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How School Libraries Improve Outcomes for Children: The New Mexico Study

Authors:
  • RSL Research Group
How School Libraries
Improve Outcomes for Children
The New Mexico Study
Keith Curry Lance
Marcia J. Rodney
Christine Hamilton-Pennell
New Mexico State Library
Santa Fe, New Mexico
June, 2002
How School Libraries Improve Outcomes for Children:
The New Mexico Study
Table of Contents
How School Libraries ...........................................................................1
Improve Outcomes for Children.............................................................1
Table of Contents.................................................................................i
List of Tables....................................................................................ivv
Acknowledgements............................................................................vvi
Executive Summary......................................................................... vivii
School Library Development ......................................................... viivii
School & Community Differences................................................... viivii
School Librarians & Strong School Libraries....................................viiiviii
Introduction .......................................................................................1
Review of the Literature.......................................................................2
Presence of a Library Media Center with a Professional Library Media
Specialist ........................................................................................3
Learning and Teaching......................................................................4
Early Studies ................................................................................4
Instructional Role Since Information Power Guidelines ........................5
Gap Between Theory and Practice....................................................6
Level of LMS Collaboration with Teachers..........................................6
Barriers to Collaboration.................................................................7
Positive Effects of Flexible Scheduling...............................................8
Positive Effects of Collaboration .......................................................9
Positive Effects of Technology..........................................................9
Characteristics of Library Media Specialist ....................................... 11
Other Aspects of the Instructional Role........................................... 12
Information Access and Delivery....................................................... 12
Access to Print Resources ............................................................. 12
School-Public Library Relationship.................................................. 14
School Library and Equity Issues.................................................... 14
Size of Library Media Center Collection ........................................... 16
Frequency of School Library Use .................................................... 17
Role of Library Media Specialist in Program Development .................. 18
Role of Technology in Student Academic Achievement ...................... 19
Integrating Technology into the Library Media Center ....................... 20
Program Administration................................................................... 21
Maximizing Predictors of Student Achievement ................................ 22
Principal Support of the Library Media Program................................ 22
Collaborative Activities of the Library Media Specialist....................... 23
Effect of Library Media Center Staffing............................................ 24
Library Media Specialist as Provider of In-Service Training................. 25
Library Media Specialist Planning and Management Skills .................. 25
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How School Libraries Improve Outcomes for Children:
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Library Media Specialist Budgetary Role.......................................... 26
Summary...................................................................................... 27
Methodologies .................................................................................. 28
Sample......................................................................................... 28
Survey.......................................................................................... 28
Respondent Information ............................................................... 28
Service Hours ............................................................................. 29
School Library Staff ..................................................................... 29
Paid Staff Activities...................................................................... 29
Computers with Access to Library Resources ................................... 30
School Library Usage.................................................................... 30
School Library Collection............................................................... 30
Annual Operating Expenditures for the School Library....................... 31
Available Data................................................................................ 31
Statistical Significance .................................................................... 32
Bivariate Correlation....................................................................... 33
Factor Analysis............................................................................... 34
Multiple Regression Analysis ............................................................ 34
Findings........................................................................................... 37
Elementary School Level ................................................................. 37
School Library Predictors of Achievement Scores.............................. 37
Information Technology................................................................ 38
Information Resources ................................................................. 39
Middle School Level ........................................................................ 39
School Library Predictors of Achievement Scores.............................. 39
Print Volumes ............................................................................. 40
Database Computers.................................................................... 41
High School Level........................................................................... 41
School Library Predictors of Reading Scores .................................... 41
Library Visits............................................................................... 42
Information Technology................................................................ 43
Print Volumes ............................................................................. 44
Information Resources ................................................................. 45
Controlling for Other School and Community Factors........................... 45
Correlation Analysis for School Library Development Variables........... 46
Factor Analysis for School Library Development Variables.................. 47
Correlation Analysis for Other School and Community Variables ......... 48
Factor Analysis for Other School Variables....................................... 49
Factor Analysis of Community Socio-Economic Status (SES) Variables. 50
Regression Analysis for School Library Development, School, and
Community SES Factors ............................................................... 50
Comparison of Highest & Lowest Scoring Schools................................ 51
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How School Libraries Improve Outcomes for Children:
The New Mexico Study
Conclusions...................................................................................... 59
School Library Development ............................................................ 59
School & Community Differences...................................................... 59
School Librarians & Strong School Libraries........................................ 60
Recommendations for Action .............................................................. 63
Appendices ...................................................................................... 64
Bibliography..................................................................................... 65
Participating New Mexico Elementary Schools........................................ 75
Participating New Mexico Middle Schools .............................................. 80
Participating New Mexico High Schools................................................. 85
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How School Libraries Improve Outcomes for Children:
The New Mexico Study
List of Tables
Table 1. Comparison of the Study Sample and the Universe of All New
Mexico Public Schools Serving Grades 4, 8 and 10, 2000................... 28
Table 2. Direct School Library Predictors of Fourth Grade Achievement
Scores in New Mexico Elementary Schools, 2000.............................. 38
Table 3. Indirect School Library Predictors of Fourth Grade Achievement
Scores via Information Technology in New Mexico Elementary School
Libraries, 2000............................................................................ 38
Table 4. Indirect School Library Predictors of Fourth Grade Achievement
Scores via Information Resources in New Mexico Elementary School
Libraries, 2000............................................................................ 39
Table 5. Direct School Library Predictors of Eighth Grade Achievement
Scores in New Mexico Middle Schools, 2000 .................................... 40
Table 6. Indirect School Library Predictors of Eighth Grade Achievement
Scores via Print Volumes in New Mexico Middle School Libraries, 2000 40
Table 7. Indirect School Library Predictors of Eighth Grade Achievement
Scores via Database Computers in New Mexico Middle School Libraries,
2000.......................................................................................... 41
Table 8. School Library Predictors of Tenth Grade Achievement Scores in
New Mexico High Schools, 2000..................................................... 42
Table 9. Indirect School Library Predictors of Tenth Grade Achievement
Scores via Visits to New Mexico High School Libraries, 2000 .............. 43
Table 10. Indirect School Library Predictors of Tenth Grade Achievement
Scores via Information Technology in New Mexico High School Libraries,
2000.......................................................................................... 44
Table 11. Indirect School Library Predictors of Tenth Grade Achievement
Scores via Print Volumes Held by New Mexico High School Libraries,
2000.......................................................................................... 44
Table 12. Indirect School Library Predictors of Tenth Grade Achievement
Scores via Information Resources in New Mexico High School Libraries,
2000.......................................................................................... 45
Table 13. Correlation Matrix for School Library Development Variables and
District Expenditures per Student for New Mexico High Schools, 2000. 47
Table 14. Factor Analysis of School Library Development Variables for New
Mexico High Schools, 2000............................................................ 48
Table 15. Correlation Matrix for School and Community Variables for New
Mexico High Schools, 2000............................................................ 49
Table 16. Factor Analysis of Other School Variables for New Mexico High
Schools, 2000 ............................................................................. 49
Table 17. Factor Analysis of Socio-Economic Status Variables for New
Mexico High Schools, 2000............................................................ 50
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How School Libraries Improve Outcomes for Children:
The New Mexico Study
Table 18. Regression Analysis of School Library Development, School, and
Community SES Factors with Achievement Scores for New Mexico High
Schools, 2000 ............................................................................. 51
Table 19. Selected Library Media Statistics for New Mexico Elementary
Schools Scoring Highest and Lowest on the Fourth Grade Achievement
Test, 2000.................................................................................. 53
Table 20 . Selected Library Media Statistics for New Mexico Elementary
Schools Scoring Highest and Lowest on the Fourth Grade Achievement
Test, 2000.................................................................................. 54
Table 21. Selected Library Media Statistics for New Mexico Middle Schools
Scoring Highest and Lowest on the Eighth Grade Achievement Test,
2000.......................................................................................... 55
Table 22. Selected Library Media Statistics for New Mexico Middle Schools
Scoring Highest and Lowest on the Eighth Grade Achievement Test,
2000.......................................................................................... 56
Table 23. Selected Library Media Statistics for New Mexico High Schools
Scoring Highest and Lowest on the Tenth Grade Achievement Test, 2000
................................................................................................. 57
Table 24. Selected Library Media Statistics for New Mexico High Schools
Scoring Highest and Lowest on the Tenth Grade Achievement Test, 2000
................................................................................................. 58
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How School Libraries Improve Outcomes for Children:
The New Mexico Study
Acknowledgements
How School Libraries Improve Outcomes for Children: The New
Mexico Study was a research project directed by the New Mexico State
Library to collect information on school libraries and their relationship to
student achievement, specifically in the area of reading achievement in
grades 4, 8, and 10.
The State Library would like to thank and credit the staff of the participating
schools who made the time in their busy schedules to collect, compile, and
report data required to complete the 2001 statewide school library study.
Without their efforts, this study would not have been possible.
Very special thanks are due to the McCune Foundation for underwriting half
of the costs of this research.
Special thanks to Bill Schwarz, who did yeoman work during both the
preparation and data processing stages of this study. He assisted in
matching data across many files, mining community demographic data, and
in running the many SPSS statistical procedures that yielded the
accompanying tables.
Thanks are due to the New Mexico State Department of Education for
providing the substantial amounts of data required related to the state’s
public schools.
The review of the literature contained here updates the comprehensive
review done for the original Colorado study. Indeed, it was produced by one
of that review’s co-authors, Christine Hamilton-Pennell of Mosaic Knowledge
Works. In addition to updating her earlier effort with Lynda Welborn, she
also did an excellent job of relating previous research on this topic to the
themes of Information Power. This focus improves the organization and
readability of the literature review and makes it more relevant to the current
context of library media development.
Keith Curry Lance Marcia J. Rodney
Westminster, Colorado Louisville, Colorado
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How School Libraries Improve Outcomes for Children:
The New Mexico Study
Executive Summary
New Mexico achievement test scores rise with the development of school
library programs. The relationship between school library development and
test scores is not explained away by other school or community conditions at
the high school level. There was insufficient variation in librarian staffing to
make similar claims for the elementary and middle school levels.
School Library Development
New Mexico achievement test scores tend to rise with increases in:
school librarian and total library staff hours per 100 students;
print volumes per student;
periodical subscriptions, video materials, and software packages per 100
students; and
school library expenditures per student.
Whatever the current level of development of the school library program,
these findings indicate that incremental improvements in its staffing,
collections, and funding will yield incremental increases in reading scores.
The only caveat is that school library spending cannot exert a positive
influence on academic achievement if it comes at the expense of other
school programs.
School & Community Differences
The impact of school library development on academic achievement at the
high school level cannot be explained away by:
school differences, including:
the percentage of classroom teachers with master’s degrees,
teachers’ average years of experience, and
the teacher/pupil ratio, or
community differences, including:
the percentage of schoolchildren living in poverty,
the percentage of schoolchildren belonging to racial/ethnic minority
groups, and
the percentage of adults who graduated from high school.
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How School Libraries Improve Outcomes for Children:
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When these other conditions are taken into account, school library
development alone accounts for 7.9 percent of variation in average
achievement scores among high schools. This figure takes into account
community socio-economic status (SES), which explains 42.0 percent of
variation in high school test scores. It also considers other school conditions
that explain no additional variation beyond the 50.0 percent attributable to
the combination of community SES and school library development factors.
Similar conclusions could not be drawn from such analyses at elementary
and middle school levels, due to a lack of variation in school library staffing
at those school levels. (Most elementary schools lacked a full-time librarian;
most middle schools had precisely one full-time librarian.)
School Librarians & Strong School Libraries
School librarians exert a complex web of effects on the school library
programs. Findings about these effects are summed up in the following
description of a strong school library.
A strong school library program is one
that is adequately staffed, stocked and funded.
Minimally, this means
one full-time librarian and one full-time aide. The relationship, however,
is incremental; as the staffing, collections, and funding of school library
programs grow, reading scores rise.
whose staff are actively involved leaders in their school’s teaching and
learning enterprise. A successful school librarian is one who has the ear
and support of the principal, serves with other teachers on the school’s
standards and curriculum committees, and holds regular meetings of the
library staff. Students succeed where the school librarian participates
with classroom teachers and administrators in making management
decisions that encourage higher levels of achievement by every student.
whose staff have collegial, collaborative relationships with classroom
teachers. A successful school librarian is one who works with a classroom
teacher to identify materials that best support and enrich an instructional
unit, is a teacher of essential information literacy skills to students, and,
indeed, is a provider of in-service training opportunities to classroom
teachers. Students succeed where the school librarian is a consultant to,
a colleague with, and a teacher of other teachers.
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How School Libraries Improve Outcomes for Children:
The New Mexico Study
that embraces networked information technology.
The school library of
today is no longer a destination; it is a point of departure for accessing
the information resources that are the essential raw material of teaching
and learning. Computers in classrooms, labs and other school locations
provide networked access to information resources—the library catalog,
electronic full text, licensed databases, locally mounted databases, and
the Internet. Students succeed where the school library program is not a
place to go, apart from other sites of learning in the school, but rather an
integral part of the educational enterprise that reaches out to students
and teachers where they are.
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How School Libraries Improve Outcomes for Children:
The New Mexico Study
10
The Impact of New Mexico School Libraries on Academic Achievement
Summary of Relationships
Achievement
Scores
Grade 4 /8 / 10
School Library
Visits
Group visits
Group visits for
information skills
instruction
Individual visits
Information Resources
Print volumes
Periodical subscriptions
Electronic references
Video materials
Software packages
Library expenditures
Information
Technology
Library computers
School computers
Catalog computers
Licensed database computers
Internet computers
Library Staff
Librarian
Total staff
Staff Activities
Teaching cooperatively
Providing in-service training
Providing reading incentives
Developing collections
Managing computer network
Attending faculty meetings
Attending library staff
meetings
How School Libraries Improve Outcomes for Children:
The New Mexico Study
Introduction
For many years, the declining condition of libraries in New Mexico public
schools has been a cause for concern to the State Library. As part of a
campaign to reverse this alarming trend, the State Librarian and others
resolved to document the impact of school libraries and librarians in New
Mexico schools and to share this information with school decision-makers—
school boards, superintendents, principals, teachers, even school librarians.
In 1993, the Library Research Service of the Colorado State Library
published a landmark study, The Impact of School Library Media
Centers on Academic Achievement. Between 1999 and 2001, successor
studies were completed in Alaska, Colorado, Iowa, Massachusetts, Oregon,
Pennsylvania, and Texas. Realizing the potential for such a study in New
Mexico, the State Library designate funds from the Library Services and
Technology Act (LSTA) for this purpose.
In 2001, the State Library contracted for this study with the team of
researchers responsible for the most of the other state studies: Keith Curry
Lance, the principal investigator for this study as well as the original
“Colorado study;” Marcia J. Rodney, a library research consultant; and
Christine Hamilton-Pennell, consulting librarian and also a co-author of the
original Colorado study.
In addition to confirming in New Mexico the findings of the first Colorado
study, this project also sought to explore several issues that were explored
in the other state studies. Those issues included:
identifying characteristics of school librarians and school library programs
that affect academic achievement,
assessing the contribution of collaboration between teachers and school
librarians to the effectiveness of school library programs, and
examining the growing role of information technology in school libraries,
particularly licensed databases and the Internet.
On all three of those counts, this New Mexico study was decidedly
successful. This document reports comprehensively on the project, putting
it into perspective with past research as well as the American Association of
School Librarians’ new standards, Information Power: Building
Partnerships for Learning (1998). It also contains reports of the findings
in a variety of readily useful formats, including: an executive summary, a
brochure, and the preliminary report.
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How School Libraries Improve Outcomes for Children:
The New Mexico Study
Review of the Literature
This study aims to replicate and expand upon previous research showing a
link between student academic achievement and the school library media
program. With the move to standards-based education, which focuses on
what students have learned
(proficiencies or outcomes) rather than what is
taught (coverage of content), the school library media specialist is in a
unique position to help students develop the information literacy skills which
will enable them to achieve standards.
The new edition of Information Power: Building Partnerships for
Learning (ALA, 1998), reflects a change in emphasis for school library
media programs, from providing resources to students to creating a
community of lifelong learners. Three overlapping roles are identified for
school library media specialists (LMSs) in this document. The learning and
teaching role supports the instructional goals of the school in both content
(standards and subject curriculum) and process (information literacy skills).
The information access and delivery
role encompasses the more traditional
responsibilities of the LMS, those of developing the media center's collection
and services and providing access to them. A third role, program
administration, includes both management of the library media program and
larger training and advocacy functions within the school community.
This review of the research organizes the research findings under the three
roles identified for the LMS in Information Power (1998). Many of the
research studies were conducted in the context of the earlier guidelines,
Information Power: Guidelines for School Library Media Programs
(ALA, 1988). Although some of the goals in the document have changed,
the underlying mission statement remains the same:
The mission of the library media program is to ensure that students
and staff are effective users of ideas and information. This mission is
accomplished:
by providing intellectual and physical access to materials in all formats
by providing instruction to foster competence and stimulate interest in
reading, viewing, and using information and ideas
by working with other educators to design learning strategies to meet the
needs of individual students. (ALA, 1998, p. 1)
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How School Libraries Improve Outcomes for Children:
The New Mexico Study
Presence of a Library Media Center with a Professional Library Media
Specialist
Many studies conducted before the advent of the Information Power
Guidelines dealt with the value of the mere presence of a library with a
professional librarian, reflecting the lack of centralized library service,
particularly at the elementary level. Willson (1965) showed that students
demonstrated superior gains on the Iowa Test of Basic Skills (ITBS) in
elementary schools with a centralized library and a professional librarian.
Likewise, Becker (1970) compared ITBS scores between students in
elementary schools with and without libraries and found that the presence of
a library and the guidance and function of a librarian appeared to exert
significant influence on pupil achievement in some information-gathering
skills areas.
In the study by Hale (1969), SAT scores improved among students receiving
library service from a professional. McMillen (1965) found that students in
schools with good libraries and full-time librarians performed at higher levels
in reading comprehension and in knowledge and use of reference materials
than students in schools with minimal or no library service. Didier (1982)
confirmed that student achievement in reading, study skills and use of
newspapers was significantly greater at the seventh grade level in schools
with professional library media personnel as compared to schools without
them. Student access to the library media center was also significantly
greater in schools with professional library media personnel than in schools
without them.
Yarling (1968) found that the addition of a well-equipped and managed
centralized library had a significant impact on the performance of elementary
school students in library-related skills, particularly outlining and note
taking. Students who used a new fully staffed and equipped elementary
school library also showed significant improvement in library skills test
scores in the study by Ainsworth (1969). McConnaha (1972) found that the
library skills test scores of high school students who had attended an
elementary school with both a library and a librarian who conducted a strong
library skills program were significantly higher than those of students who
did not have these advantages.
Recent statistics show that public schools have moved in the direction of
providing professionally-staffed library media programs at all levels. In a
U.S. Department of Education-funded study conducted recently (Michie and
Cheney, 2000), survey results indicate that as of 1997, 98 percent of public
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How School Libraries Improve Outcomes for Children:
The New Mexico Study
schools have a school library media center, and 78 percent of public schools
have a state-certified library media specialist.
Learning and Teaching
Early Studies
Some research studies before the advent of Information Power
Guidelines in 1988 referred to various aspects of the LMS's teaching role.
Aaron (1975) studied a group of eighth grade students who participated in a
program in which a full-time media specialist was added to the teaching
team. In addition to showing significant improvement in language arts,
spelling, and math computation, the students in the experimental group
experienced improvement in their self-concept. Bailey (1970) studied a
group of disadvantaged first-grade students who participated in a library
resource program over a 12-week period. The experimental group showed a
significant increase in total language ability and the ability to express ideas
over the control group of disadvantaged students who received no special
treatment. DeBlauw (1973) examined the rate of cognitive growth of
students on achievement test batteries before and after implementation of a
multi-media program. Elementary students showed significant gains, but
the academic performance of high school students was unchanged by the
program. A longer-term study of twelfth grade English students by Gilliland
(1986) found that test scores on the study-locational portion of the
California Assessment Program improved during the years following
implementation of a library review program.
Gengler (1965) looked at differences in the ability to apply selected problem
solving skills between sixth grade students who were instructed by a
classroom teacher and those who received additional instruction from an
elementary school librarian. Findings showed that the mean score on a
problem solving skills examination for the librarian-teacher instructed group
was significantly higher than for the teacher instructed group. Hastings and
Tanner (1963) looked at whether improved English language skills could be
developed at the tenth-grade level through systematic library experiences
rather than the traditional emphasis on formal English grammar. The group
that eliminated all traditional emphasis on formal grammar and spelling and
instead received systematic work in the use of library references was
significantly superior to the groups that emphasized traditional work in
grammar and spelling.
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How School Libraries Improve Outcomes for Children:
The New Mexico Study
In a study by Hutchinson (1982), English teachers gave tenth-grade
students special library skills instruction and practice over a two-week
period. Library usage among the students increased regardless of their
academic grade point averages. Hale (1970) found that an experimental
group of twelfth grade students who were given a variety of library services
and resources and the opportunity to work independently under the
supervision of the librarian showed "remarkable enthusiasm" for learning.
Barrilleaux (1965) focused on a comparison of the achievement of junior
high school students in general science classes in which textbooks were used
with students who used reference materials in the school library rather than
a textbook. Results showed that for all investigated educational outcomes,
the use of library materials without a basic textbook was the superior
method of instruction.
Instructional Role Since Information Power Guidelines
Much of the research taking place after the introduction of the Information
Power Guidelines in 1988 focuses on the instructional role of the school
library media specialist. Lance, Welborn and Hamilton-Pennell (1993) found
that students whose library media specialists played an instructional role,
either by identifying materials to be used with teacher-planned instructional
units or by collaborating with teachers in planning instructional units, tended
to achieve higher reading scores. A study by the Library Research Service in
Colorado (1998a) also found that students earned higher reading scores in
schools where the LMS played a vital instructional role, including planning
instruction with teachers, providing information literacy instruction,
providing in-service training for teachers, and evaluating students' work.
Five recent statewide studies reinforce the importance of the LMS
instructional role. A study conducted in Alaska (Lance, Hamilton-Pennell and
Rodney, 2000) revealed that students' test scores tended to rise when
library staff spent more time teaching information literacy to students and
planning instructional units with teachers. In Pennsylvania (Lance, Rodney
and Hamilton-Pennell, 2000a), test scores increased as LMSs spent more
time teaching cooperatively with classroom teachers and integrating
information literacy skills into the school's approach to standards and
curriculum. A new study in Colorado (Lance, Rodney and Hamilton-Pennell,
2000b) concluded that reading test scores rise as LMSs plan cooperatively
with teachers (at the 7th grade level), identify materials for teachers, and
teach information literacy skills to students. A Massachusetts study by
Baughman (2000) found that both elementary and middle school students
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How School Libraries Improve Outcomes for Children:
The New Mexico Study
tended to score higher on the Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment
System (MCAS) test when there was a library instruction program. Likewise,
in Oregon (Lance, Rodney, and Hamilton-Pennell, 2001), students tended to
score higher on reading tests when their LMSs worked with classroom
teachers to identify materials to support and enrich instructional units,
taught essential information literacy skills to students, and provided in-
service training opportunities to classroom teachers.
Gap Between Theory and Practice
Nevertheless, several researchers have identified a gap between theory and
practice. Person (1993) found a discrepancy between the real and ideal role
perceptions of LMSs. While they were aware of the roles identified in the
Guidelines, they didn't perform them as often as they would have liked.
Pickard (1993) also studied the gap between theory and practice of LMSs
performing the instructional role and found that less than 10 percent of her
sample appeared to be practicing the role to a great extent. Angelo (1994)
verified this finding in a study which showed that the majority of LMSs were
performing duties of the traditional librarian, such as student orientation and
assisting students and teachers in finding materials, while a low percentage
were performing planning and consultation roles. Kuhne (1993) concluded
that school libraries need to be more integrated into the curriculum and that
the school librarian could play a much more distinctive teacher role than he
or she does today.
McCarthy (1997) studied LMSs who were "well above average" in the New
England region and found that 58 percent of them believed that
implementation of Information Power Guidelines was only somewhat
realizable or not realizable at all. McCracken (2000), in a national survey of
more than 500 LMSs, found that they perceived all the roles in Information
Power (1988, 1998) to be more important than they were able to
implement in practice. They also perceived that they practiced the role of
information specialist (i.e., the traditional role of the librarian) to a greater
extent than that of program administrator, teacher, or instructional partner
and consultant.
Level of LMS Collaboration with Teachers
Instructional collaboration has many levels, and research indicates that LMSs
are most often involved in the less complex levels. Slygh (2000) reports on
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How School Libraries Improve Outcomes for Children:
The New Mexico Study
the difficulty of establishing exactly what is meant by the term
“collaboration.” She uses a definition by Van Deusen and Tallman (1994)
that delineates an interdependent relationship between LMS and classroom
teacher involving a continuum of five progressively complex levels of
instructional collaboration, from gathering materials to collaborating with a
teacher to evaluate a unit. Slygh found that teachers in her sample of
Library Power schools indicated a greater frequency of collaborating with the
LMS in planning and designing instruction than in delivering it.
A study by DeGroff (1997) compared the ideal roles of the LMS as laid out in
Information Power (1988) with the actual practice of these roles. She
determined that the instructional consultant activities of LMSs were usually
limited to gathering books for instructional units and seldom involved
participating with teachers in developing, carrying out, or assessing unit
plans. Van Deusen and Tallman (1994) found that more than half of their
sample of LMSs did not assess student work at all during the study period.
Michie and Chaney (2000) found that the overall percentage of library media
centers working with teachers on curriculum development, collaboratively
teaching curriculum units with classroom teachers or collaboratively
evaluating curriculum units with classroom teachers ranged from two
percent to 21 percent, depending on the subjects taught. The greatest
amount of collaboration was with reading or English teachers.
Mosqueda (1999) studied the roles played by LMSs in 67 Florida schools
named as National Blue Ribbon Schools. While the overwhelming majority
of responding principals and LMSs agreed that the library media programs
performed well in program administration and information access and
delivery, an average of 75 percent of principals and LMSs thought the library
media programs needed to be more fully integrated into the curriculum.
Mosqueda's data does show a higher percentage of LMSs who spend time
planning instruction with teachers on a daily (40 percent) or weekly (80
percent) basis than other research studies cited, which may indicate that
LMSs in exemplary schools perform the instructional role more often than
their counterparts in less well-recognized schools.
Barriers to Collaboration
Barriers to LMSs practicing the instructional role include the attitudes of both
LMSs and teachers, as well as program limitations such as fixed scheduling,
limited resources, and lack of technology. Lai (1995) found no significant
differences between teachers' and media specialists' attitudes regarding the
LMS's role in curriculum development, instructional development and
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How School Libraries Improve Outcomes for Children:
The New Mexico Study
technology use. Both groups believed the LMS had only a marginal role in
designing and producing materials for units. Beaird (1999) found that key
barriers to collaboration were time, desire to maintain the status quo, and
lack of resources. In a national survey of LMSs by McCracken (2000), the
biggest barriers cited to expanding their instructional role were lack of time
and resources, specifically funding and clerical help. Several researchers
(e.g., Slygh, 2000; Beaird, 1999; DeGroff, 1997) point to role confusion or
role conflict of LMSs themselves, as well as lack of understanding of the
instructional role of the LMS among the teachers and administrators they
work with, as inhibiting expanded collaboration activities.
Positive Effects of Flexible Scheduling
Giorgis (1994) discovered that the majority of elementary school teachers
perceived the LMS as a resource person and only a few as a collaborator.
Nevertheless, during the course of her study Giorgis found that these views
changed. Through flexible scheduling and collaborative planning, the
perceptions of the LMS's role by classroom teachers, administrators, children
and parents became one of teacher and collaborator.
Other researchers also attest to the positive effects of moving to flexible
scheduling. Bishop (1992) found that the most significant changes in the
role of the LMS occurred with the move to flexible scheduling and
curriculum-integrated instruction. Fedora (1993) compared two exemplary
school library media centers, one with fixed and one with flexible scheduling
and found that the LMS participated more often in planning with teachers
and as an instructional consultant in the flexibly-scheduled program. Van
Deusen (1993) and van Deusen and Tallman (1994) found that LMSs in
schools that combined both flexible scheduling and team planning had
significantly more curriculum involvement. Hughes (1998), in her study of
four library media programs in schools implementing whole language
programs, found that all four LMSs moved to flexible scheduling in the LMC
during the course of implementation and were able to provide leadership and
direction in creating a library program that promoted the active construction
of knowledge. Likewise, Beaird (1999) reported that one of the major
enhancers to increased collaboration was flexible scheduling, and McCracken
(2000) found that LMSs who use flexible scheduling perceived that they
implemented the role of instructional consultant more than those who used
fixed or combination scheduling.
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How School Libraries Improve Outcomes for Children:
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Positive Effects of Collaboration
Research indicates that a collaborative environment begets more
collaboration. Beaird (1999) discovered that as a result of a first experience
with collaboration with the LMS, teachers were made aware of the presence
of another professional on their campuses who could engage in collaborative
planning and teaching. LMSs became more aware of teachers’ needs as they
provide for regular students as well as those with special needs. Straessle
(2000), in her case study of a suburban junior high school, concludes that
the more teachers and administrators understand and experience the role of
the LMS as an instructional consultant, the more likely their perceptions will
change and expectations increase, thus improving teacher instruction and
student learning. Slygh (2000) reports that LMSs’ perceptions of the degree
to which their school climate was a professional community affected the
amount of instructional collaboration they performed.
Positive Effects of Technology
Technology can also support the instructional role. Everhart (1992) found
that high school library media specialists with automated circulation systems
spent significantly more time in instructional development and use of
technology than those without automated systems, although the actual time
spent in development of the educational program was quite low. Van
Deusen (1996a) found that both flexible scheduling and library automation
were positively related to the LMS performing an instructional consultation
role, as well as providing electronic support for teachers using technology,
providing individual assistance to students, and reducing the amount of time
spent on clerical duties. Jones (1994) concluded that technology expands
the teacher-librarian partnership possibilities in literature-based instruction.
E. W. Smith (1998) studied the changes occurring in media centers in
Dekalb County, Georgia after the incorporation of technology, and found
both that the media center program was a viable component of the school's
curriculum and that the media specialist's role as teacher, information
consultant, and information specialist had expanded.
Characteristics of Library Media Specialist
Perhaps the most important factor in successfully implementing the
instructional role is the characteristics and skills of the school library media
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specialist himself or herself. Yetter (1994) found that LMSs successfully
involved in resource-based learning were energetic, healthy and
enthusiastic; showed leadership abilities; had theoretical understanding of
resource-based learning; had the ability to translate theory into effective
instructional plans; and were knowledgeable about specific learning
resources. These LMSs saw teaching as their primary function. As a result,
the colleagues of these LMSs saw them as vital participants in the
instructional process. Esser (1999) interviewed 18 female LMSs in Kentucky
to discover their initial motivations for entering the field and discovered that
a desire for autonomy was high on the list. Her data suggested that these
teacher-librarians achieve a greater degree of autonomy when they are
collaborating with teachers, and they negotiate these relationships and
create effective networks in order to carry out their work.
Farwell (1998) found that LMSs could play a pivotal role in the successful
implementation of collaborative planning if they were knowledgeable about
the curriculum, the library collection, information literacy instruction, and
instructional design and delivery. They also needed to have good
interpersonal skills and be willing to act as change agents. Van Deusen's
(1996b) case study of a school library media specialist involved in an
instructional planning process showed that she contributed as a peer and
helped to clarify, initiate, summarize and test the discussion ideas. DeGroff
(1997) concludes from her survey data that the most important factors
supporting opportunities for teachers and LMSs to work together effectively
were the librarian’s knowledge, personality, and attitudes or interests.
K. G. Alexander (1992) studied four exemplary LMSs and found that they
fulfilled most of the aspects of the instructional role. They spent large
portions of each day giving instruction, effectively managed class and
teaching time, provided instruction related to the curriculum, and used
innovative instructional methods. They also instructed different sections of
the school community, ensured that their media center had resources to
support the changing curriculum, and assisted teachers in planning
classroom instruction. Gehlken (1994) studied the school library media
programs in three blue ribbon high schools and came to similar conclusions.
In all three schools, there was a cooperative relationship between the LMS
and the faculty, with opportunities for collaborative planning and integrating
information skills into the classroom curriculum. The students in all three
schools overwhelmingly indicated that the most important service provided
by the school library media program was help from the LMS in finding and
evaluating information. Bell and Totten (1992) found that teachers
employed in academically successful schools tended to choose the library
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media specialist significantly more for cooperation on instructional problems
than did teachers serving in academically unsuccessful elementary schools.
Other Aspects of the Instructional Role
Another aspect of the LMS's learning and teaching role identified in
Information Power (1998) is to encourage and engage students in
reading, viewing, and listening for understanding and enjoyment. Yetter
(1994) found that LMSs involved in resource-based learning were
enthusiastic about reading and books. Lai (1995) found that teachers and
LMSs both strongly agreed that the LMS should work with teachers in
helping students to develop the habit of reading.
In Australia, Todd, Lamb and McNicholas (1993) studied Year-Seven and
Year-Eleven students and found that integrating information skills into
subject content, with collaboration by classroom teachers and LMSs, had a
positive impact on student learning, including better understanding of
subject content and improved test scores. Todd (1995) analyzed the impact
of integrated information skills instruction in a Year-Seven science class.
The two treatment classes recorded significantly higher annual science
scores than the control classes.
The adoption of state content standards and the movement towards
standards-based instruction and assessment is too recent to have a
substantial research base as yet. N. A. Alexander (1998) determined that
standards policy is generally associated with improved student performance,
although there are disturbing equity issues. In the school library field, a few
research studies to date have looked at the connection between integrating
information literacy skills into the curriculum and improved student learning.
Grover and Lakin (1998) reported on the development and testing of a
Kansas model which integrates information skills into planning and assessing
learning across the curriculum. Teachers and librarians who participated in
the study indicated that the model facilitated student learning in all grade
levels studied and for units of any length. The "integrated assignment"
stage of the model was reported as a key to enhancing student learning.
In regard to standards-based education, one of the more interesting
developments of the past decade has been the elaboration and proliferation
of the value-added assessment model originated in Tennessee by Sanders,
et. al. (1997). This model is being considered in Colorado and other states
as a method for evaluating the performance of both schools and teachers.
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In the author’s most authoritative account to date, he reports that the
strongest predictor of year-to-year improvement in students’ test scores is
teacher quality. To date, however, there have been no further reports from
Sanders or others defining precisely what “teacher quality” means in
empirical terms. Decades of library media research findings indicate that
one major factor that has demonstrated consistently a positive, strong, and
statistically significant relationship to quality teaching is a close working
relationship between the classroom teacher and the library media specialist.
Information Access and Delivery
The information access and delivery role includes providing quality resources
and technology that support the curriculum, offering convenient and flexible
access to the media center's resources and services, and providing a
welcoming environment that is conducive to learning. Recent studies show
that LMSs still perceive this role to be their most important one, and the one
they practice most often in reality (DeGroff, 1997; McCracken, 2000).
Early studies focused on service level and collection size as predictors of
academic achievement. Greve (1974) discovered that the most valuable
predictor of student test scores was the number of volumes in the school
library. Thorne (1967) examined the reading comprehension and library
skills of students using the augmented services of a Knapp Project library
versus the nominal services of a second junior high school library in a two-
year study. Findings revealed a significant difference in the mean gains of
the experimental group over the control group in reading comprehension
and library skills.
Access to Print Resources
More recent studies have focused on the connection between students'
achievement in reading and access to print resources, particularly in
libraries. The first Colorado study by Lance, Welborn and Hamilton-Pennell
(1993) concluded that the size of a media center's staff and collection is the
best school predictor of academic achievement. In that study, academic
achievement was represented by reading scores, which were highly
correlated with scores in other areas, such as writing and research skills.
Elley (1994, 1996) compared the scores of students from 32 countries on
the 1992 International Association for the Evaluation of Educational
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Achievements (IEA) Reading Literacy Study with data on the home
environment and school and public libraries. He concluded that access to
print, and especially the size of the school library, was the strongest
predictor of reading achievement. Froese (1997) compared the IEA reading
scores for British Columbia with variables related to school and classroom
libraries and found that students who have the opportunity to borrow books
from libraries have a considerable achievement advantage over those who
cannot.
In his meta-analysis of reading research studies, Krashen (1993) concluded
that more free voluntary reading results in better reading comprehension,
writing style, vocabulary, spelling and grammatical development. He also
determined that when books are readily available and the print environment
is rich, more reading is done. Even second-language learners will be more
successful in language acquisition when they read more in the second
language. Children get a substantial percentage of their books--from 30 to
90 percent--from school, classroom and public libraries. They also read
more when they have a comfortable, quiet place to read, such as the school
library. Ramos and Krashen (1998) concluded that simply providing
interesting books to children is a powerful incentive for reading, perhaps the
most powerful incentive possible.
McQuillan (1997) drew similar conclusions. He found that access to print via
the home, school and public library, and frequency of free reading accounted
for nearly 80 percent of the variance in fourth grade reading test scores. He
also reported a correlation between school and public library quality, library
use, and amount of reading done by school children. In McQuillan's (1998)
meta-analysis of literacy studies, there was considerable evidence that the
amount and quality of students' access to reading materials is substantively
related to the amount of reading they engage in, which in turn is the most
significant determinant of reading achievement. More reading leads to
better reading achievement.
Other researchers have also demonstrated a relationship between free
voluntary reading and academic achievement. Digiovanna (1994) found that
the amount of recreational reading was positively correlated with higher
academic achievement levels for third, fifth, and seventh graders. Halliwell
(1995) demonstrated a relationship between eighth graders' self-perceptions
of being free voluntary readers and the degree of their success on the
Missouri Writing Assessment. Lipscomb (1993) reported on the self-selected
recreational reading of first through third-graders over a nine-week period in
the summer and found that the total number of words read was a significant
predictor of students' overall reading achievement and word recognition.
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How School Libraries Improve Outcomes for Children:
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Access to print through public libraries has been shown to contribute to
students' academic achievement. A Library Research Service study (no.
153, 1998) reported that in Colorado school districts scoring in the highest
third on the 1997 Colorado State Assessment reading test, circulation of
children's materials per capita by public libraries was 50 percent higher than
in school districts scoring in the lowest. There were similar results for states
scoring highest on the NAEP reading test. Ramos and Krashen (1998)
reported that even one classroom trip per month to the public library had a
positive impact on students' reading. McQuillan (1997) found that SAT
scores were positively correlated with per capita public library circulation.
School-Public Library Relationship
A Library Research Service study (no. 150, 1998) reported that students are
likely to earn higher reading scores if there is a relationship between the
library media program and local public libraries. Such a relationship might
include public library staff presenting booktalks at the school library, and the
local public library providing a summer reading program. Similarly, Lance,
Hamilton-Pennell and Rodney (2000a) found that Alaska students' test
scores tended to be higher when the LMC had a cooperative relationship with
the public library. Michie and Chaney (2000) reported that 60 percent of
LMCs participated in some type of cooperative activity with a local public
library, including borrowing materials for teachers or the LMC, informing the
public library of curriculum or homework needs, and coordinating class visits
to the public library.
School Library and Equity Issues
Several researchers point to the potential importance of the school library as
a factor in equalizing access to print resources for disadvantaged children.
McQuillan (1997, 1998) found a strong negative correlation between poverty
and print resources at home. He concluded that school and public libraries
could help increase access to print for low-income communities and schools,
thus improving their students' reading achievement. The survey data
collected by Baughman (2000) suggest that children from a lower
socioeconomic stratum who have a school library program obtain a higher
mean test score than similar children from schools without such a program.
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Halle, Kurtz-Costes and Mahoney (1997) reported that the number of books
in the homes of low-income, African-American children was related to
children's reading scores at the end of the following year. They concluded
that providing access to children's books through libraries may be one of the
most important things disadvantaged communities and schools can do.
McQuillan (1998a) studied the public library use of language minority
students and found that Spanish-speaking households are much less likely to
have access to books, and, therefore, fewer opportunities to further literacy
development. He concludes that both public and school libraries must make
concerted efforts to reach out to language minority parents and their
children. Godina reports that Mexican-background students demonstrate
different literacy practices in their homes and communities than those
acknowledged at school, where they are viewed as having limited English
proficiency and enrolled in low academic tracks. The local public library
becomes an important locale for these students' literacy learning because it
provides culturally-relevant reading materials.
Unfortunately, school libraries often appear to reflect the economic
conditions of their communities. Krashen and O'Brian (1996) reported that
socio-economic status was the most powerful predictor of student reading
achievement in the Los Angeles Unified School District. Both Krashen
(1996) and McQuillan (1998) made the point that the low student reading
scores in California could be traced to the deplorable state of its school and
public libraries. Allington, Guice, Baker, Michelson, and Li (1995) studied
the variations in access to books in school libraries in twelve high- and low-
income neighborhoods. They discovered that high-income schools had 21.5
books per student, whereas the low-income schools had 15.4 volumes. They
also discovered disparities in number of magazine subscriptions, size of
classroom libraries and access policies. McQuillan, LeMoine, Brandlin and
O'Brian (1997) studied access to school libraries and found that students in
high-achieving schools serving largely middle-class children provided greater
access to books, more time to read in school, and more liberal circulation
policies than those from lower-achieving schools in largely low-income
neighborhoods. Smith, Constantino and Krashen (1996) found, not
surprisingly, that school libraries in high income communities such as
Beverly Hills had around three times as many books per student as school
libraries in low-income communities such as Compton and Watts. Public
libraries in high-income communities also had about twice as many books as
those in low-income communities.
Two recent studies reinforce these conclusions. Duke (2000) studied 20
first-grade classrooms from very low- and very high-socioeconomic status
(SES) districts. Data indicated substantial differences between low- and
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How School Libraries Improve Outcomes for Children:
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high-SES classrooms in all major areas examined--amount of print
experienced, type of print experienced, and number of print-related
activities. Neuman and Celano (2001) focused on the neighborhood settings
in which literacy begins for young children, and the extent to which literacy
is a potential factor contributing to differences in achievement. What they
found was striking. Access to print resources, including children’s books
available for purchase, public areas where children might observe people
reading, and the size and quality of book collections in local childcare
centers, school and public libraries, varied dramatically between the
neighborhoods of middle- and low-income children. Children from middle-
income neighborhoods were likely to be deluged with a wide variety of
reading materials, while children from poor neighborhoods would have to
“aggressively and persistently seeks them out.” These children would have
to rely on public institutions, which provided unequal resources. School
libraries in these neighborhoods were in serious disrepair.
A case study of a Library Power elementary school in Chattanooga (Oberg,
1999) shows that the library media program can make a difference in a low-
income school. Lakeside Elementary School, largely composed of low-
income African-American children, improved LMC collections and facilities,
developed collaborative planning between teachers and librarians through
professional development; provided flexible scheduling to the LMC; and
hired a full-time LMS. The school experienced dramatic improvements in
student learning, as evidenced by scores on the TCAP (Tennessee
Comprehensive Assessment Program), that are attributable at least in part
to the Library Power Initiative.
Size of Library Media Center Collection
Size of the school library collection has been shown to be a positive predictor
of student academic achievement (Greve, 1974; Lance, Welborn and
Hamilton-Pennell, 1993; Elley, 1996). Baughman (2000) and Lance, Rodney
and Hamilton-Pennell (2000b) found that the per pupil book count was
correlated with higher test scores. Lance, et al, (2001) also found that
Oregon reading test scores rose with increases in print volumes per student
and periodical subscriptions per 100 students. Krashen (1995) found that a
significant predictor of NAEP reading comprehension test scores was the
number of books per student in school library media centers. Similarly,
McQuillan (1997) reported that SAT scores were positively correlated with
the number of books per student in the school library. Krashen and O'Brian
(1996) did not find a significant relationship between books per student and
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How School Libraries Improve Outcomes for Children:
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student achievement in the Los Angeles Unified School District. They
postulated that the number of books in a school library has little effect on
literacy if access to them is restricted, the books are badly out of date, and
students do not know where they are, as is the case in many California
school libraries.
Frequency of School Library Use
Frequency of library use has also been positively linked to student
achievement scores. Baughman (2000) found that students at each grade
level score higher when there is increased use of the LMC and more open
hours at the library. Koga and Harada (1989) investigated the attitudes of
students in Australia, Japan, Korea and Thailand towards school libraries and
found that students with a keen attitude toward learning tended to use the
library more often and demonstrated better academic achievement. The
LMS at Lakeside Elementary School, a Library Power elementary school in
Chattanooga (Oberg, 1999), found a direct relationship between the number
of times students had been in the library and the level of their test scores in
reading comprehension and reference skills. A Library Research Service
report (no. 149, 1998) showed that states with above average reading
scores on the 1994 NAEP reading test have schools where students visit the
school library media center more frequently and borrow more books and
other materials.
Flexible scheduling appears to support more frequent library use by
individual students. Fedora (1993) found that in a flexibly scheduled library
media program, students have more frequent access individually and in
small groups than in a fixed-schedule program, where nonscheduled use is
rare. Van Deusen (1996b) reported that instances of the LMS providing
individual assistance to students was higher in flexible than fixed schedule
situations. Lance, Rodney and Hamilton-Pennell (2000b) found that middle
schools with high test scores tend to have LMCs that report a higher number
of individual visits to the LMC on a per-student basis.
The extent to which flexible scheduling occurs in library media centers varies
by type of school and educational level. According to recent survey results
(Michie and Chaney, 2000), 95 percent of public secondary school library
media centers and 60 percent of public elementary school library media
centers (70 percent total) report that they use flexible scheduling, although
it is most often used in combination with regular scheduling as well.
Mosqueda (1999) reports a similar figure, with 75 percent of the LMCs of the
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How School Libraries Improve Outcomes for Children:
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reporting National Blue Ribbon Schools operating on a flexible schedule.
Abdoler-Shroyer (1999) reports that in her population of Missouri's
combined K-12 schools, 88 percent of the districts responding used the LMC
for teacher released time at the elementary level, with 87 percent seeing
students on a fixed schedule. At the high school level, 83 percent schedule
high school classes on a flexible basis.
Role of Library Media Specialist in Program Development
The role of the LMS in developing and providing access to the library media
program has received a fair amount of attention in the research. Pembroke
(1997) found that, when school librarians provide reading guidance or a
bibliography, reluctant fifth grade readers can be motivated. Other
motivating factors included access to the library and books; an adequate
collection of print and non-print materials; and an inviting environment.
Martin (1996) found that as library services increased (including reference,
information skills, curriculum integration, interlibrary loan, reading guidance,
and technical assistance), third grade test scores also increased. She found
a statistically significant relationship among all the library media center
variables (collection size, expenditures for the collection, staffing, and
services) and overall achievement in grades 3, 5, and 11, indicating that the
whole is greater than the sum of its parts. A Library Research Service study
(no. 150, 1998) reported that students are likely to earn higher reading
scores if there is a collection development policy for the school library media
center. Lance, Hamilton-Pennell and Rodney (2000) also found that Alaska
students' test scores tend to be higher when the LMC has a strong collection
development policy.
K. G. Alexander's (1992) study of four exemplary media specialists found
that they all provided continuous access to their media centers; assisted
individual users; designed flexible circulation policies; used innovative
methods to promote their media centers; and developed media center
collections which supported all areas of the curriculum. Gehlken (1994)
reported that in all three blue ribbon high schools studied, the LMS flexibly
scheduled classes; organized and cataloged the collection; provided an
inviting climate conducive to learning; assisted students in traditional and
electronic methods of information access; and involved faculty in the
selection of materials. The media centers in all three schools were
organized, automated, easily accessible, and provided materials in a variety
of formats across all levels and subject areas. The media center facilities
were inviting, aesthetically pleasing, safe, and user-friendly.
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Role of Technology in Student Academic Achievement
The role of technology in promoting student achievement has been the focus
of several recent studies. In their review of educational technology
research, Sivin-Kachala, Bialo, and Langford (1997) concluded that using
technology has a positive effect on student achievement, attitudes toward
learning, and student self-concept. Silverstein, Frechtling and Miyaoka
(2000) found that technology usage had a small but significant impact on
Illinois students' achievement, particularly at the higher grade levels,
specifically eleventh grade science. Paul, VanderZee, Rue and Swanson
(1996) reported that using the Accelerated Reader technology-based literacy
program had a positive affect on student academic performance and
attendance rates, especially for socio-economically disadvantaged children in
urban areas. Peters (1998), on the other hand, found no significant
difference in reading achievement when students used the technology-based
Electronic Bookshelf Program.
Wenglinsky (1998) found a positive correlation between computer use and
academic achievement in mathematics, but only if computers were used to
convey higher-order skills or engage in learning games. Use of computers
for drill and practice, the lower-order skills, was negatively related to
academic achievement for both fourth and eighth grade students.
Significantly, disadvantaged groups had less access to those aspects of
technology that positively affected educational outcomes. Page (1999)
reported that the presence of classroom technology had a positive effect on
the mathematics achievement of low socioeconomic elementary school
students, although reading achievement remained inconclusive.
DeFrieze (1998) found that reading achievement appears to be more
influenced than mathematics achievement by the use of computers,
particularly in an unstructured environment. She speculates that in an
unstructured environment teachers have more control over the programs
each student accesses, which may be the key to influencing students' higher
achievement in reading. A significant finding by Bohannon (1998) is that
high frequency of school computer use results in students earning
significantly higher mean scores on reading achievement tests. This is true
for males and females, as well as high and low socioeconomic groups. She
concludes that frequent use of computers requires more continuous reading
practice, regardless of the activity.
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How School Libraries Improve Outcomes for Children:
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Integrating Technology into the Library Media Center
There is perhaps no place where the library media specialist's role has
changed more in the last ten years than in the integration of technology.
Person (1993) reported that LMSs don't see a separate, organized
technological media role for themselves, but see technology as a means to
accomplish the goals and missions of the media center program as
expounded in Information Power (1988). A Library Research Service
report (no. 141, 1998) concluded that students earn higher reading scores if
their school library media programs incorporate the latest information
technology. Such technology includes a district-wide catalog, access to
online databases, resources available through a local-area network, and
access to the World Wide Web and the statewide library network. Lewanski
(1998) showed a statistically-significant correlation between the use of
computer-assisted library research and improvement in overall critical
thinking skills. The control group, using a traditional paper-based process
did not show such a relationship.
Lance, Rodney and Hamilton-Pennell (2000a) found that Pennsylvania
students' test scores increase as LMSs spend more time managing
information technology. Students also earn higher reading test scores in
both Pennsylvania and Colorado (Lance, Rodney and Hamilton-Pennell,
2000b) where networked computers link school libraries with classrooms,
labs and other instructional sites, enabling access to LMC resources, licensed
databases and the Internet. Alaska students' test scores tend to be higher
when the LMC is equipped to provide access to the Internet (Lance,
Hamilton-Pennell and Rodney, 2000).
An Illinois study (Silverstein, Frechtling and Miyaoka, 2000) revealed that
almost all Illinois schools are now connected to the Internet. McCracken
(2000) found that 99% of high school LMCs, 95% of middle school LMCs,
and 84% of elementary school LMCs had Internet access. Nevertheless,
access to technology in school library media centers still varies widely.
Powell's (1998) survey of 300 elementary and secondary school library
media centers in Tennessee revealed a wide variability in technology access.
McCarthy (1997) found that less than 50 percent of the New England school
library media centers in her sample had automated circulation and
cataloging systems, and these were mostly in middle and high school
libraries. McCracken’s figures (2000) show that the percentage of LMCs with
online catalogs ranged from 60% in elementary schools to 84% in high
schools. She also reported that LMSs perceive that integrating technology
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How School Libraries Improve Outcomes for Children:
The New Mexico Study
into the LMP is more important than the extent to which they perceive they
have actually implemented it into their practice.
High-achieving schools tend to have more technological resources. Baule
(1997) found that schools with exemplary technology were also more likely
to have high-quality school library media programs. Yetter (1994) observed
that the library media centers in successful resource-based learning schools
had modern, spacious facilities designed for flexible use and access to
technology. Gehlken (1994) noted that all three blue ribbon schools studied
had library media centers which were committed to increasing student
access to technology, and which had the flexibility and electronic capabilities
to accommodate the changing needs created by new technologies. Students
identified the electronic catalog, computer printer workstations and copying
machines as some of the most important services provided by the library
media program.
As Wenglinksy (1998) and DeFrieze (1998) demonstrated, it is not the
amount of technology or computer use that counts in promoting student
achievement, but how
it is used. Many researchers (for example, McQuillan,
1996; Lance, Welborn and Hamilton-Pennell, 1993) have found no
correlation between reading achievement and amount of computer software
available. Technology must be integrated into the school library media
program to influence academic achievement. An elementary school in
California with a high Latino population (Ferguson, 2000) saw student
achievement gains that were attributed to the technological upgrade of the
LMC. Reading scores rose 8% from the previous year after the school hired
a professional LMS who refurbished the LMC’s technological resources and
added reading literacy programs such as Accelerated Reader and the
S.T.A.R. Reading testing program.
Program Administration
The program administration role involves effective management of the
human, financial and physical resources of the library media program. This
role also provides leadership within the larger learning community.
Adequate staffing, budget, and administrative support are key to the success
of this role. When all these factors are maximized, research studies show a
dramatic impact on student achievement.
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Maximizing Predictors of Student Achievement
Lance, Rodney and Hamilton-Pennell (2000b) found that when all LMC
predictors of students achievement (i.e., staffing, expenditures, information
resources and technology) are maximized, Colorado reading test scores tend
to run 18 percent higher in the fourth grade and 10 percent higher in the
seventh grade. In Pennsylvania (Lance, Rodney and Hamilton-Pennell
2000a), reading test scores tend to run 10 to 15 points higher when LMC
predictors (i.e., staffing expenditures, information resources and technology,
and information literacy activities of library staff), are maximized. In Alaska
elementary schools with well-developed library media programs, 86 percent
of students scored proficient or above on state reading tests compared with
73 percent of students in schools with less well-developed media programs
(Lance, Hamilton-Pennell and Rodney, 2000). In Oregon, Lance, Rodney,
and Hamilton-Pennell (2001) concluded that whatever the level of a school’s
library program, incremental improvements in its staffing, collections, and
budget will yield incremental increases in reading scores. They also found
that test scores rose when LMSs spent more time attending faculty
meetings, meeting with library media staff at the district level, and meeting
regularly with the principal.
Principal Support of the Library Media Program
Yetter (1994) found that schools that had successfully implemented
resource-based learning had a common understanding and support from the
principal, teaching faculty and library media specialist about the centrality of
the library media program in the school's instructional process. These
schools provided planning time for teachers and library media specialists to
work collaboratively, clerical support for the LMS, flexible scheduling in the
library media center, and principal support of the library media program.
Likewise, Farwell (1998) determined that in schools with successful
collaborative planning, the principal served as an advocate for collaborative
planning and information literacy instruction, and provided financial support
for the library media program, adequate clerical staff, and time during the
school day for LMSs and classroom teachers to plan together.
Mosqueda (1999) concluded that the most important finding in her study of
school library media programs in Florida blue ribbon schools was the overall
favorable perception of principals and LMSs in regard to the leadership role
they played in their schools. The reported strengths of the library media
programs in these schools supported the research on what constitutes an
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How School Libraries Improve Outcomes for Children:
The New Mexico Study
exemplary program, including open access, administrative support, well-
equipped facilities, technology integration, reading support, and good
staffing. Gehlken (1994) reported that in all three blue ribbon high schools
she studied, the principals actively supported and promoted the library
media program. Standridge (1996) reported that student achievement in
urban elementary schools was positively impacted by greater participation of
the certified staff in school-based decision making, especially in the areas of
goals, vision, mission, and curriculum and instruction.
There appears to be a two-way relationship between administrative support
and LMSs performing the instructional role. In schools where there was
fiscal and organizational support for the library media program, including
automated systems and paid support staff, van Deusen (1996a) found that
LMSs performed the instructional consultation role to a greater extent.
Lumley (1994) concluded that instituting a curricularly integrated and
flexibly scheduled library media program required leadership on the part of
the library media specialist as well as principal support, resulting in strong
leadership roles for the LMS in curriculum, instruction and staff
development. Van Deusen (1996a) reports that the availability of support
staff and automated library systems was positively related to LMSs' doing
more consulting work with teachers and spending less time on
nonprofessional tasks. McCracken (2000) found that the factors most
frequently cited by LMSs as important to expanding their instructional role
were support of the school administration and support of other teachers at
the school.
Collaborative Activities of the Library Media Specialist
Lance, Rodney and Hamilton-Pennell (2000b) found that LMS involvement in
collaborative activities has a direct impact on test scores. Higher levels of
collaboration result from meeting with school administrators, serving on
standards and curriculum committees, working with faculty at school-wide
staff meetings, and meeting with library media staff at the building level.
Data from Pennsylvania (Lance, Rodney and Hamilton-Pennell 2000a)
reinforce the finding that test scores increase as LMSs spend more time
serving on curriculum and standards committees. Hughes (1998) reports
that LMSs who successfully participated in their schools' move to whole
language became part of their school's leadership team, attended
professional development workshops with teachers in the school, and spent
more time pulling together curriculum-related resources in the library media
center.
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How School Libraries Improve Outcomes for Children:
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Effect of Library Media Center Staffing
Lance, Welborn and Hamilton-Pennell (1993) found that library media
centers which have more endorsed staff tend to have staff who spend more
time identifying materials for instructional units developed by teachers and
more time collaborating with teachers in developing such units. They found
that as the LMS's instructional role increases, the size of the library media
center's staff and collection increases, which, in turn, is a direct predictor of
student reading achievement. Martin (1996) also found a significant positive
relationship between school library media center staffing and student
achievement, especially in high school reading. Schools employing more
media center staff had higher achievement test scores.
A Library Research Service study (no. 141, 1998) showed that student
reading scores were higher in schools where there is a state-endorsed library
media specialist and where the LMS is supported by an aide. This is
unfortunately not yet the norm. Michie and Chaney (2000) report that as of
1997, public school libraries had an average of 0.9 professional staff
(included non-certified professional staff) and 0.6 other paid employees,
overall. Twenty-two percent of public schools lacked a full-time or part-time
library media staff person who is state-certified. McCracken (2000) reported
that the biggest barriers cited by LMSs to expanding their instructional role
were lack of time and resources such as funding and support staff.
Studies in Alaska, Pennsylvania, Colorado, Massachusetts, and Oregon
(Lance, Hamilton-Pennell and Rodney, 2000; Lance, Rodney and Hamilton-
Pennell, 2000a; Lance, Rodney and Hamilton-Pennell, 2000b; Baughman,
2000; Lance, Rodney and Hamilton-Pennell, 2001, respectively) attest to the
value of full-time, endorsed media staff. In Alaska, at both elementary and
secondary levels, the presence of a full-time librarian was a very strong
predictor of average and above achievement. Regardless of the level of
librarian staffing, however, the more LMS staff time was devoted to
delivering library and information literacy instruction to students and
providing in-service training to teachers, the higher the test scores.
Colorado reading scores increased with increases in LMS hours per 100
students (for seventh grade) and total staff hours per 100 students.
Pennsylvania reading test scores increased with increases in LMS staff hours
and support staff hours. In Massachusetts, at elementary and high school
levels, students who were served by full-time LMSs had higher test scores
than those in schools without full-time LMSs, and non-professional staff
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How School Libraries Improve Outcomes for Children:
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assistance also made a positive difference in average test scores. Oregon
reading scores rose with increases in total staff (both professional and
support) per 100 students.
Library Media Specialist as Provider of In-Service Training
The involvement of a school library media specialist in technology-based
staff training can support student achievement. Michie and Chaney (2000)
report that in 1997, 43 percent of public school library media programs with
access to the Internet arranged Internet training for teachers and 37 percent
for administrators. In Colorado (Lance, Rodney and Hamilton-Pennell,
2000b), reading test scores increased with the amount of time LMSs spent
as in-service trainers of other teachers. Alaska and Pennsylvania students'
test scores tended to be higher when library staff spent time providing in-
service training to teachers (Lance, Hamilton-Pennell and Rodney, 2000;
Lance, Rodney and Hamilton-Pennell). Wenglinsky (1998) found that
teacher's professional development in technology and the use of computers
to teach higher-order skills were both positively related to academic
achievement in mathematics and the social environment of the school.
Library Media Specialist Planning and Management Skills
School library media specialists in effective schools tend to have good
planning, communication and management skills. Yetter (1994) observed
that library media specialists in successful learning-based schools were
expert in developing effective library media programs which were congruent
with the state and national Information Power (1988) guidelines. The
basic library procedures and processes in their library media programs
functioned smoothly. A Library Research Service report (no. 150, 1998)
indicated that students are likely to earn higher reading scores if there is a
plan for the development of their school library media program. Gehlken
(1994) reported that in all three blue ribbon high schools the LMSs took
proactive steps to update students, teachers and administrators about new
materials, technology, and services. Lumley (1994) concluded that
instituting a curricularly integrated and flexibly scheduled library media
program in an elementary school required LMS leadership in site-based staff
development and good communication with staff and principal support.
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How School Libraries Improve Outcomes for Children:
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Library Media Specialist Budgetary Role
A very important administrative role for the LMS is to obtain an adequate
budget for the library media program. Angelo's (1994) study of
Massachusetts school library media programs revealed that more than 90
percent were operating at the minimum level according to state standards in
the areas of personnel, collection, and budget. Lancaster (1998) surveyed
superintendents about their attitudes toward elementary LMSs. She reports
that though there appears to be agreement on the importance of and role of
the LMS, in concrete terms, they do not adequately fund or staff the
program in many cases. Almost half of the superintendents spent less than
two percent of their total budget on the LMC.
Lance, Welborn and Hamilton-Pennell (1993) found that students at
Colorado schools with better funded library media centers tend to achieve
higher average test scores, whether their schools and communities are rich
or poor and whether adults in the community are well or poorly educated.
Bruning (1994) also reported a positive relationship between student
achievement measures and the proportion of a school district's budget spent
on library materials, for both high- and low-income districts. Studies in both
Colorado and Oregon (Lance, Rodney and Hamilton-Pennell, 2000b; Lance,
Rodney and Hamilton-Pennell, 2001, respectively) found that student
reading scores increased with increases in library media expenditures per
student. Baughman (2000) reported that in Massachusetts, at elementary
and middle school levels, average test scores were higher in schools with
larger per pupil expenditures for library materials.
These findings are particularly significant since studies seeking a relationship
between school spending as a whole and student performance have shown
mixed results. Krashen (1995) found that expenditures for education did
not affect reading comprehension scores, while Powell and Steelman (1996)
did find that school spending was positively linked to state SAT and ACT
performance. A review of over 400 studies of student achievement by
Hanushek (1997) demonstrated that there is not a strong or consistent
relationship between student performance and school resources after
variations in family input are taken into account. Hedges, et. al. (1994) in
their meta-analysis of studies of differential school inputs on student
outcomes, show that a positive relationship between resources and
educational outcomes does exist and is significant enough to be of practical
importance. While there is no clear mandate for increasing school spending
in general to support student achievement, the research does show that
increasing expenditures for school library media materials has a positive
effect.
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How School Libraries Improve Outcomes for Children:
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A World Bank meta-analysis of funding studies (Acevedo, 1997?), indicated
that differences in aggregate education budgets do not appear to have a
tight association with learning outcomes, although class instructional time,
school library resources and textbooks, and class frequency of homework are
inputs positively associated with improved test scores. Based on this
analysis, the PARE program (Programa para Abatir el Rezago Educative)
provided increased resources (including library resources) to Mexican
schools. Data indicate that on average, PARE assistance had a significant
positive effect on learning outcomes in Spanish. Acevedo concluded that
roughly doubling the school resources allocated per student overcame a
30% deficit in test scores among rural students.
Summary
The impact of school library media programs on academic achievement is
well documented in the research literature. Studies demonstrate
consistently that well-equipped, quality school library media centers that
have professional staff involved in instruction contribute to the academic
success of their students. Likewise, both higher order uses of technology
and expenditures for library materials support student achievement. All
three roles of the school library media specialist identified in Information
Power (1998) lead to greater integration of the school library media
program into the larger learning community and promote greater student
achievement.
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How School Libraries Improve Outcomes for Children:
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Methodologies
Sample
In 2000, New Mexico had 759 public schools. Of the 400 elementary schools
serving fourth grade, 208—52 percent—participated in this study. Of the
177 junior high and middle schools serving eighth grade, 100—56 percent—
chose to be included. Of the 152 high schools serving tenth grade, 72—47
percent—participated in this study. (See Table 1.)
Throughout this study, the participants were treated as three distinct
samples, one for each tested grade. Table 1 reports the number in the
sample for each grade and its proportion of the universe of all schools
serving that grade.
Table 1. Comparison of the Study Sample and the Universe of All New Mexico
Public Schools Serving Grades 4, 8 and 10, 2000
Grade
Number in
sample
Number in
Universe
Sample as percent
of universe
4
th
208 400 52%
8
th
100 177 56%
10th 72 152 47%
Survey
The survey of school library programs focused on several sets of potential
predictors of academic achievement. These included: LMC hours, LM staff
and their activities, technology, LMC usage, LM resource collections, and
finances.
Respondent Information
The questionnaire began with several items identifying the responding
school—its name and address, grades served, and its school district—and
the individual respondent—his/her name and title as well as telephone and
fax numbers and e-mail address. All of this information was required to
assess and address potential deficiencies in the initial response rate to the
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How School Libraries Improve Outcomes for Children:
The New Mexico Study
survey. The grades served were especially important as they made it
possible to determine which tested grades a school included.
Service Hours
The second part of the questionnaire contained items concerning the school
library’s hours of operation—both during and after school in a typical school
week and in a typical week during summer months. It is expected that
schools with higher test scores will be those with libraries that have longer
hours.
School Library Staff
This part of the questionnaire contained items requesting the numbers of
people and total person-hours worked by paid staff with different types of
qualifications. As noted earlier, one of the most consistent findings of
research about the impact of school libraries is the value of staffing them
with individuals who are professionally trained for the job. Another
consistent finding in past research is the importance of having support staff
who free professionals to do their job.
Paid Staff Activities
Perhaps the most fundamental question examined by this study was the
value of staffing school libraries with trained individuals who engage in
particular professional-level activities. The synergy of these activities,
proved to have considerable impact on test scores. While the original
Colorado study found strong evidence for the importance of the library
media specialist’s instructional role, those findings were based on just two
items—the number of hours library media staff spent identifying and
providing materials for instructional units developed by teachers and
planning instructional units with teachers. The 2000 New Mexico
questionnaire included a much more comprehensive list of staff activities.
Additional activities on this list included, among others, hours per typical
week staff spent: providing library/information literacy instruction to
individuals or groups; providing in-service training to teachers and other
staff; and teaching collaboratively with classroom teachers. The rationale
for asking practitioners to parse their time so many ways was to obtain more
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How School Libraries Improve Outcomes for Children:
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specific insights about exactly what it is that library media specialists do that
makes a difference in how students perform on achievement tests. Despite
an absence of research at this level of detail, it seemed reasonable to expect
that some activities would be more effective than others and that their
effectiveness might vary by school level (elementary, middle, high school).
Computers with Access to Library Resources
A great deal of detailed information about library technology was collected
by the next section of the questionnaire. Respondents were asked to
identify numbers of school computers both in and under the jurisdiction of
the school libraries and elsewhere in the school from which networked
library resources may be accessed. Of those numbers, they were further
asked to identify numbers of computers meeting various descriptions (e.g.,
with access to the library catalog, licensed databases, and the Internet).
School Library Usage
The next part of the questionnaire solicited statistics about how often
students and staff (i.e., administrators, teachers, others) interacted with
school library staff for different purposes, including library/information
literacy instruction. This section also included items for circulation of library
materials as well as counts of materials loaned to other libraries and
obtained from outside the library (e.g., interlibrary loans, intra-district
loans). Previous research and conventional wisdom indicate that school
librarians who impact student performance are those who are most actively
engaged with teachers and students alike, particularly more direct
involvement in teaching and learning activities. Evidence from previous
research also supports the assumption that students who read more—both
for school purposes and voluntarily—do better on tests.
School Library Collection
Despite the increasingly critical role played by school library staff in the
instructional process, what most people think of first when the school library
is mentioned is its collection. This section of the questionnaire solicits an
inventory of the collection by format, including traditional print sources
(e.g., books, magazine and newspaper subscriptions), non-print items (e.g.,
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How School Libraries Improve Outcomes for Children:
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videos, software packages, and other audio-visual materials), and the
rapidly growing “electronic” sector (e.g., CD-ROM, laser disk, and online
database subscriptions). Traditionally, conventional wisdom dictated that
the larger the collection, the better. As electronic sources of information
proliferate and the value of up-to-the-minute information increases, this
assumption becomes more questionable. Another wildcard related to this
issue is the age of library collections. A larger collection is not necessarily a
better one, if it consists increasingly of deteriorating volumes containing
obsolete information.
Annual Operating Expenditures for the School Library
Although few school libraries have budgets that include personnel costs,
many have budgets for print and non-print materials, electronic access to
information, and miscellaneous operating expenses. This section of the
questionnaire asked for the total figure in whole dollars spent for these
items.
Available Data
This study depends on demographic data that, whenever possible was
obtained at the school or neighborhood level.
The New Mexico Department of Education provided data on both the number
and the percentage of students eligible to receive free or subsidized school
lunches in each school. The percentage of the student body eligible to
receive school lunch assistance was then used as a school-specific poverty
variable.
Each school’s enrollment, subdivided by ethnicity, was provided by the New
Mexico Department of Education. Categories included were Native
American, Asian, Black, Hispanic, White and Other. Five of these variables,
Native American, Asian/Pacific Islander, Black, Hispanic, and Other were
then combined to determine the minority percentage of the school
population. The school minority percentages were utilized in correlation
analysis.
The educational attainment variable demonstrates the general level of
education in the school’s surrounding population. Educational attainment
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How School Libraries Improve Outcomes for Children:
The New Mexico Study
data was extracted from the United States Census Bureau Web site. The
variable refers to the percentage of people age 25 and over with a high
school diploma or equivalency or higher.
Total school expenditure data on a district level were also provided by the
State Department of Education. The per student expenditure amount was
then accorded to each school within that district. Total school budget and
per student expenditures were the only factors considered. There were no
program breakdowns in such areas as Talented and Gifted or Vocational.
This study also took into consideration two key teacher characteristics, the
percentage of teachers with a master’s degree and the average years of
service. These figures were also provided by the New Mexico Department of
Education.
The test scores used as indicators of fourth and eighth grade students’
academic achievement in this study are 1999-2000 scores on the Language
Arts portion of the standards-based portion of the New Mexico Achievement
Assessment Program. The standards-based results are reported by
performance level, with proficiency settings determined by New Mexico
educators against state content standards. Achievement indicators for tenth
grade students were drawn from the 1999-2000 New Mexico High School
Competency Examination. Here the building-level composite score provided
by the state indicated the percentage of students passing all the sub-tests of
the Competency Examination, including language arts, social sciences,
reading, mathematics, science, and composition.
Statistical Significance
Statistical significance is an often-misunderstood concept. Usually, when a
statistical finding is reported, the first question someone asks is “Is that
figure significant?” In this context, the intuitive response is to question the
magnitude or size of the figure or the difference between two figures. There
are no statistical tests to determine if a difference between two groups is
“big enough,” particularly if the groups in question represent an entire
universe of subjects rather than a sample.
Statistical significance is about reliability or consistency. When a sample is
studied, instead of the entire universe (in this case, school libraries in New
Mexico public schools), a pertinent question is “Are these results truly
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How School Libraries Improve Outcomes for Children:
The New Mexico Study
representative of the universe, or would different samples yield dramatically
different results?”
Throughout later sections of this report, statistical significance is reported as
“p,” as in “probability.” Three common milestones for statistical significance
are reported: “p < .05,” “p < .01,” and “p < .001.” Respectively, these
designations indicate that the probability of reported results being an
accident or a coincidence is less than one in 20, one in 100, or one in 1,000.
Conversely, these figures may be interpreted to indicate 95, 99, or 99.9
percent certainty that the results are representative.
Generally, the levels of statistical significance reported represent two-tailed
tests—ones indicating the probability that the reported results might be
either exaggerated or suppressed. In some cases, however, significance
levels are based on one-tailed tests—ones indicating only the likelihood that
results reported may be exaggerated.
Throughout this study, statistical significance is most often reported in
association with Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients in bivariate
correlation analyses.
Bivariate Correlation
In this study, bivariate correlation analysis served two purposes: 1) informing
decisions about eliminating or combining variables, and 2) assessing the
direction and strength of the relationship between two variables, such as the
ratio of library media specialist staff hours to students and reading test scores.
Pearson’s correlation coefficient (r) indicates the extent to which two variables
change together on a scale of –1.00 to zero to 1.00. Negative values indicate
that a decline in one variable is associated with an increase in another, while
positive values indicate that two variables increase together. For each report
of this statistic, there is a corresponding indication of its statistical significance.
(See earlier discussion about interpreting statistical significance.) In addition
to assessing the direction and strength of relationships, Pearson’s r helped to
determine if any data elements were so strongly associated as to be either
unnecessary or problematic if used together. In some cases, this statistic
provided the basis for decisions to combine variables. Such data reduction
was deemed desirable as it focused and simplified the model to be tested.
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How School Libraries Improve Outcomes for Children:
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The significance of a bivariate correlation may be tested on a one- or two-
tailed basis. Two-tailed significance testing assumes that the direction of the
presumed relationship is unknown, thus one wishes to assess the possibility of
error in either direction. One-tailed significance testing assumes that the
direction of the presumed relationship is known, making it necessary to assess
the possibility of error in only one direction. Because previous research
consistently indicates that the effects on academic achievement of the library
media variables under study are positive, some relationships significant on a
one-tailed basis, but narrowly not on a two-tailed basis, will be reported.
Factor Analysis
While correlation analysis examines relationships between pairs of variables,
factor analysis establishes relationships among groups of related variables.
This technique was particularly useful when two or more variables needed to
be combined, but were measured on different scales (e.g., dollars and
percentages).
Instead of reporting the correlation of each variable with each other variable,
factor analysis helps to create composite factors by reporting factor loadings
that indicate how strongly and in what direction each variable is related to a
factor. A factor loading indicates how much weight is assigned to a given
factor for a given variable. Factors on which a variable loads highly are closely
related to that variable. At this stage, factor analysis was a more efficient
method of confirming--and discovering--relationships among variables than
comparing multiple relationships among pairs of variables.
Exactly how factor analysis works need not be understood. When sorted by
factor, the results are easy to interpret, since a researcher can readily identify
variables that load highly on a given factor. The researcher, however, must
interpret what a factor represents and decide what to call it. The factor
analysis technique will also generate a factor score based on a school's values
on the variables that load on a factor. In several instances, closely related
variables were replaced by a factor score.
Multiple Regression Analysis
Multiple regression was used to weigh the effects of library media variables
relative to school and community variables as predictors of academic
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How School Libraries Improve Outcomes for Children:
The New Mexico Study
achievement. This technique is especially useful in assessing complex
relationships among several potential predictors, because it weighs the
importance of each predictor variable while ruling out the effects of the others.
This application of multiple regression techniques is a path analysis because
both research and practice suggest a certain cause-and-effect order among
the variables. In this model, community variables precede school variables,
and school variables precede library media variables. All three sets of
predictors precede—and may affect directly and/or indirectly—academic
achievement. Multiple regression is used to assess the strength and direction
of each separate path from variable to variable. These relationships are
reported as path coefficients (i.e., betas or standardized regression
coefficients).
Correlation and factor analyses of the original data elements helped to refine
the model. They provided the basis for decisions to eliminate redundant
variables and combine those that were so closely related as to produce
statistical "static." In a path analysis via multiple regression, such "noise"
complicates a model unnecessarily and suppresses the effects of other
predictors statistically.
It is very important to note that this type of analysis makes two kinds of
assumptions. It assumes causal order. The presumed cause-and-effect order
in this model is suggested by previous research and practical experience. It is
intuitively obvious that the status of library media centers may depend on
more general school circumstances, just as they, in turn, may be driven by
community conditions. It is equally apparent, however, that each of these
sets of variables may affect academic achievement either directly or indirectly
via some other variable not represented in this model.
An assumption of causal closure supposes that no critical variables are omitted
from the model. This assumption is addressed as fully as was practically
possible by this study. Without apology, its focus is on assessing the impact of
school library media centers on academic achievement. The community and
school variables included represent major antecedent conditions that might
explain away that impact. For instance, the possibility that a correlation
between the level of library media (LM) staffing and test scores might be a
spurious result of generally high levels of staffing in a school was addressed by
including the teacher-pupil ratio. Similarly, the possibility that a correlation
between time spent by LM staff on library/information literacy instruction and
test scores might be a spurious result of community affluence or socio-
economic advantages was addressed by considering several alternative
measures of those variables. Likely predictors of academic achievement for
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How School Libraries Improve Outcomes for Children:
The New Mexico Study
which data are not available include parental involvement in a student’s
education, extra-curricular activities of students, characteristics of school
curricula, and pedagogical techniques of teachers. Nonetheless, no
relationships between such likely predictors and the level of development of
LM programs are anticipated.
Because the original number of variables was large, it is assumed that an
acceptable degree of causal closure was established. Nonetheless, Multiple R
Square (R
2
) is taken as a sufficient statistical indicator of the extent to which
the model may not be causally closed. This statistic indicates the percentage
of variation in test scores which is explained by a given group of predictors.
Separate analyses were conducted for elementary, middle, and high school
levels. In each case, multiple regression was used to generate initial path
coefficients. Variables whose path coefficients were less than .10 and which
were not statistically significant at at least the .05 level (generally accepted
standards) were automatically eliminated from the analysis.
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How School Libraries Improve Outcomes for Children:
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Findings
Utilizing the combination of statistical techniques described above, both
direct and indirect relationships between school libraries and academic
achievement were explored. The findings concerning both types of
relationships are presented by school level. Then, the impact of school
libraries on academic achievement is examined more closely, taking into
account other school and community conditions that make up the often
complex environment in which New Mexico’s school libraries operate.
Elementary School Level
At the elementary school level, library variables demonstrate positive and
statistically significant relationships to reading scores, some of which are
direct and some of which are indirect.
School Library Predictors of Achievement Scores
In New Mexico elementary schools, fourth grade achievement scores tend to
rise with increases in
the total number of library staff;
the percentage of their time school librarians spend managing computer
networks;
numbers of computers in the school that provide access to the library
catalog, licensed databases, and the Internet;
the number of print volumes in the school library; and
the number of electronic reference sources relative to students. (See
Table 2.)
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How School Libraries Improve Outcomes for Children:
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Table 2. Direct School Library Predictors of Fourth Grade Achievement Scores in
New Mexico Elementary Schools, 2000
Variable
Correlation
coefficient (r)
Statistical
significance (p)
Library Staffing
Total number of staff
.167
.017
Staff Activities (Percent of Weekly Hours)
Managing computer network
.158
.029
Information Technology
Internet computers in school
.185
.014
Catalog computers in school .159 .031
Database computers in school .222 .003
Information Resources
Print volumes
.332
.000
Electronic references per 100 students
.163 .028
Information Technology
Fourth grade test scores rise with the level of library-related information
technology in New Mexico elementary schools. In turn, elementary schools
with more such technology tend to have:
more school librarians who work more hours per week; and
school librarians who spend more time each week meeting with their
principals, providing in-service training to teachers, and providing reading
incentive programs to students. (See Table 3.)
Table 3. Indirect School Library Predictors of Fourth Grade Achievement Scores
via Information Technology in New Mexico Elementary School Libraries, 2000
Information Technology
Variable
Internet
computers in
school
Catalog
computers in
school
Database
computers in
school
Library Staffing
Number of school librarians
.157*
Weekly librarian hours
.182* .185*
Staff Activities (Weekly Hours)
Meeting with principal
.181*
Providing in-service training .276* .367* .406*
Providing reading incentive programs .177*
* p < .05
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How School Libraries Improve Outcomes for Children:
The New Mexico Study
Information Resources
The achievement test scores of New Mexico fourth graders improve with the
size of library collections in elementary schools. Elementary schools with
larger print collections and access to more electronic resources tend to have:
more school librarians who work more hours per week, and
higher levels of staffing generally, including more support staff who work
more hours per week. (See Table 4.)
Table 4. Indirect School Library Predictors of Fourth Grade Achievement Scores
via Information Resources in New Mexico Elementary School Libraries, 2000
Variable
Print
volumes
Electronic
references per
100 students
Library Staffing
Number of school librarians
.238**
Weekly librarian hours .324**
Total staff per 100 students .190*
Total staff hours per 100 students .292**
* p < .05, ** p < .01
Middle School Level
At the middle school level, library variables demonstrate positive and
statistically significant relationships to achievement scores--some direct,
some indirect.
School Library Predictors of Achievement Scores
In New Mexico middle schools, eighth grade achievement scores tend to
improve with increases in
the number of weekly hours the school library is open;
extra time spent by library staff on selected activities, including:
planning with teachers and providing them with in-service training,
developing library collections and creating incentives for students to read,
and managing school computer networks;
the number of print volumes in the library’s collection; and
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How School Libraries Improve Outcomes for Children:
The New Mexico Study
the number of library computers that provide access to licensed
databases. (See Table 5.)
Table 5. Direct School Library Predictors of Eighth Grade Achievement Scores in
New Mexico Middle Schools, 2000
Variable
Correlation
coefficient (r)
Statistical
significance (p)
Library Hours
Weekly hours school library open
.196
.052
Staff Activities (Weekly After-School Hours)
Planning with teachers
.295
.023
Providing in-service training to teachers .252 .055
Providing reading incentive programs .251 .055
Developing library collections .255 .052
Managing computer networks .283 .030
Information Resources
Print volumes
.298
.006
Information Technology
Database computers in school library
.251
.013
Print Volumes
Eighth grade achievement scores increase with the number of print volumes
in middle school library collections. Middle schools with larger print
collections tend to have:
longer weekly hours of operation,
more librarian and total weekly staff hours, and
librarians who spend more hours per week teaching cooperatively with
classroom teachers. (See Table 6.)
Table 6. Indirect School Library Predictors of Eighth Grade Achievement Scores
via Print Volumes in New Mexico Middle School Libraries, 2000
Variable
Correlation
coefficient (r)
Statistical
significance (p)
Library Hours
Weekly hours open
.210
.050
Library Staffing
Weekly librarian hours
.306
.004
Weekly total staff hours .301 .005
Staff Activities (Weekly Hours )
Teaching cooperatively
.271
.012
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How School Libraries Improve Outcomes for Children:
The New Mexico Study
Database Computers
Eighth grade achievement scores also increase with the number of library
computers that can be utilized to access licensed databases. Middle schools
with more library computers that can access licensed databases tend to
have:
more school librarians who work more weekly hours, and
who spend more weekly hours teaching cooperatively with classroom
teachers. (See Table 7.)
Table 7. Indirect School Library Predictors of Eighth Grade Achievement Scores
via Database Computers in New Mexico Middle School Libraries, 2000
Variable
Correlation
coefficient (r)
Statistical
significance (p)
Library Staffing
Number of school librarians
.264
.009
Weekly librarian hours .313 .002
Staff Activities (Weekly Hours )
Teaching cooperatively
.323
.001
High School Level
At the high school level, library variables demonstrate positive and
statistically significant relationships to achievement scores, both direct and
indirect.
School Library Predictors of Reading Scores
In New Mexico high schools, tenth grade achievement scores tend to
improve with:
the general level of library staffing;
the extent to which classroom teachers and librarians teach
cooperatively;
the frequency with which both individuals and groups visit the school
library, especially—in the case of groups—for information literacy
instruction;
the availability of library computers to students, particularly computers
that provide access to the library catalog and the Internet; and
41
How School Libraries Improve Outcomes for Children:
The New Mexico Study
the size of the library’s collection, including its numbers of books, videos,
and software packages, and spending on such items. (See Table 8.)
Table 8. School Library Predictors of Tenth Grade Achievement Scores in New
Mexico High Schools, 2000
Variable
Correlation
coefficient (r)
Two-tailed
statistical
significance (p)
Library Staffing
Total weekly staff hours per 100 students
.239
.046
Staff Activities (Percent of Weekly Hours)
Teaching cooperatively
.265
.032
Library Visits
Group visits per 100 students
.229
.058 *
Group information skills instruction per 100 students .292 .014
Individual library visits per student .225 .059 *
Information Technology
Library computers per 100 students
.297
.012
Library Internet computers per 100 students .318 .007
Library catalog computers per 100 students .255 .036
Information Resources
Print volumes
.214
.092
Videos per 100 students .340 .004
Software packages per 100 students .312 .012
Library expenditures per student .232 .057 *
*Achieves one-tailed statistical significance at p < .05.
Library Visits
Tenth grade achievement scores improve with numbers of individual and
group visits to school libraries, especially group visits for information literacy
instruction. High school libraries tend to be visited more often when they
have:
more librarian hours and more staff who work longer weekly hours,
librarians who spend more of their time attending faculty meetings and
serving on key school committees,
more library computers that provide access to the library catalog and the
Internet, and
larger video and software collections and higher spending on collections
generally. (See Table 9.)
42
How School Libraries Improve Outcomes for Children:
The New Mexico Study
Table 9. Indirect School Library Predictors of Tenth Grade Achievement Scores via
Visits to New Mexico High School Libraries, 2000
Library Visits
Variable
Group library
visits per 100
students
Group ISI
visits per 100
students
Individual
library visits
per student
Library Staffing
Librarian hours per 100 students
.307*
Total staff per 100 students
.621** .533** .239*
Total staff hours per 100 students .446** .491** .542**
Staff Activities
(Percent of Weekly Hours)
Attending faculty meetings
.276*
Serving on standards/curriculum committees .271*
Information Technology
Library computers per 100 students
.371**
.462**
.321**
Library Internet computers per 100 students .340** .407** .319**
Library catalog computers per 100 students .350** .479**
Information Resources
Videos per 100 students
.508**
.462**
.330**
Software packages per 100 students .364** .417**
Library expenditures per 100 students .353** .319** .431**
* p < .05, ** p < .01
Information Technology
Tenth grade test scores tend to rise with the availability of information
technology in the library. School libraries that have more computers,
especially ones that provide access to the library catalog and the Internet,
tend to have:
more library staff working more hours per week, and
librarians who spend a greater share of their time meeting with their
principals, providing in-service training to teachers, and providing reading
incentive programs for students. (See Table 10.)
43
How School Libraries Improve Outcomes for Children:
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Table 10. Indirect School Library Predictors of Tenth Grade Achievement Scores
via Information Technology in New Mexico High School Libraries, 2000
Information Technology
Variable
Library
computers per
100 students
Library Internet
computers per
100 students
Library catalog
computers per
100 students
Library Staffing
Total staff per 100 students
.559**
.484**
.397**
Total staff hours per 100 students .702** .660** .467**
Staff Activities
(Percent of Weekly Hours)
Meeting with principal
.258*
Providing in-service training .327**
Providing reading incentive programs .265* .252*
* p < .05, ** p < .01
Print Volumes
Tenth grade achievement scores tend to improve with the size of a high
school library’s print collection. High schools that have larger print
collections in their libraries tend to have:
more weekly hours of librarian and total library staffing, and
librarians who spend more weekly hours planning and teaching
cooperatively with classroom teachers, meeting with other library staff,
and attending faculty meetings. (See Table 11.)
Table 11. Indirect School Library Predictors of Tenth Grade Achievement Scores
via Print Volumes Held by New Mexico High School Libraries, 2000
Variable Print volumes
Library Staffing
Weekly librarian hours
.266*
Total staff hours
.490**
Staff Activities (Weekly Hours)
Planning with teachers
.296*
Teaching cooperatively
.584**
Meeting with other library staff
.302*
Attending faculty meetings
.252*
* p < .05, ** p < .01
44
How School Libraries Improve Outcomes for Children:
The New Mexico Study
Information Resources
Tenth grade achievement scores tend to increase with the size of video and
software collections in high school libraries and overall library spending per
student.
High school libraries with larger video and software collections and higher
library spending tend to be those with:
higher levels of staffing (especially larger total numbers of staff and total
weekly staff hours), and
librarians who spend more weekly hours providing reading incentive
programs for students. (See Table 12.)
Additionally, larger software collections are found in high school libraries
with:
more librarian staff hours, and
librarians who spend more weekly hours providing in-service training to
classroom teachers.
Table 12. Indirect School Library Predictors of Tenth Grade Achievement Scores
via Information Resources in New Mexico High School Libraries, 2000
Information Resources
Variable
Videos per
100 students
Software
packages per
100 students
Library
expenditures
per student
Library Staffing
Total librarian staff hours
.415**
Total staff per 100 students
.529** .476** .492**
Total staff hours per 100 students
.608** .594** .597**
Staff Activities
(Percent of Weekly Hours)
Providing in-service training
.292*
Providing reading incentive programs
.391** .440** .370**
* p < .05, ** p < .01
Controlling for Other School and Community Factors
To assert that the previously described relationships between school library
characteristics and academic achievement are cause and effect, it is
45
How School Libraries Improve Outcomes for Children:
The New Mexico Study
essential to control for other school and community factors. Before such an
analysis can be conducted, however, relationships among school library,
other school, and community variables must be explored to eliminate
redundant ones and to combine strongly related ones.
Correlation Analysis for School Library Development Variables
In the vast majority of recent school library impact studies, a critical factor
has been the level of development of the school library—its staffing, its
collections, and its funding. For this analysis, a somewhat more elaborate
School Library Development Factor was developed. Of the many details
collected about school library infrastructure in New Mexico elementary
schools, positive and highly statistically significant relationships with each
other were exhibited by six ratios: total staff hours per 100 students,
volumes per student, subscriptions per 100 students, video materials per
100 students, software packages per 100 students, and school library
expenditures per student. (See Table 13.)
An additional ratio, overall district expenditures per student, also correlated
very strongly with volumes per student as well as subscriptions, video
materials, and software packages per 100 students. Somewhat curiously,
this overall expenditures ratio did not correlate excessively strongly with the
school library expenditures ratio, despite the other very strong correlations
just identified.
The need to include overall district expenditures per student in the School
Library Development Factor is unusual, but reflects a reality worth
recognizing. Strong school libraries cannot exert an impact on academic
achievement in isolation. As this correlation indicates, a school library can
only be effective if it is integrated fully into the daily operation of its school.
District spending per pupil was not correlated so strongly with school library
characteristics as to explain away the importance of the latter. These
relationships were sufficiently strong, however, to indicate that higher levels
of school funding and stronger school library programs combine to exert a
positive influence on student performance. In other words, a school cannot
strengthen its library at the expense of other programs and expect positive
results.
46
How School Libraries Improve Outcomes for Children:
The New Mexico Study
Table 13. Correlation Matrix for School Library Development Variables and District
Expenditures per Student for New Mexico High Schools, 2000
School
Library
Development
Variable
Librarian hours per 100
students
Total staff hours per
100 students
Volumes per student
Electronic references
per 100 students
Subscriptions per 100
students
Audio materials per 100
students
Video materials per 100
students
Software packages per
100 students
Library expenditures
per student
District expenditures
per student
Librarian hours per
100 students
1.00
Total staff hours per
100 students
1.00
Volumes per student
.590
**
1.00
Electronic references
per 100 students
1.00
Subscriptions per 100
students
.607
**
.732
**
.326
**
1.00
Audio materials per
100 students
.803
**
.540
**
1.00
Video materials per
100 students
.608
**
.518
**
.502
**
.331
**
1.00
Software packages per
100 students
.594
**
.510
**
.418
**
.288
*
.612
**
1.00
Library expenditures
per student
.597
**
.597
**
.300
*
.668
**
.327
**
.644
**
.844
**
1.00
District expenditures
per student
.613
**
.140 .640
**
.397
**
.619
**
.409
**
.530
**
1.00
* p < .05, ** p < .01
Italicized variable names are those for which either excessively strong relationships or an absence of
relationships with other variables justified eliminating them.
Factor Analysis for School Library Development Variables
To achieve data reduction, other data items in the school library
development category were discarded, and these six items were combined
into a single School Library Development Factor based on the results of a
factor analysis. All six of the items in question load highly on the resulting
factor, which explains over 68 percent of the variation among the
constituent statistics. These high factor loadings indicate that each of these
statistics makes a substantial contribution to the composite variable—the
School Library Development Factor—thereby achieving the goal of data
reduction without substantial loss of information. (See Table 14.)
47
How School Libraries Improve Outcomes for Children:
The New Mexico Study
Table 14. Factor Analysis of School Library Development Variables for New Mexico
High Schools, 2000
School Library Development Variable Factor Loading
Total staff hours per 100 students .809
Volumes per student .796
Subscriptions per 100 students .865
Videos per 100 students .825
Software packages per 100 students .759
Library expenditures per student .885
District expenditures per student .841
Initial eigenvalue = 4.784, percentage of variation explained = 68.336, principa.841l component
analysis
Correlation Analysis for Other School and Community Variables
Previously reported bivariate correlations between school library
characteristics and reading scores are insufficient alone to claim cause and
effect relationships. A variety of school and community conditions might
create antecedent conditions that would explain both school library
characteristics and reading scores. For instance, it might be that rich
schools or communities with well-educated adults have both high reading
scores and strong school libraries. If that were the case, a strong school
library could not be credited as even a partial cause of high reading scores.
It would simply be another fortuitous consequence of favorable school or
community conditions. (See Table 15.)
Before such relationships can be explored, however, relationships among
school and community variables must be examined to ensure that there are
no confounding relationships between any of them. Examining these
relationships also sheds light on how they might be combined to achieve
data reduction, thereby simplifying the model to be tested.
The correlation coefficients for school and community variables indicate that,
indeed, they do fall into two groups. The three inter-related school variables
are the percentage of teachers with master’s degrees, teachers’ average
years of experience, and the teacher-pupil ratio. The three inter-related
community variables are the percentages of poor and minority students and
the percentage of adults in the community (including parents) who
graduated from high school. Each trio of variables in these two groups is
closely enough related to each other, both substantively and statistically, to
48
How School Libraries Improve Outcomes for Children:
The New Mexico Study
justify exploring via factor analysis the possibility of combining them into
school and community factors.
Table 15. Correlation Matrix for School and Community Variables for New Mexico
High Schools, 2000
School/
community
variable
Percent of teachers
with master’s degrees
Teachers’ average
years of experience
Teacher-pupil ratio
Percent of poor
students
Percent of minority
students
Percent of adults
high school
graduates
Percent of teachers with master’s
degrees
1.00
Teachers’ average years of experience .577** 1.00
Teacher-pupil ratio .381 ** .374** 1.00
Percent of poor students -.270* -.278* 1.00
Percent of minority students .287* .569** 1.00
Percent of adults high school
graduates
-651**
1.00
Italicized variables and correlation coefficients indicate related teacher variables.
Bold variables and correlation coefficients indicate related community variables.
Factor Analysis for Other School Variables
Not surprisingly, a factor analysis of the three school variables generated
one strong factor that combines teachers’ levels of education and experience
and teacher-pupil ratios conducive to smaller class sizes. Thus, a single
factor score can be utilized to summarize those three data elements. The
resulting School Factor explains almost two-thirds of the variation in the
constituent variables. (See Table 16.)
Table 16. Factor Analysis of Other School Variables for New Mexico High Schools,
2000
School Variable Factor Loading
Percent of teachers with master’s degrees .838
Teachers’ average years of experience .835
Teacher-pupil ratio .705
Initial eigenvalue = 1.897, percentage of variation explained = 63.220, principal component analysis
49
How School Libraries Improve Outcomes for Children:
The New Mexico Study
Factor Analysis of Community Socio-Economic Status (SES) Variables
Similarly, a factor analysis of the three community variables generated a
single factor explaining more than two-thirds of the variation among
communities in terms of poverty, race/ethnicity, and adult educational
attainment. Notably, this Community Socio-Economic Status (SES) Factor is
a negative one, as a community’s score on it rises as the percentages of
poor and minority students increase and the percentage of adult high school
graduates decreases. (See Table 17.)
Table 17. Factor Analysis of Socio-Economic Status Variables for New Mexico High
Schools, 2000
Community SES Variable Factor Loading
Percent of poor students .930
Percent of minority students .729
Percent of adults high school graduates -.779
Initial eigenvalue = 2.004, percentage of variation explained = 66.793, principal component analysis
Regression Analysis for School Library Development, School, and Community SES
Factors
The preceding correlation and factor analyses generated a single factor score
each representing School Library Development, School, and Community
Socio-Economic Status (SES), setting the stage for a very simple,
straightforward regression analysis. That statistical technique makes it
possible to weigh the impact of School Library Development on achievement
scores, while controlling for School and Community SES differences that
might explain away any impact as something other than cause and effect.
(See Table 18.)
50
How School Libraries Improve Outcomes for Children:
The New Mexico Study
Table 18. Regression Analysis of School Library Development, School, and
Community SES Factors with Achievement Scores for New Mexico High Schools,
2000
Factor
R
R
Square
R
Square
Change
Sig.
F
Change
Standardized
Beta
Coefficients
Sig. of
t for
Beta
Community SES .648 .404 .420 .000 -.663 .000
School library development .706 .471 .079 .025 .281 .023
School factor excluded.
For New Mexico high schools, the results indicate that the Community SES
Factor exerts by far the stronger influence on academic achievement. The
combined effects of poverty, racial/ethnic minority status, and low
educational attainment explained a whopping 42.0 percent of the variation in
students’ reading scores. An additional 7.9 percent of such variation,
however, is explained by the School Library Development Factor. After
these two factors are taken into account, the remaining School Factor was
excluded, as it explained no additional variation in student performance.
Such regression analysis results were not reproducible for elementary and
middle schools, not because school librarians and libraries are unimportant
at those levels, but because there was too little variation in librarian staffing
levels from school to school. At the elementary level, an overwhelming 68
percent of participating schools did not have a full-time librarian; conversely,
at the middle school level almost 65 percent reported precisely one full-time
librarian—no more, no less. With the key variable, librarian staffing, simply
not varying much from one school to another, it was not possible to isolate
the impact of school libraries from other school or community conditions at
these school levels.
Comparison of Highest & Lowest Scoring Schools
The foregoing analyses indicate that improvements in school library
programs can help to change one of the state’s lowest scoring schools on
state achievement tests to one of the highest scoring schools. The following
tables compare the 25 highest scoring schools with the 25 lowest scoring
ones.
51
How School Libraries Improve Outcomes for Children:
The New Mexico Study
With only a few exceptions, schools with higher average test scores
have demonstrably better developed school library programs—i.e., higher
levels of staffing, collection development, and funding;
have library staff who spend more time engaged in activities that
contribute to collaborative teaching and learning; and
have more extensive and sophisticated computer networks extending the
reach of the school library. (See Tables 19 through 24.)
52
How School Libraries Improve Outcomes for Children:
The New Mexico Study
Table 19. Selected Library Media Statistics for New Mexico Elementary Schools
Scoring Highest and Lowest on the Fourth Grade Achievement Test, 2000
Elementary school averages
(4
th
grade)
Variable
25
highest
scoring
schools
25
lowest
scoring
schools
Percent
difference
(lowest to
highest)
4
th
Grade Reading Scores
(Percent proficient & above) 85.78 30.82 178%
Staffing (Weekly hours)
LM Specialist hours 16.28 14.13 15%
per 100 students 4.27 3.78 13%
Total LM staff hours 38.03 41.51 (8%)
per 100 students 13.31 13.05 2%
Staff Activities (Weekly hours)
Offering reading incentive activities
6.22 6.58 (5%)
Percent 17.77 14.85 20%
Meeting with library staff 0.57 0.51 12%
Percent 1.59 1.22 30%
Meeting w/standards, curriculum committees 0.54 0.44 23%
Percent 1.39 1.01 38%
Managing computers, network 4.90 3.93 25%
Percent 13.91 7.67 81%
Weekly LMC Usage
Individual visits for information skills instruction 228.29 231.70 (1%)
per student 0.60 0.52 15%
Group visits for information skills instruction 15.65 15.43 1%
per 100 students 4.47 3.78 18%
Technology
Number of LMC computers
4.24 4.47 (5%)
per 100 students 1.77 1.19 49%
Number of LMC computers with:
- Internet connection 3.62 3.36 8%
per 100 students 1.15 0.85 35%
- Access to school library catalog 3.68 3.64 1%
per 100 students 1.07 0.86 24%
- Access to library databases 2.59 2.49 4%
per 100 students 0.83 0.63 32%
School computers not in LMC with access to LMC 39.25 34.08 15%
per 100 students 9.11 9.20 (1%)
School computers not in LMC w/access to LMC
with:
- Internet connection 37.59 24.24 55%
per 100 students 8.80 7.72 14%
- Access to school library catalog 21.49 10.72 100%
per 100 students 4.52 1.79 153%
- Access to library databases 20.07 6.22 223%
per 100 students 4.36 1.27 243%
53
How School Libraries Improve Outcomes for Children:
The New Mexico Study
Table 20 . Selected Library Media Statistics for New Mexico Elementary Schools
Scoring Highest and Lowest on the Fourth Grade Achievement Test, 2000
Elementary school averages
(4
th
grade)
Variable
25
highest
scoring
schools
25
lowest
scoring
schools
Percent
difference
(lowest to
highest
4
th
Grade Reading Scores
(Percent proficient & above)
85.78 30.82 178%
School Library Collection
Number of print volumes
11,038.39 7,215.06 53%
per student 31.40 26.74 17%
Number of electronic reference titles 10.45 8.68 20%
per 100 students 3.00 1.11 170%
Current magazine & newspaper subscriptions 13.10 14.45 (9%)
per 100 students 4.88 4.83 1%
Audio materials - tapes, CDs, LPs 94.07 115.40 (18%)
per 100 students 33.21 28.16 18%
Video materials – tapes, disks 221.43 215.40 3%
per 100 students 62.35 57.24 9%
Computer software packages for in-school use 7.95 11.35 (30%)
per 100 students 4.68 3.36 39%
54
How School Libraries Improve Outcomes for Children:
The New Mexico Study
Table 21. Selected Library Media Statistics for New Mexico Middle Schools
Scoring Highest and Lowest on the Eighth Grade Achievement Test, 2000
Middle school averages (8
th
grade)
Variable
25
highest
scoring
schools
25
lowest
scoring
schools
Percent
difference
(lowest to
highest)
8
th
Grade Reading Scores
(Percent proficient & above) 53.51 17.43 207%
Staffing (Weekly hours)
LM Specialist hours
29.21 23.80 23%
per 100 students 6.44 6.62 (3%)
Staff Activities (Weekly hours)
Planning with teachers
2.60 2.32 12%
Percent 5.65 5.23 8%
Teaching with teachers 11.25 9.57 18%
Percent 25.27 21.67 17%
Providing in-service training 1.75 1.23 42%
Percent 3.42 2.34 46%
Offering reading incentive activities 2.73 2.59 5%
Percent 5.79 6.19 (6%)
Doing collection development 2.99 2.74 9%
Percent 6.30 5.76 9%
Meeting with library staff 0.78 0.62 26%
Percent 1.51 1.57 (4%)
Meeting with principal, other administrators 0.56 0.68 (18%)
Percent 1.17 1.47 (20%)
Attending faculty or staff meetings 0.83 0.81 2%
Percent 1.75 1.87 (6%)
Meeting w/standards, curriculum committees,
teams
0.53 0.51
4%
Percent 1.08 1.11 (3%)
Managing computers, network 6.36 6.79 (6%)
Percent 14.81 13.85 7%
Weekly LMC Usage
Individual visits to LMC 356.14 330.53 8%
per student 0.82 1.43 (43%)
Group visits to LMC 15.76 13.95 13%
per 100 students 5.11 4.77 7%
Individual visits for information skills instruction 135.35 110.84 22%
per student 0.35 0.75 (53%)
Group visits for information skills instruction 10.00 8.26 21%
per 100 students 2.97 2.67 11%
55
How School Libraries Improve Outcomes for Children:
The New Mexico Study
Table 22. Selected Library Media Statistics for New Mexico Middle Schools Scoring
Highest and Lowest on the Eighth Grade Achievement Test, 2000
Middle school averages (8
th
grade)
Variable
25
highest
scoring
schools
25
lowest
scoring
schools
Percent
difference
(lowest to
highest)
8
th
Grade Reading Scores
(Percent proficient & above) 53.51 17.43 207%
Technology
Number of LMC computers 10.97 9.44 16%
per 100 students 3.19 2.78 15%
Number of LMC computers with:
- Internet connection 9.74 8.68 12%
per 100 students 2.91 2.45 19%
- Access to school library catalog 7.46 5.05 48%
per 100 students 2.21 1.37 61%
- Access to library databases 7.29 4.11 77%
per 100 students 2.15 1.38 56%
School computers not in LMC w/access to LMC
with:
- Internet connection 64.36 63.94 1%
per 100 students 19.01 27.32 (30%)
- Access to school library catalog 23.06 16.84 37%
per 100 students 3.97 6.01 (34%)
- Access to library databases 44.84 20.06 124%
per 100 students 16.26 13.13 24%
School Library Collection
Number of print volumes
10,864.24 8,193.75 33%
per student 33.97 26.57 28%
Number of electronic reference titles 12.13 10.20 19%
per 100 students 3.65 5.25 (30%)
Current magazine & newspaper subscriptions 23.89 23.19 3%
per 100 students 6.57 11.58 (43%)
Audio materials - tapes, CDs, LPs 85.94 81.83 5%
per 100 students 19.69 28.65 (31%)
Computer software packages for in-school use 16.70 11.83 41%
per 100 students 4.88 9.20 (47%)
56
How School Libraries Improve Outcomes for Children:
The New Mexico Study
Table 23. Selected Library Media Statistics for New Mexico High Schools Scoring
Highest and Lowest on the Tenth Grade Achievement Test, 2000
High school averages (10
th
grade)
Variable
25
highest
scoring
schools
25
lowest
scoring
schools
Percent
difference
(lowest to
highest)
10
th
Grade Reading Scores
(Percent proficient & above) 91.32 71.73 27%
Staffing (Weekly hours)
LM Specialist hours
29.80 31.93 (7%)
per 100 students 5.65 4.83 17%
Total LM staff hours 63.61 65.84 (3%)
per 100 students 19.71 14.57 35%
Staff Activities (Weekly hours)
Planning with teachers 4.28 3.98 8%
Percent 6.43 6.00 6%
Teaching with teachers 14.59 12.22 19%
Percent 21.75 16.58 31%
Doing collection development 4.41 4.18 6%
Percent 7.28 5.93 23%
Meeting with library staff 1.28 1.08 19%
Percent 1.81 1.92 (6%)
Meeting with principal, other administrators 1.16 0.99 17%
Percent 2.01 1.61 25%
Attending faculty or staff meetings 0.80 0.59 36%
Percent 1.33 1.06 25%
Meeting w/standards, curriculum committees,
teams 1.06 0.76 39%
Percent 1.88 1.37 37%
Weekly LMC Usage
Individual visits to LMC 356.45 319.24 12%
per student 1.15 0.78 47%
Group visits to LMC 16.68 12.96 29%
per 100 students 3.64 2.18 67%
Individual visits for information skills instruction 157.13 157.81 0%
per student 0.36 0.21 71%
Group visits for information skills instruction 13.42 9.54 41%
per 100 students 2.98 1.62 84%
57
How School Libraries Improve Outcomes for Children:
The New Mexico Study
Table 24. Selected Library Media Statistics for New Mexico High Schools Scoring
Highest and Lowest on the Tenth Grade Achievement Test, 2000
High school averages (10
th
grade)
Variable
25
highest
scoring
schools
25
lowest
scoring
schools
Percent
difference
(lowest to
highest)
10
th
Grade Reading Scores
(Percent proficient & above) 91.32 71.73 27%
Technology
Number of LMC computers 13.26 11.68 14%
per 100 students 3.41 2.22 54%
Number of LMC computers with:
- Internet connection 12.62 10.67 18%
per 100 students 3.27 1.92 70%
- Access to school library catalog 10.69 8.37 28%
per 100 students 2.21 1.25 77%
- Access to library databases 11.70 9.81 19%
per 100 students 2.87 1.64 75%
School computers not in LMC with access to LMC 75.50 77.48 (3%)
per 100 students 27.34 26.13 5%
School computers not in LMC w/access to LMC
with:
- Internet connection 76.39 2%
per 100 students 26.93 25.67 5%
- Access to school library catalog 44.67 36.67 22%
per 100 students 11.79 8.86 33%
- Access to library databases 70.83 64.54 10%
per 100 students 24.90 19.85 25%
School Library Collection
Number of print volumes
14,502.57 12,380.88 17%
per student 31.43 31.06 1%
Number of electronic reference titles 17.70 38.89 (54%)
per 100 students 19.81 16.47 20%
Current magazine & newspaper subscriptions 37.82 36.88 3%
per 100 students 8.68 9.56 (9%)
Audio materials - tapes, CDs, LPs 117.50 67.04 75%
per 100 students 27.73 19.90 39%
Video materials – tapes, disks 437.22 475.39 (8%)
per 100 students 146.96 96.59 52%
Computer software packages for in-school use 16.18 11.22 44%
per 100 students 9.83 4.47 120%
Annual Operating Expenditures
Total operating expenditures
$12,003.97
$11,362.57 6%
per student $25.49 $22.08 15%
78.27
58
How School Libraries Improve Outcomes for Children:
The New Mexico Study
Conclusions
New Mexico achievement test scores rise with the development of school
library programs. The relationship between school library development and
test scores is not explained away by other school or community conditions at
the high school level. There was insufficient variation in librarian staffing to
make similar claims for the elementary and middle school levels.
School Library Development
New Mexico achievement test scores tend to rise with increases in:
school librarian and total library staff hours per 100 students;
print volumes per student;
periodical subscriptions, video materials, and software packages per 100
students; and
school library expenditures per student.
Whatever the current level of development of the school library program,
these findings indicate that incremental improvements in its staffing,
collections, and funding will yield incremental increases in achievement test
scores. The only caveat is that school library spending cannot exert a
positive influence on academic achievement if it comes at the expense of
other school programs.
School & Community Differences
The impact of school library development on academic achievement at the
high school level cannot be explained away by:
school differences, including:
the percentage of classroom teachers with master’s degrees,
teachers’ average years of experience, and
the teacher/pupil ratio, or
community differences, including:
the percentage of schoolchildren living in poverty,
the percentage of schoolchildren belonging to racial/ethnic minority
groups, and
the percentage of adults who graduated from high school.
59
How School Libraries Improve Outcomes for Children:
The New Mexico Study
When these other conditions are taken into account, school library
development alone accounts for 7.9 percent of variation in average
achievement scores among high schools. This figure takes into account
community socio-economic status (SES), which explains 42.0 percent of
variation in high school test scores. It also considers other school conditions
that explain no additional variation beyond the 50.0 percent attributable to
the combination of community SES and school library development factors.
Similar conclusions could not be drawn from such analyses at elementary
and middle school levels, due to a lack of variation in school library staffing
at those school levels. (Most elementary schools lacked a full-time librarian;
most middle schools had precisely one full-time librarian.)
School Librarians & Strong School Libraries
School librarians exert a complex web of effects on the school library
programs. Findings about these effects are summed up in the following
description of a strong school library.
A strong school library program is one
that is adequately staffed, stocked and funded.
Minimally, this means
one full-time librarian and one full-time aide. The relationship, however,
is incremental; as the staffing, collections, and funding of school library
programs grow, achievement scores rise.
whose staff are actively involved leaders in their school’s teaching and
learning enterprise. A successful school librarian is one who has the ear
and support of the principal, serves with other teachers on the school’s
standards and curriculum committees, and holds regular meetings of the
library staff. Students succeed where the school librarian participates
with classroom teachers and administrators in making management
decisions that encourage higher levels of achievement by every student.
whose staff have collegial, collaborative relationships with classroom
teachers. A successful school librarian is one who works with a classroom
teacher to identify materials that best support and enrich an instructional
unit, is a teacher of essential information literacy skills to students, and,
indeed, is a provider of in-service training opportunities to classroom
teachers. Students succeed where the school librarian is a consultant to,
a colleague with, and a teacher of other teachers.
60
How School Libraries Improve Outcomes for Children:
The New Mexico Study
that embraces networked information technology. The school library of
today is no longer a destination; it is a point of departure for accessing
the information resources that are the essential raw material of teaching
and learning. Computers in classrooms, labs and other school locations
provide networked access to information resources—the library catalog,
electronic full text, licensed databases, locally mounted databases, and
the Internet. Students succeed where the school library program is not a
place to go, apart from other sites of learning in the school, but rather an
integral part of the educational enterprise that reaches out to students
and teachers where they are.
61
How School Libraries Improve Outcomes for Children:
The New Mexico Study
62
The Impact of New Mexico School Libraries on Academic Achievement
Summary of Relationships
Achievement
Scores
Grade 4 /8 / 10
School Library
Visits
Group visits
Group visits for
information skills
instruction
Individual visits
Information Resources
Print volumes
Periodical subscriptions
Electronic references
Video materials
Software packages
Library expenditures
Information
Technology
Library computers
School computers
Catalog computers
Licensed database computers
Internet computers
Library Staff
Librarian
Total staff
Staff Activities
Teaching cooperatively
Providing in-service training
Providing reading incentives
Developing collections
Managing computer network
Attending faculty meetings
Attending library staff
meetings
Recommendations for Action
The findings of this study recommend five specific actions by New Mexico
school decision-makers:
School libraries should have funding for adequate professional and
support staff, information resources, and information technology.
Such conditions are necessary if not sufficient alone to generate higher
levels of academic achievement.
The school library program cannot be limited to the library media center
as a place. Just as school librarians must involve themselves in the
design and delivery of instruction, information technology must be
used to make information resources available to teachers and
students wherever they may be in the school.
While Internet access is important, the school librarian has an important
role to play in ensuring that teachers and students have access to high-
quality licensed databases from which current, authoritative
information may be obtained. School librarians can provide the
necessary training to ensure teachers and students know how to use
the information tools and assess an information resource.
How School Libraries Improve Outcomes for Children:
The New Mexico Study
Appendices
Bibliography
Participating New Mexico Elementary Schools
Participating New Mexico Middle Schools
Participating New Mexico High Schools
Survey of New Mexico School Library Programs
The Impact of New Mexico School Libraries on Academic Achievement:
Preliminary Results
64
How School Libraries Improve Outcomes for Children:
The New Mexico Study
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Media Quarterly, 23(1), 17-25.
Wenglinsky, H. (1998). Does It Compute? The Relationship Between
Educational Technology and Student Achievement in
Mathematics. Princeton, N. J.: Educational Testing Service.
Yarling, J. R. (1968). Children's Understandings and Use of Selected
Library-Related Skills in Two Elementary School, One With and
One Without a Centralized Library. Unpublished doctoral
dissertation, Ball State University.
Yetter, C. L. (1994). Resource-Based Learning in the Information Age
School: The Intersection of Roles and Relationships of the
School Library Media Specialist, Teachers, and Principal.
Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Seattle University.
74
How School Libraries Improve Outcomes for Children:
The New Mexico Study
Participating New Mexico Elementary Schools
DISTRICT SCHOOL
ALAMOGORDO HEIGHTS ELEM
ALAMOGORDO OREGON ELEMENTARY
ALAMOGORDO SIERRA ELEM
ALBUQUERQUE A. MONTOYA ELEM
ALBUQUERQUE ADOBE ACRES ELEM
ALBUQUERQUE ALAMOSA ELEM
ALBUQUERQUE ALVARADO ELEM
ALBUQUERQUE ARMIJO ELEM
ALBUQUERQUE ARROYO DEL OSO ELEM
ALBUQUERQUE ATRISCO ELEM
ALBUQUERQUE BANDELIER ELEM
ALBUQUERQUE BARCELONA ELEM
ALBUQUERQUE BELLEHAVEN ELEM
ALBUQUERQUE CARLOS REY ELEM
ALBUQUERQUE CHAMIZA ELEM
ALBUQUERQUE CHAPARRAL ELEM
ALBUQUERQUE CHELWOOD ELEM
ALBUQUERQUE COLLET PARK ELEM
ALBUQUERQUE COMANCHE ELEM
ALBUQUERQUE CORRALES ELEM
ALBUQUERQUE DENNIS CHAVEZ ELEM
ALBUQUERQUE DOLORES GONZALES ELE
ALBUQUERQUE DOUBLE EAGLE ELEM
ALBUQUERQUE EDMUND G ROSS ELEM
ALBUQUERQUE EUGENE FIELD ELEM
ALBUQUERQUE GEORGIA O'KEEFFE ELE
ALBUQUERQUE HODGIN ELEM
ALBUQUERQUE HUB H HUMPHREY ELEM
ALBUQUERQUE KIRTLAND ELEM
ALBUQUERQUE KIT CARSON ELEM
ALBUQUERQUE LAVALAND ELEM
ALBUQUERQUE LEW WALLACE ELEM
ALBUQUERQUE LONGFELLOW ELEM
ALBUQUERQUE LOS PADILLAS ELEM
ALBUQUERQUE LOWELL ELEM
ALBUQUERQUE MARIE M HUGHES ELEM
ALBUQUERQUE MARK TWAIN ELEM
ALBUQUERQUE MATHESON PARK ELEM
ALBUQUERQUE MONTE VISTA ELEM
ALBUQUERQUE MONTEZUMA ELEM
ALBUQUERQUE MOUNTAIN VIEW ELEM
ALBUQUERQUE NAVAJO ELEM
ALBUQUERQUE ONATE ELEM
75
How School Libraries Improve Outcomes for Children:
The New Mexico Study
ALBUQUERQUE OSUNA ELEM
ALBUQUERQUE PAINTED SKY ELEM
ALBUQUERQUE PAJARITO ELEM
ALBUQUERQUE REGINALD CHAVEZ EL
ALBUQUERQUE S. R. MARMON ELEM
ALBUQUERQUE S. Y. JACKSON ELEM
ALBUQUERQUE SAN ANTONITO ELEM
ALBUQUERQUE SANDIA BASE ELEM
ALBUQUERQUE SIERRA VISTA ELEM
ALBUQUERQUE TOMASITA ELEM
ALBUQUERQUE VALLE VISTA ELEM
ALBUQUERQUE WHERRY ELEM
ALBUQUERQUE ZIA ELEM
ALBUQUERQUE ZUNI ELEM
ANIMAS ANIMAS ELEMENTARY
ARTESIA CENTRAL ELEMENTARY
ARTESIA HERMOSA ELEMENTARY
ARTESIA ROSELAWN ELEMENTARY
ARTESIA YESO ELEMENTARY
ARTESIA YUCCA ELEMENTARY
AZTEC PARK AVENUE ELEM
BERNALILLO ALGODONES ELEMENTARY
BERNALILLO SANTO DOMINGO ELEM
BERNALILLO W. D. CARROLL ELEM
BLOOMFIELD BLANCO ELEMENTARY
BLOOMFIELD NAABA ANI ELEM
CAPITAN CAPITAN ELEMENTARY
CARLSBAD CRAFT ELEMENTARY
CARLSBAD EDDY ELEMENTARY
CARLSBAD MONTERREY ELEMENTARY
CARLSBAD PATE ELEMENTARY
CARLSBAD RIVERSIDE ELEMENTARY
CARLSBAD SUNSET ELEMENTARY
CENTRAL CONS. EVA B. STOKELY ELEM
CENTRAL CONS. MESA ELEMENTARY
CENTRAL CONS. OJO AMARILLO ELEM
CHAMA CHAMA ELEMENTARY
CHAMA TIERRA AMARILLA ELEM
CLAYTON ALVIS ELEMENTARY
CLOVIS BARRY ELEMENTARY
CLOVIS HIGHLAND ELEMENTARY
CLOVIS JAMES BICKLEY ELEM
CLOVIS LA CASITA ELEMENTARY
CLOVIS LOCKWOOD ELEMENTARY
CLOVIS MESA ELEMENTARY
CLOVIS PARKVIEW ELEMENTARY
CLOVIS RANCHVALE ELEMENTARY
76
How School Libraries Improve Outcomes for Children:
The New Mexico Study
COBRE CONS. BAYARD ELEMENTARY
COBRE CONS. HURLEY ELEMENTARY
COBRE CONS. SAN LORENZO ELEM
CORONA CORONA ELEMENTARY
DEMING BELL ELEMENTARY
DEMING COLUMBUS ELEMENTARY
DES MOINES DES MOINES ELEM
DORA DORA ELEMENTARY
DULCE DULCE ELEMENTARY
ELIDA ELIDA ELEMENTARY
ESPANOLA ABIQUIU ELEMENTARY
ESPANOLA ESPANOLA ELEMENTARY
ESPANOLA FAIRVIEW ELEMENTARY
ESPANOLA HERNANDEZ ELEMENTARY
FARMINGTON APACHE ELEMENTARY
FARMINGTON COUNTRY CLUB ELEM
FARMINGTON ESPERANZA ELEMENTARY
FARMINGTON MC CORMICK ELEM
FARMINGTON MC KINLEY ELEMENTARY
FARMINGTON SWINBURNE ELEMENTARY
FLOYD FLOYD ELEMENTARY
GADSDEN BERINO ELEMENTARY
GADSDEN DESERT TRAILS INT
GADSDEN LA UNION ELEMENTARY
GADSDEN LOMA LINDA ELEM
GALLUP CROWNPOINT ELEM
GALLUP DAVID SKEET ELEM
GALLUP INDIAN HILLS ELEM
GALLUP JEFFERSON ELEMENTARY
GALLUP LINCOLN ELEM
GALLUP ROOSEVELT ELEM
GALLUP SMITH LAKE ELEM
GALLUP STAGECOACH ELEM
GALLUP THOREAU ELEMENTARY
GALLUP WASHINGTON ELEM
GRANTS MOUNT TAYLOR ELEM
GRANTS SAN RAFAEL ELEM
HAGERMAN HAGERMAN ELEMENTARY
HATCH GARFIELD ELEMENTARY
HOBBS BROADMOOR ELEMENTARY
HOBBS COLLEGE LANE ELEM
HOBBS CORONADO ELEMENTARY
HOBBS JEFFERSON ELEMENTARY
HOBBS SANGER ELEMENTARY
HOBBS TAYLOR ELEMENTARY
HOBBS WILL ROGERS ELEM
HONDO HONDO ELEMENTARY
77
How School Libraries Improve Outcomes for Children:
The New Mexico Study
HOUSE HOUSE ELEMENTARY
JAL JAL ELEMENTARY
LAS CRUCES ALAMEDA ELEMENTARY
LAS CRUCES BOOKER T. WASHINGTON
LAS CRUCES CENTRAL ELEMENTARY
LAS CRUCES CONLEE ELEMENTARY
LAS CRUCES DESERT HILLS ELEM
LAS CRUCES DONA ANA ELEMENTARY
LAS CRUCES EAST PICACHO ELEM
LAS CRUCES HIGHLAND ELEMENTARY
LAS CRUCES HILLRISE ELEMENTARY
LAS CRUCES JORNADA ELEMENTARY
LAS CRUCES LOMA HEIGHTS ELEM
LAS CRUCES MAC ARTHUR ELEM
LAS CRUCES MESILLA ELEMENTARY
LAS CRUCES MESILLA PARK ELEM
LAS CRUCES SUNRISE ELEMENTARY
LAS CRUCES TOMBAUGH ELEM
LAS CRUCES UNIVERSITY HILLS ELE
LAS CRUCES VALLEY VIEW ELEM
LAS VEGAS EAST LEGION PARK ELEM
LAS VEGAS EAST LOS NINOS ELEMENTARY
LAS VEGAS EAST PAUL D. HENRY ELEM
LAS VEGAS EAST SIERRA VISTA ELEM
LOS ALAMOS ASPEN ELEMENTARY
LOS ALAMOS BARRANCA MESA ELEM
LOS ALAMOS CHAMISA ELEMENTARY
LOS ALAMOS MOUNTAIN ELEMENTARY
LOS ALAMOS PINON ELEMENTARY
LOS LUNAS TOME ELEMENTARY
LOS LUNAS VALENCIA ELEMENTARY
LOVING LOVING ELEMENTARY
MAXWELL MAXWELL ELEMENTARY
MELROSE MELROSE ELEMENTARY
MORA MORA ELEMENTARY
MORIARTY EDGEWOOD ELEMENTARY
MORIARTY MORIARTY ELEMENTARY
MORIARTY MOUNTAINVIEW ELEM
MORIARTY ROUTE 66 ELEMENTARY
MORIARTY SOUTH MOUNTAIN ELEM
MOUNTAINAIR MOUNTAINAIR ELEM
PENASCO PENASCO ELEMENTARY
QUESTA RED RIVER ELEMENTARY
QUESTA RIO COSTILLA ELEM
RATON KEARNEY ELEMENTARY
RESERVE GLENWOOD ELEMENTARY
RIO RANCHO COLINAS DEL NORTE EL
78
How School Libraries Improve Outcomes for Children:
The New Mexico Study
RIO RANCHO ENCHANTED HILLS ELEM
RIO RANCHO ERNEST STAPLETON ELE
RIO RANCHO MARTIN KING JR ELEM
RIO RANCHO RIO RANCHO ELEM
ROSWELL BERRENDO ELEMENTARY
ROSWELL E GRAND PLAINS ELEM
ROSWELL MILITARY HGTS ELEM
SAN JON SAN JON ELEMENTARY
SANTA FE AGUA FRIA ELEMENTARY
SANTA FE ALVORD ELEMENTARY
SANTA FE ATALAYA ELEMENTARY
SANTA FE EL DORADO ELEMENTARY
SANTA FE FRANCIS X. NAVA ELEM
SANTA FE LARRAGOITE ELEM
SANTA FE WOOD-GORMLEY ELEM
SANTA ROSA SANTA ROSA ELEM
SILVER CITY HARRISON SCHMITT ELE
SILVER CITY SIXTH STREET ELEM
TAOS ARROYO DEL NORTE ELE
TAOS ENOS GARCIA ELEM
TATUM TATUM ELEMENTARY
TUCUMCARI MOUNTAIN VIEW ELEM
TULAROSA TULAROSA ELEMENTARY
VAUGHN VAUGHN ELEMENTARY
79
How School Libraries Improve Outcomes for Children:
The New Mexico Study
Participating New Mexico Middle Schools
DISTRICT SCHOOL
ALAMOGORDO CHAPARRAL MIDDLE
ALAMOGORDO MT VIEW MIDDLE SCH.
ALBUQUERQUE DESERT RIDGE MIDDLE
ALBUQUERQUE EISENHOWER MIDDLE
ALBUQUERQUE ERNIE PYLE MIDDLE
ALBUQUERQUE GARFIELD MIDDLE
ALBUQUERQUE HARRISON MIDDLE
ALBUQUERQUE HAYES MIDDLE
ALBUQUERQUE JACKSON MIDDLE
ALBUQUERQUE JEFFERSON MIDDLE
ALBUQUERQUE L.B. JOHNSON MIDDLE
ALBUQUERQUE MADISON MIDDLE
ALBUQUERQUE MC KINLEY MIDDLE
ALBUQUERQUE TAFT MIDDLE
ALBUQUERQUE TAYLOR MIDDLE
ALBUQUERQUE TRUMAN MIDDLE
ALBUQUERQUE WASHINGTON MIDDLE
ALBUQUERQUE WILSON MIDDLE
ANIMAS ANIMAS MIDDLE
AZTEC CV KOOGLER MIDDLE
BELEN BELEN MIDDLE
BERNALILLO SANTO DOMINGO MIDDLE
BLOOMFIELD MESA ALTA JR HIGH
CAPITAN CAPITAN MIDDLE
CARLSBAD ALTA VISTA MIDDLE
CARLSBAD P.R. LEYVA MIDDLE
CARRIZOZO CARRIZOZO MIDDLE
CENTRAL CONS. KIRTLAND MIDDLE
CENTRAL CONS. NEWCOMB MIDDLE
CHAMA CHAMA MIDDLE
CHAMA TIERRA AMARILLA MID
CLOVIS MARSHALL JR HIGH
CLOVIS W.D. GATTIS JR HIGH
CLOVIS YUCCA JR HIGH
COBRE CONS. SNELL MIDDLE
CORONA CORONA HIGH
CUBA CUBA MIDDLE
DES MOINES DES MOINES HIGH
DEXTER DEXTER MIDDLE
DORA DORA HIGH
DULCE DULCE MIDDLE
ELIDA ELIDA HIGH
ESPANOLA ESPANOLA MIDDLE
80
How School Libraries Improve Outcomes for Children:
The New Mexico Study
FARMINGTON HEIGHTS JR HIGH
FARMINGTON MESA VIEW JR HIGH
FARMINGTON TIBBETTS JR HIGH
FLOYD FLOYD MIDDLE
GADSDEN CHAPARRAL MIDDLE
GADSDEN GADSDEN MIDDLE
GADSDEN SANTA TERESA MIDDLE
GALLUP CROWNPOINT HIGH
GALLUP GALLUP JUNIOR HIGH
GALLUP NAVAJO PINE HIGH
GALLUP RAMAH HIGH
GALLUP THOREAU MIDDLE
GRANTS LAGUNA-ACOMA MIDDLE
HAGERMAN HAGERMAN MIDDLE
HATCH HATCH VALLEY MIDDLE
HOBBS HEIZER JR HIGH
HOBBS HIGHLAND JR HIGH
HOBBS HOUSTON JR HIGH
HONDO HONDO HIGH
HOUSE HOUSE HIGH
LAS CRUCES CAMINO REAL MIDDLE
LAS CRUCES LYNN MIDDLE
LAS CRUCES PICACHO MIDDLE
LAS CRUCES SIERRA MIDDLE
LAS CRUCES VISTA MIDDLE
LAS CRUCES WHITE SANDS MIDDLE
LAS CRUCES ZIA MIDDLE
LAS VEGAS EAST MEMORIAL MIDDLE
LOS ALAMOS LOS ALAMOS MIDDLE
LOS LUNAS LOS LUNAS MIDDLE
LOS LUNAS MANZANO VISTA MIDDLE
LOVING LOVING MIDDLE
MAGDALENA MAGDALENA MIDDLE
MAXWELL MAXWELL MIDDLE
MELROSE MELROSE HIGH
MORA MORA MIDDLE
MOUNTAINAIR MOUNTAINAIR HIGH
POJOAQUE POJOAQUE MIDDLE
PORTALES PORTALES JR HIGH
RATON RATON MIDDLE
RIO RANCHO LINCOLN MIDDLE
RIO RANCHO MOUNTAIN VIEW MIDDLE
ROSWELL BERRENDO MIDDLE
ROSWELL SIERRA MIDDLE
RUIDOSO RUIDOSO MIDDLE
SAN JON SAN JON HIGH
SANTA FE ALAMEDA MIDDLE
81
How School Libraries Improve Outcomes for Children:
The New Mexico Study
SANTA FE CALVIN CAPHAW JR
SANTA FE DE VARGAS JR HIGH
SILVER CITY LA PLATA MIDDLE
SPRINGER SPRINGER HIGH
TAOS TAOS MIDDLE
TATUM TATUM JR HIGH
TEXICO TEXICO MIDDLE
TRUTH OR CONS. T OR C MIDDLE
VAUGHN VAUGHN HIGH
ZUNI ZUNI MIDDLE
ESPANOLA ABIQUIU ELEMENTARY
ESPANOLA ESPANOLA ELEMENTARY
ESPANOLA FAIRVIEW ELEMENTARY
ESPANOLA HERNANDEZ ELEMENTARY
FARMINGTON APACHE ELEMENTARY
FARMINGTON COUNTRY CLUB ELEM
FARMINGTON ESPERANZA ELEMENTARY
FARMINGTON MC CORMICK ELEM
FARMINGTON MC KINLEY ELEMENTARY
FARMINGTON SWINBURNE ELEMENTARY
FLOYD FLOYD ELEMENTARY
GADSDEN BERINO ELEMENTARY
GADSDEN DESERT TRAILS INT
GADSDEN LA UNION ELEMENTARY
GADSDEN LOMA LINDA ELEM
GALLUP CROWNPOINT ELEM
GALLUP DAVID SKEET ELEM
GALLUP INDIAN HILLS ELEM
GALLUP JEFFERSON ELEMENTARY
GALLUP LINCOLN ELEM
GALLUP ROOSEVELT ELEM
GALLUP SMITH LAKE ELEM
GALLUP STAGECOACH ELEM
GALLUP THOREAU ELEMENTARY
GALLUP WASHINGTON ELEM
GRANTS MOUNT TAYLOR ELEM
GRANTS SAN RAFAEL ELEM
HAGERMAN HAGERMAN ELEMENTARY
HATCH GARFIELD ELEMENTARY
HOBBS BROADMOOR ELEMENTARY
HOBBS COLLEGE LANE ELEM
HOBBS CORONADO ELEMENTARY
HOBBS JEFFERSON ELEMENTARY
HOBBS SANGER ELEMENTARY
HOBBS TAYLOR ELEMENTARY
HOBBS WILL ROGERS ELEM
HONDO HONDO ELEMENTARY
82
How School Libraries Improve Outcomes for Children:
The New Mexico Study
HOUSE HOUSE ELEMENTARY
JAL JAL ELEMENTARY
LAS CRUCES ALAMEDA ELEMENTARY
LAS CRUCES BOOKER T. WASHINGTON
LAS CRUCES CENTRAL ELEMENTARY
LAS CRUCES CONLEE ELEMENTARY
LAS CRUCES DESERT HILLS ELEM
LAS CRUCES DONA ANA ELEMENTARY
LAS CRUCES EAST PICACHO ELEM
LAS CRUCES HIGHLAND ELEMENTARY
LAS CRUCES HILLRISE ELEMENTARY
LAS CRUCES JORNADA ELEMENTARY
LAS CRUCES LOMA HEIGHTS ELEM
LAS CRUCES MAC ARTHUR ELEM
LAS CRUCES MESILLA ELEMENTARY
LAS CRUCES MESILLA PARK ELEM
LAS CRUCES SUNRISE ELEMENTARY
LAS CRUCES TOMBAUGH ELEM
LAS CRUCES UNIVERSITY HILLS ELE
LAS CRUCES VALLEY VIEW ELEM
LAS VEGAS EAST LEGION PARK ELEM
LAS VEGAS EAST LOS NINOS ELEMENTARY
LAS VEGAS EAST PAUL D. HENRY ELEM
LAS VEGAS EAST SIERRA VISTA ELEM
LOS ALAMOS ASPEN ELEMENTARY
LOS ALAMOS BARRANCA MESA ELEM
LOS ALAMOS CHAMISA ELEMENTARY
LOS ALAMOS MOUNTAIN ELEMENTARY
LOS ALAMOS PINON ELEMENTARY
LOS LUNAS TOME ELEMENTARY
LOS LUNAS VALENCIA ELEMENTARY
LOVING LOVING ELEMENTARY
MAXWELL MAXWELL ELEMENTARY
MELROSE MELROSE ELEMENTARY
MORA MORA ELEMENTARY
MORIARTY EDGEWOOD ELEMENTARY
MORIARTY MORIARTY ELEMENTARY
MORIARTY MOUNTAINVIEW ELEM
MORIARTY ROUTE 66 ELEMENTARY
MORIARTY SOUTH MOUNTAIN ELEM
MOUNTAINAIR MOUNTAINAIR ELEM
PENASCO PENASCO ELEMENTARY
QUESTA RED RIVER ELEMENTARY
QUESTA RIO COSTILLA ELEM
RATON KEARNEY ELEMENTARY
RESERVE GLENWOOD ELEMENTARY
RIO RANCHO COLINAS DEL NORTE EL
83
How School Libraries Improve Outcomes for Children:
The New Mexico Study
RIO RANCHO ENCHANTED HILLS ELEM
RIO RANCHO ERNEST STAPLETON ELE
RIO RANCHO MARTIN KING JR ELEM
RIO RANCHO RIO RANCHO ELEM
ROSWELL BERRENDO ELEMENTARY
ROSWELL E GRAND PLAINS ELEM
ROSWELL MILITARY HGTS ELEM
SAN JON SAN JON ELEMENTARY
SANTA FE AGUA FRIA ELEMENTARY
SANTA FE ALVORD ELEMENTARY
SANTA FE ATALAYA ELEMENTARY
SANTA FE EL DORADO ELEMENTARY
SANTA FE FRANCIS X. NAVA ELEM
SANTA FE LARRAGOITE ELEM
SANTA FE WOOD-GORMLEY ELEM
SANTA ROSA SANTA ROSA ELEM
SILVER CITY HARRISON SCHMITT ELE
SILVER CITY SIXTH STREET ELEM
TAOS ARROYO DEL NORTE ELE
TAOS ENOS GARCIA ELEM
TATUM TATUM ELEMENTARY
TUCUMCARI MOUNTAIN VIEW ELEM
TULAROSA TULAROSA ELEMENTARY
VAUGHN VAUGHN ELEMENTARY
84
How School Libraries Improve Outcomes for Children:
The New Mexico Study
Participating New Mexico High Schools
DISTRICT SCHOOL
ALAMOGORDO ALAMOGORDO HIGH
ALBUQUERQUE ALBUQUERQUE HIGH
ALBUQUERQUE ELDORADO HIGH
ALBUQUERQUE HIGHLAND HIGH
ALBUQUERQUE MANZANO HIGH
ALBUQUERQUE RIO GRANDE HIGH
ALBUQUERQUE WEST MESA HIGH
ANIMAS ANIMAS HIGH
ARTESIA ARTESIA HIGH
BLOOMFIELD BLOOMFIELD HIGH
CAPITAN CAPITAN HIGH
CARLSBAD CARLSBAD HIGH
CARRIZOZO CARRIZOZO HIGH
CENTRAL CONS. SHIPROCK HIGH
CHAMA ESCALANTE HIGH
CLAYTON CLAYTON HIGH
CLOVIS CLOVIS HIGH
CORONA CORONA HIGH
CUBA CUBA HIGH
DES MOINES DES MOINES HIGH
DORA DORA HIGH
ELIDA ELIDA HIGH
ESPANOLA ESPANOLA VALLEY HIGH
FARMINGTON FARMINGTON HIGH
FARMINGTON PIEDRA VISTA HIGH
FLOYD FLOYD HIGH
GADSDEN GADSDEN HIGH
GADSDEN SANTA TERESA HIGH
GALLUP CROWNPOINT HIGH
GALLUP GALLUP CENTRAL HIGH
GALLUP GALLUP HIGH
GALLUP NAVAJO PINE HIGH
GALLUP RAMAH HIGH
GALLUP THOREAU HIGH
GALLUP TOHATCHI HIGH
GRANTS LAGUNA-ACOMA HIGH
HAGERMAN HAGERMAN HIGH
HATCH HATCH VALLEY HIGH
HOBBS HOBBS HIGH
HONDO HONDO HIGH
HOUSE HOUSE HIGH
JEMEZ VALLEY JEMEZ VALLEY HIGH
LAS CRUCES LAS CRUCES HIGH
85
How School Libraries Improve Outcomes for Children:
The New Mexico Study
LAS CRUCES MAYFIELD HIGH
LAS CRUCES ONATE HIGH
LOS ALAMOS LOS ALAMOS HIGH
LOS LUNAS LOS LUNAS HIGH
LOVINGTON LOVINGTON HIGH
MAGDALENA MAGDALENA HIGH
MAXWELL MAXWELL HIGH
MELROSE MELROSE HIGH
MORA MORA HIGH
MOUNTAINAIR MOUNTAINAIR HIGH
PENASCO PENASCO HIGH
PORTALES PORTALES HIGH
RATON RATON HIGH
ROSWELL GODDARD HIGH
ROSWELL ROSWELL