One of the crucial challenges of our time is to effectively use metal and metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) as an alternative way to combat drug-resistant infections. Metal and metal oxide NPs such as Ag, Ag2O, Cu, Cu2O, CuO, and ZnO have found their way against antimicrobial resistance. However, they also suffer from several limitations ranging from toxicity issues to resistance mechanisms by complex structures of bacterial communities, so-called biofilms. In this regard, scientists are urgently looking for convenient approaches to develop heterostructure synergistic nanocomposites which could overcome toxicity issues, enhance antimicrobial activity, improve thermal and mechanical stability, and increase shelf life. These nanocomposites provide a controlled release of bioactive substances into the surrounding medium, are cost effective, reproducible, and scalable for real life applications such as food additives, nanoantimicrobial coating in food technology, food preservation, optical limiters, the bio medical field, and wastewater treatment application. Naturally abundant and non-toxic Montmorillonite (MMT) is a novel support to accommodate NPs, due to its negative surface charge and control release of NPs and ions. At the time of this review, around 250 articles have been published focusing on the incorporation of Ag-, Cu-, and ZnO-based NPs into MMT support and thus furthering their introduction into polymer matrix composites dominantly used for antimicrobial application. Therefore, it is highly relevant to report a comprehensive review of Ag-, Cu-, and ZnO-modified MMT. This review provides a comprehensive overview of MMT-based nanoantimicrobials, particularly dealing with preparation methods, materials characterization, and mechanisms of action, antimicrobial activity on different bacterial strains, real life applications, and environmental and toxicity issues.