tourism in national parks will lead to increased public participation and collaboration, while increasing education levels in society will lead to increased sophistication in park administration and park services. ...
Full-text available
This collection of research is the result of fruitful collaboration between the Department of Geography of the University of Zagreb in Croatia, and the Department of Geography of the University of Primorska in Slovenia, which was implemented within the framework of a bilateral research project entitled “Comparative Analysis of Spatial Development of Tourism in Protected Areas of Croatia and Slovenia”, in 2018 and 2019. The main objective was to perform a comparative analysis of the spatial development of tourism in protected areas in Croatia and Slovenia. In order to achieve this goal, the authors of the chapters studied several examples of tourism development in protected areas in both countries. Fulltext of the book is available on this link:
... Around the world, protected areas have seen increased numbers of visitors who have been drawn by particular natural features (e. g. particular species of flora or fauna, or geological features) (Eagles 2007;Balmford et al. 2009;Siikamäki et al. 2015). Unorganized tourism, however, could lead to the destruction of natural resources and the extinction of plants and wildlife (Ghoddousi et al. 2018). ...
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Various mountainous areas in the world are noted for their floristic diversity and the presence of endemic plants. However, no serious studies on the management of flora tourism in areas that have a serious potential for flora tourism have previously been conducted. The present study focuses on analysing the potential for flora tourism within the context of sustainable alternative tourism. In this context, the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method facilitates decision-making, and allows the consistency of assessment criteria to be measured and their degrees of significance to be determined. Nine main assessment criteria were identified (endemic-rare plant count, conservation and scientific value, floristic diversity, vegetation diversity, aesthetic plant communities, seasonal attractiveness, accessibility for visits, diversity of utilizable plants, services provided). The priority and consistency for these criteria were confirmed using AHP. Based on the results, the weight score for each criterion was converted to a percentage. The method was tested using the Kackar Mountains National Park (Turkey) as an example and the flora tourism potential of the area was calculated, resulting in an assessment scale for the sustainability of the flora in mountainous areas that could be applied easily in other areas.
... El Plan cuatrianual para promover el turismo en Ecuador proyecta para los siguientes años una inversión en este sector de más de USD$ 600 millones, en función a cinco pilares: (a) seguridad, (b) calidad, (c) destinos y productos, (d) conectividad, y (e) promoción. La importancia de la naturaleza como atracción turística ha aumentado número de visitantes en áreas protegidas a nivel mundial (Eagles, 2007); (Balmfordet et Al., 2009); (Siikam € aki et Al., (2015). Por lo que Tolvanen y Kangas, (2015) hacen referencia que salvaguardar especies valiosas y hábitats es generalmente el propósito principal de la protección de la naturaleza, pero el fuerte aumento en el número de turistas plantea el riesgo de que los valores de biodiversidad en los que se basa la protección se degraden. ...
Conference Paper
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The diversification of rural economies is a matter of national interest, due to the little added value that is given to the production in the territory. This research aims to generate an agro tourism product that revitalizes the natural and cultural heritage of the communities, and in turn, contributes as an axis enhancer of sustainable local development in the hope dam, Bolívar canton, Province of Manabí. The research process begins with a thorough documentary review related to the conceptualization of agrotourism, the creation of tourism products, trends in the rural tourism market and the rural economic development of Manabí. From here, an analysis of the potential agricultural resources of the study area will be carried out, in order to use them in the design of an agro-tourism product in the place, for which purpose it is intended to carry out a survey of the existing resources, so that in this way it is possible to determine which ones will be included in the agro-tourism product, in this phase a SWOT diagnosis will be made, and the analyticaldescriptive method will be used, and as a field observation technique. The products to be proposed must have living characteristics, focused on taking advantage of the traditions and means existing in the environment, which provide new development perspectives for local communities.
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When taking into account Palestinian tourism sites, mastering language English for instance is a prerequisite for serving and offering tourism services in tourist places such as Bethlehem, Jerusalem, Jericho and Hebron after graduation. In Palestine, English for Specific Purposes especially in hospitality and tourism purposes has not been given much investigation in research. Globally, English language is used as a medium of communication in contexts such as hospitality, travel, and tourism. This study examined how English language is used to prepare tourism and hospitability learners who anticipate serving in Palestinian tourism sites. The data indicated that the learners’ perceptions of the courses offered in English are not consistent with their aspirations and perceived academic English language needs, and their response to how they perceive the importance of English language needs was moderate. Based on these findings, the study suggests restructuring these courses and reconsidering the adopted teaching methods to help learners receive proper instruction geared towards intended learning outcomes and meets their future workplace needs. For future studies, it is recommended that quantitative and qualitative researches are needed to be carried out to analyze the actual needs of undergraduate students to the English language in programs hotel management and tourism.
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