Article

Measuring the Impact of Rework on Construction Cost Performance

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Abstract

Rework continues to affect both cost and schedule performance throughout the construction industry. The direct costs alone often tally to 5% of the total construction costs. Using the data obtained from 359 construction projects in the Construction Industry Institute database, this paper assesses the impacts of rework on construction cost performance for projects in various categories. In addition, it identifies the sources of this rework, permitting further analyses and the development of rework reduction initiatives. The results of this study establish that the impacts of rework differ according to project characteristics and that the sources of rework having the greatest impact are not significantly different among project categories. By recognizing the impacts of rework and its sources, the construction industry can reduce rework and ultimately improve project cost performance.

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... Although several researchers have conducted studies to identify the critical causes of reworks during the last two decades (Hwang et al. 2009;Hwang and Yang 2014;Trach et al. 2019;Balouchi et al. 2019), the literature still lacks an adequate number of studies that thoroughly investigate organizational-, project-, and humanoriginated causes of rework. ...
... The results of their study also supported the idea that reworks affect the cost and schedule performance of construction projects. Hwang et al. (2009) evaluated the impact of reworks caused by the owner and contractor parties on the cost performance of projects and concluded that projects are affected by reworks in different ways, even though they are derived from the same causes. The project characteristics considered in their study included the industry group, nature of the project, size of the project, location of the project, and type of work. ...
... Fig. 3 shows that the project-based external factors and design and technology attributes received the second and third highest weights, respectively. According to the studies, the authors believed that external factors, such as change of policies, frequently cause reworks in construction projects (Hwang et al. 2009;Zhang et al. 2012;Love et al. 2016;Staiti et al. 2016). Moreover, the PRIs belonging to the design and technology attribute are related to the complexity level of a construction project. ...
Article
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Reworks are unavoidable during the design and construction phases of construction projects and significantly increase the time and cost required to complete projects. Several studies have been conducted to determine how to mitigate the major consequences of reworks by identifying the critical root causes of the design changes and/or modifications. Multiple researchers and practitioners have concluded that reworks are due to human-, organizational-, and /or project-based changes; however, the existing literature lacks in-depth information pertaining to these rework indicators. The authors of the present study aimed to investigate, identify, and prioritize the organizational-based rework indicators (ORIs), project-based rework indicators (PRIs), and human-based rework indicators (HRIs). A thorough list of strategies to prevent or mitigate the major consequences of PRIs, ORIs, and HRIs was also developed. A comprehensive literature review was conducted, and 212 relevant articles were carefully selected to be reviewed in detail. The rework indicators in each category were ranked based on how often they were mentioned in the literature and then were weighted using the rank sum method. The PRIs, ORIs, and HRIs were classified and weighted by their attributes, then were compared with one another. The results revealed that poor design, lack of communication, and inexperienced workers were the first-ranked rework indicators in the project, organization, and human categories, respectively. It was also concluded that the attributes of leadership and management, error and inefficiency, and skill and experience received the highest weights among the attributes belonging to the organization, project, and human categories, respectively. The findings of this study will help decision makers timely identify the main causes of construction reworks and enable them to allocate resources for preventing and/or mitigating their cost and frequency of occurrence.
... A study by Hwang et al. analyzed the rework costs for 359 facilities reported to the construction industry institute (CII) in the United States [29]. The project was divided into cases reported by the developer and the builder, and facilities were subdivided into buildings, heavy industrial facilities, infrastructure, and light industrial facilities. ...
... The viewpoints of preceding studies were divided into Zou [61] and Korkmaz et al. [62], who emphasized the advantages of the owner project, and Neap and Aysal [63] and Serpell [64], who conversely emphasized the advantages of the contract method. In addition, a study by Hwang et al. suggested that the owner project method had a higher defect repair cost ratio than the contract method [29]. According to the analysis results of this study, the contract method had a slightly lower defect repair cost ratio than the owner project method, but the difference between the two was not statistically signifi- ...
... The viewpoints of preceding studies were divided into Zou [61] and Korkmaz et al. [62], who emphasized the advantages of the owner project, and Neap and Aysal [63] and Serpell [64], who conversely emphasized the advantages of the contract method. In addition, a study by Hwang et al. suggested that the owner project method had a higher defect repair cost ratio than the contract method [29]. According to the analysis results of this study, the contract method had a slightly lower defect repair cost ratio than the owner project method, but the difference between the two was not statistically significant. ...
Article
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Defects in the home cause inconvenience to homeowners and loss to the developer or builder due to cost and damage to reputation. A home warranty deposit exists to protect consumers from home defects. However, it is unclear how much it costs to repair a defect and whether the standard for calculating the warranty deposit is reasonable. This study analyzed the litigation details of 290 home complexes in Korea to investigate defect repair costs and factors affecting them. According to the analysis results, the defect repair cost was 0.538% of the construction cost on average. This is far below 3% of the construction cost, the prevailing standard in the relevant acts. Additionally, there was no case where the defect repair cost ratio exceeded 3%. The actual repair cost for defects was considerably lower than the warranty deposit standard stipulated by the Act. Therefore, this study proposes a method to adjust the warranty deposit collectively and a means to apply it differentially according to the size of the construction cost. This proposal benefits everyone because it protects homeowners and keeps the costs affordable. In addition, it is expected that the warranty deposit can be used as a standard for home construction and post-quality improvement. After analyzing the factors affecting the repair cost, it was found that there was a difference in the repair cost according to the home construction implementor and the construction purchase order method. The warranty deposit system prepares for the possibility that a project owner or builder, who is the project implementor, becomes insolvent. It was found that there was no difference in the repair cost for defects depending on whether the project owner was insolvent. Nonetheless, the possibility of insolvency in the case of a developer was far higher than in the case of a builder.
... • Three levels of activities, causes, and rework sources [6] • Five categories followed by cause & effect diagram [7] • Three groups of client, design, and contractor [1] • Four groups of contractors, client, consultant and environmental [8] There are some differences between design rework and construction rework [9]. Design rework occurs with client changes in scope and specifications, design, and procurement errors, while construction rework results from a lack of implemented techniques and poor construction management policies. ...
... Design-related causes of rework were investigated later with other studies to uncover the causes of rework [14,15]. Causes such as change requests by the design team and contractor, change orders in design by a client after undertaking work onsite, and design error and omissions originate significant rework in the construction stage [9,14,16]. Imposed pressure by clients on design firms to provide design details and an unclear communicated requirement to designers are the main reasons for design error. Also, tight design schedules make incomplete information, leading to design omission [17]. ...
... Rework occurrence is inevitable when there is an error in design, so errors often involve rework that requires extra time and resources and finally affects project performance. Errors in the design are prioritized amongst top sources of construction rework [9]. Findings show that design error causes up to 79 percent of rework cost [24]; however, the extent of rework is highly dependent on when it happens within the project life cycle. ...
Conference Paper
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Rework is one of the leading causes of cost and time overruns that primarily affect project performance. The performance of construction projects can be elevated with the implementation of rework moderation strategies. Identifying rework root causes is the first step of rework management followed by a mitigation approach, reducing or preventing strategy. As the contract is the core connection between clients and contractors, using a rework management approach in the contracting process allows participants to be aware of rework impacts before the project's commencement. Selecting the best approach for rework mitigation depends on rework causes and their classified roots. Thus, the paper classifies rework root causes in the design stage of projects to provide a platform for contract documents assessment. The method used to classify the identified rework causes into five categories was designed on the literature. Results from collecting secondary data indicated all categories in the design stage, consisting of technical, human resources, process, material/equipment, and other general factors. The next step of the study is to assess contract documents through a questionnaire based on these classified factors in search of a connection between rework, contractual claims, and clauses of the contract. The paper recommends that assessing contract documents can be used as a new approach for rework management.
... In Australia, the geographical context for this research, numerous examples of transport mega-project projects experiencing rework exist, including the Sydney Skytrain, Sydney Light Rail and Forrestfield Airport Link. While the literature is replete with studies determining rework causes and costs in construction [4], [9], [29], [37]- [51], we are still none the wiser about the extent to which rework impacts project performance and the bottom-line of construction organizations [48]- [51]. ...
... In 2006, it was estimated to cost USD$3 billion; the project is still under execution and its estimated final cost could be close to USD$11 billion [33]. [4], [9], [29]. However, an absence of integrated information systems to capture its causes and costs in construction have resulted in a Kafkaesque loop manifesting, impeding our ability to progress toward alleviating its adverse consequences [40]. ...
... Then, we see Hwang et al. [29] repeating the CII's [6] figure in their paper as they state "rework continues to affect both cost and schedule performance throughout the construction industry. ...
Article
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Rework has been and continues to be a problem during the construction of transport mega-projects. This article examines the error culture of an alliance that forms part of a transport mega-project to determine its effectiveness in mitigating rework. Our article reveals that an error management culture positively correlates with reducing rework and holds a divergent relationship with an error aversion culture. We further show a negative association between an error aversion culture and the ability to reduce rework. It is suggested that more can be done to reduce errors and rework despite the prevalence of a strong error management culture in practice. We thus call for an explicit focus on reducing negative error consequences and developing strategies to handle errors. The article argues that providing a psychologically safe work environment, understanding and focusing on what goes right, and coaching to ensure that learning is transferred from an individual to an organizational level can reduce rework. Our study is the first attempt to examine the homogeneity of error culture (i.e., how errors and their consequences are dealt with) in an alliance mega-project setting. In addition, it provides a new line of exploration to address the issue of rework.
... Consequently, numerous researchers have studied the effects of these two leading factors (Hwang and Yang, 2014). The literature has recognised that while there are several reasons for the cost and time overruns, rework has been identified as one of the most significant sources (Hwang et al., 2009;Love et al., 2010). ...
... Rework also impacts the psychological wellbeing, project measures, organisational factors (Aiyetan, 2013; and the progress of the contractual management (Kim and Miroslaw, 2020). Despite the various assumptions in the literature, it is confirmed that the rework occurrence is due to the nonconformance in the project specifications or contract obligations (Hwang et al., 2009;Oyewobi et al., 2011). The nonconformance activities in different settings have been recorded with different terms, such as changes, faults, errors, defects, deviations, failures and more (Forcada et al., 2017), while none of them add any value to the process (Bhatl et al., 2016). ...
Article
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Purpose The high rate of rework that occurs in construction projects has a negative effect on the performance of the construction projects. Although several mechanisms have been implemented to control reworking, a comprehensive list of rework causes is yet to be provided to present the common causes that contribute to rework in construction contracts. This paper aims to investigate the most common rework causes that need to be addressed in construction contracts. Design/methodology/approach A mixed-method using both the qualitative and quantitative approach is used in this paper. First of all, the study adopted a four-step literature review to introduce the rework research trends and provide statistical reports using descriptive analysis. Next, a comprehensive review has been completed using content analysis to identify the common causes of rework in construction projects. Finally, the common causes in construction contracts are further investigated through a quantitative questionnaire survey to validate the initial results. Findings The results of the review showed an increasing trend of publications on rework over the last three decades. Most of the studies were conducted in Australia, the UK, Nigeria and Hong Kong. Based on further investigation in the study area of sources of rework, 37 causes of rework causes were identified and classified in five groups. Then, the most significant causes of rework in construction contracts were compiled in the list of 22 items. Research limitations/implications The paper’s reported result, contributes to the contract management body of knowledge by proposing a list of common rework causes that can be used by practitioners during the contract negotiation to prevent contractual issues. The result of the review can also be used for further investigation of the relationship between rework and contract conditions. Originality/value The proposed list of common causes of rework in construction contracts allows project parties to improve the terms of the contract in addressing rework, this could result in fewer contractual claims and disputes. The findings of this study will also guide the investigations into the contract conditions, thus the approach used is constructive.
... Chan and Chan (2004) categorized the KPIs into objective and subjective (quantitative and qualitative) indicators [42]. Hwang et al. (2009) assessed the effect of rework on project performance in terms of both owner and the contractor [43]. Owolabi et al. (2014) examined the impacts of delay on the delivery and performance of construction projects [44]. ...
... Chan and Chan (2004) categorized the KPIs into objective and subjective (quantitative and qualitative) indicators [42]. Hwang et al. (2009) assessed the effect of rework on project performance in terms of both owner and the contractor [43]. Owolabi et al. (2014) examined the impacts of delay on the delivery and performance of construction projects [44]. ...
Article
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Conflict in human relations is unavoidable; therefore, it can occur in construction projects that are full of many human relationships. These conflicts can lead to claims if interlocutors do not agree. The main result of the claims is the delay and overrun of costs in construction projects. Additionally , poor management of claims affects the success of construction projects and their budget and schedule. Moreover, controlling claims ensures the successful completion of construction projects and minimizes delays and disputes. This study sought to improve the project performance by ranking the causes of claims and examining their impacts on Key Performance Indicators (KPI) using the combined AHP-TOPSIS (Analytic Hierarchy Process-Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution) method. Given that construction projects are constantly evolving and becoming more complex and have many linear and nonlinear relationships and structures, these projects can be considered as a kind of system dynamics. The system dynamics have been used for nearly four decades to analyze and improve the performance of construction projects. This study attempted to provide a model with a system dynamics approach to predict the performance of construction projects based on the reasons for the claim. In this model, the most important performance indicators, interactions between them, and the relationship of these indicators with the reasons for claiming were simulated. The results showed that delays are the most important reasons for making claims, and they have a great impact on the KPIs such as scheduling, sustainability, customer satisfaction , quality, and team satisfaction, respectively. In the modeling and simulation discussion in this study, the proposed model simulated the dependencies between the KPIs of construction projects and their changes over time and provides a better understanding of how performance indicators interact with each other. Additionally, it can be used as a basis for simulating different management policies to find the best solution to prevent and correct the negative effects of poor performance .
... Tilley et al., (1999) assert that the desired characteristics or attributes associated with the quality of design documentation are: accuracy, completeness, coordination, conformance, clarity, consistency, relevance, standardisation, certainty and representation. Despite the recognised importance of the construction industry and the associated significance of good quality design documentation, globally inadequacies in construction design documents have been identified as negatively impacting upon the implementation of construction projects (Assaf and Al-Hejji, 2006;Hwang et al., 2009;Josephson et al., 2002;Love and Li, 2000;Love, 2002;Love et al., 2006). Similarly in South Africa, the poor quality of design documentation is identified as a significant contributing factor to project delays (Baloyi and Bekker, 2011;Ramabodu and Verster, 2013); cost overruns (Baloyi and Bekker, 2011;Ramabodu and Verster, 2013;Ramabodu and Verster, 2005) and poor quality (cidb, 2011;Emuze, 2012;Emuze and Smallwood, 2011;Simpeh et al., 2011). ...
... Studies showed that countries with more developed infrastructure see a disproportionately greater impact of infrastructure on foreign direct investment, domestic investment, and growth (Globerman and Shapiro, 2002). Reduced sensitivity to transport costs and time when marketing their own produce (Thomas, et al., 2005). Poor people near the poverty line are mobile and express demand for transport services (Velaga et al., 2012). ...
... Their results showed that the human resources group-related indicators from the owners' and contractors' point of view and financial and project specifications-related indicators from the consultants' point of view are the main features for project success [39]. In 2009, the effect of rework on project efficiency was evaluated both in terms of employer and contractor [40]. In 2016, another researcher evaluated and modeled the competence of construction projects and their relationships to project efficiency [41]. ...
... The TOPSIS method is another multi-criteria decision-making method used by Hwang et al. [40]. In this research, this method was used in combination with the AHP method. ...
Article
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Many factors play a role in the life cycle of construction industry projects, focusing on human resources and relationships as the main axis of business development. Thus, the conflict of interests between the stakeholders in the construction industry projects is a clear and challenging problem. The increased number of stakeholders in the project complicates human relationships and, consequently, increases the possible conflicts. The conflicts may result in claims if not resolved. The success of construction projects and their cost and time management can be affected by the poor management of claims. Therefore, this research aims to take a significant step to improve the efficiency of projects by identifying and ranking the causes of claims and analyzing their effects on key efficiency indicators. Firstly, causes of claim are collected according to experts' opinions and literature and classified based on key efficiency indicators using the integrated analytic hierarchy process-technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (AHP-TOPSIS) technique. According to findings, delays with a proximity coefficient of 0.728 are the most significant factors in making claims with a great effect on the key efficiency indicators of the construction project. The changes in most construction projects are ranked in second place, followed by acceleration command, extra work, changing workshop conditions, and contractual ambiguities. The present study results may reduce the challenges in managing the construction industry claims and ensure the successful completion of projects .
... Tilley et al., (1999) assert that the desired characteristics or attributes associated with the quality of design documentation are: accuracy, completeness, coordination, conformance, clarity, consistency, relevance, standardisation, certainty and representation. Despite the recognised importance of the construction industry and the associated significance of good quality design documentation, globally inadequacies in construction design documents have been identified as negatively impacting upon the implementation of construction projects (Assaf and Al-Hejji, 2006;Hwang et al., 2009;Josephson et al., 2002;Love and Li, 2000;Love, 2002;Love et al., 2006). Similarly in South Africa, the poor quality of design documentation is identified as a significant contributing factor to project delays (Baloyi and Bekker, 2011;Ramabodu and Verster, 2013); cost overruns (Baloyi and Bekker, 2011;Ramabodu and Verster, 2013;Ramabodu and Verster, 2005) and poor quality (cidb, 2011;Emuze, 2012;Emuze and Smallwood, 2011;Simpeh et al., 2011). ...
... Studies showed that countries with more developed infrastructure see a disproportionately greater impact of infrastructure on foreign direct investment, domestic investment, and growth (Globerman and Shapiro, 2002). Reduced sensitivity to transport costs and time when marketing their own produce (Thomas, et al., 2005). Poor people near the poverty line are mobile and express demand for transport services (Velaga et al., 2012). ...
... Also, some researchers have classified key performance indicators into quantitative and qualitative indicators (Chan and Chan 2004). Other researchers evaluated the impact of rework on project performance from the perspective of employers and contractors (Hwang et al. 2009). Later on, the effects of delays on the delivery of construction projects and the project performance were examined (Owolabi James et al. 2014). ...
Article
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Today, the construction industry has to turn into one of the major industries, which covers a wide range of dependent industries. Rapid changes in the construction environment require a great deal of effort for a company or organization to maintain survival and growth. The life of companies and organizations in the field of construction depends on the way they manage their projects. Achieving project success is a major goal of project managers. A method of evaluating and controlling the project success is to apply project performance management. As a result of the studies, the most important key performance indicators, their relevant sources and references, and the relationships related to the quantification of indicators and their relationships with each other have been introduced and described. These results could help researchers in the future to obtain information and resources related to each index. Safety, environment, cost, profitability, scheduling, productivity, sustainability, quality, client satisfaction and team satisfaction as the most important indicators.
... Ageing and Retirement of skilled Workers: Currently, training is insufficient to keep pace with the demand for qualified skill workers. This situation is aggravated by an aging workforce and the high retirement rates of experienced workers (Hwang, Thomas and Haas 2009). Aging and retirement have been repeatedly identified as a factor responsible for the shrinking of skilled and qualified tutors in the construction industry (Obiegu, 2002;Bokinni, 2005). ...
... Aluko and Iyagba (2012) state that NVAA cause damages which affect project performance, while Ismail and Yusof (2016) concluded that NVAA affect project performance in terms of cost, time, quality and productivity on construction site. Furthermore, Emuze, et al. (2014) posit that the consequences of NVAA include cost overrun and time overrun while Hwang (2009) revealed that NVAA have impacts on rework and contribute the most to cost increase in construction projects. Horman and Kenley (2005) found that as much as 49.6% of construction operative time is dedicated to NVAA. ...
Conference Paper
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The disruption by COVID-19 from its entry into Lagos in February, 2020, has affected various sectors of the economy and particularly, the fisheries sector. While it has been reported that COVID-19 virus does not infect seafoods, it has been found to alter food systems. This study assessed the pains and gains (impacts) of COVID-19 pandemic on the fisheries at the fishing settlement, retail, wholesale and industrial levels using questionnaires, interview sessions with key management and relevant personnel, focused group discussions as well as secondary data from the target industry. It covered period before lockdown (pre-COVID-19; December 2019-February, 2020), during lockdown (COVID-19 lockdown; March-June, 2020) and that following the lockdown (post-COVID-19; July-August, 2020). Qualitative and quantitative data from artisanal, retail, wholesale and industrial sub-sectors showed that while the pandemic caused decline in income and impairment of livelihood, it increased costs of logistics, electricity supply, production and commuting while the quality of seafood harvested was unaffected. It had positive impacts on personnel health consciousness and hygiene, fish catch at both the artisanal and industrial sub-sectors, and reduced stress levels but varying effects on fish consumption, staff emolument and cost of products.
... A significant proportion of rework is caused by errors made during the design process [70]. The direct costs of rework on site are projected to be 2%-12% of the overall construction cost; therefore, rework should be managed effectively [71][72][73]. Modular construction due to stringent quality checks at every stage and much more restrictions in the design and construction can reduce or eliminate rework significantly improving construction schedules, potentially by up to several months and ensuring project cost. Moreover, as the modules should have enough strength and load bearing standards when transported by trucks, high quality materials which are durable, lightweight, and resistant to weather are required. ...
... Love [66], as cited by Forcada et al. [58], states that rework contributes to 52% of total cost increases, and can range from 5% to 20% of the contract value. Analysis of 359 projects by Hwang et al. [69] concluded that rework costs added an extra 5% to the contract value and, similarly, Taylor et al. [61] found the average increase of change orders to be 4.53% among 610 contracts studied. Various other research studies have revealed that rework costs can account for up to 20% [62] of the contract value, with Fayek et al. [70] reporting 2-12%, and Oyewobi et al. [71] reporting 5.06% and 3.23% for new builds and refurbishments, respectively. ...
Article
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This research explores the failure of competitively tendered projects in the UK construction industry to procure the most suited contractor(s) to conduct the works. Such work may have equal relevance for other developed nations globally. This research seeks to teach clients and their representatives that "lowest price" does not mean "best value", by presenting a case study of a successfully negotiated tender undertaken by a small-to-medium enterprise (SME) contractor; SME studies are relatively scant in academic literature. By applying the "lessons learnt" principle, this study seeks to improve future practice through the development of a novel alternative procurement option (i.e., negotiation). A mixed philosophical stance combining interpretivism and pragmatism was used-interpretivism to critically review literature in order to form the basis of inductive research to discuss negotiation as a viable procurement route, and pragmatism to analyse perceptions of tendering and procurement. The methods used follow a three-stage waterfall process including: (1) literature review and pilot study; (2) quantitative analysis of case study data; and (3) qualitative data collection via a focus group. Our research underscores the need to advise clients and their representatives of the importance of understanding the scope of works allowed within a tender submission before discounting it based solely on price. In addition, we highlight the failings of competitive tendering, which results in increased costs and project duration once the works commence on site. These findings provide new contemporary insight into procurement and tendering in the construction industry, with emphasis on SME contractors, existing relationships, and open-book negotiation. This research illustrates the adverse effects of early cost estimates produced without first securing a true understanding of project buildability and programming. Our work concludes with a novel insight into an alternative procurement option that involves early SME contractor involvement in an open-book environment, without the need for a third-party cost control.
... This definition is considered to be the most appropriate because it includes a limitation for the occurrence of a rework described previously [6]. Table 1 shows the factors causing the rework taken from several sources [5,6,[13][14][15][16]. These factors are grouped into 9 categories based on their type and characteristic, namely design and documentation factors, planning and scheduling factors, material and equipment factors, human resource factors, leadership and communication factors, instruction and inspection factors, external environmental factors, and contract administration factors. ...
Article
Rework can bring negative effect to construction project. This research aims to identify the importance level of factors causing reworks in structural, finishing, and mechanical, electrical and plumbing (MEP) works by a way of importance performance analysis (IPA). In order to reach this objective, the research evaluates the degree of occurrence the factors in each type of works and analyzes the level of difficulty in preventing the occurrence of the factors. The results are based on questionnaire survey, involving general and MEP contractors in Surabaya. Design related factors are the most frequent and most difficult to prevent in structural and finishing works. In MEP works, the most frequent factors are tight construction duration and unclear instructions from owner and designer; whilst insufficient owner’s capital is the most difficult to prevent. The research finds two factors that have high importance level, i.e. design changes and insufficient detail drawings.
... Circunstancias o eventos que no permiten la llegada oportuna de la información a todas las partes interesadas o que no llegue a tiempo, lo que genera cuellos de botella, trabajos innecesarios y reelaboraciones (Alshawi & Ingirige, 2003). Por lo regular un porcentaje de hasta el 30% son tareas de retrabajo (Aziz & Hafez, 2013), afectando el presupuesto y la planificación del proyecto (Hwang et al., 2009). (Akinci et al., 2006) y (Josephson & Hammarlund, 1999) indica que del 6 al 12% de los costes de construcción se desperdician en la reparación de componentes defectuosos detectados tarde durante la fase de construcción, y se agrava por la falta de motivación y participación de empresas subcontratadas y trabajadores propios. ...
Preprint
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One of the most prevailing needs of the construction industry is related to the improvement of the performance of construction processes, one of the most significant trends applied for this purpose is the modeling of construction information (BIM - Building Information Modeling) . This review shows the benefits of its application in construction projects, the knowledge of BIM from an overview of the state of the art. And finally the general description, the practical theoretical application, conclusions and recommendations are presented. Una de las necesidades más imperantes de la industria de la construcción está referida a la mejora de los rendimientos de los procesos de construcción, siendo una de las tendencias más significativas aplicadas para este propósito el modelado de información de construcción (BIM – Building Information Modeling). En la presente revisión se muestran los beneficios de su aplicación en los proyectos de construcción, el conocimiento de BIM desde una visión general del estado del arte. Y finalmente se presenta la descripción general, la aplicación teórica práctica, conclusiones y recomendaciones.
... The construction industry has the iniquitous reputation of being fragmented, lacking coordination and communication between parties, creating adversarial contractual relationships and lacking customer focus (Love, Edwards and Smith 2005). Besides, there is generally an absence of systems within projects to monitor and control rework (Hwang, Thomas, Haas and Caldas, 2009). This combination of problems has meant that rework has become an insidious problem and consequently, the costs of rework have been found to be considerable . ...
Thesis
This study investigated the underlying causes of rework in construction projects and the impact on overall project performance so that effective containment and reduction strategies can be developed. The objectives of the study were as follows: (i) to determine the influence different project types have on the causes of rework in construction projects; (ii) to determine the impact of rework on organisational and project performance; (iii) to determine the influence various project types have on rework costs (direct and indirect) in construction projects; (iv) to determine the influence various procurement methods have on total rework costs in construction projects; (v) to design and develop rework reduction and containment strategies. The research was motivated by several international and local studies demonstrating a lack of concern for the root causes of rework and the potential impact on cost, overall project performance, and the ‘value-addedness’ to the completed project. The research approach adopted included an exploratory and main study targeting purposively selected construction professionals and stakeholders in the Cape Peninsula metropolitan area of the Western Cape Province. The exploratory case study was carried out at the initial stage of the study to gain more insight into the causes and impact of rework on overall project performance. Specifically, data was collected by means of observation of physical works, semi-structured interviews with relevant parties directly involved in site operation and the analysis of site instruction record documents. The main study obtained data from 78 construction professionals and stakeholders via questionnaire survey, a survey conducted among design consultants and contractors in the general building category ranging from grade 3 to 9 who are registered with Construction Industry Development Board (CIDB). Descriptive, inferential statistics and probability distribution functions were used to analyse the data. The findings revealed that changes initiated by the client, changes initiated by the design team due to errors and omissions, poor coordination, and finally, integration among the design team were the major contributing factors to rework. Moreover, non-compliance with specifications, setting-out errors, low labour skills, and emphasis on time and cost aggravated the occurrence of rework on site. The study revealed that while there is no significant difference between the causes of rework and various project types, rework can and often does make a significant contribution to any project’s cost overrun. The total mean cost of rework as a percentage of the original contract value for new build project and refurbishment/renovation projects was 4.89% and 6.28% respectively. However, rework costs do not differ relative to project type or procurement method. Furthermore, the study revealed that cost overruns, time overruns and design team dissatisfaction all impacted on project performance. The findings indicate that design related rework can be minimised by implementing the following strategies: team building, involvement of subcontractors and suppliers, and design for construction. Moreover, involvement of subcontractors during construction, and the implementation of quality control and site quality management systems could also lead to reduction in rework during the construction phase. Furthermore, the probabilistic analysis of rework occurrence was determined in the projects selected; this analysis predicts the occurrence of rework so that a quantitative risk assessment could be undertaken prior to the commencement of construction. The research concludes by recommending that design and construction firms must develop organisational measurement systems for recording rework occurrence and its associated costs. It is by determining the frequency and costs of rework that effective strategies for its containment and reduction can be identified.
... They also suggested following an optimized strategy to support decisions on cost-effective corrective action strategy. In addition, Hwang et al. (2009) evaluated the impact of rework on construction cost performance for a broad spectrum of projects. ...
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Multi-mode resource-constrained project scheduling problem (MRCPSP) is one of the most important extensions of the basic RCPSP. In this paper, a new mathematical model for MRCPSP is presented with a time-quality trade-off approach. The model has two objectives, the first objective minimizes the project completion time, and the second objective maximizes the project quality while the quality of activities can be increased based on the reworking. In addition, in the presented model, total available resources, including renewable and non-renewable, are decision variables. The quality and duration of project activities are interval forms. For this purpose, a new expert weighting method based on interval information is presented to unify the experts' views. The group decision-making method applies a bi-directional projection measure to the positive ideal solution and two negative ideal solutions. Moreover, a new extended interval-fuzzy solution method based on goal programming is proposed to deal with the interval information and mathematical model objectives. The presented mathematical model and group decision-making method are solved with a dataset, and some sensitivity analyses are reported.
... Studies carried out in different countries indicate that wastes in civil construction represent a relatively high percentage of production costs (Formoso, 1998;Formoso et al., 2002;Formoso et al. 2017;Hwang et al., 2009;Koushki & Kartam, 2004;Love & Li, 2000;Leão et al., 2016). ...
Article
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The study of making-do contributes to improvements in the planning and control of construction sites, thus minimizing waste. The present study aims to investigate and analyze waste by making-do in seven companies from Goiás with the aid of a Dashboard and perform the risk analysis of the identified waste. Data were analyzed during the technical visits at each site, among which the direct non-participant observation, questionnaire application and document analysis stand out. The analysis of the data indicated that most of the waste is related to the steps of sealing and structure within the construction sites, in particular, for components connected to plastering and concreting. The main impact was rework, followed by reduced security. With the risk analysis, the main points were identified according to their severity, thus guiding management decision making. As final contributions, the main impacts and suggestions for their minimization are presented. Therefore, we highlight the need to use reality and information technology tools in future works for integrated production control and to assist in the identification of waste by makingdo in construction sites. Keywords: Waste; Making-do; Rework; Improvisation; Dashboard.
... Quality assurance is described as a set of activities whose purpose is to demonstrate that an entity meets all quality requirements, usually when a product is finished to increase the confidence of both customers and managers. (March, 2017), especially as the industry continues to experience problems with non-compliant installation, causing rework and delay, which can result in as much as 5% of construction costs (Hwang et al., 2009) and adds to the sectors already unsustainable levels of waste generation. Furthermore, quality assurance also involves a large amount of data as it includes "inspection and testing, nonconformance reporting and corrective action taken during the construction phase" (Mart ınez- et al., 2016, p. 10), thereby providing an appropriate base on which to apply the findings. ...
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate the challenges faced with mobile information communication technology (M-ICT), more specifically tablet software, in the construction phase of UK infrastructure projects. Quality assurance in the context of passive fire protection is scrutinised, where M-ICT use is prevalent, to provide an industry perspective. Design/methodology/approach The research design is founded on exploratory multiple case study approach. Specific themes are developed, based on a critical review of previous ICT studies. The themes identified are used to inform a qualitative interview protocol for investigating three large UK infrastructure projects. Each project is at different stages in the construction phase, with varying examples of M-ICT implementation in use. Participants are interviewed regarding their experiences of the implementation of M-ICT on each project. Findings Findings identify diverse experiences across each project. Single and multiple M-ICT platforms are currently being used, with individual stakeholders using ICT in isolation, and in some instances, multiple project stakeholders are using it together. Complete replacement of paper-based processes is evident in one case study, but more commonly, digital technology is being used in parallel to traditional paper-based processes. The challenges, although varied across each case study, can be categorised under the themes of Technology (IT support, ICT infrastructure, IT security, contractual, software), People (social aspects, user competency, safety), Technical Compliance (technical compliance evidence) and Process (conventional processes). Originality/value It is recommended that each theme be reviewed at project commencement, with all key stakeholders, to ensure key aspects are considered prior to M-ICT deployment. This will ensure avoidance of challenges reported and maximise the opportunities that are available through M-ICT in a multi-stakeholder infrastructure project.
... Defects and reworks conservatively account for about 5% of a project's total cost (Hwang et al. 2009;Love 2002). However, in the construction industry, let alone a few specific examples, the 'lean philosophy' has never gained popularity as in the automotive and manufacturing industries. ...
Article
The innovation literature on operations-based organisations describes the positive effect of Open Innovation (OI) on productivity. However, a systemic overview of how OI directly and indirectly impacts productivity is missing, particularly for project-based organisations. Hence, the article aims to fill this gap by providing a systemic representation of how OI enhances project-based organisations' productivity. The article focuses on the construction ecosystem since construction is an exemplary project-based industry and is known for its widespread and longstanding poor productivity. In particular, we investigated how OI is adopted and how OI can enhance productivity in the construction ecosystem. We conducted twenty semi-structured interviews with experts involved in OI construction projects in the UK. This paper makes three academic contributions. First, it provides an account of the most relevant causes for poor productivity in construction. Second, it consolidates primary and secondary data in a novel cognitive map providing a systemic representation of how OI enhances productivity in construction. The validity of the map goes beyond the boundaries of the construction ecosystem, being supported by several cross-sectorial references. Third, the paper offers six strategies that leverage OI to address the specific causes of low productivity in construction.
... As a result, the construction of public schools may be more expensive than other private/public-owned projects underlining the importance of early construction costs estimation. Third, a single type of project is targeted mainly because project type could exert influences on the quality of cost estimate [2,45]. ...
Article
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There are numerous models proposed for construction cost estimation. Most of them are based on projects' characteristics only while neglecting the external economic factors. This may be partially because there is no consensus on the effects of the economic factors on construction cost estimation and little attention has been paid to incorporating the trend of economic factors into cost estimation. More importantly, there is a general lack of quantitative analysis. To explore those effects quantitatively, this study uses deep neural networks (DNN) as an estimator and SHapley Additive exPlanations (SHAP) as a model interpreter, adopting the data on 98 public school projects in Hong Kong SAR. The analysis is also verified by a comparison analysis using several machine learning models popular in construction cost estimation. The results indicate that the economic factors do play an important role in reducing the construction cost estimation errors and are even more important than projects' characteristics. The findings would be helpful for stakeholders in the field of construction engineering and management to make appropriate decisions and for researchers to unveil the actual degree of the effects of other influential factors on construction cost estimation.
... Shortlisted KPIs from the literature review Economic KPIs Examples of the literature Cost Variation of project completion cost(Haponava and Al-Jibouri, 2010;Hwang et al., 2013) Cost predictability for design(Yeung et al., 2008;Kamali et al., 2018) Cost predictability for construction(Kamali et al., 2018;Horta et al., 2010) Project cost growth(Hwang et al., 2013;Hanna et al., 2014) Unit cost(Hwang et al., 2013;Hanna et al., 2014) Cost of rework(Hwang et al., 2009;Omar and Fayek, 2016) Time Variation of project completion time (Haponava and Al-Jibouri, 2010; Lai and Lam, 2010) Time predictability for design (Yeung et al., 2008; Kamali et al., 2018) Time predictability for construction (Yeung et al., 2008; Kamali et al., 2018) Project schedule growth (Hwang et al., 2013; Hanna and Asce, 2016) Unit schedule (Hwang et al., 2013) Quality Cost of rectifying major defects (Yeung et al., 2008; Wanberg et al., 2013) Number of non-conformance reports (Yeung et al., 2008; Yeung et al., 2009) Defective works (Hwang et al., Parkand Yang, 2014; El-Asmar et al., 2013) Waste disposal (Shen et al., 2011; Alzahrani and Emsley, 2013) Consumption Material consumption (Kamali et al., 2018; Cao et al., 2015) Energy consumption (Cao et al., 2015; Pan et al., 2018) Pollution Site disruption (Yunus and Yang, 2014; Kamali et al., 2018) Wastewater efficiency strategies (Kamali et al., 2018; Li et al., 2011) Noise effect (Shen et al., 2011; Zhong and Wu, 2015) Social KPIs Example of references Safety Accident rate (Dawood and Sikka, 2010; Toor and Ogunlana, 2010) Unsafe acts/conditions (Aksorn and Hadikusumo, 2008) Cumulative risk (Fortunato et al., 2012; Dewlaney et al., 2012) Lost time injury (Hwang et al., 2013; Lingard et al., 2011) Fatal accident rate (Hwang et al., 2013; El-Asmar et al., 2013) SatisfactionQuality assurance and handover(Horta et al., 2010;Zhao et al., 2012) Client satisfaction index(Heravi and Ilbeigi, 2012;Yeung et al., 2009) Commitment level of top management(Yeung et al., 2008;Jin et al., 2013) Average speed of resolving variations(Yeung et al., 2013; Yeung et al., 2009) Innovation Innovation and cost saving(Yeung et al., 2008;Li et al., 2011) Innovation and time saving(Yeung et al., 2008;Yeung et al., 2009) Number of new initiatives(Bamgbade et al., 2017;Ren et al., 2013) Impact on community Effects on local development(Shen et al., 2011;Kamali and Hewage, 2017) Employment opportunities(Shen et al., 2011;Zhao et al., 2012) Land use and its effects on the public(Chen et al., 2016; Pan et al., 2018) ...
Article
Modular integrated construction (MiC) has been introduced in high-rise construction for achieving sustainable development. As high-rise MiC disruptively transforms the construction process compared with conventional construction, it is imperative to systematically understand its performance, which however has not been sufficiently reported in previous literature. Therefore, this paper aims to develop a new framework of key performance indicators (KPIs) for project stakeholders to comprehensively measure and effectively benchmark the performance of high-rise MiC projects. This framework is developed based on the concept of sustainable construction that covers social, environmental and economic aspects. Through a comprehensive literature review, expert interviews, and a focus group meeting, 32 KPIs are established in the three sustainability aspects. An eight-step process is suggested for project stakeholders to adopt these KPIs to measure MiC performance in three tiers, i.e., overall building, off-site and on-site, and modular works. A case study is then presented which demonstrates that the framework is effective in measuring the sustainability of high-rise MiC and applicable for comparing MiC with conventional practices. The framework fills the knowledge gap of performance measurement on high-rise modular construction and contributes a methodological foundation for future quantitative benchmarking of MiC sustainability.
... Rework has a direct and indirect impact on project performance. This is an important factor that contributes to the costs and excess time of construction projects [1]. Waste of costs in transportation infrastructure projects, such as road projects, is often caused by rework [2][3][4]. ...
Article
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Waste or additional costs in infrastructure projects such as jetty projects are often caused by rework. Besides having an impact on costs, rework is also a very significant contributor to waste or adding time which causes delays in the completion schedule of the project. A lot of research on rework has been carried out on both building and road construction projects, but there is no jetty construction project. This study aims to develop improvement scenarios to minimize the emergence of rework on pier infrastructure projects by modelling and simulating cost performance. The research variables were obtained based on the results of a literature study by asking for opinions from experts who are compatible in their scope. The initial model used the causal loop diagram form which was later developed into a Stock Flow Diagram, after which a repair simulation was carried out using the dynamic system method to determine the effect on cost performance. From the research results obtained 14 factors that affect the cost and time performance on the jetty project, the implementation of a dynamic system can provide the optimum solution with the ability to reduce the percentage of the number of reworks by 24.12% for 12 months.
... Hwang et al. [5] looked at 359 construction projects from the Construction Industry Institute (CII) database to link project groups to rework sources. The Total Field Rework Factor (TFRF), developed by CII, is a statistic used to evaluate the influence of rework on construction costs. ...
Chapter
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An effort that adds non-value (ENV) could be saved if the project had been better planned, conducted, monitored, and regulated. To recognize and reduce ENV in micro-level analysis such as sampling of works and balance charts explaining the balance of the asset is used broadly. These methods are particularly successful when analyzing operations with modest performance variance in each cycle and can discover redundant stages in highly repetitive building activity. Data is gathered through literature reviews and site visits. The main aim of this study is to construct a dynamic tool that can detect and enumerate ENV, and changes can be done in the design. This proposed model was then used in two case studies, it was discovered that errors and changes caused 18.61% ENV and if the project is delayed, there will be a delay of 128 days in the case of project I and 72 days in case project II. Furthermore, productivity loss and Interruption (RFIR) form the major part of ENV, causing delays in both the case studies. Based on the findings, this research stated that this proposed tool could be used as a device to improve ENV comprehension in projects, resulting in a more significant reduction in ENV.
... When rework takes place, it adversely affects project costs and the profit margin of contractors and subcontractors (Hwang et al. 2009;Li and Taylor 2014;Alexander, Ackermann, and Love 2019). The determination of rework costs has bedevilled organisations as they lack a systematic approach to trace both the direct and indirect impacts (Robinson-Fayek, Dissanayake, and Campero 2004; Love, Smith, Ackermann, and Irani 2019). ...
Article
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While lean thinking may help tackle waste, rework remains an ongoing problem during the construction of infrastructure projects. Often too much emphasis is placed on applying lean tools rather than harnessing the human factor and establishing a culture to mitigate rework. Thus, this paper proposes the need for construction organisations to transition from the prevailing error prevention culture (i.e. Quality-I) that pervades practice to one based on error management (i.e. Quality-II) if rework is to be contained and reduced. Accordingly, this paper asks: What type of error culture is required to manage errors that result in rework and to support lean thinking during the construction of infrastructure projects? We draw on the case of a program alliance of 129 water infrastructure projects and make sense of how it enacted, in addition to lean thinking, a change initiative to transition from error prevention to an error management culture to address its rework problem. We observed that leadership, psychological safety and coaching were pivotal for cultivating a culture where there was an acceptance that ‘errors happen’ and effort was directed at mitigating their adverse consequences. The contributions of this paper are twofold as we provide: (1) a new theoretical underpinning to mitigate rework and support the use of lean thinking during the construction of infrastructure projects grounded in Quality-II; and (2) practical suggestions, based on actual experiences, which can be readily employed to monitor and anticipate rework at the coalface of construction.
... Though there are many advantages in using precast elements in construction, there are instances where a considerable delay and additional cost can occur when the precast element (or elements) mismatches in dimensions and inadequate surface finishes. The cost of reworks costs around 5% of the total construction cost (Hwang et al., 2009). All these can be avoided by implementing laser scanning in Precast element manufacturing plants. ...
Conference Paper
With the rapid advancement of technologies such as Laser Scanning and Point Cloud Data processing, the influence of these technologies in Civil Engineering Projects are inevitable. These technologies are used in various industries, including Civil Engineering, in tasks namely, 3D model preparation, Construction progress monitoring, Quality control, Virtual walk-throughs, etc. Many countries have already made the most out of these technologies whereas Sri Lanka as a developing country, seems to have lagged in implementing such tools, especially in the construction sector. Further applications of these digital technologies extend to preserve ancient monuments from disasters, create digital copies of structures, update timely variations of structures and predict the life-cycle of buildings. For instance, during renovations, the availability of any BIM models or any related drawings may be limited and renovations with destructions must be avoided; these limitations pave the way to the adaptation of non-destructive laser scanning and other related technologies. Moreover, there are significant advancements in efficient 3D point cloud data acquisition and accurate processing techniques around the globe, making it a reliable and effective solution for various civil engineering challenges. This study reviews the available technologies and their applications in the civil engineering domain and the feasibility of implementing these technologies in the Sri Lankan civil engineering industry.
... To perform point-cloud-to-model registration, at least three non-colinear point correspondences between the model and the point cloud are necessary [24]. In the presence of a construction error, which is a reasonable assumption, given the statistics related to rework due to poor construction [25], it is recommended that we use identifiable and signalized targets on pre-surveyed site control points to perform the registration [16,26]. In cases where construction errors are less prominent, iterative closest point (ICP) registration of the point cloud and the closest surfaces on the model can be performed through methods such as the scan vs. BIM proposed in [20]. ...
Article
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This study presented established methods, along with new algorithmic developments, to automate point cloud processing in support of the Field Information Modeling (FIM)™ framework. More specifically, given a multi-dimensional (n-D) designed information model, and the point cloud’s spatial uncertainty, the problem of automatic assignment of point clouds to their corresponding model elements was considered. The methods addressed two classes of field conditions, namely (i) negligible construction errors and (ii) the existence of construction errors. Emphasis was given to defining the assumptions, potentials, and limitations of each method in practical settings. Considering the shortcomings of current frameworks, three generic algorithms were designed to address the point-cloud-to-model assignment. The algorithms include new developments for (i) point cloud vs. model comparison (negligible construction errors), (ii) robust point neighborhood definition, and (iii) Monte-Carlo-based point-cloud-to-model surface hypothesis testing (existence of construction errors). The effectiveness of the new methods was demonstrated in real-world point clouds, acquired from construction projects, with promising results. For the overall problem of point-cloud-to-model assignment, the proposed point cloud vs. model and point-cloud-to-model hypothesis testing methods achieved F-measures of 99.3% and 98.4%, respectively, on real-world datasets.
... Since construction companies typically only have a 2-3% profit margin, managing labor costs to enhance productivity while ensuring safety is critical [18]. In the current industry, lack of skilled labor is the main reason for cost overruns [44], loss of productivity [23], frequent safety incidents [2], schedule overruns [10], and decline in quality performance [22]. To improve their skills, construction workers must be trained; however, the traditional one-size-fits-all training approach has failed to fully prepare workers for current worksite challenges [19]. ...
Article
Construction industry has the largest number of preventable fatal injuries, providing effective safety training practices can play a significant role in reducing the number of fatalities. Building on recent advancements in virtual reality-based training, we devised a novel approach to synthesize construction safety training scenarios to train users on how to proficiently inspect the potential hazards on construction sites in virtual reality. Given the training specifications such as individual training preferences and target training time, we synthesize personalized VR training scenarios through an optimization approach. We validated our approach by conducting user studies where users went through our personalized guidance VR training, free exploration VR training, or slides training. Results suggest that personalized guidance VR training approach can more effectively improve users' construction hazard inspection skills.
... their adoption of ICT tools, the Spearman rankorder correlation was employed using IBM® Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS®), version 20. The Spearman rank-order correlation is used to calculate the interrelationship between the level of scores on two variables (Hwang et al., 2009). It measures monotonic (Lv et al., 2018) and nonparametric (Farber et al., 2011) relationships between two variables. ...
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Food insecurity caused by climate change has become one of the main issues on the global agenda. Worldwide, the importance of digital tools as a means to enhance adaptive capacity and resilience of smallholder farmers (SHFs) in the face of climate variability has long been recognised. Technology-based systems in agriculture frequently neglect to consider the actual context of use and adoption by SHFs in rural and developing contexts. These conditions, as pointed out in the literature, range from high “illiteracy” rates to poor technology infrastructure to a requirement for smartphone-based technology of which very few SHFs in the developing world can take advantage. However, very little is known about the information and communication technology (ICT) literacy levels of SHFs in general in terms of supporting them in their farming decisions. This paper, therefore, explores the ICT literacy levels of Msinga SHFs in order to understand what could enhance their use and adoption of ICT for weather forecasting. Msinga is a hotspot for climate change. Consequently, the means of livelihood of the SHFs in this municipality have been negatively impacted. Volunteering sampling was used, in which 35 SHFs were purposively selected from a population of 100 SHFs who belong to the Asisukume Msinga Agricultural Cooperative (AMAC) – all irrigation farmers. A sequential transformative mixed method design, embedded in an Indigenous research framework, was employed. This paper reports on the quantitative aspects of the study which addressed the following two research questions: (i) What are Msinga SHFs ICT literacy capability levels? and (ii) What is the relationship between SHFs ICT levels and their demographic data w.r.t. their adoption of ICT tools in their agricultural practices? Data were collected using a demographic details questionnaire (examining age, marriage, educational level, and years of farming experience) and an assessment of ICT literacy (assessing 5 ICT literacy skills which included mobile phone symbol identification to advanced ICT literacy). Data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics, specifically the use of Spearman rank-order correlation using IBM® Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS®), version 20. The results suggest that for the ICT literacy levels, SHFs were not able to display use of the various ICT related skills, with the exception of ICT levels 1 and 2 where satisfactory display of ICT literacy were displayed among most of the SHFs. When examining the associations between ICT literacy levels and the demographic variables, significant negative associations were found between the ICT literacy levels and age as well as years of experience, while significant positive associations were found between ICT literacy levels and educational level. The results, furthermore, suggest that marital status has no correlation with ICT literacy proficiency. The findings arising from this study highlight the “importance of context” in helping SHFs to mitigate the threats of climate change on food production, an issue that is completely ignored in curriculum policies and policies aimed at integrated national adaptation responses to climate change impact and vulnerability.
... They showed that the skills of supervisors and the workforce are fundamental requirements for every construction project. Huang et al. [6] showed that poor leadership and communication and ineffective decisionmaking lead to reworking. Low et al. [11] stated that the main factors of reworking are: poor leadership, strategic decisions made by senior managers or key decision-makers, processes, practices, and technologies for the project. ...
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Following the increasing growth of urbanization in recent decades in Iran, housing has become one of the most critical issues in the country. In this regard, mass production of housing has received more attention, and residential complexes can be considered a physical manifestation of the idea of mass housing in cities. Operational efficiency in residential construction production systems is evaluated based on average house completion time, the number of houses under construction, and processing time of activities. However, these systems are prone to non-uniformity problems and suspensions resulting from different variables, such as adverse weather conditions, workplace accidents, fluctuations in house demand, and rework. The purpose of this research is to show the effect of reprocessing on the manufacturing process. In this study, the rework parameter and the variables of frequency, duration, and time of call-back have been considered. Also, the effects of these parameters on tangible performance criteria have been investigated. In this regard, we apply the combined approach of discrete-event simulation and computational modeling; then, we compare the results. Measurements show that the systems fragmented by repeated and short repetitions while referring to early are in optimal performance.
... Measuring productivity is crucial to accurately estimate a construction project's schedule (Hwang et al., 2009;Pan, 2018), and researchers have suggested various factors to consider. ...
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Purpose The inevitable change orders in construction projects have either direct or indirect impacts on a project’s duration. Reduced productivity is one of the indirect consequences that lead to major delays in the completion of the project. The purpose of this study is to develop a model that could quantify the impact of change orders on labor productivity and result in the establishment of policies to lessen their effects. Design/methodology/approach A model was developed to analyze the effects of change orders on labor productivity, then policies for managing their impacts on productivity and project duration were established. A water treatment case study was selected to serve as the scenario in which to implement and evaluate the model and policies. Findings The results of this study indicated that pressure to adhere to a schedule initially leads to an increase in labor productivity, but it is often followed by a significant drop that is a result of employee frustration. It was concluded that the pressure can be positive if it is applied for a short period of time; however, it continues for a significant length of time, the duration of the project will increase appreciably. Originality/value The proposed model can be implemented to identify the factors that affect labor productivity in a construction project. Its utilization will also help project managers assess when change orders occur and determine, which policies will be most effective in optimizing labor productivity.
Conference Paper
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The construction industry is one of the largest contributors to the economic development of a country, but dealing with major challenges such as building defects. Defects can affect project cost, duration and stakeholders’ relationships. Thus, to reduce the adverse effects, identification of defects in the early stages of the construction is essential. To identify the most prevalent defects, this paper used the Victorian Civil and Administrative Tribunal (VCAT) database as the main source of data. Five cases from VCAT database were chosen and the most frequently observed defects were considered for further analysis. Accordingly, installation errors in pipes, water damages, plumbing defects, internal water leakages and wall cracking were some of the common defects observed in the selected case studies. A Defects Identification and Analysis Framework (DIAF) was then proposed by mapping the defects with their potential causes and the identification technologies such as the ASDMCon (Advanced Sensory Based Defect Management at Construction Sites), BIM-based Defect Management (BIMDM), Electric- Type Geophysical and Infrared Thermography. The proposed framework can help construction managers or quality managers to mitigate building defects. This study contributes to the body of knowledge by developing a framework which can be used to identify and analyse defects in buildings.
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The process engineering discipline has been largely excluded from Digital Transformation trends. The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of the obstacles to Digital Transformation for the process discipline and explain how these can be overcome. A special emphasis will be given on the role of the process simulation tool (white box modelling) as a catalyst for transformational change. The paper will examine several challenges specific to process engineering: 1) Process simulators are divided into single-purpose point solutions. Separate models may be created for process design, control strategy design, operator training simulation, performance monitoring and online optimization. 2) Process simulators are typically poorly integrated into engineering workflows beyond the process world, and if so, with a single directional information flow. 3) Legacy process simulators are overloaded with niche features and functions only usable by experts. Industry stakeholders see the Digital Twin as the most important building block for Digital Transformation of the process industries. While legacy simulators are well-suited to accurately simulate processes, their decades-old architectures mean they are not ideal to serve the entire plant lifecycle and support the Digital Transformation. We will use the AVEVA Process Simulation as an example of how the identified obstacles can be overcome with a next generation process simulator.
Article
Purpose Construction defects in residential buildings are causing significant impacts both on consumers and the industry. As a consequence, several countries have established new home warranty schemes. However, designing a public policy for domestic building warranties can become a difficult task. In fact, many of these programs in the past have failed, collapsed or gone bankrupt. Therefore, the purpose of the current research is to provide a systematic comparative representation of various active programs internationally. Design/methodology/approach The methodology relied on a multiple-case study research design. The case selection covered a total of nine jurisdictions with compulsory home warranty programs. Those included Japan, France, United Kingdom, three provinces in Canada (Ontario, British Columbia and Alberta), and three states in Australia (New South Wales, Victoria and Queensland). The study applied a data collection protocol to gather all the evidence in a replicable manner for each individual case. Subsequently, a cross-case analysis was conducted to identify similarities and variations between programs. Findings The findings unveiled institutional practices that aimed to resolve, compensate, or rectify defects in residential constructions within these countries. The review mostly suggested that every home warranty program presents certain unique characteristics. At the end, this paper proposed an analytical illustration representing the diversification of components adopted by each jurisdiction. Originality/value Nowadays, there is still not a consensus within the academic community on what is an optimal solution when conceiving a new home warranty program. Hence, the current study aims to fill this knowledge gap by presenting the plurality of methods employed by several countries. This paper seeks to help policy makers and industry leaders to improve their home warranty scheme based on awareness derived from observations and analyses of what has been accomplished elsewhere in the world.
Chapter
Prefabricated construction has been increasingly adopted in building projects all over the world because prefabrication technology has tremendous advantages over the cast-in-situ construction. However, the development of prefabrication technology in China has encountered many challenges such as cost overrun. Economic performance determines the success of a project, which has raised the attention of construction project stakeholders. Therefore, this study aims to develop a systematic framework of economic key performance indicators (KPIs) for measuring prefabricated buildings. First, this paper establishes a systematic framework of eight KPIs through a comprehensive literature review. The KPIs cover unit cost, cost variance, etc. Second, to demonstrate the use of the framework, a cross-case study is conducted to measure and compare the economic performance of a prefabricated building and a building built using cast-in-situ construction. Throughout the case analysis, the economic performance of a building project using prefabricated construction is much better than that using cast-in-situ construction. For example, the overall delivery of prefabricated buildings is 30%–50% faster than that of traditional buildings. The paper should assist construction enterprises in measuring the economic performance of prefabricated building projects and could also facilitate the development of prefabricated construction in China.KeywordsPrefabricated constructionEconomic performanceKPIsCase study
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Rework in construction is inevitable. It has a direct impact on the cost and the time of the project. Therefore, finding the factors that lead to rework can help control the extra cost and time as well as preventing from design problems among architects, construction engineers, contractors and users. In this study, twenty factors that lead to rework have been extracted from previous research. After examining the output data from factor analysis, the factors affecting rework have been divided into four variable groups: Project management, Education, Changes and Interaction with the environment (Immersion). Lack of understanding of the project model by the designer, contractor and user is one of the direct consequences of “Changes,” “Education” and Interaction with the environment that affect rework. A virtual environment, using virtual reality, has been proposed on a one-to-one scale where the users can be immersed in the environment; this virtual model helps better understand the project at the design stage. This paper can be retrieved from https://rdcu.be/cv7zg
Article
Rework is one of the crucial reasons for time and cost overrun in construction projects and involves the consumption of additional resources. Given the environmental and economic impact, the menace of rework in projects must be minimized, which calls for a clear understanding of its causes, especially their quantitative impact. The present study seeks to identify and analyze the various causes of rework in building construction both qualitatively and quantitatively using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). After identifying the different causes of rework from literature, a panel of experts was consulted, and an appropriate questionnaire was designed with 28 attributes. Then, using the response to the questionnaire, personal interviews with stakeholders from across India were conducted to understand the ranking of various causes of rework. Principal Component Analysis was used to group these 28 attributes into eight latent factors – coordination issues, poor execution, supervision issues, consultant issues, aberrant events, worker issues, client issues, and site issues. Further, to understand the criticality of these factors, the structural relationship between the factors and rework was studied using SEM. It was found that inappropriate coordination amongst the various stakeholders of the project is the most critical reason for rework. The study will be helpful to stakeholders of the construction industry to understand better the relative quantitative impact of different causes on rework and prioritize their efforts to control or eliminate rework.
Article
Purpose This study highlights the findings of an empirical study to investigate waste factors (WFs) affecting the performance and delivery of construction projects in developing countries. The objectives of this study are to identify non-physical WFs in developing nations and rank the identified factors based on their degree of influence on the key performance indicators (KPIs) of cost, quality and time. Design/methodology/approach In total, 34 WFs were identified through a detailed literature review and consolidated using semi-structured interviews with construction practitioners. The statistical analysis involved a normality test using the Shapiro–Wilk test to determine if sample data have been drawn from a normally distributed population, ranking the WFs using the Frequency Index (FI), Severity Index (SI) and Importance Index (IMPI), ranking the WFs based on their effect on the project KPIs of cost, quality and time, and identify clustering structures for the identified WFs to using factor analysis (FA). Findings The results revealed ineffective planning and scheduling, rework/repair of defective work and resource quality problems (human, material and equipment) as the three most important WFs affecting construction projects. The factor analyses showed that WFs can be grouped into five interrelated components, suggesting the need for integrated and holistic strategies to overcome the identified WF. Practical implications Understanding the effects of WFs on construction projects is a first step towards designing holistic solutions to ensuring projects deliver value to the clients and other stakeholders. The findings of this study provide direction to construction practitioners on where to focus appropriate strategies to manage the identified WFs effectively and, therefore, improve the productivity of construction projects. Originality/value This study provides the first holistic analysis of WFs affecting the productivity of construction projects in developing countries.
Article
Effective interaction between project participants is essential in achieving a high-quality design. Through interaction, information is disseminated in project teams and the required knowledge becomes accessible during decision-making episodes. Consequently, effective interaction contributes to improved design outcomes and enhanced project efficiency leading to a higher chance of project success. Although interactions have been studied in the past, such studies predominantly focused on interaction patterns only, thus ignoring the decision-making context, participants' involvement, and the interdependencies between decisions. This paper makes a methodological contribution to the body of knowledge by proposing a sociotechnical framework. The framework enables the simultaneous investigation of decision interdependencies, the patterns of social interactions that address design knowledge requirements, and participants' involvement in and influence on making decisions. To demonstrate its efficacy, the framework was applied in a case study. The evidence suggests that design decisions with positive constructability outcomes could be achieved through an alignment between the information interdependencies of design decisions and the interaction patterns that underpin them. Involvement of participants with relevant knowledge and expertise and collaborative information exchanges between participants facilitated this alignment. The framework can be used in different project settings to analyze the theoretical mechanisms that characterize effective interaction in the context of design decision-making.
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Thousands of images and videos are collected from construction projects during construction. These contain valuable data that, if harnessed efficiently, can help automate or at least reduce human effort in diverse construction management activities such as progress monitoring, safety management, quality control and productivity tracking. Extracting meaningful information from images requires the development of technology and algorithms that enable computers to understand digital images or videos, replicating the functionality of human visual systems. This is the goal of computer vision. This review aims at providing an updated and categorized overview of computer vision applications in construction by examining the recent developments in the field and identifying the opportunities and challenges that future research needs to address to fully leverage the potential benefits of Computer Vision. We restrict the focus to four areas that can benefit the most from computer vision - Safety Management, Progress Monitoring, Productivity Tracking and Quality Control.
Article
One of the most vital construction project aspects is to complete a project in minimum time restricted to the time–cost trade-off. Overlapping activities’ planning and their impact on the project under limited resource constraints should be considered. This study aims to develop a model for optimizing the project schedule and cost regarding overlap activities and their impacts. This study reviews previous studies on changes in past activities likely to produce additional reworking of subsequent activities. In addition, an AHP model is developed to assess the reworking time of subsequent activities based on possible changes in previous activities. In addition, five realistic construction projects are applied. Finally, an optimizing model is developed for optimizing project time and cost using overlapping techniques by using the Java program. The results indicate that the proposed model can be used by project managers easily for solving time and cost optimization problems. In addition, it can be updated to continuously improve its functionality. Finally, it can be updated later to support AI for finding better solutions.
Article
Rework has been the core of attention for several years in the industry and academia as it affects the performance of projects. However, the trend of rework academic papers indicates an increasing rate in recent years; the overall research lacks a comprehensive review of the implemented theories and proposed models to explore further directions for rework management. Thus, to achieve a better understanding of rework it is necessary to perform an extensive review. This research aims to explore various insights from rework-related articles, discuss major research areas, and identify gaps for future studies looking closely at construction contracts. The selected articles are from three databases: “Scopus, Web of Science, Google Scholar”. The findings are categorized into six study areas: sources of rework, models and solutions, management and strategies, theories and techniques, rework impacts, and factors affecting rework. The analysis of the employed techniques across these topics showed that System Dynamic Modelling, Action Research, Analytic Hierarchy Process, and Regression have been used more frequently than other methods. The comprehensive review also shed light on the new ways of thinking, analyzing, and controlling the impacts of the rework. This paper proposes the assessment of rework causes in the conditions of contract which provides opportunities for improvement of the construction contracts.
Article
Purpose Construction suffers from “peculiarities” that concern the temporary natures of the construction site, project teams and unique product design. Considering the digital transformation of construction, new solutions are being investigated that can provide consistent data between changing projects. One such source of data manifests in the tracking of logistics activities across the supply chain. Construction logistics is traditionally considered a site management activity focused solely on the “back end” of projects, but an expanded logistics focus can unlock new avenues of improvement. This study aims to understand the requirements and benefits of such a consistent thread of data. Design/methodology/approach From a research project with one of Australia’s largest contracting companies, this paper details a series of construction tracking tests as an empirical case study in using Bluetooth low energy aware tracking technology to capture data across the manufacture, delivery and assembly of a cross-laminated timber structural prototyping project. Findings The findings affirm the tracking of expanded logistics data can improve back-end performance in subsequent projects while also demonstrating the opportunity to inform a project’s unique front-end design phase. The case study demonstrates that as the reliability, range and battery life of tracking technologies improve, their incorporation into a broader range of construction activities provides invaluable data for improvement across projects. Originality/value As a live case study, this research offers unique insights into the potential of construction tracking to close the data loop from final site assembly back to the early project design phase, thus driving continual improvement from a holistic perspective.
Article
Poor quality occurs in >80% of building projects. They can increase the cost of a building by up to 50% and can delay a project by up to 50%. This research investigated the determinants of poor quality on building on-sites. The research developed a questionnaire instrument that included 20 determinants of poor-quality buildings on construction sites based on literature and site visits. The survey forms were administered to construction sites operatives through hand delivery. A total of 80% of the respondents measured that the poor quality of buildings was caused by the 20 determinants. Poor workmanship, non-compliance with requirements/standards, inadequate site management, failure to achieve high-quality standards, and poor-quality materials/components were the major determinants of the poor quality of buildings during construction. This research provides fresh information on the causes and impact of poor quality on the performance of the building sector.
Article
There has been a wealth of research that has examined the nature of rework in construction. Progress toward addressing the rework problem has been limited – it still plagues practice, adversely impacting a project’s performance. Almost all rework studies have focused on determining its proximal or root causes and therefore have overlooked the conditions that result in its manifestation. In filling this void, this paper draws upon our previous empirical studies, amongst others, to provide a much-needed theoretical framing to understand better why rework occurs, its consequences, and how it can be mitigated during construction. The theoretical framing we derive from our review provides construction organizations and their projects with a realization that the journey to mitigating rework begins with creating an error mastery culture comprising authentic leadership, psychological safety, an error management orientation, and resilience. We suggest that once an error mastery culture is established within construction organizations and their projects, they will be better positioned to realize the benefits of techniques, tools, and technologies espoused to address rework, such as the Last Planner® and Building Information Modeling. We also provide directions for future research and identify implications for practice so that strides toward rework mitigation in construction can be made.
Article
Determining the risk and uncertainty of rework in construction has received limited attention due to a paucity of information about its frequency and causes. Errors made during construction, which may require rework, can go undetected, manifesting as an engineering failure during an asset’s operation and thus jeopardise system safety. Therefore, this paper addresses the following research question: How can practitioners make better decisions to mitigate the risk and uncertainty of rework during the construction of infrastructure assets and ensure system safety? Using a mega-transport infrastructure asset as a case setting, we adopt an interpretative line of inquiry and examine people's experiences with managing the risk and uncertainty of rework under the auspices of a sense-making lens. Our analysis revealed that heuristics were being used informally to determine rework risks and uncertainties due to the absence of information, resulting in them becoming curiosities as the same mistakes were repeated and learning stymied. We suggest that developing an adaptive-box tool comprising heuristics can provide the much-need theoretical foundation to effectively manage the risk and uncertainty of rework. Such heuristics would be adaptable to different situations as they are fitted to the environment through evolution and/or learning by amending them successively in small steps.
Article
This paper explores the critical frequent factors of rework and assigns management strategies to mitigate their occurrence in the Egyptian construction projects. Data from 69 practitioners have been analyzed utilizing the questionnaire research strategy to specify the occurrence likelihood mean scores of 38 rework factors. Thereafter, a mean score of 3.50 has been employed as a trustworthy critical cut-off value, which has singled out 15 factors from the 38 rework causes to be the critical frequent rework factors in Egypt’s construction sector. Further, the study chose 10 strategies from the prior literature, through which the consequences of the 15 critical frequent rework factors can be handled. The results highlight the practices to be addressed by policy-makers and practitioners in Egypt to boost the performance of their construction sector. The realization of the paper’s goals has pivotal benefits in both practical and theoretical fields, either at the local or international level. Locally, this equips the stakeholders of Egypt’s construction division with the needed prevention strategies, which can influentially mitigate the implications of rework causes. As for the international level, new top-rated country-specific rework factors have been derived from the Egyptian construction market which broader understanding of academics to rework’s critical causes.
Article
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A methodology was developed to measure cost of quality failures in two major road projects, largely based upon a work-shadowing method. Shows how the initial data were collected and categorised into definable groups and how the costs were estimated for each of these categories. The findings suggest that, if the projects examined are typical, the cost of failures may be a significant percentage of total costs, and that conventional means of identifying them may not be reliable. Moreover, the costs will not be easy to eradicate without widespread changes in attitudes and norms of behaviour within the industry and improved managerial co-ordination of activities throughout the supply chain.
Article
Several troublesome challenges face the U.S. construction industry: productivity is down, litigation is up, delays are common and expensive, foreign firms are taking a greater share of the market. The reasons are complex, but one important common factor is quality—or rather, the lack of it. In view of these facts, a quality performance tracking system (QPTS) has been developed to provide for the quantitative analysis of certain quality-related aspects of projects, by systematically collecting and classifying costs of quality. By defining quality as “conformance to requirements,” the cost of quality becomes measurable. It consists of two main parts, the cost of quality management efforts and the cost of correcting deviations. A total of 15 categories identify the main quality management efforts. When coupled with 24 deviation categories (plus six “repeat” quality management categories), most of the important quality costs can be identified for tracking and analysis. These categories can be easily changed and adapted to meet individual company requirements for design, construction, and start-up.
Article
Poor quality resulting from non-conformance during construction leads to extra cost and time to all members of the project team. The costs of rectifying non-conformance can be high and they can affect a firm's profit margin and its competitiveness. Construction-related firms can identify non-conformance information by employing a quality cost matrix as illustrated in a case study as a basis for improvement. Findings indicate the applicability of the matrix, the usefulness of the information for quality improvement and the positive change in attitude of personnel involved in the case study. Areas and frequency of non-conformance and the viability and importance of preventive measures are also ighlighted.
Article
Construction professionals recognize that rework is a significant factor contributing to poor project performance, yet little is known about its antecedents and consequently it remains an innate problem. Because factors that contribute to its occurrence are not fully understood, the derivation of appropriate strategies for its reduction is problematic. Therefore, a comprehensive appreciation of the mechanisms that cause rework will enable project performance improvements to be made. Two longitudinal case studies were undertaken to determine the antecedents of rework. Based on the findings presented, strategies for reducing the incidence of rework are identified and discussed. This paper contributes to study of quality in construction by identifying the underlying factors that influence rework in projects.
Article
Quality deviation data are collected from nine fast‐track industrial construction projects. The data are collected after the construction phase of the projects and identify the direct costs associated with rework (including redesign), repair, and replacement. Analyses of the data indicate that deviations on the projects accounted for an average of 12.4% of the total project costs. Furthermore, design deviations average 78% of the total number of deviations, 79% of the total deviation costs, and 9.5% of the total project cost. Construction deviations average 16% of the total number of deviations, 17% of the total deviation costs, and 2.5% of the total project cost. These values are conservative because they consider only direct costs, but they are indications of the areas that cause the greatest impact on total project costs. By applying the procedures presented in this paper to its historical records, a company can identify not only its deviation costs, but also the most likely areas on which to focus to reduce these costs on future projects.
Article
Constructability is defined as the ability of project conditions to enable the optimal utilization of construction resources. Constructability improvements may heighten the construction-sensitivity of designs, render the communication of engineering information as more effective, optimize construction originated construction techniques, increase the effectiveness of construction management policies, improve vendor/subcontractor services, or identify needs for designer-constructor communication during the project. Constructability improvement ideas collected on a large refinery expansion project are analyzed for content, and classification frequencies are observed. Analysis of engineering rework exposes the causes and costs of rework that occurs as a result of constructability problems.
This paper describes and presents findings from a detailed case study that sought to acquire an in-depth understanding of ‘why’ and ‘how’ rework occurred the way it did in a structural steel supply-chain. The findings from the case study indicate that the cause of rework was primarily attributable to the sequential nature of the supply-chain, which resulted in poor communication and decision-making being experienced. This was found to be further exacerbated by the absence of a quality focus during the design process, which resulted in the supply-chain becoming dysfunctional inasmuch as rework emerged downstream in the production process. A conceptual model for improving the effectiveness of a supply-chain and thus minimising the incidence of rework is presented and discussed.
Article
To perform rational defect prevention, it is necessary to have knowledge about defects, their causes and associated costs. The purpose of the study presented here is to stimulate improvements by indicating where preventive measures are most effective as well as how to perform them. A study of defects in construction was performed during the period 1986–1990. A new and deeper study has been performed by the same research group during 1994–1996. Seven building projects have each been monitored during a 6 month-period. Observers spent 8 h a day at the site analysing and describing defects occurring. A total of 2879 defects have been collected and fully described, including their root causes. Formal interviews with 92 key persons have been made.
Article
While it is widely recognized that additional costs due to rework can have an adverse effect on firm and project performance, there has been limited empirical research investigating the influencing factors. The research presented in this paper determines if a firm'S quality and learning practices influence the level of rework costs incurred in construction projects. Using a questionnaire survey, data was obtained from 161 Australian construction firms about the quality and learning practices employed by companies when delivering construction projects. The data analysis revealed that a firm'S quality and learning practices did not significantly influence rework costs in projects. However, factors such as project reviews and external benchmarking were significantly correlated with project schedule growth. The size of the firm was identified as a factor that influenced the extent to which learning practices were implemented. The findings from the firms sampled indicate a low to moderate learning capability, which therefore can hinder their ability to implement best practice and work toward the reduction of rework in projects.
Article
While it is widely recognized that additional costs due to rework can have an adverse effect on project performance, limited empirical research has been done to investigate the influencing factors. The research presented in this paper aims to determine the influence of different project types and procurement methods on rework costs in construction projects. Using a questionnaire survey, rework costs were obtained from 161 Australian construction projects. The direct and indirect consequences of rework are analyzed and discussed. It is shown that, contrary to expectation, rework costs do not differ relative to project type or procurement method. In addition, it was found rework contributed to 52 % of a project’s cost growth and that 26 % of the variance in cost growth was attributable to changes due to direct rework. To reduce rework costs and therefore improve project performance, it is posited that construction organizations begin to consider and measure them, so that an understanding of their magnitude can be captured, root causes identified, and effective prevention strategies implemented.
Article
There is little known about the indirect consequences of rework in construction projects, especially the financial costs. Therefore, this paper uses examples from a case study to demonstrate the potential indirect consequences and costs that are associated with undertaking rework in building construction projects. A novel taxonomy for categorising the indirect consequences at an individual level, organisational level and project level is presented. Based on the findings from examples derived from the case study, it is suggested that the incidence of rework can have a multiplier effect of up to six times the actual (direct) cost of rectification. To reduce these costs it is concluded that design and construction organisations must improve their quality management systems by including a quality system for continuously auditing, analysing and presenting direct as well as indirect rework costs.
Article
Rework that is experienced in construction projects is often caused by errors made during the design process. Factors that contribute to design errors are identified and used to design and develop a systems dynamics model, which is used to simulate a number of practical scenarios that can be used to reduce design errors and rework. The model presented in this paper can enable design and project managers to understand better the process of design documentation and how design errors occur in construction projects.
Article
Very few construction companies and consulting firms in Australia measure their costs of quality. Consequently, it is difficult for them to prove that systems for preventing quality failures are cost-effective. Although the direct costs of a quality system can be quantified with some accuracy (salaries, costs of documentation, audits, etc.), the corresponding benefits are far more difficult to assess. Indeed quality failures have become an endemic feature of the procurement process in construction and invariably lead to time and cost overruns in projects. Thus, in order to improve the performance of projects it is necessary to identify the causes and costs rework. The research presented in this paper quantifies the causes, magnitude and costs of rework experienced in two construction projects that were procured using different contractual arrangements. The causes and costs of rework projects are analysed and discussed. The findings reveal that the cost of rework for the case study projects was 3.15% and 2.40% of their project contract value. Changes initiated by the client and end-user together with errors and omissions in contract documentation were found to be the primary causes of rework. It is recommended that construction companies and consultant firms (particularly design consultants) implement quality management practices as well as place emphasis on coordinating project documentation during the design development process so that the amount of rework in projects can be reduced or even eliminated.
Article
One of the most perplexing issues facing organizations in the construction industry is their inability to become quality focused. As a result sub-standard products and services often emanate, which inadvertently result in rework. Typically, rework is caused by errors made during the design process. These errors appear downstream in the procurement process and therefore have a negative impact on a project's performance. The lack of attention to quality, especially during the design process, has meant that rework has become an inevitable feature of the procurement process, and the costs have been found to be as high as 12.4% of total project costs. Such costs could be even higher because they do not represent schedule delays, litigation costs and other intangible costs of poor quality. To reduce the cost and effect of rework, an understanding of its causal structure is needed so that effective prevention strategies can be identified and the effects of rework reduced or eliminated. A case study approach based upon deductive and inductive reasoning is used to identify the major factors that influence rework in projects. From the findings and with reference to recent literature, the concept of system dynamics is used to develop a series of influence diagrams, which are then integrated to develop a conceptual causal loop model that is used to determine the overall causal structure of rework. Once an understanding of the causal structure of rework events has been acquired, effective strategies for rework prevention can be designed and implemented in order to improve project performance. This paper contributes to study of quality in construction by capturing the complexity and dynamism of those factors that influence rework and project performance in a holistic manner.
Gross domestic product by industry in current dollars Construction Industry Development Agency and Masters Builders Aus-tralia ͑CIDA͒. ͑1995͒. Measuring up or muddling through: Best prac-tice in the Australian non-residential construction industry
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Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by KMUTT KING MONGKUT'S UNIV TECH on 05/15/14. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved.
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Bureau of Economic Analysis BEA. 2006. " Gross domestic product by industry in current dollars. " http://bea.gov/bea/dn2/gdpbyind_ data.htm Oct. 20, 2006. Construction Industry Development Agency and Masters Builders Australia CIDA. 1995. Measuring up or muddling through: Best practice in the Australian non-residential construction industry, Sydney, Australia, 59–63.
Construction Industry Development Agency and Masters Builders Australia CIDA. 1995. Measuring up or muddling through: Best practice in the Australian non-residential construction industry
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Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by NUS-Central Library on 05/14/18. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved. Construction Industry Institute CII. 2001. "The field rework index: Early warning for field rework and cost growth." RS 153-1 (May), The Univ. of Texas at Austin, Austin, Tex. Construction Industry Institute CII. 2002. "CII best practices guide." IR 166-3 (July), The Univ. of Texas at Austin, Austin, Tex. Construction Industry Institute CII. 2003. "Benchmarking and metrics value of best practices report." BMM 2003-4, CII, The Univ. of Texas at Austin, Austin, Tex. Construction Industry Institute CII. 2005. "Making zero rework A reality." RS 203-1 (Nov.), The Univ. of Texas at Austin, Austin, Tex.