The ultraspectral infrared radiances obtained from satellite observations provide atmospheric, surface, and/or cloud information. The intent of the measurement of the thermodynamic state is the initialization of weather and climate models. Great effort has been given to retrieving and validating these atmospheric, surface, and/or cloud properties. Error Consistency Analysis Scheme (ECAS), through fast radiative transfer model (RTM) forward and inverse calculations, has been developed to estimate the error budget in terms of absolute and standard deviation of differences in both spectral radiance and retrieved geophysical parameter domains. The retrieval error is assessed through ECAS without assistance of other independent measurements such as radiosonde data. ECAS re-evaluates instrument random noise, and establishes the link between radiometric accuracy and retrieved geophysical parameter accuracy. ECAS can be applied to measurements of any ultraspectral instrument and any retrieval scheme with associated RTM. In this paper, ECAS is described and demonstration is made with the measurements of the METOP-A satellite Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI).
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[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The two main elements of the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder radiative transfer algorithm (AIRS-RTA) are described in this paper: 1) the fast parameterization of the atmospheric transmittances that are used to perform the AIRS physical retrievals and 2) the spectroscopy used to generate the parameterized transmittances. We concentrate on those aspects of the spectroscopy that are especially relevant for temperature and water vapor retrievals. The AIRS-RTA is a hybrid model in that it parameterizes most gases on a fixed grid of pressures, while the water optical depths are parameterized on a fixed grid of water amounts. Water vapor, ozone, carbon monoxide, and methane profiles can be varied, in addition to the column abundance of carbon dioxide.
Preview · Article · Mar 2003 · IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) is a key payload element of the METOP series of European meteorological polar-orbit satellites. IASI will provide very accurate data about the atmosphere, land and oceans for application to weather predictions and climate studies. The IASI measurement technique is based on passive IR remote sensing using an accurately calibrated Fourier Transform Spectrometer operating in the 3.7 - 15.5 mum spectral range and an associated infrared imager operating in the 10.3-12.5 mum spectral range. The optical configuration of the sounder is based on a Michelson interferometer. Interferograms are processed by the on-board digital processing subsystem which performs the inverse Fourier Transform and the radiometric calibration. The integrated infrared imager allows the co registration of the IASI sounder with AVHRR imager on-board METOP. The first model (proto-flight) of IASI has successfully completed a verification program conducted at ALCATEL SPACE premises in Cannes. This paper provides a brief overview of the IASI mission, instrument architecture and key performances results. A companion paper1 by Alcatel provides more information on instrument design and development.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2004 · Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The transfer of monochromatic radiation in a scattering, absorbing, and emitting plane-parallel medium with a specified bidirectional reflectivity at the lower boundary is considered. The equations and boundary conditions are summarized. The numerical implementation of the theory is discussed with attention given to the reliable and efficient computation of eigenvalues and eigenvectors. Ways of avoiding fatal overflows and ill-conditioning in the matrix inversion needed to determine the integration constants are also presented.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The ability to accurately validate high–spectral resolution infrared radiance measurements from space using comparisons with a high-altitude aircraft spectrometer has been successfully demonstrated. The demonstration is based on a 21 November 2002 underflight of the AIRS on the NASA Aqua spacecraft by the Scanning-HIS on the NASA ER-2 high-altitude aircraft. A comparison technique which accounts for the different viewing geometries and spectral characteristics of the two sensors is introduced, and accurate comparisons are made for AIRS channels throughout the infrared spectrum. Resulting brightness temperature differences are found to be 0.2 K or less for most channels. Both the AIRS and the Scanning-HIS calibrations are expected to be very accurate (formal 3-sigma estimates are better than 1 K absolute brightness temperature for a wide range of scene temperatures), because high spectral resolution offers inherent advantages for absolute calibration and because they make use of high-emissivity cavity blackbodies as onboard radiometric references. AIRS also has the added advantage of a cold space view, and the Scanning-HIS calibration has recently benefited from the availability of a zenith view from high-altitude flights. Aircraft comparisons of this type provide a mechanism for periodically testing the absolute calibration of spacecraft instruments with instrumentation for which the calibration can be carefully maintained on the ground. This capability is especially valuable for assuring the long-term consistency and accuracy of climate observations, including those from the NASA EOS spacecraft (Terra, Aqua and Aura) and the new complement of NPOESS operational instruments. The validation role for accurately calibrated aircraft spectrometers also includes application to broadband instruments and linking the calibrations of similar instruments on different spacecraft. It is expected that aircraft flights of the Scanning-HIS and its close cousin the NPOESS Airborne Sounder Test Bed (NAST) will be used to check the long-term stability of AIRS and the NPOESS operational follow-on sounder, the Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS), over the life of the missions.
Preview · Article · May 2006 · Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Atmospheric radiation in the infrared (IR) 8– spectral region contains a wealth of information that is very useful for the retrieval of ice cloud properties from aircraft or space-borne measurements. To provide the scattering and absorption properties of nonspherical ice crystals that are fundamental to the IR retrieval implementation, we use the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method to solve for the extinction efficiency, single-scattering albedo, and the asymmetry parameter of the phase function for ice crystals smaller than . For particles larger than this size, the improved geometric optics method (IGOM) can be employed to calculate the asymmetry parameter with an acceptable accuracy, provided that we properly account for the inhomogeneity of the refracted wave due to strong absorption inside the ice particle. A combination of the results computed from the two methods provides the asymmetry parameter for the entire practical range of particle sizes between 1 and over the wavelengths ranging from 8 to . For the extinction and absorption efficiency calculations, several methods including the IGOM, Mie solution for equivalent spheres (MSFES), and the anomalous diffraction theory (ADT) can lead to a substantial discontinuity in comparison with the FDTD solutions for particle sizes on the order of . To overcome this difficulty, we have developed a novel approach called the stretched scattering potential method (SSPM). For the IR 8– spectral region, we show that SSPM is a more accurate approximation than ADT, MSFES, and IGOM. The SSPM solution can be further refined numerically. Through a combination of the FDTD and SSPM, the extinction and absorption efficiencies are computed for hexagonal ice crystals with sizes ranging from 1 to at 12 wavelengths between 8 and .Calculations of the cirrus bulk scattering and absorption properties are performed for 30 size distributions obtained from various field campaigns for midlatitude and tropical cirrus cloud systems. Ice crystals are assumed to be hexagonal columns randomly oriented in space. The bulk scattering properties are parameterized through the use of second-order polynomial functions for the extinction efficiency and the single-scattering albedo and a power-law expression for the asymmetry parameter. We note that the volume-normalized extinction coefficient can be separated into two parts: one is inversely proportional to effective size and is independent of wavelength, and the other is the wavelength-dependent effective extinction efficiency. Unlike conventional parameterization efforts, the present parameterization scheme is more accurate because only the latter part of the volume-normalized extinction coefficient is approximated in terms of an analytical expression. After averaging over size distribution, the single-scattering albedo is shown to decrease with an increase in effective size for wavelengths shorter than whereas the opposite behavior is observed for longer wavelengths. The variation of the asymmetry parameter as a function of effective size is substantial when the effective size is smaller than . For effective sizes larger than , the asymmetry parameter approaches its asymptotic value. The results derived in this study can be useful to remote sensing studies of ice clouds involving IR window bands.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2001 · Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT) Polar System is the European contribution to the European-U.S. operational polar meteorological satellite system (Initial Joint Polar System). It serves the midmorning (A.M.) orbit 0930 Local Solar Time (LST) descending node. The EUMETSAT satellites of this new polar system are the Meteorological Operational Satellite (Metop) satellites, jointly developed with ESA. Three Metop satellites are foreseen for at least 14 years of operation from 2606 onward and will support operational meteorology and climate monitoring. The Metop Programme includes the development of some instruments, such as the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment, Advanced Scatterometer, and the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Receiver for Atmospheric Sounding, which are advanced instruments of recent successful research missions. Core components of the Metop payload, common with the payload on the U.S. satellites, are the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer and the Advanced Television Infrared Observation Satellite (TIROS) Operational Vertical Sounder (ATOVS) package, composed of the High Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder (HIRS), Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit A (AMSU-A), and Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS). They provide continuity to the NOAAK, -L, -M satellite series (in orbit known as NOAA-15, -16 and -17). MHS is a EUMETSAT development and replaces the AMSU-B instrument in the ATOVS suite. The Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) instrument, developed by the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales, provides hyperspectral resolution infrared sounding capabilities and represents new technology in operational satellite remote sensing.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2007 · Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: A physical inversion scheme has been developed dealing with cloudy as well as cloud-free radiance observed with ultraspectral infrared sounders to simultaneously retrieve surface, atmospheric thermody- namic, and cloud microphysical parameters. A fast radiative transfer model, which applies to the clouded atmosphere, is used for atmospheric profile and cloud parameter retrieval. A one-dimensional (1D) varia- tional multivariable inversion solution is used to improve an iterative background state defined by an eigenvector-regression retrieval. The solution is iterated in order to account for nonlinearity in the 1D variational solution. It is shown that relatively accurate temperature and moisture retrievals can be achieved below optically thin clouds. For optically thick clouds, accurate temperature and moisture profiles down to cloud-top level are obtained. For both optically thin and thick cloud situations, the cloud-top height can be retrieved with relatively high accuracy (i.e., error 1 km). National Polar-orbiting Operational Environ- mental Satellite System (NPOESS) Airborne Sounder Testbed Interferometer (NAST-I) retrievals from the The Observing-System Research and Predictability Experiment (THORPEX) Atlantic Regional Cam- paign are compared with coincident observations obtained from dropsondes and the nadir-pointing cloud physics lidar (CPL). This work was motivated by the need to obtain solutions for atmospheric soundings from infrared radiances observed for every individual field of view, regardless of cloud cover, from future ultraspectral geostationary satellite sounding instruments, such as the Geosynchronous Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GIFTS). However, this retrieval approach can also be applied to the ultraspectral sounding instruments to fly on polar satellites, such as the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) on the European MetOp satellite, the Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) on the NPOESS Pre- paratory Project, and the follow-on NPOESS series of satellites.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2007 · Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences