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International Space Station (ISS) TransHab: An Inflatable Habitat

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ISS TransHab: An Inflatable Habitat Adams, Kennedy
07/14/04 1
ISS TransHab: An Inflatable Habitat
Kriss J. Kennedy, Architect / Space Architect
TransHab Project Office
NASA Johnson Space Center
E: kriss.j.kennedy@jsc.nasa.gov
Constance M. Adams, AIAA
Architect / Space Architect
Lockheed Martin Space Operations Company
2400 NASA Road One, Box C-44
Houston, TX 77058
tel. 281.483.1739; fax: 281.244.5335; email constance.m.adams1@jsc.nasa.gov
ABSTRACT
This paper will describe the ISS TransHab architectural design being proposed as a habitation module for the
International Space Station. TransHab is a space inflatable habitation module that originally was designed to support a
crew of six as a transit habitat (TransHab) to and from Mars. A team of architects and engineers at the Johnson Space
Center has been designing and testing this concept to make it a reality.
INTRODUCTION
TransHab is a hybrid space structure that synthesizes a hard central core with an inflatable exterior shell. As such, it is
differentiated from all previously-developed space vehicles, which traditionally utilize a hard external shell as both main
structure and pressure vessel. Thus the TransHab vehicle’s technology, which is revolutionary both in overall concept
and in the development of each of its primary parts, represents a leap from this exoskeletal type into a new generation of
endoskeletal or complex spacecraft.
Above and beyond the straight technological innovation of this vehicle—and in no small part because of it—TransHab is
also breaking new ground in its support of the human system. The process by which the structure involved human
engineering from its early conceptual stage and throughout its development has allowed TransHab to achieve a unique
level of efficiency as a human-rated spacecraft. Its dimensioning and layout are optimized for flexible, long-term use by a
diverse crew.
Because TransHab can be packaged into a smaller volume for launch and deploy on orbit to provide a much larger, more
usable volume, this vehicle offers both wonderful architectural opportunities and tremendous technical and design
challenges. The ISS TransHab has been designed to meet the ISS Re-phased HAB Prime Item Development
Specification (HAB PIDS) SSP 50452/SSP-TBD and Node 3 to Hab Interface Control Document SSP 50309.
The detailing of the interior elements continues along with an aggressive program of testing at JSC, in which the
technology has been consistently proven to meet and exceed existing requirements. All of these aspects of the program--
its unique technology, its high level of habitability, and its outstanding testing record—may attribute their success to the
working of a deeply integrated project team, in which test engineers, structures and subsystems engineers, architects and
space human factors experts have collaborated intensively from the project’s outset.
TransHab’s TECHNOLOGIES
The TransHab spacecraft represents a breakthrough in several areas: in the development of flexible, high-load composite
structures, in the development of an optimized independent pressure-shell through breakthroughs in inflatable and
shielding technologies, and in the application of both systems in a single, reconfigurable habitat. This hybrid structure
combines the packaging and mass efficiencies of an inflatable structure and the advantages of a load carrying hard
structure.
First among these is the hard core. Essentially a multicomponent spindle element which bears the principal shear
loading in launch configuration, the core can be reduced to its role as a tensile stabilizer during on-orbit assembly by
removal of its internal trusswork and reuse of the truss’ subcomponents as interior framing and outfitting elements. In
order to make this possible, the core’s trusswork is made up of modularized “shelf” units with a universal system for
attachment to one another and to other core elements. Thus, the hard structures of the vehicle are part of a modular
system which allow them to respond efficiently to two very different loading conditions.
ISS TransHab: An Inflatable Habitat Adams, Kennedy
07/14/04 2
Figure One shows the overall vehicle:
LEVEL 4
PRESSURIZED T UNNEL
TO ISS NODE 3
LEVEL 3
LEVEL 2
LEVEL 1
WATER TANK
PASSIVE CBM
AIR INFLATION
SYSTEM &
TANKS
UNPRESSURIZED TUNNEL
Floor Struts
4'
11' 7'
25'
1.42'
1.5'
27.84'
34.51'
8'
7'
8'
5.17'
7.67'
13" SHELL
Thickness (Ave.)
Air
Supply
Duct
R/A
R/A
R/A
MM/OD Protection
7'
Air
Supply
Duct
R/A Behind
Stowage Array
Stowage Array
Stowage Array
27'-2"
10.519 m
8.485m
0.457 m
8.28 m
7.62 m
3.353 m
2.134 m
7' 2.134 m
0.433 m
1.219 m
2.134 m
2.438 m
2.438 m
2.338 m
2.134 m
1.576 m
Inflatable Com-
pression Rings
12" Flare
Figure Two shows the core in its launch configuration:
Longerons
Repositionable
Shelves
Radiation
Shield Water
Tank
ISS TransHab: An Inflatable Habitat Adams, Kennedy
07/14/04 3
Figure Three shows the core in TransHab’s fully-assembled configuration:
Longeron
Shelf
Radiation
Shield Water
Tank
Deployable Floor Struts
and Fabric Floor
The only static elements of the core are the longerons, the central toroid shear panels, and the two end tunnels. While
the lower tunnel is an unpressurized ring designed to contain the inflation system, the upper tunnel (Level 4) remains
pressurized during the entire launch-to-activation sequence. This allows it to serve as an internal airlock during the
preliminary docking, inflation and activation period; critical switching units are mounted within this cone so as to be
accessible to the Assembly crew once docking to the ISS is completed. Once assembly is complete, the Level 4 tunnel
will serve as the connection point to ISS.
Longerons provide the primary load path through the core reacting to both pressure loads and launch loads. They are 23
feet long with flares at each end to stabilize their attachment to the bulkheads. The shear panel visible around the Level 2
central core also incorporates annular water tanks, which provide the vehicle with the dual function of potable water
storage and a safe haven in the event of a solar flare.
The movable elements of the core system are the core shelves. Many of them bearing life support and systems
equipment, the shelves are placed into the central core for launch, figure 1. There are 36 shelves in two different sizes: a)
30” x 84” and b) 50” x 84”. About half of the shelves are repositioned once on-orbit and the others remain in place, figure
2. For ground operations and launch, these shelves provide structural support and lightweight equipment mounting for
pre-integration. Once TransHab is deployed, approximately one half of the shelves are relocated into the habitat volume
to support floor beams and equipment, thus serving the dual use of primary and
secondary structure.
Figure Four shows the assembled core within the inflated shell.
Since all of these elements are made of a standard set of graphite-composite
forms, the structure is remarkably low in weight relative to the capability which it
gives the vehicle. In fact, some 50% of the vehicle’s total weight is contributed by
ISS TransHab: An Inflatable Habitat Adams, Kennedy
07/14/04 4
the pressure-shell, a combination of robust inflatable restraints and high-performance debris and thermal shielding.
Figure Five shows the TransHab shell. To the far left is
the Multilayered Insulation, followed by four layers of
bullet-proof materials separated by open-pore foam; to
the right of this we see the webbing of the main restraint
layer. Inside (to the right of) the restraint layer are the
redundant bladder layers and, on the far right, the
interior “wall” or scuff barrier.
Figure Five--NASA JSC S99-05362
The inflatable shell is a separate system from the
TransHab’s primary structure, and thus can be optimized
in its function as a pressure-shell. Folded and
compressed around the core at launch, it is inflated and
deployed on orbit. The shell contains the crew’s living
space, provides orbital debris protection and thermal
insulation. It is composed of four functional layers: the
internal scuff barrier and pressure bladder, the structural
restraint layer, the Micrometeoroid/orbital debris shield,
and the external thermal protection blanket. Particles
hitting at hyper velocity expend energy and disintegrate on successive Nextel layers, spaced by open cell foam. Backing
layers of Kevlar add an additional degree of protection. An inner liner of Nomex provides fire retardant and abrasion
protection. Three Combitherm bladders form redundant air seals. Four layers of felt provide evacuation between bladder
layers (necessary for launch packaging).
TransHab ARCHITECTURE
All of these technologies were developed and integrated with a single goal in mind: the ability to provide a habitat for long-
duration space missions which addresses all requirements derived from prior experience in spaceflight. Primary issues
which have been outstanding in spacecraft design include the proper sizing of interior volumes for crew operations, the
need to increase the level of accessibility and maintainability of the interior elements, and major programmatic concerns
including the separation of discrete activity centers.
The first of these issues was addressed in TransHab’s development by early iteration of Architects and Human Factors
specialists with the Structures development team. Following this effort, integrated design of the vehicle’s systems
architecture was conducted in order to ensure that all systems would be accommodated in an orderly, rational and usable
fashion.
SYSTEMS ARCHITECTURE
The TransHab module being proposed for the ISS is 23 feet in clear interior length from inside bulkhead to inside
bulkhead, and approximately 40 feet (12.19 m) long overall by 25 feet (7.28 m) internal diameter that provides 12,077-ft3
(342 m3) of pressurized volume, figure 3. Levels 1 and 3 are 8-ft tall at the Central Core and Level 2 is 7-ft tall at the Core.
The 8-ft ceiling height of level 3 was derived from human engineering analysis showing the height requirements of
crewmembers using the treadmill. The 7-ft level two was derived from a minimum head height for crew while sleeping and
also to lock in the equipment shelves between floor struts.
As previously described in the structural section, the TransHab module is packaged and folded on the ground and
launched in the Space Shuttle for delivery to the space station. After the Orbiter docks with ISS the TransHab is removed
from the Orbiter payload bay and berthed with station using the station remote manipulator system (RMS). Once
captured on station the TransHab is deployed and then inflated to its internal operating pressure of 14.7 psia; during the
inflation period, the air system is activated for conditioning the environment prior to crew entry and outfitting. Several days
ISS TransHab: An Inflatable Habitat Adams, Kennedy
07/14/04 5
are required for the Assembly crew to activate all the systems
and complete preliminary outfitting of the habitat. To the extent
possible all systems, utilities and internal structure are pre-
integrated into the central core.
Architects took advantage of the added height in the first and
third levels of the vehicle for easier integration of the air ducts
and local-area utility distribution. Soffits attached to the core
structures both there and in the Crew Quarters in Level Two
combine the air-supply system with an enclosed chaseway for
all power, data and coolant runs so that each area is easily
served with minimal exposure to utility connectors within the
cabin (see Figure 7). This system also saves valuable time in
on-orbit Assembly and in preflight checkout by allowing these
structures to remain fixed within the core and operate in both
vehicle configurations.
Figure 6: Stowage Array
Another example of integrated systems architecture within the TransHab interior volume is the design of the Stowage
Array to serve also as a plenum for return air flow. A subsidiary structure which attaches to the floor struts after
deployment, the Stowage Array accommodates ISS-standard stowed items in a highly usable inventory system while at
the same time forming a gap between outfitting and the shell walls through which return air is channelled. Thus, this
system serves an operational function at the same time that it helps TransHab to “breathe”.
OPERATIONAL CENTERS ARCHITECTURE
The architecture of TransHab provides an
integrated habitable environment that creates
private and social spaces. This very feature is
very important for crew social and
interpersonal relationships—especially in the
long duration confinements of a space station
or interplanetary vehicle. A functional and
physical separation of the crew health care
area, crew quarters, and galley/wardroom
area creates a home-like design for the crew
while they are in space, while allowing each
function to remain permanently deployed for
regular use.
Figure 7. ISS TransHab Internal View, NASA
JSC S99-05363
Figure 7 shows an overview of the ISS
TransHab architecture. With a larger volume
than a station hard module TransHab has the ability to provide more storage volume, two means of unobstructed
LEVEL 4
LEVEL 1
LEVEL 2
LEVEL 3
ISS TransHab: An Inflatable Habitat Adams, Kennedy
07/14/04 6
movement within the vehicle, and permanently deployed equipment in the primary activity centers. Important design
objectives of TransHab are to maintain a local vertical configuration, separate the exercise area from the dining area and
to provide larger crew quarters. A central passageway in the core and a side passage large enough to translate an ISS
rack on the forward side achieve crew circulation in TransHab.
The ISS TransHab’s interior pressurized volume is divided into four functional levels: levels one through three are for
living space and the fourth is the connecting tunnel. Providing a consistent local vertical orientation in keeping with
operational requirements established in all programs since Skylab, TransHab’s architecture offers the opportunity to
separate conflicting functions while enhancing the usability of each area. Level one is the galley / wardroom and soft
stowage area. Level Two houses the crew quarters within the core’s water tanks, and an enclosed mechanical room in a
half-toroid of the outer area. Level Three is the crew health care and soft stowage area.
Level one is the main social and meeting place within TransHab. It incorporates the galley, wardroom and one portion of
the stowage array described earlier along with three ISS galley racks, a large wardroom table and an Earth-viewing
window.
LEVEL 1
nadir
WARDROOM
PASS THRU
ABOVE
GALLEY
ISS RACK
REFRIG/
FREEZER
#1
ISS RACK
GALLEY
ISS RACK
REFRIG/
FREEZER
#2
forward
SOFT STOW AGE
AIR
DUCT
PASS THRU
ABOVE
aft
zenith
window
HAND
WASH
UTILITY
CHASE 'A'
UTILITY
CHASE 'B'
32"
32"
26"
50"
62"
Integrated Floor Strut into
Fabric Floor Above
40"
ISS RACK
Leave Floor Open for
Return Air to Mech
Rm. Above
CLOSE OUT
Figure 8. TransHab Level 1 Top View
The galley area incorporates a rack-based ISS Galley and two rack-based ISS refrigerator/ freezers (R/F) which are
installed in TransHab once the module is activated. Designed to accommodate all 12 crew members during a crew
change over, the wardroom is used for meals, meetings, conferences, daily planning, public relations gatherings and
socializing in a double-height room which features an Earth-viewing window. Having this ability to gather all the crew
members in one common area for important crew debriefings and photo opportunities is very important design feature of
TransHab, as is the psychological benefit of the large open space provided here. Skylab and Mir Phase I. Experiences
have confirmed that the availability of an open, communal area is very important for crew morale and productivity during
ISS TransHab: An Inflatable Habitat Adams, Kennedy
07/14/04 7
long duration isolation and confinement in space. Thus, the
wardroom/conference area is an important contribution to the
challenge of both working and “living” in space.
Figure 9. TransHab Level 1 Galley/Wardroom Area CAD image
Level Two houses the mechanical room and crew quarters (C.Q.). The CQs cluster houses six crew quarters and a
central passageway located within the second level central core structure within the safe-haven of the water tanks. The
mechanical room external to the core structure uses only half the area of an available floor, leaving the other half open to
the wardroom area (figure 10).
LEVEL 2
nadir
PASS THRU
TO BELOW
forward
aft
zenith
MECHAN ICAL ROO M
CQ #1
CQ #5
CQ #4
CQ #2
AIR
DUCT
CQ #6
CQ #3
PASSAGE TO
GALLEY
OPEN TO WARD-
ROOM BELOW
OPEN TO WARD-
ROOM BELOW
OPEN TO WARD-
ROOM BELOW
WATER
TANK
FLOOR STRUT
Leave Floor & Clg. Open
for Return Air to Mech Rm.
42"
Integrated Floor Strut
into Fabric Flooring
OPEN TO WARD-
ROOM BELOW
Door
Door
ISS RACK
INFLATABLE OUTFITTING
COMPRESSION RING
Figure 10. TransHab Level 2 Top View
ISS TransHab: An Inflatable Habitat Adams, Kennedy
07/14/04 8
The crew quarters are surrounded by a 2.5” water jacket for radiation protection during solar flares. Access to this area is
only from Level 1 (below) or Level 3 (above), via the 42” central passageway. The shown configuration will be assembled
and outfitted after TransHab’s inflation. Equipment shelves are used as crew quarters partitions and the crew quarter
door panels and doors are installed on-orbit. Sized at over
81-ft3 of volume (C.Q. 5 & 6 are a little less), with a full
height of 7-ft, each of the crew quarters will have personal
stowage, a personal workstation, sleep restraint, and
integrated air, light, data and power in a volume that is
27% larger than the original ISS Rack-based CQ.
An integrated soffit at the top of the crew quarters contains
the ductwork, and power and data cables that feed the
work station area. The acoustic wall panels, a fabric
sandwich of Nomex, felt and Bisco (an acoustic abatement
material), will be designed for cleanability and change-out
to allow new crew members to decorate their crew quarter
according to personal taste. Studies and research on long
duration isolation and confinement have shown this
concept along with larger private crew quarters to have a
positive impact on crew morale and productivity.
Figure 11. TransHab Crew Quarters CAD Image, JSC S99-
05359
The mechanical room is similar to a mezzanine level in a high rise building. Its function is to house the Environmental
Control and Life Support System (ECLSS), power and avionics equipment, figure 8. This area is acoustically and visually
isolated as a room from the rest of TransHab, and is accessed via a door on each side.
A design requirement of this area is equipment
accessibility and design flexibility; room and means are
provided for additional equipment, such as Advanced
Life Support which may be brought in at a later time.
Integrated onto the shelves that are placed into the
core for launch, the equipment is then moved on its
shelf to its final location once TransHab is inflated. An
example of this shelf use is for the Air System: a
Common Cabin Air Assembly (CCAA) is pre-integrated
onto a shelf during assembly on Earth. The entire shelf
and pre-integrated hardware is installed into the central
core for launch and then relocated into mechanical
room post inflation.
Figure 12. TransHab Mechanical Room CAD Image
Level Three is the crew health care and soft stowage area. The crew health care area incorporates two ISS Crew Health
Care System (CHeCS) racks, a Full Body Cleansing Compartment (FBBC), changing area, exercise equipment (treadmill
and ergometer), a partitionable area for private medical exams and conferencing, and an Earth-viewing window, figure 14.
ISS TransHab: An Inflatable Habitat Adams, Kennedy
07/14/04 9
Also included on this level is a soft stowage area identical to level one and circulation passages since this level is the
primary entry into TransHab.
zenit h
LEVEL 3
Figure 13. Level Three view
The exercise equipment items are permanently mounted during Assembly in their deployed position, saving crew time by
removing the daily hassle of deployment and stowage of exercise equipment. Placement of the exercise equipment is
synthesized with the window location to allow the crew Earth viewing during exercise, are stabilized by two launch shelves
placed on the floor struts to serve as mounting platforms and structural integration. Four movable partitions provide visual
screening of crew members during all activities associated with full body cleansing or with private medical exams.
nadir
win dow
EXERCI SE AREA
PASS T HRU
TO B ELOW
UTILITY
CHASE 'B'
SOFT
STOWAGE
af t
ISS RA CK
CHe C S #1
AIR
DUCT
ISS Rac k
Full Body
Clean ser
Priv at e
Me dica l
Are a
SOFT
STOWAGE
UTILITY
CHASE 'A'
ERGOMETE R
TREADMI LL
ISS RACK
CHe CS #2
t
.
PASSAGE TO
CREW QU
TERS
AR-
fo rw ar d
Level Four is the pressurized tunnel area that is the transition space or vestibule between station (work) and the living
space (home). It has two station standard hatches,
avionics and power equipment. The main utilities
are brought at the Node 3 bulkhead and transferred
into the TransHab’s utility chaseways. Its function is
to 1) provide a “transition” between Node 3 and
TransHab, 2) house critical equipment required
during inflation, and 3) provide structural connection
to space station. It is the only pressurized volume
in TransHab during launch. The packaged central
core will vent during launch to a vacuum state until
TransHab is inflated. Once TransHab is berthed
and bolted to Node 3, Level 4 provides immediate
access to the vestibule area between Node 3 and
TransHab for power and data jumper connection
installation. This will allow the critical power and
data vestibule connections that will enable initiation
of the deployment and inflation operations. A
detailed functional operations concept and crew
timeline has been completed for the launch to
activation of TransHab.
Figure 14. TransHab Level 3 CAD Image
ISS TransHab: An Inflatable Habitat Adams, Kennedy
07/14/04 10
TRANSHAB’S TESTING: DEMONSTRATION OF AN INFLATABLE SHELL
TransHab’s design concept is based on a relatively unproven space inflatable structural technology. The team had to
prove this technology would work and is safe. There were three important goals set to prove that inflatable structures
would work in space:
1. How to protect an inflatable structure from being ruptured by micrometeoroid and orbital debris impacts.
2. Prove a large diameter fabric inflatable structure can hold one atmosphere pressure in the vacuum of space.
3. Prove TransHab can be folded, packaged and then deployed in the vacuum of space.
The first goal was achieved by building a typical shell lay up and performing Hyper Velocity Impact testing at JSC and the
White Sands Test Facility. The one-foot thick orbital debris shield took shot after shot and kept passing—exceeding all
expectations. Whereas testing continues, TransHab’s shell has survived extensive ballistic testing at hypervelocity.
Still undergoing further development and testing, the configuration above (figure 15) has withstood impacts of up to a 1.7-
cm diameter aluminum projectile fired at 7 km/s (15,600mph). Woven from 1” wide Kevlar straps, the restraint layer is
designed to contain four atmospheres of air pressure. Each shell restraint area is structurally optimized for that area’s
load. In order to accomplish this, strap seams were developed achieving over 90% seam efficiency.
extel
extel
extel
Open cell foam
Open cell foam
Open cell foam
K
evlar
1.7 Al
7 km/sec
B
ladder
Figure 15. TransHab Orbital Debris Shield
Two shell development test units were built
and tested at JSC to prove the second and
third goals. The first test unit was to prove the
inflatable restraint design would hold the 14.7
psia operating environment for the crew to live
in. This unit was 23 feet in diameter by 10 feet
tall. Since the hoop stress was being tested, it
did not have to be full height. Figure 16 shows
the test article being lowered into the large
Neutral Buoyancy Lab pool. A Safety Factor of
four was used for this test; thus the restraint
layer had to withstand the equivalent stress of
four atmospheres. A hydrostatic test of four-
atmosphere delta pressure was successfully
performed in the Neutral Buoyancy Lab at JSC
in September 1998.
Figure 16. TransHab Hydrostatic Test
ISS TransHab: An Inflatable Habitat Adams, Kennedy
07/14/04 11
The second test unit was to prove the inflatable shell
design could be folded and deployed in a vacuum
environment. This test unit reused the hydrostatic test
article bulkheads and rebuilt a full height restraint layer.
Also included in this test was the orbital debris shield that
was proven in the first goal. The one-foot thick debris
shield is vacuum packed to reduce its thickness for
folding to enable the module to fit into the Orbiter payload
bay. Once on orbit, TransHab is deployed and the
debris shield is released to its desired thickness. Figure
17 shows two technicians performing a final inspection of
the test unit before folding the unit. TransHab was
successfully folded and deployed in the vacuum
environment of Chamber A in December 1998, proving
the second goal.
Figure 17: Transhab Vacuum Deployment Test
CONCLUSION
With the successful completion of the Hyper Velocity Impact testing and inflatable shell development tests, TransHab has
proven that the inflatable structure technology is real. TransHab has made great strides to prove inflatable structures
technology is ready to be applied as habitats for space applications. ISS TransHab’s design meets or exceeds habitation
requirements for space station. It has put the “Living” into “living and working in space.” Currently proposed as a
replacement of the hard aluminum can habitat for
the International Space Station, TransHab would
be launched as the last station element in late
2004 (figure 18).
When deployed on the International Space
Station the TransHab will provide a habitable
volume nearly three times larger than a standard
ISS module; and yet it is launched on the Space
Shuttle. TransHab provides facilities for sleeping,
eating, cooking, personal hygiene, exercise,
entertainment, storage, and a radiation storm
shelter. TransHab also helps to develop, test and
prove technologies necessary for long duration
interplanetary missions.
Figure 18. Proposed ISS TransHab on Space Station
TransHab has already contributed many things to the aerospace field. It has broken the volumetric barrier of the
exoskeletal spacecraft type by innovating an entirely new, endoskeletal typology; it has demonstrated the advantages of
combining human engineering with aggressive structural innovation and testing at the conceptual stage. The integrated
effort by which this spacecraft was conceived and developed has proven its virtue in meeting tremendous challenges by
combining innovative design with cutting-edge technologies, both of which are appropriate for space and planetary
surface habitats, with multiple applications for both Earth and beyond.
ISS TransHab: An Inflatable Habitat Adams, Kennedy
07/14/04 12
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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
We would like to acknowledge all our co-architects and engineers on the TransHab team; the manufacturing technicians
that made the shell development unit(s) such a success; and the Flight Crew Office.
We would also like to acknowledge the vision and leadership Mr. George Abbey, Director of JSC; Mr. Leonard Nicholson,
Director of Engineering; Mr. Douglas Cooke, Advanced Development Office Manager, and the TransHab’s persistent
Project Manager, Ms. Donna Fender provides the team.
CONTACT
For more information about the ISS TransHab please contact NASA Johnson Space Center’s Public Affairs Office and
visit our web site at:
http://spaceflight.nasa.gov/station/assembly/elements/transhab/
... Additional applications for macroelectronics-based solutions are also anticipated. Figure 7 (proposed health monitoring system) shows a conceptual health monitoring system for the TransHab space habitat [7]. A real-time health monitoring system for detecting adverse conditions and their location and initiating corrective actions is critical to improving crew safety and the time spent monitoring structural problems and their repair. ...
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The development of astronautics is approaching the stage of colonization of space objects of the Solar System, which will lead to regular and long-term manned space flights. Perspective projects of colonization and long-term stay of a man in space flight conditions were considered. The project proposed in this article is based on a conceptual approach. This paper considers the new type of promising spacecraft that solve the problem of the influence of the absence of gravity on a person in space during a long flight. The principle of a new generation manned spacecraft (MS) is presented. Using a flexible inflatable shell is a solution to reduce the mass of the MS. The analysis of existing solutions of flexible inflatable shells of American and Russian analogues and for the developed design of a new generation spacecraft is carried out. The comparison of the characteristics of three types of shells is made, with the definition of general and distinctive features of the structure and the system that provides the deployment of shells. Advantages and disadvantages of projects are described.
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The realization of concurrently largely expandable and selectively rigid structures poses a fundamental challenge in modern engineering and materials research. Radially expanding structures in particular are known to require a high degree of deformability to achieve considerable dimension change, which restrains achievable stiffness in the direction of expanding motion. Mechanically hinged or plastically deformable wire-mesh structures and pressurized soft materials are known to achieve large expansion ratios, however often lack stiffness and require complex actuation. Cardiovascular or drug delivery implants are one example which can benefit from a largely expandable architecture that is simple in geometry and intrinsically stiff. Continuous shell cylinders offer a solution with these properties. However, no designs exist that achieve large expansion ratios in such shells when utilizing materials which can provide considerable stiffness. We introduce a new design paradigm for expanding continuous shells that overcomes intrinsic limitations such as poor deformability, insufficient stiffness and brittle behaviour by exploiting purely elastic deformation for self-expandable and ultra-thin polymer composite cylinders. By utilizing shell-foldability coupled with exploitation of elastic instabilities, we create continuous cylinders that can change their diameter by more than 2.5 times, which are stiff enough to stretch a confining vessel with their elastic energy. Based on folding experiments and analytical models we predict feasible radial expansion ratios, currently unmatched by comparable cylindrical structures. To emphasize the potential as a future concept for novel simple and durable expanding implants, we demonstrate the functionality on a to-scale prototype in packaging and expansion and predict feasible constellations of deployment environments.
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Empty taxi cruising represents a wastage of resources in the context of urban taxi services. In this work, we seek to minimize such wastage. An analysis of a large trace of taxi operations reveals that the services' inefficiency is caused by drivers' greedy cruising behavior. We model the existing system as a continuous time Markov chain. To address the problem, we propose that each taxi be equipped with an intelligent agent that will guide the driver when cruising for passengers. Then, drawing from AI literature on multiagent planning, we explore two possible ways to compute such guidance. The first formulation assumes fully cooperative drivers. This allows us, in principle, to compute systemwide optimal cruising policy. This is modeled as a Markov decision process. The second formulation assumes rational drivers, seeking to maximize their own profit. This is modeled as a stochastic congestion game, a specialization of stochastic games. Nash equilibrium policy is proposed as the solution to the game, where no driver has the incentive to singly deviate from it. Empirical result shows that both formulations improve the efficiency of the service significantly.
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Assemblages of testate amoebae in UK saltmarshes are strongly correlated with elevation and flooding duration, suggesting that if adequately preserved in sediments they may be used as accurate sea-level indicators. To examine the preservation of testate amoebae in the fossil record in coastal environments, subsamples were collected from a range of coastal sites around Britain, including saltmarsh, coastal reedswamp, isolation basin, back-barrier and coastal raised bog sites. The results showed that testate amoebae are present in the fossil record, although in variarble species diversities, concentrations and states of preservation. Testate amoebae were found to be well preserved in isolation basin infills and coastal raised bog deposits, where diverse assemblages (>20 taxa) were recorded. In the upper part of the isolation basin sequence from Loch nan Corr, northwest Scotland, the testate amoebae assemblages showed a greater degree of sensitivity to transitional salinity changes than existing foraminferal and larger testate amoebae data sets. This implies that testate amoebae, particularly small to medium-sized specimens (15–300 µm), may hold considerable potential for sea-level reconstruction in these environments. Preservation of testate amoebae in a freshly sampled core of saltmarsh sediment from South Wales was reasonable, although test distribution decreased significantly in abundance below 18 cm. The assemblage composition was similar to that found in the contemporary surface environment. The preservation of testate amoebae in saltmarsh and coastal reedswamp deposits of mid-Holocene age was variable and generally poor. Partial dehydration of the sediment samples may account for this. Further studies are required to examine the palaeoecology and distribution of testate amoebae in similar coastal settings, to strengthen these preliminary findings. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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This paper presents an "Inquiry by Design" approach to the problem of architectural design for the crew habitat of an interplanetary vehicle. This habitat must meet a range of difficult requirements to protect the crew's health and safety during the approximately 6 to 12 month voyage each way. It must provide a habitable environment that affords the crew privacy, group activities, recreation, exercise, communications, training facilities, and health care. It must incorporate countermeasures against prolonged exposure, to zero gravity and shielding against radiation from solar flares and galactic cosmic rays. The design research involves the investigation of a prototype interplanetary habitat that incorporates substantial radiation shielding for the crew quarters and a human powered, short-arm centrifuge for zero gravity countermeasures. It includes private crew quarters, life support system, stowage and equipment volumes. This inquiry by design exercise explores the habitat components subsystem by subsystem to find the challenges that emerge for integrating them. This exercise in designing an optimized interplanetary habitat reveals some key design and engineering issues for NASA to consider in developing a Mars vehicle.
Operational Habitability Issue Report: The Interaction between Dining, Exercising, Work, and Sleep Activities
  • Jennifer Novak
Novak, Jennifer et al. (1998) Operational Habitability Issue Report: The Interaction between Dining, Exercising, Work, and Sleep Activities. NASA Johnson Space Center, FCSD, Operational Habitability Team;
Architectural Evaluation for Sleeping Quarters
Skylab Experience Bulletin No. 3: Architectural Evaluation for Sleeping Quarters. JSC-09537 (Houston, TX: National Aeronautics and Space Administration, July 1974).
NASA STD-3000 NASA-Johnson Space Center
Man-System Integration Standard, Vol. 1, NASA STD-3000, Rev. B (1995). NASA-Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX.